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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 791-798, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1285265

ABSTRACT

The Nelore breed is the second largest bovine breed in the world and has actively participated in the expansion of new Brazilian agricultural frontiers. In this context, the purpose of this study was to determine the hematological and biochemical reference intervals of healthy Nelore matrices raised under an extensive regime without supplementation along southwest of Piauí state. Blood samples were collected from fifty-five multiparous female of the Nelore breed. Biochemical and hematological parameters were analyzed using a parametric statistical method with 95% CI of reference limits. The average values of red blood cells, hemoglobin as well as hematimetric indices showed reference ranges similar to reference standards. The hematocrit as well as granulocytes and agranulocytes presented alterations typical of animals raised in environments with higher temperatures. Mineral, enzymatic, protein and metabolic profiles were similar to other bovine breeds but with a narrower range of values. However, lower mean values were observed for levels of ionized calcium, total protein and urea. Nelore females present slightly different biochemical and hematological profiles from other breeds, which might result from the environmental and nutritional management applied and the natural deficiency of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium in the region's pastures.(AU)


Nelore é a segunda maior raça bovina do mundo e tem participado ativamente da expansão das novas fronteiras agrícolas brasileiras. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar os intervalos de referência hematológicos e bioquímicos de matrizes Nelore criadas em regime extensivo sem suplementação, ao longo do sudoeste do estado do Piauí. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de 55 fêmeas multíparas da raça Nelore. Os parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos foram analisados por método estatístico paramétrico com IC 95% para os limites de referência. Os valores médios de hemácias, hemoglobina e índices hematimétricos apresentaram intervalos de referência semelhantes aos padrões de referência. Tanto o hematócrito quanto os granulócitos e os agranulócitos apresentaram alterações típicas de animais criados em ambientes com temperaturas mais elevadas. Os perfis mineral, enzimático, proteico e metabólico foram semelhantes aos de outras raças bovinas, mas com uma faixa de valores mais estreita. No entanto, valores médios mais baixos foram observados para os níveis de cálcio ionizado, proteína total e ureia. Fêmeas Nelore apresentam perfis bioquímicos e hematológicos ligeiramente diferentes de outras raças, o que pode resultar dos manejos ambiental e nutricional aplicados e da deficiência natural de nitrogênio, fósforo e cálcio nas pastagens da região.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Blood Cell Count/veterinary , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Blood Proteins/analysis , Calcium/blood , Granulocytes , Hematocrit/veterinary , Reference Values , Brazil , Serum , Agranulocytosis/veterinary
2.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(2): 161-164, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280059

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze whether fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) should be evaluated by chronological age and/or biological age and propose curves to classify the body composition of young Chilean soccer players. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was developed. Six hundred and forty-two soccer players between 13.0 and 18.9 years of age were recruited. Body mass, height, trunk-cephalic height, and tricipital and subscapular skinfolds were evaluated. Biological maturation was determined using peak height velocity age (PHV) and the percentage of fat mass was estimated by regression equations. The reference percentiles were calculated using the LMS method. Results: The values of R2 were lower for chronological age (FM = 0.07% and FFM = 0.13%) than for biological age (FM = 0.31% and FFM = 0.50%). Eleven percentiles (p3, p5, p10, p15, p25, p50, p75, p85, p90, p95 and p97) were calculated for FFM and FM. Conclusion: Biological age (PHV) is a better predictor of FFM and FM than chronological age. The references proposed can be used to monitor the body composition of young Chilean soccer players. Level of Evidence II; Diagnostic Study .


Resumen Objetivo: Analizar si la masa grasa (MG) y la masa libre de grasa (MLG) deben ser evaluadas por la edad cronológica y/o por la edad biológica, y proponer curvas para clasificar la composición corporal de jóvenes futbolistas chilenos. Métodos: Se elaboró un estudio descriptivo transversal. Fueron reclutados 642 futbolistas entre 13,0 y 18,9 años. Fueron medidas masa corporal, estatura, altura tronco-cefálica, pliegues cutáneos tricipital y subescapular. La madurez biológica fue determinada por la edad de pico de velocidad de crecimiento (EPVC) y el porcentual de masa grasa fue estimado por ecuaciones de regresión. Los percentiles de referencia fueron calculados por el método LMS. Resultados: Los valores de R2 para edad cronológica fueron menores (MG=0,07% y MLG=0,13%) en comparación con los valores para la edad biológica (MG=0,31% y MLG=0,50%). Fueron calculados 11 percentiles (p3, p5, p10, p15, p25, p50, p75, p85, p90, p95 y p97) para la MLG y MG. Conclusión: La edad biológica (EPVC) es un predictor mejor de la MLG y de la MG que la edad cronológica. Las referencias propuestas pueden servir para monitorizar la composición corporal de jóvenes futbolistas chilenos. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudio de diagnóstico .


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar se a massa gorda (MG) e a massa livre de gordura (MLG) devem ser avaliadas pela idade cronológica e/ou pela idade biológica, e propor curvas para classificar a composição corporal de jovens futebolistas chilenos. Métodos: Elaborou-se um estudo descritivo transversal. Foram recrutados 642 futebolistas entre 13,0 e 18,9 anos. Massa corporal, estatura, altura tronco-cefálica, dobras cutâneas tricipital e subescapular foram medidas. A maturação biológica foi determinada pela idade de pico de velocidade de crescimento (IPVC) e o percentual de massa gorda foi estimado por equações de regressão. Os percentis de referência foram calculados pelo método LMS. Resultados: Os valores de R2para idade cronológica foram menores (MG = 0,07% e MLG=0,13%) em comparação com os valores para a idade biológica (MG = 0,31% e MLG = 0,50%). Foram calculados 11 percentis (p3, p5, p10, p15, p25, p50, p75, p85, p90, p95 e p97) para a MLG e MG. Conclusão: A idade biológica (IPVC) é um preditor melhor da MLG e da MG do que a idade cronológica. As referências propostas podem servir para monitorar a composição corporal de jovens futebolistas chilenos. Nível de evidência II; Estudo de diagnóstico .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Soccer/physiology , Body Composition/physiology , Reference Values , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anthropology
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 622-630, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1278347

