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1.
Med. U.P.B ; 39(2): 49-55, 21/10/2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1123581

ABSTRACT

La aparición progresiva de habilidades sensoriales, motoras y cognitivo-afectivas en el humano a lo largo de su desarrollo es un reflejo de cambios fisiológicos que se gestan al interior del sistema nervioso. Dichos cambios hacen parte de procesos dinámicos y dependen, después del nacimiento, de la actividad eléctrica inducida por la experiencia. Considerando lo anterior, el sistema nervioso en desarrollo constituye una especie de protomapa, sobre el que la experiencia moldea características moleculares, neuroquímicas y de conectividad, que se reflejan en las actividades emergentes del sistema. La evidencia que soporta la importancia que la influencia experiencial tiene sobre el desarrollo del sistema nervioso viene en aumento. Esta revisión reúne información sobre estudios en modelos biológicos y en humanos sometidos a privación sensorial y ambiental. Se enfatiza en la caracterización de los rasgos cognitivos y sociales.


The progressive advent of sensory, motor, affective, and cognitive skills in the human being through its development, demonstrate physiological changes that are gestated within the nervous system. These processes are dynamic and dependent postnatally on electrical activity induced by experience. Taking this into account, the developing nervous system constitutes a protomap molded by experience dependent molecular, physiological and connectivity characteristics, which are reflected in the emergent principles of the system. The evidence that supports the importance of experience as influence over the development of this system has increased in the past years. This document gathers information about animal models and human studies enduring sensory and environmental deprivation, emphasizing in the characterization of their cognitive and social remarks.


O aparecimento progressivo de habilidades sensoriais, motoras e cognitivo-afetivas no humano ao longo do seu desenvolvimento é um reflexo de mudanças fisiológicas que se gestam no interior do sistema nervoso. Ditas mudanças fazem parte de processos dinâmicos e dependem, depois do nascimento, da atividade elétrica induzida pela experiência. Considerando o anterior, o sistema nervoso em desenvolvimento constitui uma espécie de "protomapa", sobre o que a experiência molda características moleculares, neuroquímicas e de conectividade, que se refletem nas atividades emergentes do sistema. A evidência que suporta a importância que a influência experiencial tem sobre o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso vem em aumento. Esta revisão reúne informação sobre estudos em modelos biológicos e em humanos submetidos a privação sensorial e ambiental. Se enfatiza na caracterização das características cognitivas e sociais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Reflex , Sensory Deprivation , Synapses , Cognition , Models, Animal , Growth and Development , Models, Biological , Nervous System , Neuronal Plasticity
2.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 41(2): 203-216, jun./dez. 2020. Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224373

ABSTRACT

Os epífitos desempenham importantes funções ecológicas, e em particular as samambaias, mostram uma diversidade significativa em ambientes florestais, ocupando microambientes específicos e diversos. A diversidade de samambaias epifíticas no estado do Paraná ainda é relativamente pouco conhecida. A região de Paula Freitas, em particular, não apresenta estudos específicos para este grupo de plantas. Neste sentido, o presente estudo teve por finalidade avaliar a riqueza de espécies de samambaias epífitas em regiões de trilhas no Parque Municipal Guairacá em Paula Freitas, Paraná. Foram registradas 10 espécies distribuídas em oito gêneros e quatro famílias. A família Polypodiaceae foi a mais rica na área avaliada (oito espécies), reflexo das características morfoanatômicas comuns às espécies da família. Os resultados encontrados contribuem com o reconhecimento das características florísticas e ecológicas de samambaias epífitas ocorrentes no estado do Paraná.(AU)


Epiphytes play important ecological role, and the ferns shows a significant diversity in the forest environments, due to the numerous specific and diverse microenvironments. The diversity of epiphytic ferns in Paraná state is still relatively unknown. The Paula Freitas region, in particular, does not present specific studies for this group of plants. In this sense, the present study aimed to evaluate the diversity of epiphytic ferns in regions of trails in the Guairacá Municipal Park in Paula Freitas, Paraná. Ten species in eight genera and four families were recorded. The family Polypodiaceae (eight species) was the richest in the evaluated area, reflecting the morphoanatomic characteristics common to the family species. The results contribute to the recognition of the floristic and ecological characteristics of epiphytic ferns occurring in the state of Paraná.(AU)


