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1.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(2): 166-173, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279097

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Distintos protocolos de angiotomografía de coherencia óptica evalúan la mácula. Objetivo: R2) entre las densidades vascular y de perfusión de dos protocolos de angiotomografía de coherencia óptica, para determinar si sus mediciones podían intercambiarse. Método: Estudio observacional, comparativo, prospectivo, transversal entre dos protocolos de angiotomografía de coherencia óptica (AngioPlex, Zeiss) en sujetos sanos. Se identificó la R2 entre las densidades vascular y de perfusión central, interna y completa (protocolo de 3 x 3 mm), y central, interna, externa y completa (protocolo de 6 x 6 mm). Resultados: 78 ojos, mediana de edad 23 años. Hubo R2 altas entre las densidades interna y completa del protocolo de 3 x 3 mm (0.96), externa y completa del de 6 x 6 mm (0.96), y centrales vasculares y de perfusión (≥ 0.96); la R2 entre las densidades centrales vascular y de perfusión de distintos protocolos fue ≤ 0.71. Conclusiones: Las densidades vasculares y de perfusión tienen R2 alta dentro de un protocolo, pero no entre protocolos, porque estos miden preferentemente zonas distintas, lo cual limita intercambiar mediciones.


Abstract Introduction: Different optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) scanning protocols evaluate the macula. Objective: To compare the determination coefficients (R2) between vessel and perfusion densities of two OCTA scanning protocols, to learn whether their metrics could be interchanged. Method: Non-experimental, comparative, prospective, observational, cross-sectional study, between two OCTA scanning protocols (Angioplex, Zeiss) in healthy subjects. We found the R2 between central, inner, and full densities (3 x 3 mm protocol), and between central, inner, outer and full densities (6 x 6 mm protocol), both for vessel and perfusion densities. Results: 78 eyes, median age 23 years. There were high R2 between inner and full densities in the 3 x 3 mm protocol (0.96), between outer and full densities in the 6 x 6 mm protocol (0.96) and between central vessel and perfusion densities (≥0.96); R2 between central vessel and perfusion densities of different protocols (≤0.71). Conclusions: Vessel and perfusion densities have high determination coefficients within a scanning protocol, but not between protocols, because each preferentially measures different macular areas. The metrics of different protocols should not be interchanged for follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Angiography/methods , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Macula Lutea/blood supply , Regional Blood Flow/physiology , Blood Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Visual Acuity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Healthy Volunteers , Macula Lutea/diagnostic imaging
2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(5): 417-423, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131620

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purposes: To evaluate changes in ocular blood flow and subfoveal choroidal thickness in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis after carotid artery stenting. Methods: We included 15 men (mean age, 63.6 ± 9.1 years) with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis and 18 healthy volunteers (all men; mean age, 63.7 ± 5.3 years). All participants underwent detailed ophthalmologic examinations including choroidal thickness measurement using enhanced depth-imaging optic coherence tomography. The patients also underwent posterior ciliary artery blood flow measurements using color Doppler ultrasonography before and after carotid artery stenting. Results: Patients lacked ocular ischemic symptoms. Their peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities increased to 10.1 ± 13.1 (p=0.005) and 3.9 ± 6.3 (p=0.064) cm/s, respectively, after the procedure. Subfoveal choroidal thicknesses were significantly thinner in patients with carotid artery stenosis than those in the healthy controls (p=0.01). But during the first week post-procedure, the subfoveal choroidal thicknesses increased significantly (p=0.04). The peak systolic velocities of the posterior ciliary arteries increased significantly after carotid artery stenting (p=0.005). We found a significant negative correlation between the mean increase in peak systolic velocity values after treatment and the mean preprocedural subfoveal choroidal thickness in the study group (p=0.025, r=-0.617). Conclusions: In patients with carotid artery stenosis, the subfoveal choroid is thinner than that in healthy controls. The subfoveal choroidal thickness increases after carotid artery stenting. Carotid artery stenting treatment increases the blood flow to the posterior ciliary artery, and the preprocedural subfoveal choroidal thickness may be a good predictor of the postprocedural peak systolic velocity of the posterior ciliary artery.


RESUMO Objetivos: Avaliar alterações no fluxo sanguíneo ocular e na espessura da coroide subfoveal em pacientes com estenose sintomática da artéria carótida, após implante de stent nessa artéria. Métodos: Foram incluídos 15 homens (idade média de 63,6 ± 9,1 anos) com estenose sintomática da artéria carótida e 18 voluntários saudáveis (todos homens; idade média de 63,7 ± 5,3 anos). Todos os participantes foram submetidos a exames oftalmológicos detalhados, incluindo d medição da espessura da coroide, usando tomografia de coerência óptica com imagem de profundidade aprimorada. Os pacientes também foram submetidos a medidas do fluxo sanguíneo das artérias ciliares posteriores, usando ultrassonografia com Doppler colorido, antes e após o implante do stent na artéria carótida. Resultados: Os pacientes não apresentaram sintomas isquêmicos oculares. O pico de velocidade sistólica e diastólica final aumentou para 10,1 ± 13,1 (p=0,005) e 3,9 ± 6,3 (p=0,064) cm/s, respectivamente, após o procedimento. As espessuras da coroide subfoveais foram significativamente mais finas nos pacientes com estenose da artéria carótida do que nos controles saudáveis (p=0,01). Porém, durante a primeira semana pós-procedimento, as espessuras das coroides subfoveais aumentaram significativamente (p=0,04). O pico de velocidade sistólica das artérias ciliares posteriores aumentou significativamente após o stent na artéria carótida (p=0,005). Encontramos uma correlação negativa significativa entre o aumento médio dos valores máximos de velocidade sistólica após o tratamento e a espessura da coroide subfoveal pré-procedimento média no grupo de estudo (p=0,025, r=-0,617). Conclusões: Em pacientes com estenose da artéria carótida, a coroide subfoveal é mais fina que a dos controles saudáveis. A espessura da coroide subfoveal aumenta após o stent na artéria carótida. O tratamento com stent na artéria carótida aumenta o fluxo sanguíneo para a artéria ciliar posterior, e a espessura coroidal subfoveal pré-procedimento pode ser um bom preditor da velocidade sistólica de pico pós-procedimento da artéria ciliar posterior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Ophthalmic Artery , Blood Flow Velocity , Carotid Arteries , Choroid , Regional Blood Flow , Stents , Choroid/anatomy & histology , Choroid/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence
3.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 39(2): 165-167, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138530

