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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e225232, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1354773

ABSTRACT

Aim: The objective of this study was to describe a case series concerning internal bleaching of anterior traumatized teeth that underwent regenerative endodontic procedures (REP). Methods: Seven non-vital maxillary anterior teeth discolored after regenerative endodontic procedures were included and divided into two groups according to the medication protocol used in the REP: (1) Triple antibiotic paste (TAP) group (n=4); (2) Calcium hydroxide and 2% chlorhexidine gel (HC+CHX) (n=3). The bleaching technique used was walking bleach, where sodium perborate associated with distilled water was used. Bleaching agent was replaced weekly until the darkened tooth was slightly lighter than the adjacent tooth. The color was recorded with the aid of a digital spectrophotometer in two moments (T1: prior the first session of bleaching, T2: fourteen days after the last session of bleaching). The change in color after the procedure (ΔE) was calculated and reported in a descriptive analysis. Results: The ΔE for all teeth showed color differences exceeding the perceptibility threshold (ΔE > 3.7). Both groups showed similar ΔE (TAP: 18.3 ± 11.5; HC+CHX: 14 ± 11.2) at the end of the treatment. The average number of sessions needed to achieve satisfactory results was 1.7 ± 0.6 for HC+CHX group and 2.3 ± 0.5 for TAP group. Conclusion: Internal bleaching with sodium perborate associated with distilled water is effective in treating discolored teeth after regenerative endodontic procedures


Subject(s)
Tooth Bleaching , Tooth Discoloration , Regenerative Endodontics
2.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210047, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365229

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the patients' management pattern for restorative treatment procedures at the Restorative Dentistry Clinic at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH). Material and Methods: A descriptive and retrospective study design was employed to determine patients' management patterns for the restorative treatment procedures at the Restorative Dentistry Clinic at LASUTH. Treatment records of patients who attended the Restorative Clinic at the Lagos State University Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria, from 2011 to 2014 were reviewed; the effective treatments during the period under review were recorded as treatment procedures and were recorded as operative, endodontic, fixed prosthodontics, and removable procedures. Results: A total of 14,437 (75%) operative; 1,353 (7.0%) endodontic; and 559 (2.9%) fixed prosthodontics and 2,852 (14.9%) removable prosthodontic procedures were carried out during the period under review. This study showed that operative procedures were the most performed restorative procedures, whereas removable prosthodontics and endodontic procedures ranked second and third, respectively, to operative procedures. Fixed prosthodontics procedures were the least performed restorative procedures. Conclusion: This study showed that more efforts were being expended by dentists on operative services compared to endodontic, removable, and fixed prosthodontics services combined. Comprehensive studies, embracing all disciplines of dentistry, should be carried out to determine the level of demand and clinical relevance of procedures in clinical dental practice and hence to set specific and general objectives of dental education for the populace. Access to dental health Insurance services should also be increased in the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Prostheses and Implants , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Costs and Cost Analysis , Dentistry, Operative , Regenerative Endodontics , Nigeria , Root Canal Therapy , Medical Records , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Denture, Partial, Fixed , Denture, Partial, Removable , Electronic Health Records , Hospitals, Teaching
3.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e213690, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1281104

ABSTRACT

Aim: to develop a model for regenerative endodontics using newly-weaned Wistar rats immature molars with pulp necrosis to histologically describe the evolution of apical tissues following treatment with a bi-antibiotic paste, induced bloodclot formation and MTA. Methods: Ten 25-day-old female Wistar rats were divided into an initial control group (Ci) and two experimental groups in which pulp necrosis was experimentally induced on the left mandibular first molar by exposing the pulp chamber and leaving it open to the oral environment. One of the experimental groups was left untreated (E1) while the other was submitted to a protocol of regenerative endodontics 10 days thereafter (E2). Fifteen days after placement of a bi-antibiotic paste, bleeding was induced into the root canal space and MTA was placed upon. Animals were euthanized 30 days later. Right mandibular first molars served as an 80-day-old final control group (Cf). Each hemimandible was histologically processed to analyse parameters associated with root development. Statistical analysis was carried by means of ANOVA; p values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: baseline (i.e. 25-days old) mean root length and apical diameter of the distal root canal were 1.84±0.25 and 0.38±0.02mm respectively. Following the regenerative endodontic protocol, cells lining the walls of the root canal and significant increase to both length (2.37±0.22mm) and diameter (0.32±0.03 mm) were observed. Conclusions: newly-weaned Wistar rats serve as a suitable model to evaluate regenerative endodontic protocols. However, further research is needed in order to disclose the nature of the cells and/or cell mediators involved


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Root Canal Therapy , Dental Pulp Necrosis , Regenerative Endodontics , Anti-Bacterial Agents
4.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 42(2): 3-8, maio-ago. 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1252889

ABSTRACT

Dentes necrosados com rizogêneze incompleta representam um desafio para os endodontistas e odontopediatras, visto que as paredes radiculares desses dentes são mais finas, o que as tornam mais susceptíveis a fraturas. Durante muitos anos a técnica preconizada foi a apicificação que ainda é bastante utilizada. Nesta técnica são realizadas trocas constantes de medicação intracanal. O dente continua fragilizado e existe o risco do paciente não concluir o tratamento já que tal técnica demanda várias sessões clínicas. Com os avanços da ciência, surge a revascularização pulpar, trazendo vários beneficíos, entre os quais estão a continuidade apical e o ganho de espessura das paredes, além do benefício de conclusão do tratamento em uma ou duas sessões. Entretanto é necessária sua proservação que leva em média dois anos. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o nível de conhecimento dos odontopediatras e endodontistas do município de Ilhéus-Bahia, frente a casos de necrose pulpar de dentes com formação radicular incompleta. O método e forma de análise de dados foram de um estudo observacional, transversal, realizado em consultórios do município de Ilhéus-BA que foram selecionados por amostragem aleatória. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um questionário contendo 10 questões de múltipla escolha sobre revascularização pulpar, especialização do profissional e tempo de formação. 20 profissionais aceitaram participar da pesquisa. Desses, 10% não sabiam ou nunca tinham ouvido falar sobre a revascularização pulpar. Conclui-se que ainda existem especialistas no Município de Ilhéus-BA que apresentam conhecimento insuficiente sobre a terapia endodôntica regenerativa, sendo que os mesmos deveriam ter conhecimento desta técnica já que são os profissionais que prestam o atendimento ao paciente jovem com dentes necrosados, reforçando a necessidade de elaboração de estratégia de conscientização e educação de saúde para habilitação e atualização dos mesmos(AU)


