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1.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 35(1): 28-32, mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1397351

ABSTRACT

El reflejo de Bezold Jarisch es un reflejo cardioinhibitorio que juega un papel en la homeostasis cardiovascular. Consiste en la triada dada por hipotensión, bradicardia y vasodilatación periférica que puede ser desencadenada tanto por estímulos mecánicos, como químicos. Se considera que el mecanismo eferente contrarresta e inhibe los efectos del influjo simpático y, por el contrario, activa los efectos producidos por el sistema parasimpático. Durante la cirugía neurológica, la disminución de la presión intracraneal posterior a la extracción de colgajo óseo en la craneotomía, el uso de medicamentos osmóticos para disminuir el edema cerebral e incluso la posición del paciente durante el procedimiento suponen situaciones más propensas a la aparición del reflejo.


The Bezold Jarisch reflex is a cardioinhibitory reflex that plays a role in cardiovascular homeostasis. It consists of a triad given by hypotension, bradycardia, and peripheral vasodilation that can be triggered by both mechanical and chemical stimuli. The efferent counteracting mechanism is considered to inhibit the effects of sympathetic influx and, conversely, activates the effects produced by the parasympathetic system. During neurological surgery, the decrease in intracranial pressure after bone flap extraction in the craniotomy, the use of osmotic medications to decrease cerebral edema and even the position of the patient during the procedure supposes situations more prone to reflex appearance


Subject(s)
Reflex , Brain Edema , Intracranial Pressure , Craniotomy , Neurosurgery
2.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 615-617, nov.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249976

ABSTRACT

Resumen Extender una receta o indicar un tratamiento suele ser la última parte de la consulta médica. Este proceso crucial puede desvirtuarse debido a múltiples factores como capacidad prescriptiva limitada, exceso de trabajo y falta de reflexión o tiempo. La información insuficiente acerca del paciente o del tratamiento afecta el proceso prescriptivo y propicia errores que pueden ser graves para la salud del enfermo. La Academia Nacional de Medicina, en consonancia con la Organización Mundial de la Salud, hace énfasis en hacer del proceso prescriptivo un ejercicio de reflexión.


Abstract Writing a prescription or indicating a treatment is usually the last part of medical consultation. This crucial process can be undermined by multiple factors such as limited prescriptive ability, overwork, and lack of reflection or time. Insufficient information about the patient or the treatment affects the prescriptive process and leads to errors that can be serious for patient health. The National Academy of Medicine, in line with the World Health Organization, emphasizes the relevance of making the prescriptive process a reflective exercise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Prescriptions , Reflex , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Conditioning, Psychological
3.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 96(6): 748-754, Set.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143199

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Describe the results of the red reflex test in full-term newborns, as well as identify factors associated with red reflex test outcome and compare hospital length of stay between patients with inconclusive and normal red reflex test results. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of the results of the red reflex test performed in a tertiary hospital maternity unit between 2014 and 2018. A nested case-control study was also performed to search for anthropometric, gestational, and neonatal variables associated with the outcome of the red reflex test. Results: There were121 identified cases of inconclusive red reflex test in 11,833 newborns. Sixteen alterations were confirmed, four considered severe: two cases of congenital glaucoma, one of cataract, and one of coloboma. Mean birth weight (p = 0.04), length (p = 0.03), and head circumference (p = 0.02) were lower in patients with inconclusive red reflex test; however without a relevant effect size (d = −0.21, −0.22, and −0.25, respectively).The proportion of white, mixed-race, and black patients was significantly different between the groups (p < 0.001), with a higher chance of inconclusive results in mixed-race (OR = 2.22) and black (OR = 3.37) patients when compared to whites. An inconclusive red reflex test led to an increase in hospital length of stay from 62 to 82 hours (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The red reflex test was able to identify four severe alterations in 11,833 newborns (0.03%). In the 121 newborns in which the red reflex test was classified as inconclusive, there was a 20-hour increase in the hospital length of stay, but a severe alteration was confirmed in only 3.3% of them. Differences in red reflex between white, mixed-race, and black patients should be considered.