Subject(s)
Plants , Polypodiaceae , Reflex , Forests
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Automated cellular analyzers are expected to improve the analytical performance in body fluid (BF) analysis. We evaluated the analytical performance of three automated cellular analyzers and established optimum reflex analysis guidelines. METHODS: A total of 542 BF samples (88 cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] samples and 454 non-CSF samples) were examined using manual counting and three automated cellular analyzers: UniCel DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter), XN-350 (Sysmex), and UF-5000 (Sysmex). Additionally, 2,779 BF analysis results were retrospectively reviewed. For malignant cell analysis, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used, and the detection of high fluorescence-BF cells (HF-BFs) using the XN-350 analyzer was compared with cytology results. RESULTS: All three analyzers showed good agreement for total nucleated cell (TNC) and red blood cell (RBC) counts, except for the RBC count in CSF samples using the UniCel DxH 800. However, variable degrees of differences were observed during differential cell counting. For malignant cell analysis, the area under the curve was 0.63 for the XN-350 analyzer and 0.76 for manual counting. We established our own reflex analysis guidelines as follows: HF-BFs 83.4/100 WBCs or eosinophils >3.8% are the criteria for mandatory double check confirmation with 1,000× magnification examination. CONCLUSIONS: The three automated analyzers showed good analytical performances. Application of reflex analysis guidelines is recommended for eosinophils and HF-BFs, and manual confirmation is warranted.


Subject(s)
Body Fluids , Cell Count , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Eosinophils , Erythrocytes , Leukocytes , Reflex , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve
4.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283629

ABSTRACT

The essential oil of Laurus nobilis L. was used to test their antinociceptive efficacy. It was applied intraperitoneally (i.p.) to rats subjected to a nociception test (C reflex and spinal wind-up). The results showed that the essential oil applied at higher doses (0.06 mg/Kg) causes a complete abolition of the spinal wind-up, while the C reflex was unchanged, indicating a clear antinociceptive effect. At lower concentrations (0.012 mg/Kg), there was a lowering in the wind-up by 85% within ten minutes of the essential i.p. oil application. Interestingly, there was an effect of naloxone (0.08 mg/Kg i.p.) When applied, a change occurs that almost entirely reversed the antinociception caused by the essential oil from Laurus nobilis. We conclude that there is a significant antinociceptive effect of the essential oil of Laurus nobilis subjected to electric nociception. In addition, it was observed that naloxone reversed the antinociceptive effect (wind-up) produced by Laurus nobilis.


El aceite esencial de Laurus nobilis L. se usó para probar su eficacia antinociceptiva. Se aplicó por vía intraperitoneal (i.p.) a ratas sometidas a una prueba de nocicepción (reflejo-C y wind-up espinal). Los resultados mostraron que el aceite esencial aplicado a dosis más altas (0.06 mg/Kg) abolió completamente el wind-up espinal, mientras que el reflejo-C no cambió, lo que indica un claro efecto antinociceptivo. A concentraciones más bajas (0.012 mg/Kg), hubo una disminución en el wind-up en un 85% dentro de los diez minutos del i.p. la aplicación del aceite esencial. Curiosamente, hubo un efecto de la naloxona (0.08 mg/Kg i.p.) la cual revierte casi por completo la antinocicepción causada por el aceite esencial de Laurus nobilis. Concluimos que existe un efecto antinociceptivo significativo del aceite esencial de Laurus nobilis sometido a nocicepción eléctrica. Además, se observó que la naloxona revirtió el efecto antinociceptivo (wind-up) producido por Laurus nobilis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Pain/drug therapy , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Laurus/chemistry , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Reflex/drug effects , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Naloxone/administration & dosage
5.
Rev. iberoam. psicol. (En línea) ; 13(2): 135-146, 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1247696

ABSTRACT

La burla emerge como una acción simbólica en la relación burlón-burlado. Usualmente se expresa en la modalidad hostil o en la modalidad amigable. El propósito de este artículo es reflexionar acerca de la noción de desarrollo que subyace a los estudios de la burla. Para cumplir con este objetivo se adoptaron los postulados de Jaan Valsiner acerca de los axiomas que conducen la investigación y las matrices de pensamiento psicológico que dan sentido a la re-organización de las teorías del desarrollo en tres modelos: Diferenciación, Equilibración y Enseñanza-aprendizaje. La revisión muestra una distribución de los estudios de la burla en el axioma no evolutivo y en el axioma evolutivo. Los estudios en el axioma evolutivo se caracterizan por la identificación de capacidades y habilidades cognitivas y sociales que se complejizan con la edad. En esta modalidad de trabajos se subordina la expresión de la burla respecto a otras expresiones humorísticas como el sarcasmo, la sátira y la ironía. Los referentes teórico-metodológicos de los estudios en el axioma evolutivo se aproximan al Modelo por Equilibración. Las conclusiones señalan la pertinencia de sostener la coherencia de las matrices de pensamiento psicológico en las investigaciones que indagan problemáticas del desarrollo.