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the physiological and hematological parameters of sheep in Brazil. Therefore, 5,081 observations were used from previous experiments with animals from different Brazilian regions with the time of day, gender, breed, age, physiological characteristics, hematological and climatic variables. The animals were classified according to their stress level, and only data of non-stressed animals were used to calculate the reference values. Respiratory rate was the parameter that most differed from the normal range, with values ​​above the limits usually reported for the species, being higher in commercial wool sheep. For hematological variables, differences were observed between the present results and the previously reported values in the literature. A higher number of red blood cells (RBC), lower hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were observed in young animals. A higher number of RBC and MCHC were noted in sheep crossed with local breeds. Considering that physiological and hematological parameters are indicators of the animal's pathological or physiological state, for a correct interpretation of the results, the use of reference values based on animals with similar racial characteristics and subjected to similar environmental conditions is recommended.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar parâmetros fisiológicos e hematológicos de ovinos no Brasil. Portanto, foram utilizadas 5.081 observações de experimentos anteriores com animais de diversas regiões do Brasil, com diferentes horário, sexo, raça, idade, características fisiológicas, variáveis ​​hematológicas e climáticas. Os animais foram classificados de acordo com o nível de estresse, e apenas os dados dos animais não estressados ​​foram utilizados para o cálculo dos valores de referência. A frequência respiratória foi o parâmetro que mais diferiu em relação à normalidade, com valores acima dos limites usualmente relatados para a espécie, sendo maior em ovinos de lã comercial. Para as variáveis ​​hematológicas, também foram verificadas diferenças entre os resultados observados e os valores previamente relatados na literatura. Maior número de hemácias, menor hemoglobina e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHbCM) foram observados em animais jovens e maior número de hemácias e CHbCM em ovinos cruzados com raças locais. Considerando que os parâmetros fisiológicos e hematológicos são indicadores do estado patológico ou fisiológico do animal, para uma correta interpretação dos resultados recomenda-se a utilização de valores de referência baseados em animais com características raciais semelhantes e submetidos a condições ambientais também semelhantes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/physiology , Sheep/blood , Reference Values , Tropical Climate , Body Temperature , Brazil , Respiratory Rate , Hematologic Tests/veterinary
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880622

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Pregnant women in a special physiological period, the body's blood indicators will change to a certain extent. This study aims to explore the changes of serum immunoglobulin levels in healthy pregnant women and establish its reference interval (RI).@*METHODS@#A total of 369 healthy pregnant women, who underwent pregnancy examination in the Department of Obstetrics, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from August 2019 to October 2019, were enrolled for this study. They were divided into an early pregnancy group, a middle pregnancy group, and a late pregnancy group according to the pregnancy period, and 123 healthy non-pregnant women were selected as the controls. The levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) were determined by immune transmission turbidities. The level of immunoglobulin E (IgE) was determined by electrochemiluminescence. The differences in immunoglobulin levels between pregnant women and non-pregnant women and among different gestational periods were analyzed, and the RI of serum immunoglobulin level during pregnancy was established.@*RESULTS@#Compared to the non-pregnant women, the levels of serum IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE in pregnant women were significantly decreased (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#The levels of immunoglobulin in pregnant women are decreased significantly. The establishment of RIs of IgG, IgM, IgA and IgE in healthy pregnant women could provide scientific basis for clinical decision-making.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Reference Values
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880478

ABSTRACT

The cut off value or reference interval is significant in clinical testing and diagnosis. If there is no scientific and reasonable cut off value or reference interval for


Subject(s)
Humans , Indicators and Reagents , Reference Values
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880477

ABSTRACT

Reference interval study and clinical evaluation are crucial supportive researches to demonstrate the intended use of quantitative


Subject(s)
Indicators and Reagents , Reference Values
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880166

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of hematocrit (HCT) on the parameters of thromboelastography (TEG) in healthy adults, so as to judge coagulation and fibrinolysis more accurately.@*METHODS@#Three hundred and ninety-three healthy adults examined in Chengdu 363 Hospital Affiliated to Southwest Medical University from May 2018 to May 2019 were selected. HCT and TEG were detected at the same time. The differences of TEG parameters between the high HCT group and the low HCT group were compared. The correlation between HCT and TEG parameters was analyzed. The differences of TEG parameters between the healthy adults in Plateau and plain areas were compared.@*RESULTS@#Among the parameters of TEG, R and K in high HCT group were significantly higher, and Angle, MA and CI were significantly lower than those in low HCT group, which showed statistically significance (P0.05). R and K positively correlated with HCT (r=0.112, 0.517, P=0.027, 0.000), and Angle, MA and CI negatively correlated with HCT (r=-0.490, -0.408, -0.414, P=0.000). LY30 and EPL not correlated with HCT (P>0.05). HCT in plateau area was significantly higher than that in plain area (P0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The difference of HCT may affect the values of R, K, Angle, MA and CI in TEG parameters. R and K positively correlate with HCT, while Angle, MA and CI negatively correlate with HCT. It is suggested that a suitable TEG reference range for the local population should be established, in plateau area especially K, Angle, MA and CI, which will be more conducive to the accurate evaluation of patients' coagulation and fibrinolysis status.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Coagulation , Hematocrit , Humans , Reference Values , Thrombelastography
8.
CoDAS ; 33(4): e20200076, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286109