Resumo Objetivos: Descrever os resultados do teste do reflexo vermelho em recém-nascidos a termo. Identificar fatores associados ao resultado do teste do reflexo vermelho e comparar o tempo de internação entre pacientes com teste do reflexo vermelho duvidoso e normal. Métodos: Estudo transversal descritivo dos resultados do teste do reflexo vermelho feito em maternidade de hospital terciário entre 2014 e 2018. Foi ainda feito estudo de caso-controle aninhado para pesquisa de variáveis antropométricas, gestacionais e neonatais associadas ao resultado do teste do reflexo vermelho. Resultados: Foram identificados 121 casos de teste do reflexo vermelho duvidoso em 11.833 recém-nascidos. Foram confirmadas 16 alterações, 4 consideradas graves: 2 casos de glaucoma congênito, um de catarata e um de coloboma. As médias de peso de nascimento (p = 0,04), comprimento (p = 0,03) e perímetro cefálico (p = 0,02) foram menores nos pacientes com teste do reflexo vermelho duvidoso, entretanto sem um tamanho de efeito relevante (d = -0,21; -0,22 e -0,25; respectivamente). A proporção de pacientes brancos, pardos e negros foi estatisticamente diferente entre os grupos (p < 0,001), com maior chance de resultado duvidoso para pardos (OR = 2,22) e negros (OR = 3,37) em comparação a brancos. O teste do reflexo vermelho duvidoso levou a um aumento no tempo de internação de 62 para 82 horas (p < 0,001). Conclusões: O teste do reflexo vermelho foi capaz de identificar 4 alterações graves em 11.833 recém-nascidos (0,03%). Nos 121 recém-nascidos em que o teste do reflexo vermelho foi classificado como duvidoso, houve aumento de 20 horas no tempo de internação hospitalar, porém se confirmou alteração grave em apenas 3,3% deles. Diferenças no reflexo vermelho entre brancos, pardos e negros devem ser consideradas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Reflex , Tertiary Care Centers , Hospitals, Maternity , Prognosis , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Length of Stay
4.
Med. U.P.B ; 39(2): 49-55, 21/10/2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1123581

ABSTRACT

La aparición progresiva de habilidades sensoriales, motoras y cognitivo-afectivas en el humano a lo largo de su desarrollo es un reflejo de cambios fisiológicos que se gestan al interior del sistema nervioso. Dichos cambios hacen parte de procesos dinámicos y dependen, después del nacimiento, de la actividad eléctrica inducida por la experiencia. Considerando lo anterior, el sistema nervioso en desarrollo constituye una especie de protomapa, sobre el que la experiencia moldea características moleculares, neuroquímicas y de conectividad, que se reflejan en las actividades emergentes del sistema. La evidencia que soporta la importancia que la influencia experiencial tiene sobre el desarrollo del sistema nervioso viene en aumento. Esta revisión reúne información sobre estudios en modelos biológicos y en humanos sometidos a privación sensorial y ambiental. Se enfatiza en la caracterización de los rasgos cognitivos y sociales.


The progressive advent of sensory, motor, affective, and cognitive skills in the human being through its development, demonstrate physiological changes that are gestated within the nervous system. These processes are dynamic and dependent postnatally on electrical activity induced by experience. Taking this into account, the developing nervous system constitutes a protomap molded by experience dependent molecular, physiological and connectivity characteristics, which are reflected in the emergent principles of the system. The evidence that supports the importance of experience as influence over the development of this system has increased in the past years. This document gathers information about animal models and human studies enduring sensory and environmental deprivation, emphasizing in the characterization of their cognitive and social remarks.


O aparecimento progressivo de habilidades sensoriais, motoras e cognitivo-afetivas no humano ao longo do seu desenvolvimento é um reflexo de mudanças fisiológicas que se gestam no interior do sistema nervoso. Ditas mudanças fazem parte de processos dinâmicos e dependem, depois do nascimento, da atividade elétrica induzida pela experiência. Considerando o anterior, o sistema nervoso em desenvolvimento constitui uma espécie de "protomapa", sobre o que a experiência molda características moleculares, neuroquímicas e de conectividade, que se refletem nas atividades emergentes do sistema. A evidência que suporta a importância que a influência experiencial tem sobre o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso vem em aumento. Esta revisão reúne informação sobre estudos em modelos biológicos e em humanos submetidos a privação sensorial e ambiental. Se enfatiza na caracterização das características cognitivas e sociais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Reflex , Sensory Deprivation , Synapses , Cognition , Models, Animal , Growth and Development , Models, Biological , Nervous System , Neuronal Plasticity
5.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 41(2): 203-216, jun./dez. 2020. Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224373

