Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 7.405
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 474-485, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377386


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The thrombin generation test (TGT) has shown promise for investigation of hemorrhagic and thrombotic diseases. However, despite its potential, it still needs standardization. Moreover, few studies have established reference values for TGT parameters. In Brazil, these values have not yet been established. OBJECTIVE: To determine TGT performance and reference intervals for TGT parameters in healthy individuals. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted among participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto, ELSA-Brasil). METHODS: The reference sample consisted of 620 healthy individuals. The calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) method, under low and high tissue factor (TF) conditions, was used to assess thrombin generation. Test performance was analyzed using intra and interassay coefficients of variation (CV) and reference intervals were calculated using the nonparametric method proposed by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. RESULTS: The intraassay CV ranged from 1.4% to 2.2% and the interassay CV, 6.8% to 14.7%. The reference intervals for TGT parameters under low and high TF conditions were, respectively: lagtime: 3.0-10.3 and 1.4-3.7 min; endogenous thrombin potential (ETP): 1134.6-2517.9 and 1413.6-2658.0 nM.min; normalized ETP: 0.6-1.3 and 0.7-1.4; peak: 103.2-397.7 and 256.4-479.0 nM; normalized peak: 0.3-1.3 and 0.7-1.2; and time-to-peak: 5.6-16.0 and 3.4-6.7 min. These parameters were categorized relative to sex. Conclusion: TGT performance was adequate and the proposed reference intervals were similar to those of other studies. Our findings may be useful for consolidating the TGT, through contributing to its standardization and validation.

Humans , Thrombin , Reference Values , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Longitudinal Studies
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e59078, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366713


This study is aimed to estimate and measure reference values in the normal range of motion of extremity joints in females and to provide a database for the assessment of impairments related to the mobility of the joints. This observational cross-sectional study was conducted at seven major educational institutes areas of Rawalpindi and Islamabad in Pakistan from January to June 2020 with a sample size of 600 healthy females aged 15 to 45 years and divided into three groups through non-probability sampling technique. In study Instruments, an electronic Goniometer was used for the measurement of the range of motions for different joints and then those ranges were recorded. The questionnaire had two sections demographic characteristics and ROM for both upper and lower limbs. Data was analyzed using SPSS V21. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.In the result,Out of 600 participants,there was a statistically significant difference of (p < 0.001) in both upper and lower extremities motion between all the three groups for the measurements and noticeably no significant difference (p > 0.005) between group 1, 2 comparisons for the knee joint extension.To conclude, In most joints, the range of motion increases with age. The transition from group 1 to group 2 was aided by increased hormone participation in growth, an active lifestyle, and generally good health. Because of degenerative changes and joint stiffness, group 3's range of motion deteriorated, leading to a sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity. Standardized biomechanical measurements can help health practitioners, such as physiotherapists, choose appropriate therapy interventions to assess musculoskeletal disorders. To resolve the inconsistencies in the reliability and validity of goniometry values, more research is required.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Reference Values , Range of Motion, Articular , Shoulder Joint/physiology , Biomechanical Phenomena/physiology , Exercise/physiology , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Multicenter Study , Elbow Joint/physiology , Arthrometry, Articular , Sedentary Behavior , Physical Therapists , Hip/physiology , Knee Joint/physiology , Life Style
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928633


OBJECTIVES@#To develop the birth weight curve of singleton neonates with a gestational age of 24-42 weeks, and to investigate the regional differences of the birth weight curve.@*METHODS@#A total of 11 maternal and child health hospitals with more than 7 000 neonates delivered annually were selected in 11 cities of China (Haikou, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Liuzhou, Guilin, Quanzhou, Chongqing, Chengdu, Changsha, Ningbo, and Lianyungang), and all live singleton neonates delivered in the 11 hospitals from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2020 were enrolled for the development of birth weight curves.@*RESULTS@#A total of 93 720 singleton neonates with a gestational age of 24-42 weeks from the 11 cities were included in the study. The reference values of the 3rd-97th percentiles of birth weight of singleton neonates for the total of the 11 cities and for each of the 11 cities were established, and the birth weight percentile curves were drawn. The birth weight curve level of singleton neonates in Shenzhen and Quanzhou was almost the same as the average level of the 11 cities; the birth weight curve level of singleton neonates in Haikou, Guangzhou, Guilin, and Liuzhou was slightly lower than the average level of the 11 cities; the birth weight curve level of singleton neonates in Chongqing, Chengdu, and Changsha was slightly higher than the average level of the 11 cities; the birth weight curve level of singleton neonates in Ningbo and Lianyungang was higher than the average level of the 11 cities. The average birth weight curve level of singleton neonates in the 11 cities were very close to that of China Neonatal Cooperation Network in 2011-2014.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The reference values of the 3rd-97th percentiles of birth weight of singleton neonates for the total of the 11 cities and for each of the 11 cities are developed, which can be used as a reference for evaluating the intrauterine growth of singleton neonates in the region. The level of intrauterine growth of neonates in some cities is different from the national level.