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo Elaborar un protocolo de evaluación y establecer valores de referencia de las ganancias del reflejo vestíbulo-ocular del canal semicircular horizontal obtenidas con el v-HIT en población pediátrica sin alteraciones vestibulares. Método Estudio cuantitativo, analítico, no experimental con muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia. Se seleccionaron 39 sujetos entre 5 a 17 años, los cuales cumplieron los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Resultados El promedio de la ganancia obtenida para el conducto semicircular horizontal derecho fue de 0,93 y para el conducto semicircular izquierdo fue de 1,08. Existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre oídos. No existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los subgrupos de 5 a 10 años y 11 a 17 años. Conclusión La ganancia del reflejo vestíbulo-ocular en población pediátrica se acerca a los valores encontrados en la literatura científica internacional y de la población adulta. El protocolo confeccionado puede orientar a profesionales que están comenzando en la evaluación otoneurológica de esta población.


ABSTRACT Purpose To develop an assessment protocol and establish reference values of vestibulo-ocular reflex gain of the horizontal semicircular canal obtained with vHIT in a pediatric population without vestibular changes. Methods Quantitative, non-experimental, analytical study with a non-probabilistic convenience sample. A total of 39 subjects aged 5 to 17 years were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results The mean gain obtained of the horizontal right semicircular canal was 0.93 and of the left one, 1.08, with statistically significant differences between the ears. There were no statistically significant differences between the 5-to-10-year and 11-to-17-year subgroups. Conclusion The vestibulo-ocular reflex gain in children neared the values found in the international scientific literature and the adult population. The protocol developed can guide beginning professionals in the otoneurological evaluation of children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Vestibule, Labyrinth , Head Impulse Test , Reference Values , Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular , Semicircular Canals
9.
CoDAS ; 33(3): e20190270, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286105

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Propor um protocolo de investigação do equilíbrio corporal e determinar valores de referência para diferentes faixas etárias e gênero aplicando a metodologia da posturografia estática com provas dinâmicas em novo equipamento brasileiro de baixo custo para diagnóstico do equilíbrio. Método 297 voluntários hígidos, adultos, idosos e sem queixas vestibulares foram divididos em seis grupos, segundo faixa etária e gênero. Foram avaliados os limites de estabilidade e sete condições sensoriais (C1: olhos abertos, superfície estável; C2: olhos fechados, superfície estável; C3: olhos abertos, superfície instável; C4: olhos fechados, superfície instável; C5: estimulação optocinética para a direita, superfície instável; C6: estimulação optocinética para a esquerda, superfície instável; C7: estimulação túnel, superfície instável). O trabalho foi realizado com o equipamento Horus, fabricado pela empresa brasileira Contronic Sistemas Automáticos. Resultados Os valores de referência do limite de estabilidade foram obtidos para os gêneros feminino e masculino respectivamente, nas faixas de 20 a 59 anos (≥ 12.594 mm2 e ≥ 19.221 mm2), de 60 a 69 anos (≥ 7.031 mm2 e ≥ 12.161 mm2) e de 70 a 89 anos (≥ 6.340 mm2 e ≥ 8.794 mm2). Nos testes de integração sensorial nas condições C1 a C7, conforme aumentou a idade, aumentaram também os valores da área de elipse de confiança. Foram estabelecidos valores percentis de referência para equilíbrio funcional residual e análise sensorial. Conclusão Foi possível estabelecer um protocolo para investigar o equilíbrio corporal com valores de referência em função de diversas faixas etárias e gêneros.


ABSTRACT Purpose To propose a protocol for investigating the body balance and determining reference values in different age groups and gender, using the methodology of static posturography with dynamic tests, in low-cost Brazilian equipment for diagnosing balance. Methods The objectives of this study aimed to propose a protocol for investigating the body balance and determining reference values in different age groups and gender, using the methodology of static posturography with dynamic tests, in new low-cost Brazilian equipment for diagnosing balance. Method: 297 healthy volunteers, between 20 and 89 years old, without vestibular complaints, were divided into six groups according to age group and gender. Stability limits and seven sensory conditions named from C1 to C7 were evaluated. The work was carried out using Horus equipment, manufactured in Brazil. Results The reference values of the stability limit for females and males were obtained according to the ages: from 20 to 59 (≥ 12,594 mm2 and ≥ 19,221 mm2); from 60 to 69 (≥ 7,031 mm2 and ≥ 12,161 mm2); from 70 to 89 (≥ 6,340 mm2 and ≥ 8,794 mm2). For sensory integration tests under conditions C1 to C7, as age increased, the values of the Confidence Ellipse (CE) area also increased. Reference percentile values were established for Residual Functional Balance (RFB) and Sensory Analysis (SA). Conclusion A protocol was established to investigate body balance via static posturography as well as reference values for normal individuals were determined, according to the different gender and age groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Vestibule, Labyrinth , Reference Values , Brazil , Postural Balance , Middle Aged
10.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(4): e579, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156517

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La espirometría, también conocida como prueba funcional ventilatoria, es una de las pruebas no invasivas que con más frecuencia se realiza en todo el mundo, para el estudio del aparato respiratorio, es de gran utilidad clínica, permite establecer la existencia de alteraciones funcionales incipientes del sistema respiratorio. Objetivo: Realizar una actualización del estado del conocimiento acerca de la importancia de contar con valores de referencia, en cada país, para el estudio de la función pulmonar. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión, con información actualizada del comportamiento de los valores de referencia de las pruebas funcionales ventilatorias en el mundo y en Cuba. Conclusión: Se concluye enfatizando en la necesidad de aplicar ecuaciones de predicción y valores de referencia de la función ventilatoria a partir de la propia población que se estudie, con lo que se obtienen resultados más cercanos a lo real. Además, lograr contar con tablas de normalidad cubanas de la función pulmonar para un mejor diagnóstico y conducta posterior(AU)