Necrotic teeth with incomplete rizogenesis representa challenge for endodontists and pediatric dentists, since the root walls of these teeth are thinner, which makes them more susceptible to fractures. For many years the recommended technique was apexification, which is still widely used. In this technique, constant changes of intracanal medication are performed. The tooth remains fragile and there is a risk that the patient will not complete the treatment as this technique requires several clinical sessions. With advances in science, pulp revascularization appears, bringing several benefits, among which are the apical continuity and the gain in thickness of the walls, in addition to the benefit of completing the treatment in one or two sessions. However, its preservation is necessary, which takes on average two years. The objective of this research was to evaluate the level of knowledge of pediatric dentists and endodontists in the municipality of Ilhéus-Bahia, in the face of cases of pulp necrosis of teeth with incomplete root formation. The method and form of data analysis were from an observational, cross-sectional study, carried out in offices in the municipality of Ilheus-BA that were selected by random sampling. Data were collected through a questionnaire containing 10 multiple-choice questions about pulp revascularization, professional specialization and training time. 20 professionals agreed to participate in the research. Of these, 10% did not know or had never heard of pulp revascularization. It is concluded that there are still specialists in the municipality of Ilhéus-BA who have insufficient knowledge about regenerative endodontic therapy, and they should have knowledge of this technique since they are the professionals who provide care to young patients with necrotic teeth, reinforcing the need to develop a health awareness and education strategy to enable and update them(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Dental Pulp Necrosis , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Dental Pulp Necrosis/therapy , Knowledge , Dentists , Endodontists , Regenerative Endodontics
5.
Medisan ; 25(2)mar.-abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1250353

ABSTRACT

La endodoncia regenerativa comprende un conjunto de procedimientos biológicos que se efectúan en los dientes permanentes con ápice no formado y necrosis pulpar, cuyo fin es sustituir los tejidos dañados, incluidas la dentina y la estructura radicular, así como las células del complejo pulpodentinario. En este artículo se describen las bases celulares y moleculares de esta terapia, sustentada en una compleja interacción entre las células madre dentales de la papila apical, los factores de crecimiento y los biomateriales con el microambiente donde se va a restablecer. Asimismo, se argumenta cómo las condiciones ambientales en las que se lleva a cabo el proceso terapéutico influyen en la regeneración, con una función esencial en la regulación de la diferenciación de los tejidos.


The regenerative endodontics comprises a group of biological procedures that are made in the permanent teeth with non-formed apex and pulpar necrosis whose end is to substitute the damaged tissues, including the dentine and radicular structure, as well as the cells of the dentin pulp complex. The cellular and molecular basis of this therapy are described in this work, sustained in a complex interaction between the dental stem cells of the apical papilla, the growth factors and biomaterials with the microenvironment where it will be recover. Likewise, it was argued how the environmental conditions in which the therapeutic process is carried out influence in the regeneration, with an essential function in the regulation of the differentiation of tissues.


Subject(s)
Stem Cells , Dentition, Permanent , Regenerative Endodontics/methods , Biocompatible Materials
6.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1351221

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To examine the level of the accumulating success of the modern Resin-Based Endodontic Surgery (RES) and comparison with Endodontic Microsurgery (EMS) and finally offer a replacement at the predicted final results of EMS. Material and Methods: MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ISI, Google Scholar have been utilized as electronic databases for systematic literature until 2019. Therefore, Endnote X9, which can be provided in the market, has been applied to manage the electronic titles. Searches have been made with keywords "Endodontic Microsurgery OR EMS", "Resin-Based Endodontic Surgery OR RES", "Regenerative Endodontic Therapy", "Root-End Filling", "Root-End Surgery", "Periapical Surgery" and "Endodontics". Thus, this systematic review has been conducted concerningthe basic investigation of the PRISMA Statement-Preferred Reporting Items designed for the Meta-analyses and Systematic Reviews. Results: A total of RES =19 and EMS =31 with potential pertinent abstracts and topics were discovered in manual and electronic searches. Then, three articles for RES and four studies for EMS publications satisfied our inclusion criteria necessary for systematically reviewing the studies. The analysis showed the success rate for EMS as equal to 1.16 times the probability of the success rate for RES. Conclusion: Micro-surgical procedures superiorly achieved the predictable high success rate for the Root-end surgery compared to conventional methods.