Birth Weight , Child , China , Cities , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Reference Values
Singapore medical journal ; : 214-218, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927261


INTRODUCTION@#ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin Type 1 motif, member 13) plays a fundamental role in the regulation of haemostasis and thrombosis. Its deficiency leads to an accumulation of ultra-large von Willebrand multimers, inducing spontaneous platelet aggregation, thrombosis in the microvasculature, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), a condition with 90% mortality when left untreated. Prompt quantification of ADAMTS13 antigen, activity and autoantibody plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of TTP and can help differentiate it from other thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs). Reference ranges for ADAMTS13 are generally derived from Caucasian patients. Given that polymorphism in the ADAMTS13 gene can be associated with variable ADAMTS13 levels, we aimed to establish the first reference range in Singapore and provide a crucial laboratory test for institutions here and elsewhere.@*METHODS@#150 healthy voluntary donors (75 men, 75 women) aged 21-60 years, with an ethnic mix mirroring Singapore's population profile, were recruited. ADAMTS13 antigen, activity and autoantibody levels were measured using the fluorescence resonance energy transfer-vWF73 and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodologies.@*RESULTS@#Levels (activity 0.65-1.79 IU/mL, antigen 0.36-1.17 IU/mL, autoantibody 1.4-12.5 U/mL) were not statistically different between the genders and various age groups.@*CONCLUSION@#TTP and TMAs are encountered in a wide range of specialties. The availability of new assays in Singapore will aid clinicians in the timely management of these conditions. Standardising reference ranges established for Singapore against World Health Organization standards allows harmonisation of measurements between laboratories and for future research collaborations.

ADAMTS13 Protein/analysis , Adult , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Reference Values , Singapore
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(10): e20210543, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1375117


Prothrombin time (PT) and the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) are useful tools for the diagnosis and monitoring of coagulation disorders in Veterinary Medicine. Our objectives were: to establish reference intervals (RI) for PT and a PTT for the dog using the Start®4 (Stago), to compare the obtained RI with literature; to evaluate the effects of gender and age on the coagulation profile. Plasma samples of 122 healthy dogs (57 males; 65 females) aged between 4 months and 18 years, divided into three age groups (0-2 years old; 3-10 years old; > 10 years old) and grouped in to males and females were analysed. The RI were estimated following the ASVCP guidelines with the Reference Value Advisor software. The RI were: PT 6.7'' to 10.8''; aPTT 9.0'' to 14.8''. PT was significantly higher in females than in males. Dogs aged 10 years or older have significantly higher mean aPTT times than younger dogs. RI comparison showed a considerable percentage of cases outside the reference RI of the literature (PT - 79.3%; aPTT - 77.1%), demonstrating the need of each laboratory to calculate its own RI. The RI established in this study are applicable for the coagulation profile assessment in dogs.

O tempo de protrombina (TP) e o tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa) são ferramentas úteis para o diagnóstico e monitorização das alterações da coagulação em Medicina Veterinária. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: estabelecer intervalos de referência (IR) para TP e TTPa para o cão utilizando o Start®4 (Stago), de modo a comparar os IR obtidos com a literatura; avaliar os efeitos do sexo e da idade no perfil da coagulação. Foram usadas amostras de plasma de 122 cães saudáveis (57 machos; 65 fêmeas) com idades entre quatro meses e 18 anos, divididos em três grupos (0-2 anos; 3-10 anos; > 10 anos) e agrupados em machos e fêmeas. Os IR foram calculados seguindo as diretrizes da ASVCP com o software Reference Value Advisor. Os IR obtidos foram: PT 6,7 '' a 10,8 ''; TTPa 9,0 '' a 14,8 ''. O TP foi significativamente maior nas fêmeas do que nos machos. Os cães com 10 anos ou mais apresentaram tempos médios de TTPa significativamente maiores do que cães mais jovens. A comparação de IR mostrou uma percentagem considerável de casos fora do IR de referência da literatura (TP - 79,3%; TTPa - 77,1%), confirmando a necessidade de cada laboratório calcular seu próprio IR. Os IR estabelecidos neste estudo são aplicáveis na avaliação do perfil hemostático em cães.

Animals , Dogs , Partial Thromboplastin Time/veterinary , Prothrombin Time/veterinary , Hemostatics/analysis , Reference Values , Sex Factors , Age Factors
An. venez. nutr ; 35(1): 5-15, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1412445


Introducción. La insuficiencia de ingresos en la familia para alimentarse y la inoperancia del programa de alimentación escolar, son factores que afectan el estado nutricional y favorecen el ascenso de la deserción escolar. Objetivo. Determinar el estado nutricional de grupos de niños, niñas y adolescentes de 13 escuelas en comunidades vulnerables. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal descriptivo en 7.252 escolares de 3 a 18 años, siete en el estado Bolívar (EB) y seis Distrito Capital (DC) y Estado Miranda (EM), realizado entre mayo y junio, 2019. El análisis se realizó en preescolares de 3 a 5 años y en escolares de 6 a 18 años, según localidad y sexo. Se determinó el estado nutricional con peso-talla (P/T) y talla-edad (T/E) en preescolares y el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) en escolares. Valores de referencia y puntos de corte OMS. Resultados: El porcentaje de desnutrición aguda en preescolares fue (1,5%) en ambas localidades y el riesgo EB 3,1% y DC-EM 3,3%. RC 8,2%, más alto EB (8,5%) y en sexo masculino (8,2%). En escolares, la delgadez- delgadez severa (6%), la talla baja y muy baja (6,8%) y el sobrepeso muy bajo (1%-1,4%). Conclusión. En los preescolares, el RC supera la DA, resultados que resumen la magnitud del retraso en los primeros 1.000 días y el impacto de la desnutrición infantil que va dejando huella en la talla baja. Las cifras de desnutrición aguda, retraso de crecimiento y delgadez más bajas que en otros estudios, posiblemente reflejan la presencia de algunos factores de protección que se deben investigar(AU)