Introduction: Spirometry, also known as a ventilatory functional test, is one of the non-invasive tests that is most frequently performed worldwide, for the study of the respiratory system, it is of great clinical utility, it allows establishing the existence of functional alterations incipients of the respiratory system. Objective: To update the state of knowledge about the importance of having reference values, in each country, for the study of lung function. Methods: A review was carried out, with updated information on the behavior of the reference values ​​of the ventilatory functional tests in the world and in Cuba. Conclusion: It is concluded by emphasizing the need to apply prediction equations and reference values ​​of the ventilatory function from the population under study, which results closer to the real. In addition, to have Cuban normality tables of lung function for a better diagnosis and subsequent behavior(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Reference Values , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Spirometry/methods , Cuba
11.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 52(4): 337-345, 20201230. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223688

ABSTRACT

Em humanos, o pH sanguíneo é mantido em uma faixa estreita, entre 7,35 e 7,45. Diferentes mecanismos bioquímicos, de forma harmônica, atuam para a manutenção do pH fisiológico. Múltiplos processos patológicos podem promover alterações no pH e nos gases sanguíneos, caracterizando acidose (pH <7,35) ou alcalose (pH >7,45). A ruptura da homeostasia do pH é identificada pela medição do pH, pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono (pCO2), concentração do bicarbonato (HCO3-) e, adicionalmente, com a pressão de oxigênio (pO2) em sangue arterial, processo descrito como gasometria arterial. Este artigo revisa os principais elementos associados a compreensão das alterações e tem como objetivo central apresentar uma abordagem didática e intuitiva para a caracterização destes distúrbios; e também comenta sobre ferramentais digitais destinadas a interpretações das alterações da gasometria arterial que também são abordados, como programas para computadores em ambiente web e aplicativos para telefonia móvel.


In humans, blood pH is kept in a narrow range, between 7.35 to 7.45. Different biochemical mechanisms, in a harmonic way, act to maintain the physiological pH. Multiple pathological processes can promote changes in pH and blood gases, characterizing acidosis (pH <7.35) or alkalosis (pH> 7.45). The rupture of pH homeostasis is identified by measuring pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), bicarbonate concentration (HCO3 - and, in addition, with the pressure of oxygen (pO2) in arterial blood, a process described as gasometry arterial. This article reviews the main elements associated with the understanding of acid-base changes and aims to present a didactic and intuitive approach to the characterization of these disorders; and also comments on digital tools for the interpretation of alterations in arterial blood gases are also covered, such as programs for computers in a web environment and applications for mobile phone.


Subject(s)
Reference Values , Acid-Base Imbalance , Blood Gas Analysis , Software , Mobile Applications
12.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(5): 741-748, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144273

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Describir el crecimiento en estatura, estimar la edad pico del estirón, la velocidad de crecimiento en dicho punto, la talla final adulta esperada y los patrones diferenciales en una muestra poblacional de ambos sexos. SUJETOS Y MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio transversal recabando prospectivamente datos demográficos, clínicos y antropométricos en sujetos sanos de ambos sexos, entre 2015 y 2016. Se calcularon los percentiles para la estatura mediante el método LMS (sesgo, mediana y coeficiente de variabilidad) y luego se ajustaron dichos valores utilizando el modelo 1 de Preece-Baines. RESULTADOS: Se evaluaron 861 sujetos, edades 2 - 18 años, 377 varones y 484 mujeres. La edad estimada al pico del estirón (h0) fue de 13,6 años en los niños y de 11,0 años en las niñas, con una velocidad de crecimiento lineal en ese punto (V2) de 6,4 cm/año para ambos sexos. La estatura adulta media esperada (hj) se estimó en 173,7 cm en los chicos y en 160,0 cm en las chicas. CONCLUSIONES: El modelo 1 de Preece-Baines permitió estimar satisfactoriamente la edad pico del estirón, la velocidad de crecimiento en dicho punto y la talla final adulta esperada.


OBJECTIVE: Based on a sample of children and adolescents of both genders, our objective is to des cribe height growth, estimate the peak age at growth spurt, growth rate at this point, the final adult height expected, and differential patterns SUBJECTS AND METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conduc ted using demographic, clinical, and anthropometric data collected prospectively from children and adolescents of both sexes between 2015 and 2016. Height percentiles were calculated using the LMS (skewness, median, and coefficient of variation) method and then adjusted using the Preece-Baines model 1. RESULTS: We evaluated 861 participants (484 girls, 377 boys), aged between 2 and 18 years. The estimated peak age at growth spurt (he) was 13.6 years in boys and 11.0 years in girls, with a peak growth rate (V2) at this point of 6.4 cm/year for both sexes. The mean expected adult height (h1) was 173.7 cm in boys and 160.0 cm in girls. CONCLUSIONS: Preece-Baines model 1 provides satisfactory estimates for the peak age at growth spurt, peak growth rate at this point, and final expected adult height.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Body Height/physiology , Child Development/physiology , Adolescent Development/physiology , Growth Charts , Argentina , Reference Values , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Models, Statistical
13.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(4): 359-370, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154829