Subject(s)
Root Canal Obturation/instrumentation , Root Canal Therapy/instrumentation , Tooth, Nonvital/surgery , Endodontics , Regenerative Endodontics/instrumentation , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Iran/epidemiology , Microsurgery
7.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 64(1): 13-17, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248251

ABSTRACT

Se presenta un caso clínico de fractura radicular del tercio medio, de pieza 2.1 con desplazamiento de los cabos de fractura. Es tratado con un novedoso procedimiento terapéutico, mediante la utilización de un biomaterial de tercera generación osteoconductor, osteogénico y osteoinductor. Se obtiene la reparación del tejido conectivo interproximal y la formación de tejido calcificado (AU)


We present a clinical case of root fracture of the middle third, piece 2.1 with displacement of the fracture ends. It is treated with a novel therapeutic procedure, using a thirdgeneration osteoconductive, osteogenic and osteoinductive biomaterial. Interproximal connective tissue repair and calcified tissue formation are obtained (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Tooth Fractures/therapy , Tooth Root/injuries , Biocompatible Materials , Regenerative Endodontics/methods , Osteogenesis , Root Canal Obturation/instrumentation , Tooth Root/diagnostic imaging , Wound Healing/physiology , Dental Fistula/radiotherapy , Dentition, Permanent
8.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 670-677, dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134556

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El tratamiento de dientes inmaduros necróticos es hoy un gran desafío clínico. La ausencia de cierre del ápice y el reducido grosor de las paredes de la dentina hacen que el tratamiento endodóntico del diente sea difícil e impredecible. Tradicionalmente, estos dientes han sido tratados con apexificación y obturación del canal radicular, sin embargo, con este tratamiento el diente permanece desvitalizado y con paredes de dentina frágiles y cortas, lo que compromete su pronóstico. La endodoncia regenerativa, por el contrario, busca revitalizar el diente e inducir una maduración de la raíz, y se basa en la utilización de las células madre mesenquimales presentes en la región periapical, los factores de crecimiento presentes en la dentina y un andamio que permite el crecimiento de tejido nuevo al interior del canal. Los resultados clínicos son alentadores, ya que en general existe maduración de la raíz y revascularización del diente, sin embargo, el tejido neoformado es tejido de tipo reparativo y, a excepción de estudios ocasionales, no se ha observado regeneración de dentina y pulpa. La endodoncia regenerativa se originó para tratar dientes inmaduros necróticos. Sin embargo, recientemente, estudios preliminares han expandido la aplicación de la endodoncia regenerativa a dientes maduros necróticos, es decir, en pacientes adultos. Los resultados clínicos son positivos y similares a los del diente inmaduro, si n embargo, la investigación referente a la revitalización de dientes maduros se encuentra en etapas tempranas y requiere de un mayor nivel de evidencia antes de ser ofrecida sistemáticamente como terapia a pacientes adultos. Los beneficios potenciales justifican mayor investigación al respecto. Este artículo resume la evidencia científica disponible con respecto a la revitalización de dientes inmaduros y maduros necróticos, sus fundamentos biológicos, los resultados esperados y limitaciones, así como el protocolo clínico.


ABSTRACT: Nowadays, the treatment of immature necrotic teeth is an important clinical challenge. The absence of apex closure and low thickness of the dentin walls, make endodontic treatment unpredictable and difficult. Traditionally, these teeth have been treated with apexification and obturation of the root canal. As a result of this treatment, the tooth remains devitalized and with fragile and short dentin walls, which compromises its prognosis. Regenerative endodontics, on the other hand, seeks to revitalize the tooth and induce root maturation, and is based on the use of mesenchymal stem cells present in the periapical tissues, growth factors present in the dentin and a scaffold that allows growth of new tissue in the root ca- nal. The clinical results are encouraging, since generally, there is root maturation and revascularization of the tooth. However, the newly formed tissue is reparative tissue and with the exception of some studies, no regeneration of dentin and pulp has been reported. Regenerative endodontics emerged to treat necrotic immature teeth. However, recently, preliminary studies have applied regenerative endodontics in mature necrotic teeth, in adult patients. Preliminary results are positive and are similar to those of immature teeth. Nevertheless, research regarding the revitalization of mature teeth is in the early stages and requires further evidence before being systematically administered as therapy in adult patients. However, the potential benefits justify further research in this regard. This article summarizes the available scientific evidence regarding the revitalization of immature and mature necrotic teeth, their biological basis, the expected results and limitations, as well as the clinical protocols for each case.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Dental Pulp Necrosis/therapy , Dentition, Permanent , Regenerative Endodontics/methods , Clinical Protocols/standards , Clinical Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Dental Pulp Necrosis/drug therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Tissue Scaffolds
9.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(6): 680-684, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132355

ABSTRACT

Abstract This case report discusses the endodontic treatment of a 7-year-old girl who suffered trauma (intrusion) to the immature upper central incisors secondary to a fall from a bicycle. Thirty days after the accident the patient was brought by her mother for clinical and radiographic assessment with a chief complaint of swelling and tenderness to percussion and palpation. Acute apical abscess associated with immature teeth were diagnosed. A decision was made to perform regenerative endodontic treatment. Access cavities were made and the root canals were disinfected by irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Final irrigation was performed with 17% EDTA. Due to pain and presence of secretions, 2% chlorhexidine gel was applied as an intracanal medicament. Seven days later, at the second visit, the root canals were once again disinfected and the canals of the right and left permanent upper central incisors were filled with double antibiotic paste (metronidazole/ciprofloxacin) and calcium hydroxide paste, respectively. Zinc oxide was mixed in both pastes. At the third visit, after 21 more days, the pastes were removed and the periapical areas were stimulated with a #80 K-file to encourage clot formation within the pulp cavities. A mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) paste cervical plug was placed and the teeth were restored with glass ionomer cement. Radiographs and CBCT scans demonstrated complete root formations. The patient has been followed for 12 years, with evidence of clinical success throughout.