Introduction. Insufficient income in the family to feed themselves and the ineffectiveness of the school feeding program are factors that affect the nutritional status and favor the rise of school dropouts. Objective. Determine the nutritional status of a group of children and adolescents from 13 schools in vulnerable communities. Materials and methods. Descriptive cross-sectional study in 7,252 schoolchildren from 3 to 18 years old, seven in the Bolívar state (EB) and six in the Capital District (DC) and Miranda State (EM), carried out between May and June, 2019. The analysis was carried out in preschoolers of 3 to 5 years and in schoolchildren from 6 to 18 years, according to location and sex. Nutritional status was determined with weight-height (W/T) and height-age (T/E) in preschoolers and the Body Mass Index (BMI) in schoolchildren. Reference values and WHO cut-off points. Results: The percentage of acute malnutrition in preschool children was (1.5%) in both localities and the EB risk was 3.1% and DC-EM 3.3%. CR 8.2%, higher EB (8.5%) and male (8.2%). In schoolchildren, thinness-severe thinness (6%), short and very short stature (6.8%) and very low overweight (1%-1.4%). Conclusion. In preschool children, the CR exceeds the AD, results that summarize the magnitude of the delay in the first 1,000 days and the impact of child malnutrition that leaves its mark on short stature. The lower figures for acute malnutrition, growth retardation and thinness than in other studies possibly reflect the presence of some protective factors that should be investigated(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Reference Values , Student Dropouts , School Feeding , Child Nutrition Disorders , Risk Groups , Body Mass Index , Nutritional Status , Food Insecurity
Med.lab ; 26(4): 365-374, 2022. Tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412529


Introducción. El correcto análisis en la interpretación de los resultados de cualquier analito biológico es esencial para la salud del paciente y está fuertemente ligado a contrastar dichos resultados con los intervalos biológicos referenciales que estén acorde a la población que está siendo analizada diariamente. El objetivo de este artículo, fue establecer intervalos referenciales (IR) en adultos para glicemia, urea, creatinina, ácido úrico, colesterol total y triglicéridos en un laboratorio clínico y comparar los valores obtenidos con los incluidos en los insertos para ese rango de edad. Metodología. La población fue de 561 adultos de ambos sexos, aparentemente sanos, que acudieron a Biomasterclin Laboratorio en Valencia, Venezuela, y cuyas edades fueron de 57,1±18,1 años. Resultados. Los IR obtenidos fueron glicemia 63,0-108,8 mg/dL, urea 17,7-54,9 mg/dL, creatinina 0,60-1,41 mg/dL, ácido úrico 0,89-7,26 mg/dL, colesterol total 78,5-251,1 mg/dL y triglicéridos 39,5-176,0 mg/dL. Los IR propuestos por la casa comercial empleada para la determinación de la glicemia y la creatinina pudieron ser transferidos a la población evaluada, mientras que el resto de los IR no. Conclusión. Debido a las diferencias que se presentan entre los IR en los estuches comerciales comparados con los de la población de individuos que acuden a los laboratorios clínicos, se hace necesario establecer IR para ser empleados en cada laboratorio clínico

The correct analysis in the interpretation of the results of any biological analyte is essential for the health of the patient and it is strongly linked to comparing those results with reference ranges that are in accordance with the population that is being analyzed on a daily basis. The objective of this study was to establish reference ranges in adults for glycemia, urea, creatinine, uric acid, total cholesterol and triglycerides in a clinical laboratory and compare the values obtained with those included in the inserts for the corresponding age group. Methodology. The population consisted of 561 apparently healthy adults of both sexes that attended Biomasterclin Laboratorio in Valencia, Venezuela, whose ages were 57.1±18.1 years. Results. The reference ranges obtained for glycemia were 63.0- 108.8 mg/dL, urea 17.7-54.9 mg/dL, creatinine 0.60-1.41 mg/dL, uric acid 0.89- 726 mg/dL, total cholesterol 78.5-251.1 mg/dL and triglycerides 39.5-176.0 mg/ dL. The reference ranges proposed by the commercial kits used for the determination of glycemia and creatinine could be transferred to the evaluated population, while the rest of the reference ranges could not. Conclusion. Due to the differences that occur between the reference ranges in commercial kits compared to those of the population of individuals who attend clinical laboratories, it is necessary to establish reference values in each clinical laboratory

Humans , Reference Values , Urea , Uric Acid , Blood Glucose , Creatinine
HU rev ; 48: 1-10, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1381715


Introdução: Os intervalos de referência (IRs) disponibilizados em laudos de exames laboratoriais orientam a interpretação dos resultados, respaldando a avaliação clínica realizada por profissionais de saúde. Objetivo: Validar IRs de parâmetros bioquímicos, com base nas características da população local, bem como em informações disponíveis nas bulas dos reagentes e na literatura científica. Material e Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo observacional, descritivo e transversal para padronização de IRs de trinta e quatro parâmetros bioquímicos, executados pelo laboratório de análises clínicas de um hospital universitário. Participaram do estudo quarenta indivíduos adultos, pareados pelo sexo, que responderam um questionário sobre o estado geral de saúde. Uma amostra de sangue foi coletada de cada participante e analisada conforme os padrões do laboratório. Resultados: Os dados obtidos com os voluntários saudáveis permitiram a validação dos IRs de albumina, alanina aminotransferase, amilase, aspartato aminotransferase, bilirrubina direta, bilirrubina indireta, bilirrubina total, cálcio iônico, capacidade total e latente de fixação de ferro, creatinoquinase fração MB, cloro, ferro, fosfatase alcalina, fósforo, gama glutamiltransferase, glicose, lipoproteína de alta densidade, lactato, lactato desidrogenase, lipase, magnésio, potássio, proteínas totais, saturação da transferrina, sódio, triglicerídeos e ureia, de ambos os sexos. Ácido úrico foi validado apenas para o sexo masculino e creatinoquinase total (CK) foi validado apenas para o sexo feminino. Conclusão: Os IRs contidos nas bulas destes reagentes representam a população atendida pelo laboratório e podem continuar sendo utilizados. Em contrapartida, os IRs dos analitos colesterol total, lipoproteína de baixa densidade, cálcio, ácido úrico feminino e CK masculino não foram validados e necessitam de novos estudos para a validação dos intervalos de referência utilizados