ABSTRACT

Os epífitos desempenham importantes funções ecológicas, e em particular as samambaias, mostram uma diversidade significativa em ambientes florestais, ocupando microambientes específicos e diversos. A diversidade de samambaias epifíticas no estado do Paraná ainda é relativamente pouco conhecida. A região de Paula Freitas, em particular, não apresenta estudos específicos para este grupo de plantas. Neste sentido, o presente estudo teve por finalidade avaliar a riqueza de espécies de samambaias epífitas em regiões de trilhas no Parque Municipal Guairacá em Paula Freitas, Paraná. Foram registradas 10 espécies distribuídas em oito gêneros e quatro famílias. A família Polypodiaceae foi a mais rica na área avaliada (oito espécies), reflexo das características morfoanatômicas comuns às espécies da família. Os resultados encontrados contribuem com o reconhecimento das características florísticas e ecológicas de samambaias epífitas ocorrentes no estado do Paraná.(AU)


Epiphytes play important ecological role, and the ferns shows a significant diversity in the forest environments, due to the numerous specific and diverse microenvironments. The diversity of epiphytic ferns in Paraná state is still relatively unknown. The Paula Freitas region, in particular, does not present specific studies for this group of plants. In this sense, the present study aimed to evaluate the diversity of epiphytic ferns in regions of trails in the Guairacá Municipal Park in Paula Freitas, Paraná. Ten species in eight genera and four families were recorded. The family Polypodiaceae (eight species) was the richest in the evaluated area, reflecting the morphoanatomic characteristics common to the family species. The results contribute to the recognition of the floristic and ecological characteristics of epiphytic ferns occurring in the state of Paraná.(AU)


Subject(s)
Plants , Polypodiaceae , Reflex , Forests
6.
Rev. iberoam. psicol. (En línea) ; 13(2): 135-146, 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1247696

ABSTRACT

La burla emerge como una acción simbólica en la relación burlón-burlado. Usualmente se expresa en la modalidad hostil o en la modalidad amigable. El propósito de este artículo es reflexionar acerca de la noción de desarrollo que subyace a los estudios de la burla. Para cumplir con este objetivo se adoptaron los postulados de Jaan Valsiner acerca de los axiomas que conducen la investigación y las matrices de pensamiento psicológico que dan sentido a la re-organización de las teorías del desarrollo en tres modelos: Diferenciación, Equilibración y Enseñanza-aprendizaje. La revisión muestra una distribución de los estudios de la burla en el axioma no evolutivo y en el axioma evolutivo. Los estudios en el axioma evolutivo se caracterizan por la identificación de capacidades y habilidades cognitivas y sociales que se complejizan con la edad. En esta modalidad de trabajos se subordina la expresión de la burla respecto a otras expresiones humorísticas como el sarcasmo, la sátira y la ironía. Los referentes teórico-metodológicos de los estudios en el axioma evolutivo se aproximan al Modelo por Equilibración. Las conclusiones señalan la pertinencia de sostener la coherencia de las matrices de pensamiento psicológico en las investigaciones que indagan problemáticas del desarrollo.


The teasing emerges as a symbolic action in the interaction between a teaser and teased. It is Usually expressed in a hostile or in a friendly mode. The purpose of this article is to reflex about the development concept that underlies the teasing studies. To fulfill this objective, we were adopted Jaan Valsiner's postulates about the guided axioms in the developing research and also we adopted the psychological thought matrices that give meaning to the re-organization of theories of development in three models: Differentiation, Balance and Teaching and Learning. The review shows a distribution of studies of teasing in the evolutive axiom. The studies in the evolutive axiom are characterized by the identification of cognitive and social capabilities and abilities which complexitfy with the age. In this type of researches the teasing expression is subordinated respect to other humoristic expression as: the sarcasm, the satire and the irony. The theorical ­ methodological referents in the evolutive axiom are approach to the Balance Model. The conclusion focus on the pertinence to hold coherence in the psychological thought matrices for the researches that inquire in the development subject.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bullying , Learning , Aptitude , Reflex , Research , Teaching , Respect
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Automated cellular analyzers are expected to improve the analytical performance in body fluid (BF) analysis. We evaluated the analytical performance of three automated cellular analyzers and established optimum reflex analysis guidelines. METHODS: A total of 542 BF samples (88 cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] samples and 454 non-CSF samples) were examined using manual counting and three automated cellular analyzers: UniCel DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter), XN-350 (Sysmex), and UF-5000 (Sysmex). Additionally, 2,779 BF analysis results were retrospectively reviewed. For malignant cell analysis, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used, and the detection of high fluorescence-BF cells (HF-BFs) using the XN-350 analyzer was compared with cytology results. RESULTS: All three analyzers showed good agreement for total nucleated cell (TNC) and red blood cell (RBC) counts, except for the RBC count in CSF samples using the UniCel DxH 800. However, variable degrees of differences were observed during differential cell counting. For malignant cell analysis, the area under the curve was 0.63 for the XN-350 analyzer and 0.76 for manual counting. We established our own reflex analysis guidelines as follows: HF-BFs 83.4/100 WBCs or eosinophils >3.8% are the criteria for mandatory double check confirmation with 1,000× magnification examination. CONCLUSIONS: The three automated analyzers showed good analytical performances. Application of reflex analysis guidelines is recommended for eosinophils and HF-BFs, and manual confirmation is warranted.