Resumo Este relato de caso discute o tratamento endodôntico de uma menina de 7 anos que sofreu trauma nos incisivos centrais superiores imaturos, após queda de bicicleta. Trinta dias após o acidente, a paciente foi levada pela mãe para avaliação clínica e radiográfica com queixa principal de inchaço e sensibilidade à percussão e palpação. Foram diagnosticados abscessos apicais agudos em ambos os dentes. Foi decidido por realizar o tratamento endodôntico regenerativo. Após acessos coronários, os canais radiculares foram submetidos à protocolos de antissepsia com auxílio de irrigação com hipoclorito de sódio a 2,5% e EDTA 17%. Devido à dor e presença de secreções, foi utilizada medicação intracanal com clorexidina gel 2% por 7 dias. Na segunda sessão, os canais radiculares foram novamente submetidos aos procedimentos de antissepsia e os canais dos incisivos centrais superiores permanentes direito e esquerdo foram preenchidos com pasta antibiótica dupla (Metronidazol / Ciprofloxacina) e pasta de hidróxido de cálcio, respectivamente. Em ambas as pastas foi adicionado o óxido de zinco. Na terceira sessão, após mais 21 dias, as pastas foram removidas e as regiões periapicais foram estimuladas com lima K nº 80 para incentivar a formação de coágulos sanguíneos no interior das cavidades pulpares. Tampões cervicais de MTA foram adaptados e os dentes restaurados com cimento de ionômero de vidro resinoso. Radiografias e tomografias computadorizadas demonstraram formações radiculares completas. A paciente é acompanhada há 12 anos, com evidências clínicas e radiográficas de sucesso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Regenerative Endodontics , Incisor , Oxides , Follow-Up Studies , Silicates , Calcium Compounds , Dental Pulp Necrosis , Abscess , Drug Combinations
10.
Rev. Bras. Odontol. Leg. RBOL ; 7(2): [33-42], 20200901.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281447

ABSTRACT

O termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (TCLE) refere-se ao documento responsável por esclarecer ao paciente o seu diagnóstico, as modalidades de tratamento disponíveis, o prognóstico e os eventuais riscos passíveis de ocorrência em detrimento da realização de um determinado tratamento. Deve ser instituído em todas as especialidades clínicas, principalmente para casos complexos, uma vez que nestas situações busca-se manter dentes com prognósticos duvidosos na cavidade bucal. Uma situação desafiadora na Endodontia compreende o tratamento de dentes necróticos com ápices incompletamente formados. Por anos, estes casos foram tratados por meio das técnicas de apicificação, todavia, por não permitirem o desenvolvimento da raiz em espessura e comprimento, apresentavam considerável índice de fratura radicular. Diante dessas limitações, uma modalidade contemporânea de tratamento foi proposta, a Endodontia Regenerativa (ER), capaz de permitir o término do desenvolvimento radicular e fechamento apical, com resultados mais promissores. Por tratar-se de um tratamento relativamente recente, a elaboração de um termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido para estas situações clínicas faz-se necessária, com vistas a resguardar o profissional e o paciente. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos revisar a literatura quanto à importância da elaboração de um TCLE para pacientes tratados por meio da técnica de ER, bem como sugerir um modelo de documento. É relevante que o Cirurgião-dentista elabore e aplique o TCLE para pacientes que serão submetidos à ER, devendo incluir neste documento todas as informações referentes ao tratamento, para que em casos de questionamentos ético-judiciais, o mesmo o auxilie na comprovação da adequada conduta profissional


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Endodontics , Forensic Dentistry , Regenerative Endodontics , Informed Consent
11.
Dent. press endod ; 10(2): 67-72, maio-ago.2020. Tab, Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344654

ABSTRACT

ntrodução: A cirurgia parendodôntica é uma alternativa ao tratamento endodôntico convencional, principalmente em casos envolvendo lesões perirradiculares associadas a processos osteolíticos, em que a terapia endodôntica convencional ou seu retratamento não obtiveram sucesso. Novos métodos terapêuticos têm ganhado espaço na clínica odontológica para esse tipo de caso, entre os quais se destaca a fibrina rica em plaquetas e leucócitos, que, ao concentrar e permitir uma liberação mais prolongada dos fatores de crescimento, promove uma modulação do processo reparador. Esse processo é baseado na otimização da regeneração tecidual através da inserção da membrana de fibrina. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar, por meio do relato de um caso clínico, a utilização de fibrina rica em plaquetas e leucócitos em cirurgia parendodôntica, com intuito de reparo ósseo. Resultados: O acompanhamento clínico e tomográfico foi realizado após 190 dias, momento no qual foi constatada ausência de sintomatologia, bem como completo reparo da lesão e restabelecimento do osso cortical vestibular, além de ausência de lesão detectável em tomografia. Conclusão: No caso clínico relatado, houve uma completa regeneração tecidual da área envolvida na lesão (AU).


Introduction: Parendodontic surgery is an alternative to conventional endodontic treatment, especially in cases involving periradicular lesions associated with osteolytic processes, in which conventional endodontic therapy or retreatment was not successful. New therapeutic methods for the treatment of these cases have ground in clinical dentistry . For example, leukocyteand platelet-rich fibrin which has a higher concentration and more prolonged release of growth factors, modulates the repair process. This process is based on the optimization of tissue regeneration through the insertion of fibrin membrane. Objective: The objective of this study is to report a case in which leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin associated with parendodontic surgery was used for bone repair. Results: Clinical and tomographic follow-up was performed after 72 days, which revealed absence of any symptoms, complete repair of the lesion, buccal cortical bone regeneration, and absence of detectable lesion on tomography. Conclusion: There was complete tissue regeneration at the lesion site(AU).