Introduction: The reference intervals (RIs) provided in laboratory test reports orientate the interpretation of results, supporting the clinical evaluation performed by health professionals. Objective: Validate RIs of biochemical parameters, based on the characteristics of the local population, as well as on information available in the package inserts of the reagents and in the scientific literature. Material and Methods: An observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study was carried out for the standardization of RIs of thirty-four biochemical parameters, performed by the Clinical Analysis laboratory of a university hospital. Forty adult individuals, matched by sex, participated in the study, who answered a questionnaire about their general health status. A blood sample was taken from each participant and analyzed according to laboratory standards. Results: Data obtained from healthy volunteers allowed the validation of the RIs of albumin, alanine aminotransferase, amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, total bilirubin, ionic calcium, total and latent iron-binding capacity, creatine kinase MB fraction, chlorine, iron, alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, gamma glutamyltransferase, glucose, high density lipoprotein, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, lipase, magnesium, potassium, total proteins, transferrin saturation, sodium, triglycerides and urea, of both sexes. Uric acid has been validated for males only and total creatine kinase (CK) has been validated for females only. Conclusion: The RIs contained in the package inserts of these reagents represent the population assisted by laboratory and can continue to be used. The RIs of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, calcium, female uric acid and male CK analytes were not validated and require further studies to validate the reference intervals used

Reference Values , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Health Personnel , Clinical Chemistry Tests , Delivery of Health Care , Hospitals, University
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928991


OBJECTIVES@#There is a high coagulation state in pregnant women, which is prone to coagulation and fibrinolysis system dysfunction. This study aims to explore the latest coagulation markers-thrombomodulin (TM), thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), plasmin-α2 plasmin inhibitor complex (PIC), and tissue plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor compound (tPAI-C) in different stages of pregnancy, establish reference intervals (RIs) for healthy pregnant women of Chinese population, and to provide an effective and reliable reference for clinicians.@*METHODS@#A total of 492 healthy pregnant women, who underwent pregnancy examination and delivery in the Department of Obstetrics, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from October 2019 to October 2020, were enrolled for this study. They were assigned into the first trimester group, the second trimester group, the third trimester group, and the puerperium group according to the pregnancy period, and 123 healthy non-pregnant women were selected as the controls. Plasma levels of TM, TAT, PIC and tPAI-C were analyzed by automatic chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer. The RIs for TM, TAT, PIC, and tPAI-C were defined using non-parametric 95% intervals, determined following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Document C28-A3c (CLSI C28-A3c), and Formulation of Reference Intervals for the Clinical Laboratory Test Items (WS/T402-2012).@*RESULTS@#TM and TAT levels increased gradually in the first, second, and third trimester women and decreased in the puerperium women (P<0.05 or P<0.01). PIC level of healthy non-pregnant women was lower than that of pregnant women (P<0.05 or P<0.01), but PIC level of pregnant and puerperium women did not differ significantly (P>0.05). tPAI-C level in healthy non-pregnant women was lower than that of pregnant women (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and tPAI-C level was significantly decreases in the puerperium women (P<0.01). The RIs for TM were as follows: Healthy non-pregnant women at 3.20-4.60 TU/mL, the first and second trimester at 3.12-7.90 TU/mL, the third trimester at 3.42-8.29 TU/mL, puerperium at 2.70-6.40 TU/mL. The RIs for TAT were as follows: Healthy non-pregnant women at 0.50-1.64 ng/mL, the first and second trimester at 0.52-6.91 ng/mL, the third trimester at 0.96-12.92 ng/mL, puerperium at 0.82-3.75 ng/mL. The RIs for PIC were as follows: Healthy non-pregnant women at 0.160-0.519 ng/mL, pregnant women at 0.162-0.770 μg/mL. The RIs for tPAI-C were as follows: Healthy non-pregnant women at 1.90-4.80 ng/mL, the first and second trimester at 2.03-9.33 ng/mL, the third trimester at 2.80-14.20 ng/mL, puerperium at 1.10-8.40 ng/mL.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The levels of 4 new coagulation markers TM, TAT, PIC, and tPAI-C in pregnant women are increased significantly during pregnancy and gradually return to normal after delivery. The RIs for TM, TAT, PIC, and tPAI-C in pregnant women by trimester are established according to CLSI C28-A3c, thus providing a clinical reference for clinician in judgement of thrombotic risk.

Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , Female , Humans , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Reference Values
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(4): 211-217, out./dez. 2021. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363493


O objetivo do presente estudo foi validar intervalos de referências (IRs) para hematologia e bioquímica sanguínea de cães domiciliados da Amazônia Oriental e estabelecer novos IRs para os parâmetros não validados. Foram utilizadas amostras de 44 cães adultos clinicamente saudáveis de diferentes raças e sexos. Na validação, foi utilizada a metodologia proposta pelo Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) e na determinação dos IRs dos parâmetros não validados foi utilizada a metodologia estatística proposta pela American Society for Clinical Veterinary Pathology (ASCPV). Os IRs foram determinados por meio do programa Excel com o suplemento Reference Value Advisor (versão 2.1). O software realiza os cálculos de acordo com as recomendações CLSI, conforme sugerido pelas diretrizes da ASCVP. Um total de 25 parâmetros (13 hematológicos e 12 bioquímicos) foram submetidos ao processo de validação. Desse total, seis (24%) parâmetros não foram validados (Hemoglobina, CHGM, eosinófilos, linfócitos, albumina e GGT) e para estes foram estabelecidos novos intervalos. Para a maioria dos parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos (76%), os IRs estabelecidos previamente na literatura ainda são válidos para utilização em cães criados na Amazônia Oriental. Para os parâmetros não validados, apenas para eosinófilos e linfócitos recomendamos que outros trabalhos, com um número maior de animais, sejam realizados para confirmar os nossos resultados ou estabelecer novos IRs. Os IRs estabelecidos para hemoglobina, CHGM, albumina e GGT podem ser utilizados em substituição aos intervalos antigos.