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Right ventricular restrictive physiology (RVRP) occurs in diverse clinical scenarios, most frequently after repair of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can comprehensively evaluate RVRP using 4D flow along with anatomical and fibrosis characterization. Also, RVRP is associated with less pulmonary regurgitation and fewer right ventricle enlargement; its long term protective role is debated. RVRP is a challenging and relevant diagnosis, which hallmark is the presence of antegrade pulmonary arterial Flow in late diastole throughout the respiratory cycle. Also, other hemodynamic findings could aid such us flow in; caval veins, suprahepatic, coronary sinus and tricuspid valve. Obtaining all these flow curves is virtually impossible by echocardiography. CMR with 4DF is a unique and powerful technique enabling this comprehensive hemodynamic evaluation as depicted in this case.


Subject(s)
Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Regional Blood Flow , Tetralogy of Fallot/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Hemodynamics
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 739-743, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002287

ABSTRACT

La preeclampsia (PE) es un trastorno hipertensivo inducido por el embarazo donde se reduce la presión de la perfusión uterina. Investigaciones avalan el uso de dosis baja de aspirina (DBAAS) y su utilidad en la prevención de PE en gestantes con factores de riesgo. Sus beneficios en modelos animales sometidos a esta reduccción no están determinados. El objetivo de la investigación fue analizar la presión arterial sistémica y los hallazgos morfológicos a nivel renal en fetos de ratas con reducción de la presión de perfusión uterina (RPPU) expuestas a DBAAS en comparación a las no expuestas. Se conformaron cuatro grupos de ratas hembras preñadas Sprague Dawley (n=5). A los 14,5 días post-concepción (dpc), vía quirúrgica se indujo RPPU, ligando arterias uterinas, conformándose el grupo RPPU y el grupo RPPU+DBAAS al que se le administró 5 mg/kg/día de aspirina vía oral. El grupo control lo conformaron las no operadas y el grupo DBAAS se le administró aspirina en igual dosis desde el 14,5 dpc. A los 18,5 dpc, previo a la eutansia se midió la presión arterial sistémica con pletismógrafo caudal Insight v2.11 y se extrajeron los fetos. Se midió la longitud céfalo-caudal (LCC), se procesaron y tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina, describiéndose cortes histológicos transversales a nivel renal. Se determinó que en la presión arterial media, hubo diferencias significativas entre el grupo RPPU y RPPU+DBAAS (p<0,05). El tamaño de los fetos fue menor en el grupo RPPU (p<0,0001), donde 1 feto presentó hernia umbilical congénita. La cuantificación de vesículas renales también fue menor (p<0,005). En conclusión, la administración de DBAAS disminuye los efectos inducidos por la RPPU en cuanto al tamaño fetal, morfología renal y malformaciones congénitas como hernia umbilical. En cuanto a la presión arterial sistémica, tendría efectos sólo en presión arterial media.


Preeclampsia (PE) is a hypertensive disorder induced by pregnancy where there is a reduction in the uterine perfusion pressure. Research supports the use of low dose aspirin (LDAAS) and its usefulness in the prevention of PE in pregnant women with risk factors. Their benefits in animal models subject to RUPP are not determined. The objective of the investigation was to analyze the systemic blood pressure and the morphological findings at renal level in fetuses of rats with reduction of uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) exposed to LDAAS compared to those not exposed. Four groups of pregnant female rats Sprague Dawley (n=5) were formed. At 14.5 days post-conception (dpc), surgical RUPP was induced, ligating uterine arteries, with the RUPP group and RUPP+LDAAS group being given 5 mg/kg/day of aspirin orally. The control group was made up of those not operated and the LDAAS group was administered aspirin in the same dose from 14.5 dpc. A 18.5 dpc, prior to euthanasia systemic blood pressure was measured with flow plethysmograph Insight v2.11 and fetuses were extracted. The cephalo-caudal length (CCL) was measured, processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, describing transverse histological sections at the kidney level. It was determined that in the mean arterial pressure, there were significant differences between the group RUPP and RUPP+LDAAS (p <0.05). The size of the fetuses was lower in the RUPP group (p <0.0001), where one fetus presented congenital umbilical hernia. The quantification of renal vesicles was also lower (p <0.005). In conclusion, the administration of LDAAS decreases the effects induced by RUPP in terms of fetal size, renal morphology and congenital malformations such as umbilical hernia. Regarding the systemic blood pressure, effects would only mean arterial pressure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/drug therapy , Perfusion , Regional Blood Flow , Uterus/blood supply , Aspirin/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Fetus , Arterial Pressure/drug effects
5.
Motriz (Online) ; 25(1): e1019123, 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002693