ABSTRACT

Resumen La capacidad de difusión de monóxido de carbono (DLCO) es, después de la espirometría, la prueba de función pulmonar rutinaria y no invasiva de mayor utilidad clínica. No obstante, hay sustanciales errores de interpretación del significado fisiológico de la DLCO, de sus medidas derivadas y por consiguiente del significado clínico de sus alteraciones. Además de la utilización de diferentes nomenclaturas, otras fuentes de confusión han contribuido a cierta visión negativa de la prueba. Los aspectos técnicos de la prueba de DLCO tienen la ventaja de estar estandarizados. Pero a diferencia de lo que ocurre con otras pruebas de función pulmonar donde disponemos de valores de referencia que permiten determinar la "normalidad o anormalidad" de las mismas, es difícil aplicar esta vía de análisis en el caso de la DLCO. El hecho central en el análisis de la DLCO, el factor de transferencia para el CO (KCO), y el volumen alveolar (VA) es que para una correcta interpretación es necesario tener en cuenta el mecanismo por el cual la patología induce el cambio. Un KCO del 100% puede ser considerado normal en unas circunstancias o patológico bajo otras y, por el momento, el informe automatizado del estudio no puede discriminar. Este artículo describirá los principios de la prueba de DLCO, presentará diferentes modelos de análisis, expondrá ejemplos concretos y ofrecerá pautas para su correcta interpretación. Se considera indispensable efectuar un análisis integrado de la prueba de DLCO en relación con otras pruebas funcionales y con los datos clínicos.


Abstract The diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is, after spirometry the standard and noninvasive pulmonary function test of greater clinical use. However, there are substantial errors in the interpretation of the physiological significance of the DLCO, its derived measures and, therefore the clinical significance of its alterations. In addition to the use of different nomenclatures, other sources of confusion have contributed to some negative view of the test. The technical aspects of the DLCO test have the advantage of being well standardized. But unlike what happens with other pulmonary function tests where we have reference values which allow us to determine their "normality or abnormality", it is difficult to apply this route of analysis in the case of DLCO. The central fact in the analysis of DLCO, transference factor for CO (KCO), and alveolar volume (VA) is that for a correct interpretation it is necessary to think about the mechanism by which the pathology induces change. A KCO of 100% can be considered normal in some circumstances or pathological in others and, for the moment, the automated study report cannot discriminate. This article will address the principles of the DLCO test; present different models of analysis submit concrete examples and provide guidelines for their correct interpretation. It is considered essential to carry out an integrated analysis of the DLCO test in relation to other functional tests and clinical data.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity , Reference Values , Respiratory Function Tests , Spirometry , Carbon Monoxide
14.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(3): 196-201, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131589

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To measure the central-to-peripheral corneal thickness and its volume according to age and gender in 10-30-year-old patients with Down syndrome (DS) and in matched individuals without DS. Methods: In the report, 202 normal pattern right eyes of patients with Down syndrome and 190 right eyes of individuals without Down syndrome and compared averages using independent sample t-tests and multiple linear regression models. The measured variables included the apical corneal thickness; the minimum corneal thickness; the average thickness on rings at 2 mm (R2), 3 mm (R3), and 4 mm (R4); the corneal volume in the central zones at 2-, 3-, 4-, and 10-mm diameters; Ambrosio's relational thickness; and the pachymetric progression indices. Results: The mean age of the participants was 16.99 ± 4.70 and 17.22 ± 4.54 years (p=0.636). The means ± SD were 516.7 ± 33.0 and 555.7 ± 33.1 µm for apical corneal thicknesses, 508.0 ± 33.5 and 549.0 ± 40.6 µm for minimum corneal thicknesses, 543.0 ± and 588.4 ± 33.8 µm for R2s, 584.9 ± 35.6 and 637.0 ± µm for R3s, 646.9 ± 38.5 and 707.6 ± 37.1 µm for R4s, 396.4 ± 102.3 and 462.7 ± 96.2 µm for Ambrosio's relational thicknesses, 1.36 ± 0.37 and 1.22 ± 0.18 for pachymetric progression index maximums, 1.62 ± 0.11 and 1.74 ± 0.11 mm3 for corneal volume at 2 mm, 3.73 ± 0.24 and 4.01 ± 0.24 mm3 for corneal volume at 3 mm, 6.76 ± 0.44 and 7.30 ± 0.43 mm3 for corneal volume at 4 mm, and 57.03 ± 3.44 and 61.51 ± 3.40 mm3 for total corneal volume in the Down syndrome and control groups, respectively (all p<0.001). All the above indices were inversely related to age, but not to gender. Ambrosio's relational thickness maximum and the pachymetric progression index maximum were independent of age and gender. Conclusion: Non-keratoconic patients with Down syndrome had thin corneas with a homogeneous distribution. Therefore, the reference ranges of cornea thickness and volume should be re-defined for this patient population.