The aim of the present study was to validate reference intervals (RIs) for hematology and blood biochemistry of dogs domiciled in the Eastern Amazon and to establish new RIs for parameters not yet validated. Samples from 44 clinically healthy adult dogs of different breeds and sexes were used. The methodology proposed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) was used for validation, and the statistical methodology proposed by the American Society for Clinical Veterinary Pathology (ASCPV) was used to determine the RIs of the non-validated parameters. The IRs were determined using the Excel program with the Reference Value Advisor add-in (version 2.1). The software performs calculations according to CLSI recommendations as suggested by the ASCVP guidelines. A total of 25 parameters (13 hematological and 12 biochemical) were submitted to the validation process. Of this total, six (24%) parameters were not validated (Hemoglobin, CHGM, eosinophils, lymphocytes, albumin and GGT) and new intervals were established for these. For most hematological and biochemical parameters (76%), the RIs previously established in the literature are still valid for use in dogs raised in the Eastern Amazon. For non-validated parameters, just for eosinophils and lymphocytes, we recommend that other studies, with a larger number of animals, be carried out to confirm our results or establish new IRs. The established IRs for hemoglobin, CHGM, albumin and GGT can be used in place of the old ranges.

Animals , Dogs , Reference Values , Dogs , Reference Standards , Hematologic Tests/veterinary , Biochemistry , Amazonian Ecosystem , Hematology
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 7(4): 215-221, oct.-dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396092


El objetivo del presente artículo ha sido describir el programa "Optimización de la Protección en Radiología Intervencionista Pediátrica en América Latina y el Caribe" (OPRIPALC) que nace el año 2018 como respuesta conjunta de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y la Organización Mundial de la Salud, en cooperación con el Organismo Internacional de Energía Atómica, para colaborar con sus Estados miembros en asegurar que las exposiciones a la radiación de los pacientes pediátricos sean las mínimas necesarias durante los procedimientos intervencionistas. Actualmente, hay 18 centros de los siguientes 10 países que participan: Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, México, Perú y Uruguay. Para el desarrollo del programa se plantean una serie de objetivos, productos, actividades y resultados esperados. La puesta en marcha de la WEB de OPRIPALC ha significado un instrumento muy válido para seguir la información actualizada del programa. Un programa actualizado de formación en radioprotección para los profesionales implicados en el programa, se está realizando por medio de "webinars". Se deberá seguir actuando en la aplicación del programa de control de calidad básico para los equipos de rayos X participantes y validar los valores de los Niveles de Referencia para Diagnóstico (NRDs). Se propone formar un equipo de trabajo entre los Físicos Médicos y Tecnólogos Médicos participantes de OPRIPALC para implicarse en las pruebas de control básicas que todos los centros debieran realizar. Se han presentado algunos resultados iniciales de OPRIPALC en eventos científicos internacionales. Se está avanzando en proponer unos primeros valores sobre NRDs en procedimientos de intervencionismo cardiológico pediátrico por bandas de edad y peso. OPRIPALC es una de las pocas iniciativas de carácter regional para obtener valores de NRDs en procedimientos intervencionistas pediátricos. Se espera que tanto los valores de referencia como la metodología empleada en OPRIPALC, puedan ser utilizados en otras regiones del mundo.

The objective of this article has been to describe the program "Optimization of Protection in Pediatric Interventional Radiology in Latin America and the Caribbean" (OPRIPALC) that was born in 2018 as a joint response of the Pan American Health Organization and the World Organization of the Health, in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, to collaborate with its member states in ensuring that radiation exposures of pediatric patients are the minimum necessary during interventional procedures. Currently, there are 18 centers from the following 10 countries participating: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay. For the development of the program, a series of objectives, products, activities and expected results are proposed. The launch of the OPRIPALC WEBSITE has been a very valid instrument for following up-to-date information on the program. An updated training program in radiation protection for the professionals involved in the program is being carried out through webinars. It should continue acting in the application of the basic quality control program for the participating X-ray equipment and validate the values of the Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs). It is proposed to form a work team among the OPRIPALC participating medical physicists to get involved in the basic control tests that all centers should carry out. Some initial results of OPRIPALC have been presented at international scientific events. Progress is being made in proposing first values on DRLs in pediatric cardiac intervention procedures by age and weight bands. OPRIPALC is one of the few regional initiatives to obtain DRLs values in pediatric interventional procedures. It is expected that both the reference values and the methodology used in OPRIPALC can be used in other regions of the world.