ABSTRACT

Aim: To investigate the neuromuscular fatigue and recovery after an intermittent isometric handgrip exercise (IIHE) executed until failure with different blood flow restriction (BFR) conditions (free flow, partial and total vascular restriction). Methods: Thirteen healthy men carried out an IIHE at 45% of maximum voluntary isometric force (MVIF) until failure with total restriction (TR), partial restriction (PR) or free flow (FF). The rate of force development (RFD) was extracted from the MIVF over the time intervals of 0-30, 0-50, 0-100, and 0-200ms and normalized by MVIF [relative RFD (RFDr)]. Results: The RFDr decreased significantly (p<0.01) after the IIHE in all BFR conditions and time intervals studied, remaining lower for five minutes. The medians of the RFDr in FF condition were significantly lower (p=0.01) at 30ms (1.56 %MVIF·s-1) and 50ms (1.70 %MVIF·s-1) when compared to TR at 30ms (2.34 %MVIF·s-1) and 50ms (2.63 %MVIF·s-1) in minute 1 post failure. Conclusions: These results show that, regardless of the blood flow restriction level, there is no RFD recovery five minutes after an exhaustive IIHE. When the task was executed with FF, the reduction of the RFD was greater when compared with the TR condition.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Regional Blood Flow/physiology , Exercise , Muscle Fatigue/physiology , Muscle Strength , Restraint, Physical/methods , Hypertrophy
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(8): e201900804, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038125

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To develop a rabbit model of a short peripheral catheter (SPC) and to observe the effects of different flushing methods on blood vessels. Methods Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (A, B, and C), with ten rabbits per group. In group A, we used pulsed flush; in group B, we used uniform flush; and no treatment was used in group C. Results We observed that a uniform flush reduced blockage, phlebitis, and exudation compared to a pulsed flush by visual observation. The histopathological examination found that the morphological changes in group A were more severe than in group B and C related to loss of venous endothelial cells, inflammatory cell infiltration, edema, epidermal and chondrocyte degeneration, except for the thrombosis on group B that was more serious than in group A, especially in the distal side of puncture points. The distal region of groups A and B had more inflammatory cell infiltration than the proximal region. Thrombosis was more severe in the distal region than in the proximal region in group B. Conclusions The uniform flush produced less damage to the vascular endothelium and surrounding tissues and was superior to the pulsed flush. However, the uniform flush is prone to thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Blood Vessels/pathology , Catheterization, Peripheral/methods , Phlebitis/etiology , Regional Blood Flow , Catheterization, Peripheral/adverse effects , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/ultrastructure , Random Allocation , Endothelial Cells , Disease Models, Animal , Ear/blood supply
7.
Rev. bras. cineantropom. desempenho hum ; 21: e56258, 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013450

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the acute hemodynamic responses to strength exercise with blood flow restriction involving small muscle groups. The sample consisted of 10 male volunteers (22.6 ± 2.07 years, 1.78 ± 0.06 m, 76.32 ± 13.36 kg) who randomly performed two experimental protocols involving the elbow flexion exercise with the dominant arm: strength exercise of the elbow flexors with blood flow restriction (EFBFR) and strength exercise of the elbow flexors without blood flow restriction (EEF). A cross-over design with a seven to ten days interval between the experimental protocols was used. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean (MAP), pulse pressure (PP), heart rate (HR) and double product (DP) were evaluated at rest, immediately after exercise and at 15 minutes of recovery. SBP, DBP and MAP presented a significant increase (p <0.05) immediately after EFBFR when compared to the protocol without blood flow restriction, returning to rest values at the 15 minutes of recovery. DBP significantly reduced (p <0.05) in the recovery period only in the EFBFR experiment and HR increased post-effort in both experiments. The PP and DP did not change between the different times, regardless of the protocol.The results of the present study allow us to conclude that strength exercise with BFR involving small muscle groups was more efficient than exercise without BFR to promote acute changes in hemodynamic responses and that BFR did not represent a cardiovascular risk considering its effects on PP.


Resumo O presente estudo objetivou analisar as respostas hemodinâmicas agudas ao exercício de força com restrição do fluxo sanguíneo (RFS) realizado com pequenos grupos musculares. A amostra foi composta por 10 voluntários do sexo masculino (22,6 ± 2,07 anos, 1,78 ± 0,06 m, 76,32 ± 13,36 kg), que realizaram de forma aleatória os protocolos envolvendo o exercício de flexão da articulação do cotovelo, com membro dominante (rosca concentrada de bíceps) realizado com (ERFS) e sem restrição do fluxo sanguíneo (ESR). Utilizou-se o desenho cruzado, com intervalo de sete a dez dias entre os experimentos. Foram avaliadas: pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), diastólica (PAD) e média (PAM); pressão de pulso (PP), frequência cardíaca (FC) e duplo produto (DP), em repouso, imediatamente após o esforço, e após o esforço na fase de recuperação de 15 minutos. A PAS, PAD e PAM apresentaram elevação significativa (p <0,05) imediatamente após a realização do ERFS, quando comparadas ao protocolo sem restrição, retornando aos valores de repouso após a recuperação. A PAD reduziu significativamente (p <0,05) na recuperação, apenas no experimento ERFS e a FC elevou no pós-esforço em ambos os experimentos. A PP e o DP não sofreram alterações entre os diferentes momentos de avaliação, independentemente do protocolo. Os resultados do presente estudo permitem concluir que o exercício de força com RFS envolvendo pequenos grupos musculares foi mais eficiente que o exercício sem restrição para promover alterações agudas das respostas hemodinâmicas e que a RFS não representou um risco cardiovascular, considerando seus efeitos sobre a PP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Regional Blood Flow/physiology , Exercise Test , Hemodynamics
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 59-64, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990005