RESUMO Objetivo: Medir a espessura corneana central e periférica e se4u volume de acordo com a idade e gênero em pacientes com idades entre 10 e 30 anos com síndrome de Down e em indivíduos saudáveis sem síndrome de Down. Métodos: No estudo 202 olhos normais direitos de pacientes com síndrome de Down e 190 olhos direitos de indivíduos sem síndrome de Down e médias comparadas usando o teste t de amostras independentes e modelos de regressão linear múltipla. As variáveis medidas incluíram a espessura da córnea apical, a espessura mínima da córnea, a espessura média dos anéis a 2 mm (R2), 3 mm (R3) e 4 mm (R4), o volume corneano nas zonas centrais nos diâmetros de de 2, 3, 4 e 10mm, a espessura relacional de Ambrosio e os índices de progressão paquimétrica. Resultados: A idade média dos participantes foi de 16,99 ± 4,70 e 17,22 ± 4,54 anos (p=0,636). As médias ± DP foram 516,7 ± 33,0 e 555,7 ± 33,1 µm nas espessuras da córnea apical, 508,0 ± 33,5 e 549,0 ± 40,6 µm para espessura mínima da córnea, 543,0 ± 33,9 e 588,4 ± 33,8 µm nos R2, 584,9 ± 35,6 e 637,0 ± 34,5 µm para R3, 646,9 ± 38,5 e 707,6 ± 37,1 µm para R4, 396,4 ± 102,3 e 462,7 ± 96,2 µm 0,18 para os índices máximos de progressão paquimétrico, 1,62 ± 0,11 mm3 e 1,74 ± 0,11 mm3 para o volume corneano a 2 mm, 3,73 ± 0,24 mm3 e 4,01 ± 0,24 mm3 para o volume corneano a 3 mm, 6,76 ± 0,44 mm3, 7,30 ± 0,43 mm3 para o volume corneano a 4 mm e 57,03 ± 3,44 mm3 e 61,51 ± 3,40 mm3 para o volume corneano total nos grupos com Síndrome de Down e controle, respectivamente (todos p<0,001). Todos os índices acima foram inversamente relacionados à idade mas não ao gênero. A espessura relacional de Ambrosio máxima e o índice de progressão paquimétrico máximo foram independentes da idade e do gênero. Conclusão: Os pacientes sem ceratocone com Síndrome de Down apresentaram córneas finas com distribuição homogênea. Portanto, os intervalos de referência da espessura e volume da córnea devem ser redefinidos para essa população de pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Down Syndrome , Reference Values , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cornea , Corneal Topography , Keratoconus
15.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(3): 360-366, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138030

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives To measure the mean value of the Southwick angle using two different methods, the manual (1) and digital (2) methods, and to establish a normality value. Methods A primarily descriptive study with 100 children and adolescents. Individuals with orthopedic complaints regarding the hips and/or knees or gait alterations were excluded. For each patient, an X-ray was performed on the lateral incidence of Lowenstein, totaling 100 radiographs and 200 hips. The Southwick angle was measured in two different ways by the same researcher: the conventional method (1), tracing the lines with pencils and measuring the angle with the use of a goniometer and negatoscope, and through the GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP) image editor (open source), version 2.7.0 (2), in which the lines were plotted and the angles of both hips were gauged on each radiograph. Later, we sought to evaluate the correlation between the two methods and to verify the mean Southwick angle by categorically correlating it by gender, age group and body mass index (BMI) in asymptomatic children and adolescents. All radiographs were authorized by the children and adolescents' parents/legal guardians. The study was approved by the ethics committee of the institutions in which the research was conducted. Results The mean of the Southwick angles obtained by the conventional method was of 8.7º (±2.0º), and, by the digital method, it was of 9.9º (±1.8º). The angle obtained by the two methods was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The majority of the studied population (95%) had a body mass index (BMI) > 18.5, and the mean of the angles was within the previously established value (∼ 10º). Conclusion For the first time, using a substantial sample size, a normal value for the Southwick angle measured in asymptomatic individuals was demonstrated. In addition, the image editor proved to be a reliable method to measuring the Southwick angle.


Resumo Objetivos Medir o valor médio do ângulo de Southwick utilizando dois métodos diferentes, manual (1) e digital (2), e estabelecer um valor de normalidade. Métodos Estudo primariamente descritivo, realizado com 100 crianças e adolescentes. Foram excluídos indivíduos que apresentavam queixa ortopédica nos quadris e/ou joelhos, ou alterações de marcha. Para cada paciente, foi realizada uma radiografia na incidência lateral de Lowenstein, totalizando 100 radiografias e 200 quadris. O ângulo de Southwick foi medido de duas formas pelo mesmo pesquisador: pelo método convencional (1), traçando-se as retas com lápis e medindo o ângulo com o uso de goniômetro e negatoscópio, e por meio do editor de imagem GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP; código aberto), versão 2.7.0 (2), no qual foram traçadas as linhas e aferidos os ângulos de ambos os quadris em cada radiografia. Posteriormente, buscou-se avaliar a correlação entre os dois métodos e verificar o ângulo médio de Southwick correlacionando-o categoricamente por gênero, faixa etária e índice de massa corpórea (IMC) em adolescentes e crianças assintomáticos. Todas as radiografias foram autorizadas pelos responsáveis. O estudo foi aprovado pelo comitê de ética das instituições em que a pesquisa foi realizada. Resultados A média do ângulo de Southwick obtida pelo método convencional foi de 8,7º (±2,0º), e pelo método digital, foi de 9,9º (±1,8º). O ângulo obtido pelas duas formas teve significância estatística (p < 0,001). A maioria da população estudada (95%) tinha índice de massa corpórea (IMC) > 18,5, e a média dos ângulos esteve dentro do valor previamente estabelecido como normal (∼ 10º). Conclusão Demonstrou-se, pela primeira vez, utilizando uma amostra substanciosa, um valor normal do ângulo de Southwick medido em indivíduos assintomáticos. Além disso, o editor de imagem mostrou ser um método confiável para mensuração do ângulo de Southwick.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Reference Values , Weights and Measures , Incidence , Ethics , Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphyses , Hip Joint , Age Groups
16.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 197-202, jun. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125070

ABSTRACT

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder due to a deficiency of enzymes involved in cortisol biosynthesis. In more than 90% of cases, CAH is secondary to deleterious mutations in the CYP21A2 gene leading to 21-hydroxilase deficiency (21OHD). The CYP21A2 gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 6 (6p21·3) and encodes the cytochrome P450C21 enzyme. Neonatal screening programs detect the classic forms of CAH-21OHD quantifying 17OH-progesterone in dried blood spots (DBS). This test is very sensitive, but it has a low specificity, requiring a second sample to confirm the result. In these cases, a second-tier test in the same sample may be useful. Our aim was to evaluate a DNA extraction method from DBS and assess the performance of such DNA in the molecular analysis of the CYP21A2 gene mutations. Twelve individuals, who presumably had CAH based on the initial neonatal screening results, were analyzed using DNA extracted from freshly collected blood on EDTA and DBS. The CYP21A2 gene was analyzed by automated sequencing of all exons and intron boundaries and MLPA analysis in DBS. Molecular analysis results from both extraction methods were compared. In this study, we show that DNA extracted from neonatal screening DBS is a useful tool to define CYP21A2 gene mutations in 21-OHD diagnostic confirmation for the newborn screening program and that its results are comparable to traditional genotyping.