Subject(s)
Dental Clinics , Platelet-Rich Fibrin , Regenerative Endodontics , Leukocytes , Apicoectomy , Retreatment , Methods
12.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(2): 177-182, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090672

ABSTRACT

Revitalization procedures have been extensively studied during the last decade and offers several advantages over root canal treatment, such as the recovery of the natural immune system. Mature teeth have a small apical foramen diameter (AFD), which could impair the ingrowth of tissue into the root canal. We analysed three methods for apical foramen enlargement by instrumentation in in situ human teeth and evaluated the damage over hard tissues produced by the techniques. Tooth length (TL), defined as the length from the most coronal part of the crown to the point at which the file abandons the root canal, was calculated. Forty-four in situ teeth were randomized: Group I: instrumentation 0.5 mm coronal to TL; Group II: at TL level; Group III: 0.5 mm beyond TL. Teeth were instrumented up to K-file #80. The mandibles were scanned in a micro-CT device before and after treatment. Group I: Only 20 % of teeth presented an enlarged AFD, with augmentation of 0.09 mm. No damage to hard tissues was observed. Group II: 71.4 % of the teeth presented an enlarged AFD with augmentation of 0.42 mm. 35.7 % presented damage to periapical tissues. Group III: 86.7 % presented an enlarged AFD with augmentation of 0.43 mm. 46.7 % presented damage to periapical tissues. All groups presented similar prevalence of teeth with dentine thickness less than 1mm. All mandibular incisors presented areas of thickness less than 1mm. Instrumentation 0.5 mm beyond TL is the most effective technique.


La revitalización de dientes necróticos ha sido ampliamente estudiada durante la última década y ofrece varias ventajas sobre la endodoncia convencional, tal como la recuperación del sistema inmunitario natural del diente. Los dientes maduros tienen un diámetro de foramen apical (FA) pequeño, lo que podría afectar el crecimiento de tejido en el conducto. Se evaluaron tres métodos para la ampliación del foramen apical en dientes humanos in situ y se evaluó el daño sobre los tejidos duros producidos por las técnicas. Mediante radiografía periapical se calculó la longitud del diente (TL), definida como la longitud desde la parte más coronal de la corona hasta el punto en que la lima abandonó el conducto radicular. En el estudio fueron aleatorizados 44 dientes in situ: Grupo I: instrumentación 0,5 mm coronal a TL; Grupo II: a nivel TL; Grupo III: 0,5 mm más allá de TL. Los dientes fueron instrumentados hasta la lima K #80. Las mandíbulas se escanearon en un dispositivo de microCT antes y después del tratamiento. Grupo I: solo el 20 % de los dientes presentaron un diámetro de FA ensanchado, con un aumento de 0,09 mm. No se observó daño a los tejidos duros. Grupo II: el 71,4 % de los dientes presentaban un FA ensanchado con un aumento de 0,42 mm. El 35,7 % presentó daño a los tejidos periapicales. Grupo III: el 86,7 % presentó un FA ensanchado con un aumento de 0,43 mm. El 46,7 % presentó daño a los tejidos periapicales. Todos los grupos presentaron una prevalencia similar de dientes con un espesor de dentina inferior a 1mm. Todos los incisivos mandibulares presentaban áreas de grosor inferior a 1mm. La instrumentación 0,5 mm más allá de TL es la técnica más efectiva, aunque se debe tener especial consideración en aspectos como el debilitamiento de la estructura dentaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth/diagnostic imaging , Tooth Apex/diagnostic imaging , X-Ray Microtomography , Regenerative Endodontics , Tooth/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Tooth Apex/anatomy & histology
13.
Arq. odontol ; 56: 1-10, jan.-dez. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1145405

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar e comparar os efeitos antimicrobiano e antibiofilme, e a citotoxicidade promovida pela associação do hidróxido de cálcio ao óleo essencial de Melaleuca alternifolia (MA), em diferentes concentrações, e ao propilenoglicol (PG). Métodos: As seguintes medicações compuseram os grupos experimentais: G1) HC/MA 1%; G2) HC/MA 5%; G3) HC/MA 10%; G4) HC/MA 20%; e G5) HC/PG. Solução salina 0,85% e meio DMEM serviram como controle nos testes antimicrobianos e de citotoxidade em fibroblastos do ligamento periodontal humano (FbLP), respectivamente. A atividade antimicrobiana (n = 12) foi avaliada por meio do teste de difusão em ágar. O efeito antibiofilme (n = 12) imediato das medicações foi avaliado por meio do teste de viabilidade bacteriana em biofilmes de 72 horas de E. faecalis, formados sobre discos de dentina e tratados por sete dias com as medicações. Após a coleta microbiológica do biofilme remanescente, os discos de dentina foram imersos em meio estéril e armazenados por mais sete dias, para a análise do efeito antibiofilme residual das medicações, quando nova coleta microbiológica foi realizada. A atividade metabólica de FbLP foi avaliada por meio do ensaio colorimétrico MTS (n = 9). Os valores médios dos halos de inibição, em mm, das unidades formadoras de colônia, e o percentual de atividade metabólica celular foram analisados pelos testes Kruskal-Wallis e post hoc Dunn (α = 5%). Resultados:Todas as medicações experimentais apresentaram superior ação antimicrobiana e antibiofilme comparadas ao controle, solução salina (p < 0,05), e mantiveram viáveis os FbLP, semelhante ao controle DMEM (p > 0,05). Conclusão: A associação do óleo essencial de Melaleuca alternifolia, nas concentrações de 1%, 5%, 10% e 20%, ao hidróxido de cálcio promoveu excelente ação antimicrobiana, antibiofilme e biocompatibilidade com fibroblastos, de forma semelhante à associação com propilenoglicol.