Subject(s)
Body Fluids , Cell Count , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Eosinophils , Erythrocytes , Leukocytes , Reflex , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve
8.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283629

ABSTRACT

The essential oil of Laurus nobilis L. was used to test their antinociceptive efficacy. It was applied intraperitoneally (i.p.) to rats subjected to a nociception test (C reflex and spinal wind-up). The results showed that the essential oil applied at higher doses (0.06 mg/Kg) causes a complete abolition of the spinal wind-up, while the C reflex was unchanged, indicating a clear antinociceptive effect. At lower concentrations (0.012 mg/Kg), there was a lowering in the wind-up by 85% within ten minutes of the essential i.p. oil application. Interestingly, there was an effect of naloxone (0.08 mg/Kg i.p.) When applied, a change occurs that almost entirely reversed the antinociception caused by the essential oil from Laurus nobilis. We conclude that there is a significant antinociceptive effect of the essential oil of Laurus nobilis subjected to electric nociception. In addition, it was observed that naloxone reversed the antinociceptive effect (wind-up) produced by Laurus nobilis.


El aceite esencial de Laurus nobilis L. se usó para probar su eficacia antinociceptiva. Se aplicó por vía intraperitoneal (i.p.) a ratas sometidas a una prueba de nocicepción (reflejo-C y wind-up espinal). Los resultados mostraron que el aceite esencial aplicado a dosis más altas (0.06 mg/Kg) abolió completamente el wind-up espinal, mientras que el reflejo-C no cambió, lo que indica un claro efecto antinociceptivo. A concentraciones más bajas (0.012 mg/Kg), hubo una disminución en el wind-up en un 85% dentro de los diez minutos del i.p. la aplicación del aceite esencial. Curiosamente, hubo un efecto de la naloxona (0.08 mg/Kg i.p.) la cual revierte casi por completo la antinocicepción causada por el aceite esencial de Laurus nobilis. Concluimos que existe un efecto antinociceptivo significativo del aceite esencial de Laurus nobilis sometido a nocicepción eléctrica. Además, se observó que la naloxona revirtió el efecto antinociceptivo (wind-up) producido por Laurus nobilis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Pain/drug therapy , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Laurus/chemistry , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Reflex/drug effects , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Naloxone/administration & dosage
9.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e16-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750177

ABSTRACT

Cough is a physiological defense reflex for protecting the airways from aspiration and irritation. Thus, roles of environmental triggers are postulated in the pathogenesis of chronic cough. There are several lines of epidemiological evidence demonstrating the relationships between environmental irritant and pollutant exposure and chronic cough. However, positive findings from cross-sectional studies just reflect the protective nature of cough but may not properly address the true impact of environmental triggers. If harmful inhalation is repeated, cough may be seen as chronic but indeed is protective in nature. Therefore, long-term residual outcomes would be the key for understanding the effects of environmental triggers on chronic cough. The present review aims to summarize the associations between chronic cough and environmental pollutants or irritant exposure, with a focus on the long-term residual effects of (1) chronic persistent exposure and (2) acute high-intensity exposure on chronic cough, and also to examine (3) whether childhood irritant/pollutant exposure may increase the risk of chronic cough in adulthood.