The teasing emerges as a symbolic action in the interaction between a teaser and teased. It is Usually expressed in a hostile or in a friendly mode. The purpose of this article is to reflex about the development concept that underlies the teasing studies. To fulfill this objective, we were adopted Jaan Valsiner's postulates about the guided axioms in the developing research and also we adopted the psychological thought matrices that give meaning to the re-organization of theories of development in three models: Differentiation, Balance and Teaching and Learning. The review shows a distribution of studies of teasing in the evolutive axiom. The studies in the evolutive axiom are characterized by the identification of cognitive and social capabilities and abilities which complexitfy with the age. In this type of researches the teasing expression is subordinated respect to other humoristic expression as: the sarcasm, the satire and the irony. The theorical ­ methodological referents in the evolutive axiom are approach to the Balance Model. The conclusion focus on the pertinence to hold coherence in the psychological thought matrices for the researches that inquire in the development subject.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bullying , Learning , Aptitude , Reflex , Research , Teaching , Respect
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766874

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of frosted branch angiitis (FBA) associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in a child. CASE SUMMARY: A 7-year-old boy presented with bilateral blurred vision. On ophthalmic examination, his best-corrected visual acuity was 20/25 in the right eye and 20/32 in the left eye. The pupils were equal, round, and reactive to light without a relative afferent pupillary defect. He had normal color vision in both eyes. Slit-lamp examination revealed no abnormalities in the anterior parts of the eyes. Fundoscopic examination revealed prominent white sheathing retinal vasculitis predominantly on the veins in all quadrants, as well as macular edema and irregular foveal reflex in both eyes. Fluorescein angiography showed normal blood flow, but late diffuse staining and leakage of the affected vessels. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed thickening of the vessel walls, swelling due to hyperreflective material, and hyperreflective retinal depositions. Serological tests and the serum polymerase chain reaction for EBV were positive. A diagnosis of FBA associated with EBV was made. He was treated with systemic acyclovir and steroids. The response was rapid, with improvement in visual acuity to 20/20 in both eyes by day 3. After 7 weeks, all clinical signs resolved and SD-OCT examination showed normal vessel wall thickness and the absence of hyperreflective depositions. CONCLUSIONS: EBV may present with FBA even in the absence of a systemic sign of primary EBV infection. Thus, EBV should be considered as the etiology of FBA.


Subject(s)
Acyclovir , Child , Color Vision , Diagnosis , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Fluorescein Angiography , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Macular Edema , Male , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pupil , Pupil Disorders , Reflex , Retinal Vasculitis , Retinaldehyde , Serologic Tests , Steroids , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Vasculitis , Veins , Visual Acuity
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766859

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of optic neuritis accompanied by optic perineuritis after retinalamin peribulbar injection. CASE SUMMARY: A 46-year-old Kazakhstan woman presented with sudden vision loss, headache, and pain in both eyes which began 2 hours after the peribulbar injection of retinalamin approximately 10 days prior to her initial visit. At the initial visit, the best-corrected visual acuity was light perception in both eyes. A fundus examination showed bilateral optic disc swelling and fluorescein angiography showed late-phase leakage around the optic nerve and optic nerve sheath enhancement. On brain magnetic resonance imaging, the tram track sign and donut sign were seen in both eyes. Steroid pulse therapy was started after the diagnosis of optic neuritis accompanied by optic perineuritis. After 6 months, the patient's visual acuity improved up to 0.8 in the right eye and 1.0 in the left eye. The light reflex was recovered, the relative afferent pupillary defect decreased, and there was no evidence of optic disc swelling. CONCLUSIONS: When an unverified drug injection is performed (e.g., retinalamin), it could result in complications such as optic neuritis and optic perineuritis from an allergic reaction or peribulbar injection trauma. In such cases, high-dose steroid pulse therapy may be considered.