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: We investigated the effect of the intervention using the BFR method on functional capacity after 16 weeks in elderly women. In a controlled clinical trial, 23 women were randomly allocated into two groups, low-intensity exercise with blood flow restriction (LI + BFR, N = 11, Age: 69.40 ± 5.73) and control group (CG, N = 12, Age: 69.00 ± 6.39). The LI + BFR group had a volume of 75 repetitions at 20-30 % of 1RM and 3-4 sets per exercise (30, 15, 15 and repetitions with 30" rest between sets). The CG did not undergo any type of exercise. Functional capacity, anthropometry and sarcopenia were verified through a battery of tests before and after 16 weeks. The LI + BFR group had significant improvement in performance in Handgrip strength, Chair Stand, Arm curl, 2.44 Up-and-Go and 6 min walk, Sit-andreach and Back Scratch (p<0.05) after the intervention. The elderly women were still classified as sarcopenic, despite the improvement in the Muscle Mass Index (p<0.01). CG did not present significant changes. The BFR method can be an effective in the intervention process using physical exercise as an auxiliary strategy in the control of sarcopenia, providing a physical profile during the aging process.


RESUMEN: Investigamos en mujeres ancianas el efecto de la intervención utilizando el método de restricción del flujo sanguíneo en la capacidad funcional, después de 16 semanas. En un ensayo clínico controlado, 23 mujeres fueron asignadas aleatoriamente en dos grupos; ejercicio de baja intensidad con restricción de flujo sanguíneo (BI + RFS, N = 11, edad: 69,40 ± 5,73) y grupo control (GC, N = 12, Edad: 69,00 ± 6,39). El grupo BI + RFS tuvo un volumen de 75 repeticiones al 20-30 % de 1RM y 3-4 series por ejercicio (30, 15, 15 y repeticiones con 30 " de descanso entre series). El GC no fue sometido a ningún tipo de ejercicio. La capacidad funcional, la antropometría y la sarcopenia se verificaron mediante una batería de pruebas antes y después de 16 semanas. El grupo BI + RFS tuvo una mejora significativa en el rendimiento de la fuerza de la empuñadura, soporte de la silla, curvatura del brazo, 2,44 up-and-go y 6 min, 'sit-and-reach' 'Back Scratch' (p<0,05) después de la intervención. Las mujeres de edad avanzada seguían clasificadas como sarcopénicas, a pesar de la mejora en el índice de masa muscular (p<0,01). El GC no presentó cambios significativos. El método de restricción del flujo sanguíneo puede ser efectivo en el proceso de intervención utilizando ejercicio físico como estrategia auxiliar en el control de la sarcopenia, proporcionando un perfil físico durante el proceso de envejecimiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Regional Blood Flow , Resistance Training/methods , Sarcopenia/physiopathology , Time Factors , Exercise , Muscle Strength , Sarcopenia/therapy
9.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 37(3): 194-200, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042595

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Los modelos experimentales de falla cardíaca con fracción de eyección disminuida en murinos son pocos. Uno de estos modelos es el de coartación de la aorta torácica en el arco aórtico (COA) en ratones. Un aspecto importante en su desarrollo es la evaluación precoz del procedimiento y su relación con la función sistólica posterior. En este sentido, las velocidades de flujo carotídeo y la relación entre ambos flujos (derecho, pre-coartación; izquierdo post coartación) pueden permitir evaluar tempranamente la precisión del procedimiento y relacionarse más tardíamente con la función sistólica VI. Nuestro objetivo fue comparar precozmente (semana 2 post operatoria) las velocidades de flujo en ambas carótidas (Doppler continuo) y tardíamente (semana 5 postoperatoria) la función sistólica VI (Ecocardiograma de superficie) en ratones seudocoartados o sham (n= 6) vs ratones COA (n = 12). Se confirmó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en la relación de velocidades de flujo entre ambas carótidas medida precozmente entre los ratones sham y COA (1,1 ± 0,1 vs 2,5 ± 0,5, p< 0,001), lo que se correlacionó con un deterioro significativo de la función sistólica del ventrículo izquierdo evaluada a las 5 semanas en los ratones COA. Conclusión: En este modelo preclínico de falla cardíaca por sobrecarga de presión con fracción de eyección VI disminuida en ratón, el aumento precoz de la velocidad de flujo en la arteria carótida derecha (pre-coartación en el modelo COA) y sobre todo de la relación entre las velocidades de flujo carotídeo entre ambas carótidas se asocia a deterioro importante de la función sistólica VI cinco semanas después de efectuada la COA, lo que permite predecir la efectividad del procedimiento en este modelo experimental.


Abstract: There are few experimental models of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction in murines. One of these models is transverse aortic coarctation (TAC) in mice. However, an important challenge in its development is the early evaluation of the procedure and its relationship with late systolic LV function. In this sense, carotid flow velocities and the relationship between both (right, precoarctation, left post-coarctation) may allow early evaluation of the accuracy of the procedure and be related to late LV systolic function. The aim was to compare early (week 2 post-operative) flow velocities determined in both carotid arteries (by continuous Doppler) with late (week 5 postoperative) LV systolic function (by echocardiogram) in sham (n= 6) vs. TAC (n: 12) mice. We confirmed a statistically significant difference in the early ratio of carotid flow velocities (left/right common carotid velocity ratio) between sham and TAC mice (1.1 ± 0.1 vs 2.5 ± 0.5, p< 0.001) and this correlated well with a deteriorated left ventricular function in the TAC mice after 5 weeks. In this preclinical model of cardiac failure due to pressure overload with reduced LV ejection fraction in the mouse, the early increase in right carotid flow velocity (precoarctation) and especially the relationship between precoarctation/postcoarctation carotid flow velocities is associated with significant impairment of LV systolic function five weeks after the TAC, which allows to predict the effectiveness of the procedure in this experimental model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Aortic Coarctation/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Heart Failure, Systolic/physiopathology , Aortic Coarctation/surgery , Regional Blood Flow , Stroke Volume , Blood Flow Velocity , Echocardiography/methods , Carotid Arteries/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Failure, Systolic/surgery , Mice, Inbred C57BL
10.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 77(6): 311-315, nov.-dez. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-985316