Humans , Child , Pediatrics/standards , Radiation Protection/standards , Cardiology/standards , Quality Control , Reference Standards , Reference Values , Safety , Radiology, Interventional , Caribbean Region , Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular , Process Optimization , Diagnostic Reference Levels , Latin America
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(3): 315-320, jul.-sep. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345170


Abstract Objective: Right ventricle (RV) function plays an important role during fetal and neonatal transitional circulation. Despite the published echocardiography guidelines in children including neonates, there is scare evidence on RV assessment using echocardiography in Mexican neonates. This study was aimed at assessing RV function and anatomical measures in healthy term newborns and defines normal values in this cohort of patients. Methods: A prospective study involving healthy term newborns in a single center were enrolled in the study to assess RV, all patients were recruited within 24-72 h after birth. The right ventricular assessment was performed as per American Society of Echocardiography's guidelines. Results: Seventy healthy term newborns with a median gestational age of 38 (38.5 ± 2.7) weeks had RV function assessment and anatomical structures measures with a predefined ten echocardiographic parameters protocol. The mean values for: tricuspid valve diameter was 13 mm ± 1.8, basal diameter of the RV 16.7 mm ± 2, RV length 27.8 mm ± 2.2, mid cavity diameter 14.3 mm ± 1.7, RV-anteroinferior basal diameter 21.5 mm ± 2.5, tricuspid regurgitation gradient 13.3 mmHg ± 5.9, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion 8.7 mm, right ventricular fractional area change (RVFAC) 4 chamber (%) 40.6 ± 7.5, tricuspid E/A 0.7 ± 0.5, myocardial velocities (cm/s) E´ 8 ± 2.7, A´ 9.6 ± 2.4, S´ 6.9 ± 1.2, myocardial performance index 0.5 ± 0.1, RVFAC 3 chamber (%) 37.8 ± 15.8, and pulmonary acceleration time mean value 58.8 ± 14.9. Flattening of interventricular septum was seen in 13% infants. Conclusions: This study describes echocardiographic parameters for anatomical structures and assessment of RV function in healthy term newborns during transitional circulation. We reported novel anatomical measures of the RV; this information can provide normal reference range values and be referenced while assessing RV function in normal and sick newborns during transitional circulation.

Resumen Objetivo: Realizar una valoración ecocardiográfica de parámetros anatómicos y funcionales del ventrículo derecho (VD) en recién nacidos de término (RNT) sanos durante el periodo transicional. Método: Estudio prospectivo en RNT sanos de la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales del Hospital Español. Todos los pacientes fueron estudiados en las primeras 24-72 horas de vida, con base en las guías de la American Society of Echocardiography. Resultados: Se estudiaron 70 RNT sanos con una media de edad gestacional de 38 semanas de gestación (38.5 ± 2.7); en estos pacientes se obtuvieron 10 parámetros ecocardiográficos. El valor medio obtenido para la válvula tricúspide fue de 13 ± 1.8 mm, diámetro basal del VD 16.7 ± 2 mm, longitud 27.8 ± 2.2 mm, cavidad media del VD 14.3 ± 1.7 mm, diámetro basal anteroinferior 21.5 ± 2.5 mm, gradiente de insuficiencia tricuspídea 13.3 ± 5.9 mmHg, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) 8.7 mm, Fracción de acortamiento del VD (FAVD) 4 cámaras (%) 40.6 ± 7.5, E/A tricuspídeo 0.7 ± 0.5, velocidades miocárdicas (cm/s) E´ 8 ± 2.7, A´ 9.6 ± 2.4, S´ 6.9 ± 1.2, índice de rendimiento miocárdico 0.5 ± 0.1, FAVD 3 cámaras (%) 37.8 ± 15.8, tiempo de aceleración pulmonar 58.8 ± 14.9. Conclusiones: Este estudio describe parámetros anatómicos y funcionales del VD en RNT sanos durante el periodo de transición. Se reportan valores de normalidad que pueden servir como referencia.

Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Child , Echocardiography/methods , Ventricular Function, Right/physiology , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Prospective Studies , Mexico
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(3): 289-298, jul.-sep. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345167


Resumen Objetivo: Determinar la presión arterial (PA) normal en embarazadas en la Ciudad de México. Método: Estudio transversal descriptivo de la PA en embarazos normales de feto único en la Ciudad de México. Las mediciones siguieron un método estandarizado con uso de dispositivos electrónicos automatizados. Se construyeron valores de referencia de las presiones sistólica (PS), diastólica (PD) y arterial media (PAM). Se probaron los efectos de las características maternas y de la gestación sobre la PA. Los intervalos de referencia de la PA se ajustaron para las variables significativas. Resultados: En 1,056 mujeres con edad media de 33 años y 160 cm medios de estatura se realizaron 1,915 mediciones entre las 5 y 41 semanas de edad gestacional (EG) con peso medio de 65 kg. La PA durante el embarazo fue de 102.7/67.2 ± 9.3/7.4 DE mmHg y 79.0 ± 7.4 DE mmHg la PAM. La PA tuvo una relación cuadrática con la EG, la más baja en el segundo trimestre. La PS y la PD mostraron una correlación lineal (r = 0.71). El peso materno tuvo el efecto más significativo sobre PS y PAM; la estatura sobre la PD. La edad, etnia, paridad, consumo de tabaco y antecedente familiar ejercieron efectos diferentes en cada PA. La gestación no tuvo efecto significativo en el modelo multivariado de la PS. Conclusiones: La PA se halló por debajo de la norma convencional en embarazadas. Los criterios diagnósticos para hipertensión en el embarazo deben revisarse; los valores de referencia pueden ajustarse a características maternas y gestacionales.

Abstract Objective: To determine the normal blood pressure (BP) in pregnancy, Mexico City. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was carried out of BP on singleton normal pregnancies in Mexico City. Measurements followed a standardised methodology using automated electronic devices. Reference values of systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were constructed. Maternal and gestation characteristics effects on BP were tested. The reference ranges of BP were adjusted for significant variables. Results: On 1,056 women of 33 years old mean age and 160.0 cm mean height, 1,915 measurements were made between 5 and 41 weeks of gestational age (GA) with 65.0 kg of mean weight. The median BP throughout pregnancy was 102.7/67.2 ± 9.3/7.4 SD mmHg, and 79.0 ± 7.4 SD mmHg the MAP. BP had a quadratic relationship with GA, being the lowest in 2nd trimester. SBP and DBP had a r = 0.71 linear correlation. Maternal weight had the most significant effect on SBP and MAP; height, on DBP. Maternal age, ethnic origin, parity, tobacco habit and family history had differential effects on BP. Gestation had no significant effect on SBP multivariate model. Conclusions: BP resulted lower than conventional standard for pregnant women. Diagnostic criteria for hypertension in pregnancy must be revised; reference values can be adjusted by maternal and gestation characteristics.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Blood Pressure/physiology , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/diagnosis , Hypertension/complications , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Reference Values , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gestational Weight Gain , Mexico
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 791-798, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285265