La hiperplasia suprarrenal congénita (HSC) es un desorden autosómico recesivo producido por la deficiencia de alguna de las enzimas involucradas en la biosíntesis de cortisol. Más del 90% se debe a mutaciones en el gen CYP21A2 que genera deficiencia de 21 hidroxilasa (21OHD). Este gen se encuentra en el brazo corto del cromosoma 6 (6p21·3) y codifica para la enzima citocromo P450C21. Los programas de pesquisa neonatal detectan la forma clásica de la HSC-21OHD cuantificando 17OH-progesterona en gota de sangre en papel de filtro (GSPF). Este test es muy sensible, pero tiene baja especificidad , por lo que se utiliza una segunda muestra para confirmar el resultado. En estos casos, una segunda determinación en la misma muestra podría ser de utilidad. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el método de extracción de ADN y posterior análisis molecular del gen CYP21A2 en muestras de GSPF. Analizamos doce individuos presumiblemente afectados por HSC en la pesquisa neonatal usando ADN extraído de sangre fresca recolectada sobre EDTA y de GSPF. Realizamos el análisis del gen CYP21A2 mediante secuenciación automática de todos los exones y regiones intrónicas flanqueantes y MLPA en GSPF, y comparamos los resultados con ambos métodos de extracción. En este estudio demostramos que el ADN extraído de GSPF es una herramienta muy útil para analizar las mutaciones del gen CYP21A2 en la confirmación diagnóstica de 21-OHD para los programas de pesquisa neonatal y que los resultados son comparables con la genotipificación tradicional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Steroid 21-Hydroxylase/genetics , Neonatal Screening/methods , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/diagnosis , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , Mutation , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Gestational Age , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/analysis , Alleles
17.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(2): 209-215, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131658

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The high-resolution manometry has been a significant advance in esophageal diagnostics. There are different types of catheter and systems devices to capture esophageal pressures that generate variable data related to Chicago Classification (CC) and consequently influence normal values results. There are not normative data for the 24-channel water-perfused high-resolution manometry system most used in Brazil with healthy volunteers in supine posture. OBJECTIVE: To determine manometric esophageal normative values for a 24-channel water-perfused high-resolution manometry catheter in supine posture using healthy volunteers according to CC 3.0 parameters. METHODS: A total of 92 volunteers with no gastrointestinal symptoms or medications affecting GI motility underwent esophageal high-resolution manometry by standard protocol. Age, gender and manometry parameters analyzed using Alacer software were collected. The median, range, and 5th and 95th percentiles (where applicable) were obtained for all high-resolution manometry metrics. Normal value percentiles were defined as 95th integrated relaxation pressure, 5th-100th distal contractile integral, and 5th distal latency. RESULTS: The mean age was 40.5±13.2 years. Our normative metrics were integrated relaxation pressure <16 mmHg and distal contractile integral (708-4111 mmHg.cm.s) distal latency was <6 s and peristaltic break size (>4 cm). For EGJ-CI the range 5th-95th was 21.7-86.9 mmHg.cm.s. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of normative data for the 24-channel water-perfused system in supine posture. It revealed higher integrated relaxation pressure and distal latency duration which suggest the need to change CC 3.0 cutoffs for this system. It is observed that there is a tendency that DCI >7000 mmHg.cm.s may represent the lower limit of hypercontractility, and when <700 mmHg.cm.s (<5% percentile) interpreted as ineffective esophageal motility or failcontraction. Also compared to Chicago 3.0, higher integrated relaxation pressure and duration of distal latency were found. We emphasize that these data must be confirmed by future studies.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A manometria de alta resolução tem sido um avanço significativo nos diagnósticos esofágicos. Existem diferentes tipos de cateteres e sistemas dispositivos para capturar pressões esofágicas que geram dados variáveis relacionados à Classificação de Chicago (CC) e, consequentemente, podem influenciar os resultados de valores da normalidade. Não há dados normativos com voluntários saudáveis na postura supina, para o sistema manométrico sob perfusão em água de 24 canais, o mais utilizado no Brasil. OBJETIVO: Determinar os valores normativos manométricos do esôfago para um cateter sob perfusão de alta resolução de 24 canais na postura supina utilizando-se voluntários saudáveis assintomáticos de acordo com os parâmetros CC. MÉTODOS: Um total de 92 voluntários sem sintomas gastrointestinais ou medicamentos que afetassem a motilidade gastrointestinal foram submetidos à manometria de alta resolução do esôfago por protocolo padrão (Sistema Alacer Multiplex). Foram coletados parâmetros de idade, sexo e os da manometria analisados pelo software Alacer versão 6.2. A mediana, os limites, e 5% e 95% percentis (quando aplicável) foram obtidos para todas as métricas de alta resolução. Os valores normais foram definidos como percentis de 95% da integral da pressão de relaxamento (IRP), 5%-100% da integral contrátil distal (DCI), e 5% latência distal. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi de 40,5±13,2 anos. As métricas normativas foram definidas como IRP <16 mmHg) e DCI (708-4111 mmHg.cm.s). Para a latência distal foi de 5,8-9,9 s (faixa: 5,3-10,7s). O comprimento total de quebra na contração esofágica foi de 4,0 cm (faixa: 0,1-6,8 cm). Para a EGJ-CI a faixa 5%-95% percentis foi de 21,7-86,9 mmHg.cm.s. CONCLUSÃO: Este é o primeiro relatório de dados normativos para o sistema de 24 canais perfundido por água na postura supina. A partir dos dados encontrados observa-se a possibilidade de alterar os cortes CC 3.0 para este sistema. Observa-se que há uma tendência que DCI >7000 mmHg.cm.s possa representar o limite inferior da hipercontratilidade e quando <700 mmHg.cm.s (<5% percentil) interpretada como motilidade esofágica ineficaz ou contração falha. Também em comparação com Chicago 3.0, foi encontrada maior pressão de relaxamento integrado e duração da latência distal. Ressaltamos que esses dados devem ser confirmados por estudos futuros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Esophageal Motility Disorders , Esophagus , Manometry/standards , Peristalsis , Reference Values , Brazil , Middle Aged
18.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(5): 644-652, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139348