Subject(s)
Brain , Diagnosis , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Headache , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Kazakhstan , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Optic Nerve , Optic Neuritis , Pupil Disorders , Reflex , Visual Acuity
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766826

ABSTRACT

Brain death is a clinical diagnosis that implies irreversible loss of function of the entire brain, including the brainstem and both hemispheres. It is not uncommon for reflex and spontaneous movements to occur in patients with impending brain death during the process of determining brain death. When physicians charged with judging brain death witness such movements during this period, unless they know how common these movements are and what they mean, it will be difficult for them to make an appropriate determination of brain death. Movements following brain death have been reported in previous studies of various types, including cohort studies and case series or reports. However, only a few studies have employed verified diagnostic tools and neurological examinations as a standard protocol when diagnosing brain death. According to previous reports, the frequency of these movements ranges from 19.2% to 75.0% of all brain death cases. These reports have also described which movements are commonly seen. However, it is difficult to determine conclusively where these movements originate, i.e., in the spinal cord or in the cerebral motor cortex, and how such information should be considered in determining brain death. Although limited information is available on the characteristics and pathophysiological mechanism of these movements, it will help physicians to diagnose brain death correctly if they obtain sufficient knowledge about them.


Subject(s)
Brain Death , Brain Stem , Brain , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Humans , Motor Cortex , Neurologic Examination , Reflex , Spinal Cord
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766768

ABSTRACT

In brain death state, bilateral pupil light reflexes are disappeared, and pupils are fixed with dilated. However, spontaneous movements such as ocular microtremor or bilateral cyclical constriction-dilatation of pupils have been rarely reported in brain death patients. We present a brain death patient whose right pupil displayed spontaneously repetitive constriction and dilatation regardless of external stimuli such as light and pain. Early recognition of this phenomenon may prohibit the delay in the diagnosis of brain death and organ transplantation.


Subject(s)
Brain Death , Brain , Coma , Constriction , Diagnosis , Dilatation , Humans , Organ Transplantation , Pupil , Reflex , Transplants
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diagnosing small-fiber neuropathy (SFN) is challenging because there is no gold-standard test and few diagnostic tests. This study investigated the clinical symptom profile and its associations with the results of quantitative sensory testing (QST) and the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) as well as the quality of life (QOL) in patients with clinically suspected SFN. METHODS: This study involved 63 patients with clinically suspected length-dependent SFN. Assessments were performed using QST, QSART, SFN Symptoms Inventory Questionnaire, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory, ‘Sirim’ frequency and ‘Sirim’ (cold) pain severity, and 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to predict risk factors for QST or QSART abnormalities and QOL, respectively. RESULTS: ‘Sirim’ and ‘Sirim’ pain was the most-common (84%) and the most-severe complaint (mean score of 6.3 on a numerical rating scale ranging from 0 to 10) in patients with clinically suspected SFN. The findings of QST [cold detection threshold (CDT)] and QSART were abnormal in 71% (n=45/57) and 62% (n=39/56) of the patients, respectively. An abnormal CDT was correlated with more-severe stabbing pain (odds ratio=2.23, 95% CI=1.02–4.87, p=0.045). Restless-leg symptoms (β=−7.077) and pressure-evoked pain (β=−5.034) were independent predictors of the physical aspects of QOL. CONCLUSIONS: ‘Sirim’ pain, similar to cold pain, should be considered a major neuropathic pain in SFN. Among pain characteristics, stabbing pain of a spontaneous paroxysmal nature may be more pronounced in the setting of dysfunctional Aδ fibers with functional autonomic C fibers.


Subject(s)
Axons , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Erythromelalgia , Health Surveys , Humans , Linear Models , Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated , Neuralgia , Quality of Life , Reflex , Risk Factors
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764115