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a variação da pressão intraocular e da pressão de perfusão ocular durante sessão de hemodiálise, nos períodos pré, intra (a cada hora) e pós dialítico, em pacientes tratados em Serviços de Referência em hemodiálise da cidade de Fortaleza - CE. Métodos: O estudo foi longitudinal e prospectivo. 45 pacientes foram submetidos à hemodiálise. Todos os pacientes foram recrutados a fazer um exame oftalmológico, além da aferição da pressão intraocular com o Tonopen. Resultados: A amostra foi composta por 26 homens e 19 mulheres com idade média de 51,8 anos. O estudo revelou que há uma diferença importante entre a pressão intraocular pré e pós hemodiálise, diminuindo em média 2,59 mmHg. Ao analisar a pressão de perfusão ocular, foi encontrado um aumento médio de 1,85 mmHg entre o início e o término da hemodiálise. Conclusão: De acordo com o presente estudo, o processo de hemodiálise é um procedimento aparentemente seguro em relação à alteração da pressão intraocular e da pressão de perfusão ocular, como causadores de patologias oculares, principalmente o glaucoma.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the variation of intraocular pressure and ocular perfusion pressure during hemodialysis sessions, in the pre, intra (hourly) and post dialytic periods, in patients treated at Hemodialysis Reference Services in Fortaleza - CE. Methods: The study was longitudinal and prospective. 45 patients underwent hemodialysis. All patients were recruited to undergo an ophthalmologic examination, in addition to the intraocular pressure measurement with Tonopen. Results: The sample consisted of 26 men and 19 women with a mean age of 51.8 years. The study revealed that there is an important difference between pre and post hemodialysis intraocular pressure, decreasing by an average of 2.59 mmHg. When analyzing ocular perfusion pressure, an average increase of 1.85 mmHg was found between the onset and end of hemodialysis. Conclusion: According to the present study, the hemodialysis process is an apparently safe procedure in relation to altered intraocular pressure and ocular perfusion pressure, as causes of ocular pathologies, mainly glaucoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Blood Pressure/physiology , Renal Dialysis , Eye/blood supply , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Ophthalmoscopy , Regional Blood Flow , Time Factors , Tonometry, Ocular , Visual Acuity , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Slit Lamp Microscopy
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1210-1215, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-975684

ABSTRACT

El entrenamiento de fuerza, especialmente con alta intensidad de carga, permite aumentar la fuerza y trofismo muscular, pero también se asocia a daño muscular inducido por ejercicio (DMIE). Una nueva modalidad de entrenamiento, combina una baja intensidad de carga con la restricción parcial del flujo sanguíneo (RPFS) alrededor del músculo, siendo prometedor en cuanto el desarrollo de la fuerza y trofismo muscular. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar el rendimiento de fuerza máxima de los músculos cuádriceps e isquiotibiales (FM-Q y FM-I) y marcadores de daño muscular (CK) e inflamación sistémica (PCRus) entre un entrenamiento de baja intensidad de carga con RPFS, versus uno de alta y otro de baja intensidad de carga sin RPFS en jóvenes físicamente activos durante cuatro semanas de entrenamiento. Veintitrés participantes midieron la FM-Q y FM-I previo y al término de la intervención; además, antes del inicio de la primera sesión, y antes y después del término de la última sesión se midió la CK y PCRus. En los tres tipos de entrenamiento se produjeron aumentos equivalentes en la fuerza máxima, a excepción de la FM-Q del entrenamiento con baja intensidad sin RPFS. Solo en el entrenamiento con RPFS la CK y PCRus se modifican al finalizar la intervención, y aun cuando el estrés miocelular parece ser más alto que en los otros tipos de entrenamiento, no indicaría daño muscular.


Strength training, especially with high load intensity, allows increasing muscle strength and trophism, but it is also associated with exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). A new training modality, a combination of loading with the partial restriction blood flow (PRBF) around the muscle, being promising in the development of strength and muscular trophism. The aim of the study was to compare the maximum strength (MS) performance of quadriceps and hamstrings (MS-Q and MS-I) and muscle damage biomarkers (Creatine Kinase, CK) and systemic inflammation (high sensitivity - CRP, hs-CRP) between a low intensity load training with PRBF, versus one high and another low load intensity without PRBF in physically active youngsters during four weeks of training. Twenty-three participants measured MSQ and MS-I and the intervention term. In addition, before the start of the first session, before and after the end of the last session, CK and hsCRP were measured. In the three types of training the equivalent benefits in MS are produced, an exception of the MS-Q of low intensity training without PRBF. Only in the training with PRBF, the CK and hsCPR are modified at the end of the intervention, and even though the myocellular stress seems to be higher than in the other types of training, it would not indicate muscle damage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Exercise/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Muscle Strength/physiology , Regional Blood Flow/physiology , C-Reactive Protein , Biomarkers , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Inflammation Mediators , Creatine Kinase
12.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 12(4): 380-387, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984330

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We previously examined cerebral blood flow (CBF) with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) with reference to drug treatment (donepezil) and psychosocial intervention. Objective: The aim is to provide "brain-based" evidence for psychosocial interventions using SPECT. Methods: The participants were 27 consecutive outpatients with AD who received the drug and psychosocial intervention, and SPECT three times (baseline, pre-/post-intervention) at 6 month-intervals. The significance level of changes in CBF (Z score) and the extent of significantly changed areas, calculated with the eZIS system, were used as monitoring parameters. The participants were classified into three groups: improve (post-intervention CBF increased), worsening (progressive decline), and no change. Results: Six, 8, and 13 patients were classified as improve, worsening, and no change, respectively. All subjects in the improve group showed improvement in cognitive test scores for the MMSE and/or the CGI scores associated with the brain area with a CBF increase (right parietal lobe), suggesting appropriate psychosocial intervention (visuospatial intervention). Conclusion: These results suggest that monitoring of CBF with the eZIS system may be clinically applicable for monitoring of drug treatment and psychosocial intervention in AD patients.