Subject(s)
Cough , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Pollutants , Epidemiology , Hypersensitivity , Inflammation , Inhalation , Reflex
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741295

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Several studies have described age-associated brow drooping in Westerners. However, there are few studies that address brow drooping in the Asian population, and especially in the Korean population. Therefore, we studied brow position changes with age in Korean individuals. METHODS: A total of 300 adults older than 18 years were enrolled. The ImageJ program was used to analyze digital photos of the patients by measuring the following parameters: marginal reflex distance-1, brow-to-pupil distance, nasal ala-lateral brow distance, lateral brow plumb line, and the angle formed by the line from the mid pupil to the midline of the brow and a line from the midline of the brow to the lateral brow. We divided the patients into three groups (18 to 40, 41 to 60, older than 61) and compared them using the ANOVA test. RESULTS: Group A included 100 patients between 18 and 40 years of age. Group B included 100 patients between 41 and 60 years of age. Group C included 100 patients older than 61 years. There were significant differences between groups A and C and between groups B and C with regard to marginal reflex distance-1, brow-to-pupil distance and the angle. Lateral brow plumb line showed significant difference only between groups A and B. Nasal ala-lateral brow distance was not significantly different across the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: We sought to describe the physiologic facial changes that occur in Korean individuals. We also hoped to establish guidelines for ptosis corrective surgery. We used various parameters to characterize the aging process in Asians. Our data demonstrated that, like Westerners, Koreans experience lateral brow drooping with age; however, this change was only significant in the group aged >61 years.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aging , Asians , Hope , Humans , Pupil , Reflex
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740001

ABSTRACT

Foreign body aspiration in dental clinics is the most common cause of respiratory emergencies. There are no reports on foreign body aspiration during dental treatment under stable general anesthesia because the patient neither has voluntary movements nor reflex actions. This is a case report on the fall of a prosthesis in the larynx, which occurs rarely under general anesthesia. During the try-in procedure, the prosthesis slid from the surgeon's hand and entered the retromylohyoid space, and while searching for it, it passed down the larynx to the endotracheal tube balloon, leading to a dangerous situation. The prosthesis was promptly removed using video-assisted laryngoscope and forceps, and the patient was discharged without any complications.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Dental Clinics , Emergencies , Foreign Bodies , Hand , Humans , Laryngoscopes , Larynx , Prostheses and Implants , Reflex , Surgical Instruments
12.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 135-145, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739302

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PURPOSE: The study was aimed at evaluating clinicoradiological factors affecting recovery of neurological deficits in cases of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) treated by lumbar microdiscectomy. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: The majority of the available literature on neurological recovery following neurodeficit is limited to retrospective series. The literature is currently limited regarding variables that can help predict the recovery of neurodeficits following LDH. METHODS: A prospective analysis was performed on 70 consecutive patients who underwent lumbar microdiscectomy (L1–2 to L5–S1) owing to neurological deficits due to LDH. Patients with motor power ≤3/5 in L2–S1 myotomes were considered for analysis. Follow-up was performed at 2, 6, and 12 months to note recovery of motor deficits. Clinicoradiological parameters were compared between the recovered and nonrecovered groups. RESULTS: A total of 65 patients were available at the final follow-up: 41 (63%) had completely recovered by 2 months; four showed delayed recovery at the 6-month follow-up; and 20 (30.7%) showed no recovery at 1 year. Clinicoradiological factors, including diabetes, complete initial deficit, areflexia, multilevel disc prolapse, longer duration since initial symptoms, and ≥2 previous symptomatic episodes were associated with a significant risk of poorer recovery (p 0.05 for all). Diabetes mellitus (p=0.033) and complete initial motor deficit (p=0.028) were significantly associated with delayed recovery in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The overall neurological recovery rate in our study was 69%. Diabetes mellitus (p=0.033) and complete initial motor deficit were associated with delayed motor recovery.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Constriction, Pathologic , Diabetes Mellitus , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intervertebral Disc Displacement , Multivariate Analysis , Neurologic Manifestations , Occupations , Precipitating Factors , Prognosis , Prolapse , Prospective Studies , Reflex , Retrospective Studies , Smoke , Smoking , Urinary Bladder
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739170