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that naftopidil prolongs intercontraction intervals in rats undergoing chronic stress as observed in previous animal models, voiding behavior and bladder function were measured and analyzed. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200–230 g were exposed to repeated variate stress (RVS) for 1 week, chronic variable mild stress for 2 weeks, or simple mild stress for 1 week. Voiding behavior was assessed in metabolic cages. Voiding frequency and urine output were measured, and changes of these values were compared for the different types of stress. Micturition reflex was analyzed using unconscious cystometry. Naftopidil was administered orally at 30 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, no stress-exposed rats exhibited increased micturition frequency compared to the normal nonstressed control. However, intercontraction intervals were shortened with each type of stress in the unconscious condition, especially by RVS (P<0.01). Naftopidil prolonged the shortened intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Although voiding behavior appears approximately normal in rats chronically exposed to emotional stress, internal bladder function can be affected. With anesthesia, micturition intervals were moderately shortened by emotional stress and clearly improved by naftopidil. Therefore, naftopidil appears to act at the spinal level at least.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Animals , Female , Humans , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Models, Animal , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reflex , Stress, Psychological , Urinary Bladder , Urination
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764114

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Sacral nerve stimulation has been used to treat overactive bladder. This study evaluated the effects of stimulation using different pulse widths on the inhibition of bladder overactivity by sacral nerve stimulation (SNM) in pigs. METHODS: Implant-driven stimulators were used to stimulate the S3 spinal nerve in 7 pigs. Cystometry was performed by infusing normal saline (NS) or acetic acid (AA). SNM at pulse widths of 64 μsec to 624 μsec was conducted at the intensity threshold at which observable perianal and/or tail movement was induced. Multiple cystometrograms were performed to determine the effects of different pulse widths on the micturition reflex. RESULTS: AA-induced bladder overactivity reduced the bladder capacity to 46.9%±7.1% of the NS control level (P0.05). The actual intensity threshold varied from 0.7 to 8 V. The mean intensity threshold (T visual) for pulse widths of 64 μs, 204 μs, and 624 μs were 5.64±0.76 V, 3.11±0.48 V, and 2.52±0.49 V. T visual for pulse widths of 64 μsec was larger than the other two T visual for pulse widths of 204 μsec and 624 μsec (P0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that different pulse widths could play a role in inhibiting bladder overactivity. It is not yet certain which pulse widths increased bladder capacity compared with AA levels, to minimize energy consumption and maintain patient comfort during stimulation, 204 μsec may be an appropriate pulse width for SNM.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Humans , Reflex , Spinal Nerves , Swine , Tail , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder, Overactive , Urination
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762731

ABSTRACT

Blepharoplasty is one of the most popular cosmetic surgical procedures for people who are concerned with minimizing the effects of aging and maintaining an aesthetically attractive appearance. If periorbital surgery is not performed by an expert, the risk of complications increases. In particular, retrobulbar hematoma, which is the most serious complication after blepharoplasty, can lead to permanent blindness. We report a rare case of unilateral permanent blindness due to careless and unprofessional treatment following a retrobulbar hematoma after lower blepharoplasty. In conclusion, it is necessary to check for symptoms and signs including pain, proptosis, visual acuity, and light reflex after the operation. Careful instructions should then be given to patients and their caregivers to avoid actions that may cause postoperative bleeding. We emphasize that if a patient complains of symptoms, painkillers should not be used and computed tomography should be performed for an accurate and rapid diagnosis. Appropriate procedures must then be taken to prevent permanent vision loss.


Subject(s)
Aging , Blepharoplasty , Blindness , Caregivers , Diagnosis , Exophthalmos , Hematoma , Hemorrhage , Humans , Reflex , Retrobulbar Hemorrhage , Visual Acuity
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762614

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in nonobese nonobese young type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients without micro- or macrovascular complications. METHODS: CAN was assessed in 95 patients with T1DM, aged 18–29 years, using standard cardiovascular reflex tests – heart rate response to deep breathing, standing, and the Valsalva maneuver and blood pressure response to standing. Furthermore, power spectral analyses of overall heart rate variability (HRV), standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN), and total power (TP) were tested with DiCAN. CAN was defined as abnormal results for at least 1 of the 4 cardiovascular reflex tests. RESULTS: The prevalence of CAN was 12.6%. The frequency of one and 2 abnormal reflex tests was 10.5% and 2.1%, respectively. No significant differences were observed in age, sex, mean hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) level, and duration of diabetes with respect to presence of CAN. Patients with CAN exhibited lower overall HRV parameters (SDNN and TP) compared with those without CAN even though there was no statistical significance. In multivariable analyses, higher mean HbA(1c) level was significantly associated with lower overall HRV (β=-44.42, P=0.002 for SDNN and β=-2.82, P<0.001 for TP). CONCLUSION: CAN can be detected in 12.6% of young adult T1DM patients even without other micro- or macrovascular complications. Glycemic control is the main determinant to maintain overall HRV and prevent CAN.