RESUMO Nós examinamos previamente o fluxo sanguíneo cerebral (FSC) com tomografia computadorizada de emissão de fóton único (SPECT) na doença de Alzheimer (DA) com referência ao tratamento medicamentoso (donepezila) e intervenção psicossocial. Objetivo: Fornecer evidências "baseadas no cérebro" para intervenções psicossociais usando o SPECT. Métodos: Os participantes foram 27 pacientes ambulatoriais consecutivos com DA que receberam a droga e intervenção psicossocial, e SPECT por três vezes (basal, pré/pós-intervenção) em intervalos de seis meses. O nível de significância das mudanças no FSC (escore Z) e a extensão das áreas significativamente alteradas calculadas com o sistema eZIS foram utilizados como parâmetros de monitoramento. Os participantes foram classificados em três grupos: melhora (FSC pós-intervenção aumentada), piora (declínio progressivo) e nenhuma mudança. Resultados: Seis, oito e 13 pacientes foram classificados como melhora, piora e sem alteração, respectivamente. Todos no grupo melhora mostraram aumento dos escores no MEEM e/ou nos escores do CGI associados à área do cérebro com aumento do FSC (lobo parietal direito), sugerindo intervenção psicossocial apropriada (intervenção visoespacial). Conclusão: Estes resultados sugerem que o monitoramento do FSC com o sistema eZIS pode ser clinicamente aplicável para o monitoramento do tratamento medicamentoso e intervenção psicossocial em pacientes com DA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Regional Blood Flow , Psychosocial Support Systems , /therapeutic use
13.
J. vasc. bras ; 17(4): 280-289, out.-dez. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-969024

ABSTRACT

Tortuosity and bifurcations in carotid arteries alter the blood flow, causing atherosclerosis. Objectives:The aim of the present study is to analyze the effect of variant vascular anatomy in the cervical region on development of atherosclerosis by microanatomical examination. Methods: The effect of blood flow at anomalous bends and bifurcations was observed in right carotid arteries of a seventy year old female cadaver. Fifteen histological slides were prepared from the carotid arteries and interpreted to verify predictions of atherosclerosis. Results: The model predicts atherosclerosis at bends, bifurcations and large aperture arteries. Microanatomical examination revealed presence of atherosclerosis of varying thickness at the bends and bifurcation in the right carotid arteries, as predicted. Atherosclerosis was also detected in the straight part of the wider common carotid artery. No atherosclerosis was observed in the contralateral carotid arteries. The variant carotid vascular anatomy consisting of bends, bifurcations and wider arteries revealed that the shear stress and velocity of blood flow are reduced at these anomalous sites. Conclusions: Anatomical anomalies such as bends and branching in the carotid arteries alter the irrigation pattern and generate biomechanical forces that cause turbulent flow and reduce shear stress/blood flow velocity. Decreased shear stress and velocity causes development of atherosclerosis. Histological slides established the presence of atherosclerosis at bends and bifurcations and in wider arteries


Tortuosidade e bifurcações das artérias carótidas alteram o fluxo sanguíneo, causando aterosclerose. Objetivos: O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar o efeito de anatomia vascular variante na região cervical sobre o desenvolvimento de aterosclerose via exame microanatômico. Métodos: O efeito do fluxo sanguíneo em dobras e bifurcações anômalas foi observado nas artérias carótidas do lado direito em um cadáver do sexo feminino de 70 anos de idade. Quinze lâminas histológicas foram preparadas a partir das artérias carótidas e interpretadas para confirmar as previsões de aterosclerose. Resultados: O modelo prevê aterosclerose em dobras, bifurcações e artérias de grande calibre. O exame microanatômico revelou a presença de aterosclerose de densidades variáveis nas dobras e bifurcação das artérias carótidas do lado direito, conforme previsto. Aterosclerose também foi detectada na parte reta da artéria carótida comum mais larga. Não foi observada aterosclerose nas artérias carótidas contralaterais. A anatomia vascular carotídea variante consistindo de dobras, bifurcações e artérias mais largas revelou que a tensão de cisalhamento (shear stress) e a velocidade do fluxo sanguíneo são reduzidos nesses pontos anômalos. Conclusões: Anomalias anatômicas tais como dobras e ramificações das artérias carótidas alteram o padrão de irrigação e geram forças biomecânicas que causam fluxo turbulento e reduzem a tensão de cisalhamento e a velocidade do fluxo. Tensão e velocidade menores causam o desenvolvimento de aterosclerose. As lâminas histológicas estabeleceram a presença de aterosclerose nas dobras e bifurcações nas artérias mais largas


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Carotid Arteries/anatomy & histology , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , Hemodynamics , Anatomy , Regional Blood Flow/physiology , Coronary Artery Disease , Endothelium/anatomy & histology , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/diagnosis
14.
CorSalud ; 10(3): 230-241, jul.-set. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089692