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Blepharoptosis is the drooping of the margin of the upper eyelid, which narrows the palpebral fissure and makes it difficult to open the eye. Various surgical methods are used to correct blepharoptosis and have been investigated in different studies. After surgery, blepharoptosis can relapse over time, which affects a patient’s satisfaction with the operation. However, few studies have investigated the long-term outcomes of patients after blepharoptosis surgery. METHODS: From 1991 to 2013, 325 patients (480 eyelids) underwent frontalis muscle transfer or Müller-aponeurosis composite flap advancement in our clinic. We analyzed 12 patients (13 eyelids) with severe ptosis who had been followed-up for more than 5 years. Six patients underwent frontalis muscle transfer for the correction of seven eyelids, while Müller-aponeurosis composite flap advancement was performed on six patients (six eyelids). The marginal reflex distance (MRD1), area of corneal exposure (ACE), and height of the eyebrow were used to analyze the objective outcomes, and the Glasgow Benefit Inventory questionnaire was used for the analysis of subjective patient satisfaction. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the MRD1, ACE, and eyebrow height between the two methods used to correct ptosis. However, over the long-term (>5 years), the MRD1, ACE, and eyebrow height were better maintained in patients who underwent Müller-aponeurosis composite flap advancement than in patients who received frontalis muscle transfer. CONCLUSIONS: Both surgeries were effective for blepharoptosis correction. However, Müller-aponeurosis composite flap advancement was better for long-term maintenance after surgery than frontalis muscle transfer.


Subject(s)
Blepharoplasty , Blepharoptosis , Eyebrows , Eyelids , Humans , Patient Satisfaction , Recurrence , Reflex
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diagnosing small-fiber neuropathy (SFN) is challenging because there is no gold-standard test and few diagnostic tests. This study investigated the clinical symptom profile and its associations with the results of quantitative sensory testing (QST) and the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) as well as the quality of life (QOL) in patients with clinically suspected SFN. METHODS: This study involved 63 patients with clinically suspected length-dependent SFN. Assessments were performed using QST, QSART, SFN Symptoms Inventory Questionnaire, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory, ‘Sirim’ frequency and ‘Sirim’ (cold) pain severity, and 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to predict risk factors for QST or QSART abnormalities and QOL, respectively. RESULTS: ‘Sirim’ and ‘Sirim’ pain was the most-common (84%) and the most-severe complaint (mean score of 6.3 on a numerical rating scale ranging from 0 to 10) in patients with clinically suspected SFN. The findings of QST [cold detection threshold (CDT)] and QSART were abnormal in 71% (n=45/57) and 62% (n=39/56) of the patients, respectively. An abnormal CDT was correlated with more-severe stabbing pain (odds ratio=2.23, 95% CI=1.02–4.87, p=0.045). Restless-leg symptoms (β=−7.077) and pressure-evoked pain (β=−5.034) were independent predictors of the physical aspects of QOL. CONCLUSIONS: ‘Sirim’ pain, similar to cold pain, should be considered a major neuropathic pain in SFN. Among pain characteristics, stabbing pain of a spontaneous paroxysmal nature may be more pronounced in the setting of dysfunctional Aδ fibers with functional autonomic C fibers.


Subject(s)
Axons , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Erythromelalgia , Health Surveys , Humans , Linear Models , Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated , Neuralgia , Quality of Life , Reflex , Risk Factors
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764115

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that naftopidil prolongs intercontraction intervals in rats undergoing chronic stress as observed in previous animal models, voiding behavior and bladder function were measured and analyzed. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200–230 g were exposed to repeated variate stress (RVS) for 1 week, chronic variable mild stress for 2 weeks, or simple mild stress for 1 week. Voiding behavior was assessed in metabolic cages. Voiding frequency and urine output were measured, and changes of these values were compared for the different types of stress. Micturition reflex was analyzed using unconscious cystometry. Naftopidil was administered orally at 30 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, no stress-exposed rats exhibited increased micturition frequency compared to the normal nonstressed control. However, intercontraction intervals were shortened with each type of stress in the unconscious condition, especially by RVS (P<0.01). Naftopidil prolonged the shortened intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Although voiding behavior appears approximately normal in rats chronically exposed to emotional stress, internal bladder function can be affected. With anesthesia, micturition intervals were moderately shortened by emotional stress and clearly improved by naftopidil. Therefore, naftopidil appears to act at the spinal level at least.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Animals , Female , Humans , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Models, Animal , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reflex , Stress, Psychological , Urinary Bladder , Urination
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764114