Subject(s)
Autonomic Nervous System Diseases , Blood Pressure , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Heart Rate , Humans , Korea , Prevalence , Reflex , Reflex, Abnormal , Respiration , Risk Factors , Valsalva Maneuver , Young Adult
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762164

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: An older female predominance has been reported among chronic cough patients in Western countries, which is considered to be associated with a higher cough sensitivity in females. However, the characteristics of Chinese chronic cough patients remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the age and sex distribution as well as their relationship with cough reflex sensitivity to capsaicin in Chinese chronic cough patients. METHODS: We analyzed the demographic features of 1,882 consecutive chronic cough patients who attended our cough clinic in Guangzhou, China. Cough sensitivity to capsaicin, which was defined as the lowest concentration of capsaicin causing 5 coughs or more (C5), was measured in 539 of the 1,882 patients and 68 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 43.0 ± 13.7 years and patients aged <50 years accounted for more than two-thirds of the study population. Around 87% of the patients were never-smokers. The proportion of females (51.5%) was almost equal to that of males (48.5%). The pattern of the age and sex distribution was consistently reflected within most common causes of chronic cough, while a female predominance was shown in patients with cough-variant asthma and patients aged ≥50 years. Female patients had higher cough sensitivity to capsaicin than male patients (log C5: 1.58 ± 0.84 vs. 2.04 ± 0.84 μmol/L, P = 0.001), and patients aged ≥50 years had higher cough sensitivity to capsaicin than patients aged <50 years. CONCLUSIONS: In China, patients with chronic cough have a roughly equal sex distribution and a middle-aged predominance, irrespective of a higher cough sensitivity to capsaicin in females and older patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02591550


Subject(s)
Age Distribution , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Asthma , Capsaicin , China , Cough , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Reflex , Sex Distribution
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759905

ABSTRACT

The nineteenth century neuroscience studied the instinct of animal to understand the human mind. In particular, it has been found that the inheritance of unconscious behavior like instinct is mediated through ganglion chains, such as the spinal cord or sympathetic nervous system, which control unconscious reflexes. At the same time, the theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics (hereafter ‘IAC’) widely known as Lamarck's evolutionary theory provided the theoretical frame on the origin of instinct and the heredity of action that the parental generation's habits were converted into the nature of the offspring generation. Contrary to conventional knowledge, this theory was not originally invented by Lamarck, and Darwin also did not discard this theory even after discovering the theory of natural selection in 1838 and maintained it throughout his intellectual life. Above all, in the field of epigenetics, the theory of ‘IAC’ has gained attention as a reliable scientific theory today. Darwin discovered crucial errors in the late 1830s that the Lamarck version's theory of ‘IAC’ did not adequately account for the principle of the inheritance of unconscious behavior like instinct. Lamarck's theory regarded habits as conscious and willful acts and saw that those habits are transmitted through the brain to control conscious actions. Lamarck's theory could not account for the complex and elaborate instincts of invertebrate animals, such as brainless ants. Contrary to Lamarck's view, Darwin established the new theory of ‘IAC’ that could be combined with contemporary neurological theory, which explains the heredity of unconscious behavior. Based on the knowledge of neurology, Darwin was able to translate the ‘principle of habit’ into a neurological term called ‘principle of reflex’. This article focuses on how Darwin join the theory of ‘IAC’ with nineteenth century neuroscience and how the neurological knowledge from the nineteenth century contributed to Darwin's overcoming of Lamarck's ‘IAC’. The significance of this study is to elucidate Darwin's notion of ‘IAC’ theory rather than natural selection theory as a principle of heredity of behavior. The theory of ‘IAC’ was able to account for the rapid variation of instincts in a relatively short period of time, unlike natural selection, which operates slowly in geological time spans of tens of millions of years. The nineteenth century neurological theory also provided neurological principles for ‘plasticity of instinct,’ empirically supporting the fact that all nervous systems responsible for reflexes respond sensitively to very fine stimuli. However, researchers of neo-Darwinian tendencies, such as Richard Dawkins and evolutionary psychologists advocating the ‘selfish gene’ hypothesis, which today claim to be Darwin's descendants, are characterized by human nature embedded in biological information, such as the brain and genes, so that it cannot change at all. This study aims to contribute to reconstructing the evolutionary discourse by illuminating Darwin's insights into the “plasticity of nature” that instincts can change relatively easily even at the level of invertebrates such as earthworms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants , Brain , Epigenomics , Ganglion Cysts , Heredity , Human Characteristics , Humans , Instinct , Invertebrates , Nervous System , Neurology , Neurosciences , Oligochaeta , Parents , Psychology , Reflex , Selection, Genetic , Spinal Cord , Sympathetic Nervous System , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation , Wills
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770078