Aim:To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effect, as well as the cytotoxicity of calcium hydroxide (CH) associated with the Melaleuca alternifolia (MA)essential oil, in different concentrations, and with propylene glycol. Methods: The following medications composed the experimental groups: G1) CH/MA 1%; G2) CH/MA 5%; G3) CH/MA 10%; G4) CH/MA 20%; and G5) CH/PG. Saline solution and culture medium DMEM were used as a control in antimicrobial and cytotoxicity tests in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF), respectively. The antimicrobial activity (n = 12) was evaluated by the disk-diffusion agar method. The immediate antibiofilm effect (n = 12) of the medications was evaluated for bacterial viability in 72 hours-biofilms of E. faecalis, formed on the dentin disc surface and treated for seven days with medications. After microbiological sampling of the remaining biofilm, the dentin discs were immersed in sterile culture medium and stored for another seven days, for analysis of the residual antibiofilm effect of the medications, when a new microbiological sampling was performed. PDLF viability was evaluated by MTS colorimetric assay (n = 9). The mean values of the inhibition halos, in mm, the colony forming units, and the metabolic cell activity percentage were analyzed by means of Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Dunn (α = 5%) tests. Results:All of the experimental medications presented higher antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects, when compared to the saline solution control (p < 0.05), and maintained the PDLF feasible, similar to the DMEM control (p > 0.05). Conclusions:The association of the Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, at concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20%, with calcium hydroxide promoted an excellent antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity, and biocompatibility with fibroblasts, similarly to the association with propylene glycol.


Subject(s)
Calcium Hydroxide/analysis , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Endodontics , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic , Enterococcus faecalis , Fibroblasts , Regenerative Endodontics
14.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135549

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To examine the cytotoxicity of calcium hydroxide on human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSC) to understand the characteristics for use in regenerative dentistry procedures especially regenerative endodontics. Material and Methods: HUCMSC was isolated, cultured, and confirmed by flow cytometry. The biological characteristics, such as cell morphology, proliferation, and protein expression, were screened. To check the cytotoxicity, HUCMSC was cultured and divided into two groups, the control group (cultured in minimum essential medium (MEM) alpha) and calcium hydroxide group (cultured in MEM alpha and calcium hydroxide). Methyl-thiazole-tetrazolium (MTT) assay was done on different concentrations of calcium hydroxide (0.39 to 25 µg/mL) and the cells were observed and counted. One-way ANOVA test was used with a significance level set at 5%. Results: Flow cytometric analysis confirmed positive of CD73, CD90, CD105, negative of CD45 and CD34. A significant difference was found between the concentration of 6.25 and 3.125 µg/mL (p=0.004). There was no significant difference among 6.25, 12.5 and 25 µg/mL concentrations. There was also no significant difference among 0.39, 0.78, 1.56, and 3.125 µg/mL concentrations. Conclusion: Even though calcium hydroxide is a medicament of choice in clinical endodontics, it decreases the viability of HUCMSC. The lower the concentration of calcium hydroxide, the higher the viability of HUCMSC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Calcium Hydroxide/therapeutic use , Cell Survival , Stem Cell Research , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Regenerative Endodontics , Umbilical Cord , Analysis of Variance , Indonesia/epidemiology
15.
Medwave ; 20(1): e7758, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096477

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN La caries dental ha sido convencionalmente manejada mediante la remoción no selectiva del tejido carioso (remoción total), sin embargo, los efectos adversos de este procedimiento han promovido la utilización de técnicas de remoción de caries conservadoras (remoción selectiva), pero aún existe controversia respecto a su efectividad. MÉTODOS Para responder esta pregunta utilizamos Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, reanalizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metaanálisis, preparamos tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES Identificamos siete revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron siete estudios primarios, todos ellos correspondientes a ensayos aleatorizados. Concluimos que la remoción selectiva de caries podría disminuir la necesidad de tratamiento de endodoncia y el riesgo de exposición pulpar en dientes con caries profundas, pero la certeza de la evidencia es baja. No existe claridad de que la remoción selectiva de caries disminuya el riesgo de aparición de signos y síntomas de patología pulpar y el riesgo de fracaso de las restauraciones ya que la certeza de la evidencia es muy baja.


INTRODUCTION Dental caries have been conventionally managed by non-selective removal of carious tissue (total complete removal); however, the adverse effects of this procedure have promoted the use of conservative caries removal techniques (selective removal), but there is still controversy regarding its effectiveness. METHODS We searched in Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS We identified seven systematic reviews including seven studies overall, of which all were randomized trials. We concluded that selective caries removal may decrease the need for root canal treatment and the risk of pulp exposure in teeth with deep caries, but the certainty of the evidence is low. It is not clear whether the selective removal of caries reduces the risk of appearance of signs and symptoms of pulp disease and the risk of restorations failure, as the certainty of the evidence is very low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Caries/therapy , Conservative Treatment/methods , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Risk Assessment , Dental Caries/pathology , Regenerative Endodontics
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(12): 4643-4654, dez. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055728

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivou-se avaliar a atenção secundária em endodontia em um Centro de Especialidades Odontológicas (CEO) de Belo Horizonte (MG). A coleta de dados utilizou dois formulários: (1) sobre o tratamento endodôntico, preenchido pelos endodontistas; (2) sobre o tratamento restaurador, com dados dos prontuários. O programa SPSS 19.0 foi utilizado para analisar os resultados por meio de frequência e percentis. Foram finalizados 452 tratamentos endodônticos em pacientes adultos. Os pacientes apresentaram mediana de 39 anos de idade, a maioria era do sexo feminino (69,7%) e apresentou guia de referência da atenção básica (96,2%). A maior parte dos tratamentos endodônticos foi realizada em pré-molares superiores (23,7%), seguida de molares inferiores (22,3%), utilizando técnica mista (74,1%) e em única sessão (64,2%). O encaminhamento para o tratamento restaurador foi para o CEO em 81,2% dos casos e finalizado em 24,1% casos (n = 109). A contrarreferência após o tratamento restaurador ocorreu em 58,7% dos casos finalizados. É necessário um planejamento conjunto do tratamento odontológico entre a atenção básica e secundária e, dentro desta última, entre as especialidades, além de um adequado processo de referência e contrarreferência, visando garantir a integralidade do cuidado e a eficiência e eficácia do serviço.