ABSTRACT

Background: There are no reference values for the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS-E) for the Chilean population. Aim: To elaborate reference values for the interpretation of the DERS-E for the Chilean population. Material and Methods: The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale was answered by participants from the general population (1,153 heterosexual men and women and 467 gay and lesbian individuals) and a group of 351 participants with emotional complaints. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to obtain the reference values. A concordance index was determined, and the odds ratio was calculated to evaluate the probability of having mental health problems comparing participants with emotional complaints with those from the general population. Results: The DERS-E cut-off score was 73 points for the Chilean population. No differences were detected for emotional regulation difficulties between men and women or by sexual orientation. Age had a weak association with emotional regulation difficulties. Conclusions: DERS-E has an adequate diagnostic capacity, allowing to differentiate between those who have high or low emotional regulation difficulties.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Surveys and Questionnaires , Emotional Regulation , Reference Values , Chile
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 356-362, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056447

ABSTRACT

El suicidio es un problema de salud a nivel mundial, siendo la conducta suicida uno de los predictores de mortalidad por suicidio; sin embargo, su valoración aún sigue siendo compleja. Aunque la cantidad de literatura que ha abordado distintas perspectivas de la conducta suicida es abundante, se requiere ahondar en nuevos métodos que permitan una valoración rápida y objetiva de ésta, proporcionando a los clínicos y pacientes, un sistema de evaluación que registre los cambios de estados emocionales de manera dinámica. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue proporcionar una visión general de la morfología de los potenciales evocados auditivos de latencia tardía p300 y su rol en la evaluación de la conducta suicida.


Suicide is a global health problem, with suicidal behavior being one of the predictors of suicide mortality; however, its assessment is still complex. Although the amount of literature that has addressed different perspectives of suicidal behavior is abundant, it is necessary to deepen new methods that allow a rapid and objective assessment of it, providing clinicians and patients with an evaluation system that allows changes in emotional state to be recorded dynamically. The aim of this manuscript was to provide an overview of morphological patterns of auditory evoked potential P300 latency late in the assessment of suicidal behavior.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior/physiology , Event-Related Potentials, P300/physiology , Suicidal Ideation , Reference Values , Electrophysiology , Evoked Potentials, Auditory/physiology
20.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(2): 120-126, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088977

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate retinal microvasculature changes in patients treated with anti-VEGF for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion. Methods: We examined 38 eyes of 19 patients for the study. We measured superficial and deep capillary plexus vessel densities (%), foveal avascular zone areas (mm2), and central macular thicknesses. Results: Parafoveal superficial and deep capillary plexus values were significantly lower in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion than in fellow eyes (p<0.001). We found a significant increase in parafoveal deep capillary plexus values after the anti-VEGF treatment (p=0.032). The mean foveal avascular zone was larger in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion than in control eyes (p<0.001). The mean central macular thickness was significantly higher in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion than in controls, and we observed a significant decrease in central macular thickness after anti-VEGF treatment (<0.001). In addition, the cystic structures in the deep capillary plexus regressed. Conclusion: Optical coherence tomography angiography enables qualitative and quantitative evaluations during follow-up of patients treated for branch retinal vein occlusion.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar as alterações na microvascu latura da retina em pacientes tratados com anti-VEGF para ede ma macular secundário à oclusão de ramo da veia retiniana. Métodos: Foram examinados 38 olhos de 19 pacientes para o estudo. Medimos as densidades dos vasos do plexo capilar superficial e profunda (%), áreas da zona avascular foveal (mm2) e espessura macular central. Resultados: Os valores do plexo capilar superficial e profundo parafoveal foram significativamente menores nos olhos com oclusão de ramo da veia retiniana do que nos outros olhos (p<0,001). Encontramos um aumento significativo nos valores de plexo capilar profundo parafoveal após o tratamento com anti-VEGF (p=0,032). A zona avascular foveal média foi maior nos olhos com oclusão de ramo da veia retiniana do que nos olhos controle (p<0,001). A espessura macular central média foi significativamente maior nos olhos com oclusão de ramo da veia retiniana do que nos controles, e observamos uma diminuição significativa na espessura macular central após o tratamento com anti-VEGF (< 0,001). Além disso, as estruturas císticas no plexo capilar profundo regrediram. Conclusão: A angiotomografia de coerência óptica permite avaliações qualitativas e quantitativas durante o acompanhamento de pacientes tratados por oclusão de ramo da veia retiniana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Reference Values , Time Factors , Retinal Vein Occlusion/complications , Capillaries/drug effects , Capillaries/pathology , Capillaries/diagnostic imaging , Macular Edema/etiology , Macular Edema/pathology , Macular Edema/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Macula Lutea/drug effects , Macula Lutea/pathology , Macula Lutea/diagnostic imaging
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