ABSTRACT

En los últimos 30 años se ha acrecentado el interés de los cirujanos cardiovasculares por la disección esqueletizada de la arteria mamaria interna, sobre todo estimulado por su empleo bilateral para lograr la revascularización arterial total en la mayor cantidad de pacientes; lo que, en teoría, se acompaña de una mayor incidencia de infecciones profundas de la herida esternal. Desde 1992, prácticamente no ha variado la técnica clásica de disección esqueletizada de la mamaria. Quizás los únicos cambios importantes han sido la introducción del cauterizador armónico alrededor del año 2000 y la tendencia de algunos escasos grupos de intentar conservar indemne el plexo venoso retroesternal. Después de un profundo análisis de los fundamentos históricos, anatómicos y fisiológicos sobre los que se sustenta este procedimiento, y basados en la práctica en más de 100 pacientes en un período de dos años, se presentan modificaciones a la técnica clásica de disección esqueletizada de la arteria mamaria interna que permiten la obtención de un hemoducto más saludable en menos tiempo, una mayor protección ante la infección y la isquemia del hueso y los órganos del mediastino, así como la conservación de la integridad de la vena mamaria interna


In the last 30 years the interest of the cardiovascular surgeons for the skeletonized dissection of the internal mammary artery has increased, mainly stimulated by its bilateral use, to achieve the total arterial revascularization in the greater amount of patients; this, in theory, is accompanied by a higher incidence of deep infections of the sternal wound. Since 1992, the classical technique of the mammary skeletonized dissection has practically not changed. Perhaps, the only major changes have been the introduction of the harmonic cauterizer around the year 2000 and the tendency of a few groups to try to preserve intact the retrosternal venous plexus. After a thorough analysis of the historical, anatomical and physiological fundaments on which this procedure is based, and based on the practice in more than 100 patients over a period of two years, modifications are presented for the classical technique of the skeletonized dissection of the internal mammary artery that allow obtaining a healthier hemoduct in less time, greater protection against infection and ischemia of the bone and mediastinal organs, as well as the preservation of the integrity of the internal mammary vein


Subject(s)
Myocardial Revascularization , Regional Blood Flow , Spasm , Heparin , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Mammary Arteries
15.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 24(5): 343-346, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977830

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The literature has shown that a gap is identified regarding the acute effects of blood flow restriction training on aerobic variables. OBJECTIVE: to analyze oxygen consumption (VO2) during and after two resistance training sessions: traditional high intensity and low intensity with blood flow restriction. METHODS: After one-repetition maximum tests, eight male participants (25.7±3 years) completed the two experimental protocols, separated by 72 hours, in a randomized order: a) high intensity training at 80% of 1RM (HIRE) and b) low intensity training at 20% of 1RM combined with blood flow restriction (LIRE + BFR). Three sets of four exercises (bench press, squat, barbell bent-over row and deadlift) were performed. Oxygen consumption and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption were measured. RESULTS: the data showed statistically significant differences between the traditional high intensity training and low intensity training with blood flow restriction, with higher values for traditional training sessions, except for the last five minutes of the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption. Oxygen consumption measured during training was higher (p = 0.001) for the HIRE (20.32 ± 1.46 mL·kg-1·min-1) compared to the LIRE + BFR (15.65 ± 1.14 mL·kg-1·min-1). CONCLUSION: Oxygen uptakes rates during and after the exercise sessions were higher for the high intensity training methodology. However, when taking into account the volume of training provided by both methods, these differences were attenuated. Level of Evidence III - Non-consecutive studies, or studies without consistently applied reference stand.


INTRODUÇÃO: Na literatura, é identificada uma lacuna em relação aos efeitos agudos do treino com restrição de fluxo sanguíneo sobre as variáveis aeróbicas. OBJETIVO: analisar o consumo de oxigênio (VO2) durante e após duas sessões de treino de força: tradicional de alta intensidade e baixa intensidade com restrição do fluxo sanguíneo. MÉTODOS: Após os testes de repetição máxima, oito participantes do sexo masculino (25,7 ± 3 anos) completaram os dois protocolos experimentais, separados por 72 horas, em ordem aleatória: a) treino de alta intensidade, com 80% de 1RM (AI) e b) treino de baixa intensidade a 20% de 1RM combinado com restrição de fluxo sanguíneo (BI + RFS). Três séries de quatro exercícios (supino, agachamento, remada inclinada e levantamento terra) foram realizadas. O consumo de oxigênio e o consumo de oxigênio em excesso pós-exercício foram medidos. RESULTADOS: foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre o treino tradicional de alta intensidade e de baixa intensidade com restrição de fluxo sanguíneo, com valores mais altos para sessões de treinamento tradicionais, exceto nos últimos cinco minutos para a medida de consumo de oxigênio pós-exercício. O VO2 medido durante o treino foi maior (p = 0.001) para a sessão de AI (20.32 ± 1.46 mL·kg-1·min-1) comparada ao treino de BI + RFS (15.65 ± 1.14 mL·kg-1·min-1). CONCLUSÃO: O consumo de oxigênio durante e após as sessões de exercício foram maiores para a metodologia de treinamento de alta intensidade. Contudo, quando se considera o volume dos treinos, estas diferenças foram atenuadas. Nível de Evidência III - Estudos de pacientes não consecutivos; sem padrão de referência "ouro" aplicado uniformemente.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La literatura ha demostrado que se identifica una laguna con respecto a los efectos agudos del entrenamiento de restricción del flujo sanguíneo en las variables aeróbicas. OBJETIVO: analizar el consumo de oxígeno (VO2) durante y después de dos sesiones de entrenamiento de fuerza: tradicional de alta intensidad y baja intensidad con restricción del flujo sanguíneo. MÉTODOS: Después del test de una repetición máxima, ocho participantes masculinos (25,7 ± 3 años) completaron los dos protocolos experimentales, separadas por 72 horas, en orden aleatorio: a) entrenamiento de alta intensidad con 80% de 1RM (AI) y b) entrenamiento de baja intensidad a 20% de 1RM combinado con restricción del flujo sanguíneo (BI + RFS). Tres series de cuatro ejercicios (supino, sentadilla, remo con barra y peso muerto), se realizaron. El consumo de oxígeno y el consumo de oxígeno en el exceso después del ejercicio se midieron. RESULTADOS: se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el entrenamiento tradicional de alta intensidad y de baja intensidad con restricción del flujo sanguíneo, con valores más altos para las sesiones de entrenamiento tradicionales, excepto os últimos cinco minutos del consumo de oxígeno en exceso post-ejercicio. El VO2 medido durante el entrenamiento fue mayor para el AI (20.32 ± 1.46 mL·kg-1·min-1) en comparación con el BI + RFS (15.65 ± 1.14 mL·kg-1·min-1). CONCLUSIÓN: El consumo de oxígeno durante y después de las sesiones de ejercicio fueron mayores para la metodología de entrenamiento de alta intensidad. Sin embargo, cuando se considera el volumen de la práctica, se atenuaron estas diferencias. Nivel de Evidencia III - Estudios de pacientes no consecutivos; sin estándar de referencia "oro" aplicado uniformemente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Regional Blood Flow , Muscle Strength/physiology , Resistance Training/methods , Analysis of Variance , Exercise Test/methods , Heart Rate
16.
Cienc. act. fís. (Talca, En línea) ; 19(2): 1-8, jul. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-994808