Abstract This study aimed to evaluate secondary endodontic care at a Dental Specialties Center (DSC) in Belo Horizonte, MG. Data collection used two forms: (1) on endodontic treatment, completed by the endodontists (2) on the restorative treatment, with data from the medical records. The SPSS 22.0 program was used to analyze the results using frequency and percentiles. In total, 452 endodontic procedures were completed in adult patients. The patients had a median of 39 years of age, most were female (69.7%) and had a primary care referral order (96.2%). Most endodontic treatments were performed in upper premolars (23.7%) followed by lower molars (22.3%), using a mixed technique (74.1%) and in a single session (64.2%). The referral for restorative treatment was for the DSC in 81.2% of cases and finished in 24.1% (n = 109). The counter-referral following restorative treatment occurred in 58.7% of the completed cases. It is necessary to jointly plan the dental treatment between primary and secondary care and, within the latter, among the specialties, in addition to an adequate referral and counter-referral process aimed at ensuring comprehensive care and efficient and effective service.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Secondary Care/statistics & numerical data , Regenerative Endodontics/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Oral Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Clinics/statistics & numerical data
17.
Braz. dent. j ; 30(6): 536-541, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055456

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pH, solubility and antimicrobial action of Calcium Hydroxide Paste (CH), Double Antibiotic Paste (metronidazole+ciprofloxacin-DAP), calcium hydroxide added to DAP (CH/DAP) and Triple Antibiotic Paste (metronidazole + ciprofloxacin+minocycline-TAP). pH (n=10) were measured by pHmeter. Root canals of acrylic teeth (n=10) were filled with the above-mentioned intracanal-dressings, immersed in ultrapure water, and solubility was measured by the difference between the initial and final volume (7,15 and 30 days) by using micro-computed tomography. Enterococcus faecalis biofilm was induced on bovine dentin disc surfaces (n=20), and treated with the pastes for 7 days. Percentage bacterial viability was verified by confocal microscope, with LIVE/DEAD dye. CH and CH/DAP presented the highest pH values. Regarding solubility, after 7 days, antibiotic groups presented significant volume loss. CH and CH/DAP showed no statistical difference compared with the Control in antimicrobial action against E. faecalis biofilm. However, TAP and DAP presented a significant percentage reduction in bacterial population. Due to high solubility of the pastes, renewing antibiotic dressings every 7 days, or using the medications for this period in regeneration protocols is recommended. DAP is indicated for killing E. faecalis in biofilm because it has antimicrobial action similar to TAP. Adding Calcium Hydroxide to DAP significantly decreased its antimicrobial action. In spite of its the low solubility and high pH values, the CH paste showed a low level of antimicrobial action against E. faecalis in biofilm.


Resumo A proposição deste estudo foi avaliar o pH, solubilidade e ação antimicrobiana da pasta de Hidróxido de Cálcio (HC), Pasta Diantibiótica (metronidazol+ciprofloxacina-DAP), Hidróxido de Cálcio adicionado a DAP (HC/DAP) e pasta Triantibiótica (metronidazol + ciprofloxacina + miociclina - TAP). a medição do pH e liberação de íons cálcio (n=10) foram avaliadas através de peagômetro e espectofotômetro de absorção atômica. Canais de dentes de acrílico (n=10) foram preenchidos com as medicações de canal mencionadas, imersos em água ultrapura e a solubilidade foi aferida pela diferença entre o volume inicial e final (7,15 e 30 dias) usando micro tomografia computadorizada. O biofilme de Enterococcus faecalis foi induzido em blocos de dentina bovina (n=20) e tratados com as pastas em questão por 7 dias. A porcentagem de bactérias vivas foi verificada usando o microscópio confocal com corante LIVE/DEAD. HC e HC/DAP apresentaram os maiores valores de pH e liberação de íons cálcio. A respeito da solubilidade, depois de 7 dias, os grupos com pastas antibióticas apresentaram perda de volume significante. HC e HC/DAP não tiveram diferenças estatísticas com o grupo controle na ação antimicrobiana contra biofilme. No entanto, a TAP e a DAP mostraram porcentagem significante de redução bacteriana. Conclusões: Devido à alta solubilidade das pastas, renovar as medicações antibióticas a cada 7 dias ou usa-las por esse período em protocolos regenerativos é recomendado. DAP é indicada para matar E. faecalis na forma de biofilme porque tem ação antimicrobiana similar a TAP. A adição do CH à DAP reduz significantemente sua ação antimicrobiana. Apesar da baixa solubilidade e altos valores de pH, a pasta de CH apresenta baixa ação antimicrobiana contra E. faecalis em biofilme.


Subject(s)
Animals , Root Canal Irrigants , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Calcium Hydroxide , Cattle , Enterococcus faecalis , X-Ray Microtomography , Regenerative Endodontics
18.
Odontol. vital ; (30): 87-97, ene.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1091418

ABSTRACT

Resumen La revascularización amplía, hoy en día, el panorama de cómo recuperar un diente que se encuentra con un tercio de su formación radicular, producto de un evento de necrosis pulpar. El procedimiento indicado por la literatura implica una serie de pasos como el uso de pasta tri o biantibiótica o del hidróxido de calcio, para lograr mayor éxito en la técnica. Sin embargo, hay excepciones a la regla. Se describe un caso clínico, el cual incluyó una revascularización no planeada y a la cual, como consecuencia de los materiales utilizados, el diente respondió de excelente manera. Se modificaron las técnicas descritas en la literatura y se logró la formación radicular, demostrada a nivel radiográfico, aún en presencia de una fuerte infección, la cual se drenó por tejido extraoral, manifestando el alto grado de concentración bacteriana en la zona afectada. Como resultado, una vez más se muestra el potencial de regeneración, diferenciación y capacidad de respuesta de las células madre. El caso clínico tiene una evolución de 8 años.