The Nelore breed is the second largest bovine breed in the world and has actively participated in the expansion of new Brazilian agricultural frontiers. In this context, the purpose of this study was to determine the hematological and biochemical reference intervals of healthy Nelore matrices raised under an extensive regime without supplementation along southwest of Piauí state. Blood samples were collected from fifty-five multiparous female of the Nelore breed. Biochemical and hematological parameters were analyzed using a parametric statistical method with 95% CI of reference limits. The average values of red blood cells, hemoglobin as well as hematimetric indices showed reference ranges similar to reference standards. The hematocrit as well as granulocytes and agranulocytes presented alterations typical of animals raised in environments with higher temperatures. Mineral, enzymatic, protein and metabolic profiles were similar to other bovine breeds but with a narrower range of values. However, lower mean values were observed for levels of ionized calcium, total protein and urea. Nelore females present slightly different biochemical and hematological profiles from other breeds, which might result from the environmental and nutritional management applied and the natural deficiency of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium in the region's pastures.(AU)

Nelore é a segunda maior raça bovina do mundo e tem participado ativamente da expansão das novas fronteiras agrícolas brasileiras. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar os intervalos de referência hematológicos e bioquímicos de matrizes Nelore criadas em regime extensivo sem suplementação, ao longo do sudoeste do estado do Piauí. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de 55 fêmeas multíparas da raça Nelore. Os parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos foram analisados por método estatístico paramétrico com IC 95% para os limites de referência. Os valores médios de hemácias, hemoglobina e índices hematimétricos apresentaram intervalos de referência semelhantes aos padrões de referência. Tanto o hematócrito quanto os granulócitos e os agranulócitos apresentaram alterações típicas de animais criados em ambientes com temperaturas mais elevadas. Os perfis mineral, enzimático, proteico e metabólico foram semelhantes aos de outras raças bovinas, mas com uma faixa de valores mais estreita. No entanto, valores médios mais baixos foram observados para os níveis de cálcio ionizado, proteína total e ureia. Fêmeas Nelore apresentam perfis bioquímicos e hematológicos ligeiramente diferentes de outras raças, o que pode resultar dos manejos ambiental e nutricional aplicados e da deficiência natural de nitrogênio, fósforo e cálcio nas pastagens da região.(AU)

Animals , Female , Cattle , Blood Cell Count/veterinary , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Blood Proteins/analysis , Calcium/blood , Granulocytes , Hematocrit/veterinary , Reference Values , Brazil , Serum , Agranulocytosis/veterinary
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(6): 839-844, June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346924


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the validity and provide normative values for the three-min shuttle run test in Spanish preschoolers. METHODS: A total of 497 children (mean age 4.83±0.57 years; 47.8% girls) performed the three-min shuttle run test. Posttest body mass index and heart rate values were taken as internal validity indicators. RESULTS: Age- and sex-specific percentiles for cardiorespiratory fitness were provided. Boys performed better than girls in the test. A significant association was observed between the total distance covered and heart rate (p=0.002). No correlation was found between body mass index and the test score, although the total distance covered by normal weight and obese children was significantly different (296.9 versus. 271.3 m; p=0.013). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides age- and sex-specific cardiorespiratory fitness normative values for the three-min shuttle run test when performed by Spanish preschoolers. This test is an interesting option when the lack of resources limits the measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness in the preschool setting.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Pediatric Obesity , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Reference Values , Body Mass Index , Physical Fitness , Exercise Test
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(3): 307-314, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250097


Abstract Background: Obesity has repercussions on functional capacity (FC). The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is a useful tool for assessing submaximal FC, and the distance reached at 6 minutes of walking (D6MW) is a relevant prognostic marker. Objective: This paper aims to establish a reference equation for the distance predicted in 6MWT in obese Brazilian subjects. Methods: This study included 460 patients (306 women), with a body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2, 71% (328) of whom presented a grade III obesity (BMI ≥ 40 Kg/m²) and were evaluated with 6MWT. Heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and Borg scale perception of effort were recorded before and after the 6MWT. For statistical analysis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, an unpaired T-Test, Pearson's correlation, and multiple linear regression were used, together with a significance level set at p<0.05. Results: Gender, age, and BMI were significantly correlated with D6MW and were identified by multiple linear regression as the best predictors of the D6MW. Together, they explain 48.7% of the D6MW variance for obese Brazilian subjects. Based on these findings, an equation was proposed - D6MW = 930.138 + (27.130 x Genderfemales = 0; males = 1) − (5.550 x BMI kg/m2) − (4.442 x Age years). When the average of the D6MW obtained with the above equation was compared to the average calculated with the equations described in medical literature for healthy and obese individuals, the latter tended to overestimate the D6MW. Conclusion: The proposed reference equation exhibited better assessment of FC in obese Brazilian patients, providing proper subsidies for the follow up ofinterventions in this population..