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Sacral nerve stimulation has been used to treat overactive bladder. This study evaluated the effects of stimulation using different pulse widths on the inhibition of bladder overactivity by sacral nerve stimulation (SNM) in pigs. METHODS: Implant-driven stimulators were used to stimulate the S3 spinal nerve in 7 pigs. Cystometry was performed by infusing normal saline (NS) or acetic acid (AA). SNM at pulse widths of 64 μsec to 624 μsec was conducted at the intensity threshold at which observable perianal and/or tail movement was induced. Multiple cystometrograms were performed to determine the effects of different pulse widths on the micturition reflex. RESULTS: AA-induced bladder overactivity reduced the bladder capacity to 46.9%±7.1% of the NS control level (P0.05). The actual intensity threshold varied from 0.7 to 8 V. The mean intensity threshold (T visual) for pulse widths of 64 μs, 204 μs, and 624 μs were 5.64±0.76 V, 3.11±0.48 V, and 2.52±0.49 V. T visual for pulse widths of 64 μsec was larger than the other two T visual for pulse widths of 204 μsec and 624 μsec (P0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that different pulse widths could play a role in inhibiting bladder overactivity. It is not yet certain which pulse widths increased bladder capacity compared with AA levels, to minimize energy consumption and maintain patient comfort during stimulation, 204 μsec may be an appropriate pulse width for SNM.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Humans , Reflex , Spinal Nerves , Swine , Tail , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder, Overactive , Urination
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763332

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of labyrinthectomy and intratympanic (IT) gentamicin injections on the contralateral labyrinth, we also assessed the response of each individual semicircular canal to each IT gentamicin application. METHODS: We performed a pilot observational study on tertiary, referral, academic settings. Thirteen patients with unilateral vestibular pathology were organized into two groups, group I (seven patients) receiving IT gentamicin and group II undergoing labyrinthectomy (six patients). All patients underwent six-canal video-head-impulse test in predetermined time intervals. Patients receiving gentamicin were additionally tested 3 to 5 days after every sequential injection, until all ipsilateral canals were ablated, to determine the order of response to gentamicin. We recorded the vestibular-ocular reflex gains and the presence of covert/overt saccades for each canal. RESULTS: The posttreatment ipsilateral gains were abnormal. No patient from the gentamicin group developed abnormal contralateral responses, while patients undergoing labyrinthectomy had abnormal contralateral responses from at least one canal, even several months posttreatment. Finally, the lateral semicircular canal was the first one to be affected by IT gentamicin followed by the posterior canal: the superior canal was ablated last. CONCLUSION: In our study, labyrinthectomy had an impact on the responses recorded from the contralateral ear, while IT gentamicin ablated the ipsilateral labyrinthine function without affecting the contralateral responses, possibly because of a milder, more gradual impact. We also show for the first time the order that IT gentamicin application affects the semicircular canals, with the lateral being the first to be affected.


Subject(s)
Ear , Ear, Inner , Gentamicins , Head Impulse Test , Humans , Observational Study , Pathology , Referral and Consultation , Reflex , Saccades , Semicircular Canals
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760346

ABSTRACT

A 10-year-old intact female Jindo dog was presented with a 1-week history of conjunctival redness and ocular discharge in the left eye. There was an absence of menace response, dazzle reflex, and direct pupillary light reflex. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed corneal edema, ciliary flush, and aqueous flare. Intraocular pressure was 68 mmHg. Based on the information available, a diagnosis of glaucoma and uveitis was made. Subsequent histopathologic examination showed the glaucoma was produced by the effects of goniodysgenesis, posterior synechia, and pigment dispersion in the trabecular meshwork. This is the first report of primary glaucoma caused by goniodysgenesis in Jindo dogs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aqueous Humor , Child , Corneal Edema , Diagnosis , Dogs , Female , Glaucoma , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Reflex , Trabecular Meshwork , Uveitis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760345

ABSTRACT

A 6-year-old intact male Maltese dog presented with a history of blindness and ataxia. Neuro-ophthalmic examination revealed dilated pupils with absent pupillary light reflexes and menace response in both eyes. Mild peripapillary edema was noted in the fundus of the right eye. After magnetic resonance imaging, the dog was provisionally diagnosed with meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology. Follow-up funduscopy was performed to monitor the condition of the optic discs for three years. Despite of the treatment with prednisolone, the optic nerve progressed to atrophy and the dog couldn't restore vision.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ataxia , Atrophy , Blindness , Child , Dogs , Edema , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Meningoencephalitis , Optic Nerve , Optic Neuritis , Prednisolone , Pupil , Reflex
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