Abstract Nowadays, revascularization gives us a wider panoramic in saving a tooth from pulp necrosis. The procedure involves a series of steps, including the use of antibiotic paste to increase the chance of success. However, some exceptions may apply to the rule. A clinical case is described, which -as a consequence of the use of specific materials- was transformed into a revascularization case. The revascularization technique was modified and a radicular formation was accomplished, as shown in the main X ray, even with a severe infection which was drained by extraoral tissue, demonstrating a higher level presence of bacteria in the affected area. As a result, this clinical case showed the potential of pulp regeneration and most importantly, the potential of stem cells and its differentiation and response capacity. The case has an evolution of eight years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Calcium Hydroxide/therapeutic use , Dental Pulp Cavity , Regenerative Endodontics , Regeneration , Molar/diagnostic imaging
19.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(5): 409-418, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974173

ABSTRACT

Abstract This systematic review aimed to evaluate whether alternative materials to conventional triple antibiotic paste (TAP - metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline) and grey mineral trioxide aggregate (GMTA) could avoid tooth discoloration in teeth submitted to Regenerative Endodontic Procedure (REP). It was also investigated if dental bleaching is able to reverse the color of darkened teeth due to REP. The search was conducted in four databases (Medline via PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science and BVS - Virtual health library), following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The retrieved papers were uploaded in the software EndNoteTM and two reviewers independently selected the studies and extracted the data. Only studies in humans (case reports, case series, clinical trials) were included in the review. From 1,122 potentially eligible studies, 83 were selected for full-text analysis, and 38 were included in the review. The included studies were mainly case reports (76.3 %). The studies described a total of 189 teeth submitted to REP. From these, about 54% of teeth presented some degree of discoloration. Most teeth presenting color alteration were treated with TAP, especially when combined with GMTA. Only three studies performed dental bleaching to restore the color of teeth and neither bleaching technique was able to restore the original color of the crowns. The use of alternative materials to TAP and GMTA, such as double antibiotic paste or Ca(OH)2 pastes and white mineral trioxide aggregate or BiodentineTM, reduces the occurrence of tooth discoloration.


Resumo Esta revisão sistemática teve como objetivo avaliar se materiais alternativos à pasta tri-antibiótica convencional (TAP, em Inglês - metronidazol, ciprofloxacina e minociclina) e ao agregado trióxido mineral cinza (MTA cinza) poderiam evitar a descoloração dentária em dentes submetidos ao procedimento endodôntico regenerativo (REP, em Inglês). Também foi investigado se o clareamento dental é capaz de reverter a cor dos dentes escurecidos devido ao REP. A busca foi realizada em quatro bases de dados (Medline via PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science e BVS - Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde), seguindo os Principais Itens para Relatar Revisões Sistemáticas e Meta-análises. Os artigos obtidos foram carregados no software EndNoteTMe dois revisores independentes selecionaram os estudos e extraíram os dados. Apenas estudos em humanos (relatos de casos, séries de casos, ensaios clínicos) foram incluídos na revisão. De 1.122 estudos potencialmente elegíveis, 83 foram selecionados para análise do artigo completo, e 38 foram incluídos na revisão. Os estudos incluídos foram principalmente relatos de casos (76,3%). Os estudos descreveram um total de 189 dentes submetidos ao REP. Destes, cerca de 54% dos dentes apresentaram algum grau de descoloração. A maioria dos dentes com alteração de cor foi tratada com TAP, principalmente quando combinada com MTA-cinza. Apenas três estudos realizaram o clareamento dental para restaurar a cor dos dentes e nem a técnica de clareamento conseguiu restaurar a cor original das coroas. O uso de materiais alternativos à TAP e ao MTA cinza, como a pasta bi-antibiótica, pasta de Ca(OH)2e MTA branco ou BiodentineTM, reduz a ocorrência de descoloração dentária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Discoloration/chemically induced , Tooth Discoloration/prevention & control , Regenerative Endodontics , Oxides/adverse effects , Root Canal Filling Materials/adverse effects , Tooth Bleaching , Silicates/adverse effects , Calcium Compounds/adverse effects , Aluminum Compounds/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
20.
Odovtos (En línea) ; 20(1): 10-16, Jan.-Apr. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1091432

ABSTRACT

Abstract One of the major approaches on dental research in this century is the development of biological strategies (tissue engineering) to regenerate/biomineralize lost dental tissues. During dentin- pulp regeneration, the interaction between stem cells, signaling molecules, biomaterials and the microenvironment in the periapical area drives the process for pulp tissue engineering. Understanding the signaling mechanisms and interactions involved with the biological process for the formation of a new tissue is essential. The knowledge of the micro-environment is the key for the application of tissue engineering. The present article is a short review of the current state of this topic, with the purpose of showing insights of pulp regeneration.


Resumen Actualmente la investigación en odontología se orienta al desarrollo de estrategias basadas en principios biológicos (ingeniería de tejidos) para la regeneración/biomineralización de estructuras dentales perdidas. El proceso de regeneración del complejo dentino-pulpar está guiado por la compleja interacción entre las células indiferenciadas de origen dental (DTSC), moléculas de señalización y biomateriales con el microambiente donde se va a restablecer. Es esencial comprender detalladamente, los mecanismos de señalización e interacciones involucradas en los procesos biológicos para la formación de un nuevo tejido, además de la identificación de los componentes presentes en los tejidos dentales implicados en este proceso (características del microambiente), ya que representan la base sobre la cual se debe emplear la ingeniería de tejidos. El presente articulo es una breve revisión del estado actual del tema, con el fin de entender el proceso de regeneración pulpar, basado en la comprensión de los fundamentos biológicos.


Subject(s)
Tissue Engineering , Tissue Scaffolds , Stem Cells , Guided Tissue Regeneration, Periodontal , Pulp Capping and Pulpectomy Agents/therapeutic use , Regenerative Endodontics
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