ABSTRACT

Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is a rare disease that affects the sensory and autonomic nervous system. The patients do not have the ability to sense different sensations, such as pain, which tends to lead to different injuries. In addition, the patients suffer from fluctuations in body temperature due to autonomic involvement. The present case was a five-year-old girl with a neglected distal femur fracture. X-rays taken during the follow-up showed marked callus formation and pseudarthrosis of the distal femur. She had biting injuries of the tongue, auto-amputation of the fingers, some developmental delay and a history of recurrent fever with an unknown origin. The electrodiagnostic study was normal. The quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test revealed markedly reduced postganglionic sudomotor axonal responses at all sites recorded on the left. She was diagnosed with CIPA. As the initial presentation of CIPA involves the musculoskeletal system, orthopedic surgeons should have a high index of suspicion.


Subject(s)
Autonomic Nervous System , Axons , Body Temperature , Bony Callus , Female , Femur , Fever , Fingers , Follow-Up Studies , Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathies , Humans , Musculoskeletal System , Orthopedics , Pain Insensitivity, Congenital , Pseudarthrosis , Rare Diseases , Reflex , Sensation , Surgeons , Tongue
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761288

ABSTRACT

Acute vestibular neuritis (VN) is characterized by acute/subacute vertigo with spontaneous nystagmus and unilateral loss of semicircular canal function. Vestibular system in human is represented in the brain bilaterally with functional asymmetries of the right hemispheric dominance in the right handers. Spatial working memory entails the ability to keep spatial information active in working memory over a short period of time which is also known as the right hemispheric dominance. Three patients (patient 1, 32-year-old female; patient 2, 18-year-old male; patient 3, 63-year-old male) suffered from acute onset of severe vertigo, nausea and vomiting. Patients 1 and 2's examination revealed VN on the right side showing spontaneous left beating nystagmus and impaired vestibular ocular reflex on the right side in video head-impulse and caloric tests. Patient 3's finding was fit for VN on the left side. We also evaluated visuospatial memory function with the block design test in these 3 VN patients which discovered lower scores in patients 1 and 2 and the average level in patient 3 compare to those of healthy controls. Follow-up block design test after resolved symptoms showed within normal range in both patients. Our cases suggest that the patients with unilateral peripheral vestibulopathy may have an asymmetrical effect on the higher vestibular cognitive function. The right VN can be associated with transient visuospatial memory dysfunction. These findings add the evidence of significant right hemispheric dominance for vestibular and visuospatial structures in the right-handed subjects, and of predominant dysfunction in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the peripheral lesion side.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Brain , Caloric Tests , Cognition , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Memory , Memory, Short-Term , Middle Aged , Nausea , Reference Values , Reflex , Semicircular Canals , Vertigo , Vestibular Neuronitis , Vomiting
20.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 471-484, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786309

ABSTRACT

The cough reflex is a vital protective mechanism for the lower airways against aspiration, but when dysregulated, it becomes a clinical problem. Indeed, chronic cough is an important clinical issue as it is common in the general population and causes considerable morbidity. Anatomic diagnostic protocols were the first breakthrough in the management of patients with chronic cough; however, as systematic approaches are not always successful, a new paradigm of cough hypersensitivity syndrome has been proposed. The introduction of this paradigm has provided new opportunities for managing chronic cough, including development of new cough assessment tools and effective cough control therapies. However, it also warranted re-appraisal of existing clinical evidence and refinement of our clinical pathways. Against this background, international and domestic evidence-based practice guidelines based on a strict methodology have been published recently. In this review, we introduce clinical approaches based on the concept of cough hypersensitivity syndrome and discuss key aspects of recently published guidelines for chronic cough in adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cough , Critical Pathways , Evidence-Based Practice , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Reflex
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