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Walk Test/methods , Obesity/diagnosis , Reference Values , Exercise Tolerance , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Obesity/complications , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/prevention & control
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(2): 161-164, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280059


ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze whether fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) should be evaluated by chronological age and/or biological age and propose curves to classify the body composition of young Chilean soccer players. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was developed. Six hundred and forty-two soccer players between 13.0 and 18.9 years of age were recruited. Body mass, height, trunk-cephalic height, and tricipital and subscapular skinfolds were evaluated. Biological maturation was determined using peak height velocity age (PHV) and the percentage of fat mass was estimated by regression equations. The reference percentiles were calculated using the LMS method. Results: The values of R2 were lower for chronological age (FM = 0.07% and FFM = 0.13%) than for biological age (FM = 0.31% and FFM = 0.50%). Eleven percentiles (p3, p5, p10, p15, p25, p50, p75, p85, p90, p95 and p97) were calculated for FFM and FM. Conclusion: Biological age (PHV) is a better predictor of FFM and FM than chronological age. The references proposed can be used to monitor the body composition of young Chilean soccer players. Level of Evidence II; Diagnostic Study .

Resumen Objetivo: Analizar si la masa grasa (MG) y la masa libre de grasa (MLG) deben ser evaluadas por la edad cronológica y/o por la edad biológica, y proponer curvas para clasificar la composición corporal de jóvenes futbolistas chilenos. Métodos: Se elaboró un estudio descriptivo transversal. Fueron reclutados 642 futbolistas entre 13,0 y 18,9 años. Fueron medidas masa corporal, estatura, altura tronco-cefálica, pliegues cutáneos tricipital y subescapular. La madurez biológica fue determinada por la edad de pico de velocidad de crecimiento (EPVC) y el porcentual de masa grasa fue estimado por ecuaciones de regresión. Los percentiles de referencia fueron calculados por el método LMS. Resultados: Los valores de R2 para edad cronológica fueron menores (MG=0,07% y MLG=0,13%) en comparación con los valores para la edad biológica (MG=0,31% y MLG=0,50%). Fueron calculados 11 percentiles (p3, p5, p10, p15, p25, p50, p75, p85, p90, p95 y p97) para la MLG y MG. Conclusión: La edad biológica (EPVC) es un predictor mejor de la MLG y de la MG que la edad cronológica. Las referencias propuestas pueden servir para monitorizar la composición corporal de jóvenes futbolistas chilenos. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudio de diagnóstico .

RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar se a massa gorda (MG) e a massa livre de gordura (MLG) devem ser avaliadas pela idade cronológica e/ou pela idade biológica, e propor curvas para classificar a composição corporal de jovens futebolistas chilenos. Métodos: Elaborou-se um estudo descritivo transversal. Foram recrutados 642 futebolistas entre 13,0 e 18,9 anos. Massa corporal, estatura, altura tronco-cefálica, dobras cutâneas tricipital e subescapular foram medidas. A maturação biológica foi determinada pela idade de pico de velocidade de crescimento (IPVC) e o percentual de massa gorda foi estimado por equações de regressão. Os percentis de referência foram calculados pelo método LMS. Resultados: Os valores de R2para idade cronológica foram menores (MG = 0,07% e MLG=0,13%) em comparação com os valores para a idade biológica (MG = 0,31% e MLG = 0,50%). Foram calculados 11 percentis (p3, p5, p10, p15, p25, p50, p75, p85, p90, p95 e p97) para a MLG e MG. Conclusão: A idade biológica (IPVC) é um preditor melhor da MLG e da MG do que a idade cronológica. As referências propostas podem servir para monitorar a composição corporal de jovens futebolistas chilenos. Nível de evidência II; Estudo de diagnóstico .

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Soccer/physiology , Body Composition/physiology , Reference Values , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anthropology
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 622-630, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278347


This study aimed to determine the physiological and hematological parameters of sheep in Brazil. Therefore, 5,081 observations were used from previous experiments with animals from different Brazilian regions with the time of day, gender, breed, age, physiological characteristics, hematological and climatic variables. The animals were classified according to their stress level, and only data of non-stressed animals were used to calculate the reference values. Respiratory rate was the parameter that most differed from the normal range, with values ​​above the limits usually reported for the species, being higher in commercial wool sheep. For hematological variables, differences were observed between the present results and the previously reported values in the literature. A higher number of red blood cells (RBC), lower hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were observed in young animals. A higher number of RBC and MCHC were noted in sheep crossed with local breeds. Considering that physiological and hematological parameters are indicators of the animal's pathological or physiological state, for a correct interpretation of the results, the use of reference values based on animals with similar racial characteristics and subjected to similar environmental conditions is recommended.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar parâmetros fisiológicos e hematológicos de ovinos no Brasil. Portanto, foram utilizadas 5.081 observações de experimentos anteriores com animais de diversas regiões do Brasil, com diferentes horário, sexo, raça, idade, características fisiológicas, variáveis ​​hematológicas e climáticas. Os animais foram classificados de acordo com o nível de estresse, e apenas os dados dos animais não estressados ​​foram utilizados para o cálculo dos valores de referência. A frequência respiratória foi o parâmetro que mais diferiu em relação à normalidade, com valores acima dos limites usualmente relatados para a espécie, sendo maior em ovinos de lã comercial. Para as variáveis ​​hematológicas, também foram verificadas diferenças entre os resultados observados e os valores previamente relatados na literatura. Maior número de hemácias, menor hemoglobina e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHbCM) foram observados em animais jovens e maior número de hemácias e CHbCM em ovinos cruzados com raças locais. Considerando que os parâmetros fisiológicos e hematológicos são indicadores do estado patológico ou fisiológico do animal, para uma correta interpretação dos resultados recomenda-se a utilização de valores de referência baseados em animais com características raciais semelhantes e submetidos a condições ambientais também semelhantes.(AU)

Animals , Sheep/physiology , Sheep/blood , Reference Values , Tropical Climate , Body Temperature , Brazil , Respiratory Rate , Hematologic Tests/veterinary