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del estudio fue determinar si existen diferencias significativas en la circunferencia del brazo y en el número de repeticiones realizadas en base a dos métodos de entrenamiento: oclusión vascular y tradicional. Se reclutaron ocho sujetos a los cuales, de manera aleatoria, se les asignó el método de oclusión vascular (OVbi) para un brazo y el entrenamiento tradicional (ETmi) para el otro. Se realizó un pretest en el cual se midió la circunferencia del brazo y la cantidad de repeticiones que pudieran realizar con una carga equivalente al 9% de la masa corporal. Después de cuatro semanas de tratamiento (tres sesiones por semana) se realizó el postest. Los resultados no encontraron interacción significativa en la circunferencia del brazo (p = 0.164) ni en la cantidad de repeticiones (p = 0.390), sin embargo, si se encontraron diferencias en la cantidad de repeticiones realizadas entre el pretest y postest (p = 0.048). Estos resultados demuestran que, independientemente del tratamiento (OVbi y ETmi), los sujetos aumentaron el número de repeticiones realizadas, en pocas palabras, un entrenamiento a baja intensidad con oclusión vascular durante cuatro semanas es igual de efectivo a un entrenamiento tradicional de moderada intensidad.


The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of vascular occlusion (VO) and traditional resistance training (TRT) methods on arm circumference and number of repetitions to exhaustion. Eight participants were randomly assigned to VO in one arm and TRT on the other. Before and after four weeks of training performed three times per week, measurements were obtained on arm circumference and number of repetitions with a workload equivalent to 9% of body mass. No significant treatment by measurements interactions were found on arm circumference (p = 0.164) and number of repetitions to exhaustion (p = 0.390). Regardless of the training method, participants improved number of repetition to exhaustion following the intervention (p = 0.048). In conclusion, four weeks of VO is as effective as TRT for improving arm muscular performance to exhaustion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Regional Blood Flow , Muscle Strength/physiology , Resistance Training/methods , Arm
17.
J. vasc. bras ; 17(2): 122-127, abr.jun.2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-910694

ABSTRACT

O treinamento de força com restrição do fluxo sanguíneo (TFRFS) promove adaptações neuromusculares semelhantes às do treinamento de força tradicional utilizando pequenas cargas de treinamento. No entanto, sua repercussão sobre parâmetros antioxidantes e sobre a função vascular precisa ser mais bem compreendida. Objetivos: O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar o efeito de uma sessão de exercício de força de baixa intensidade com restrição do fluxo sanguíneo, em comparação ao exercício de força de alta intensidade e de baixa intensidade sem restrição do fluxo sanguíneo, sobre os níveis de subprodutos do oxido nítrico e a atividade de enzimas antioxidantes em jovens saudáveis. Métodos: Onze indivíduos jovens realizaram três sessões de exercício de força: baixa intensidade com restrição do fluxo sanguíneo (BIRFS), alta intensidade (AI) ou baixa intensidade (BI). Foram avaliadas a atividade das enzimas antioxidantes catalase (CAT), superóxido dismutase (SOD) e dos metabólitos do óxido nítrico (NOx). Resultados: Não houve modificações nos níveis plasmáticos de NOx nas diferentes condições de exercício (p > 0,05). A atividade da SOD apresentou uma diminuição significativa na condição BIRFS (p < 0,05). A atividade da CAT diminuiu significativamente na condição BI (p < 0.05). Conclusões: A partir do presente estudo sugere-se que uma sessão de treinamento de força de baixa intensidade com restrição do fluxo sanguíneo não reduz a biodisponibilidade do óxido nítrico, bem como não induz desequilíbrio redox em indivíduos jovens saudáveis.


Strength training with blood flow restriction (STBFR) provokes similar neuromuscular adaptations to traditional strength training using low training loads. However, there is a need for better understanding of the repercussions for antioxidant parameters and vascular function. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a session of low intensity strength training with blood flow restriction, compared with high intensity and low intensity strength training without blood flow restriction, on the levels of nitric oxide products and antioxidant enzyme activity in healthy young men. Methods: Eleven young men performed three strength exercise sessions: low intensity with blood flow restriction (LIBFR), high intensity (HI), and low intensity (LI). Activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was assessed and metabolites of nitric oxide (NOx) were assayed before and after each session. Results: There were no changes to NOx plasma levels under the different exercise conditions (p > 0.05). However, SOD activity exhibited a significant reduction after the LIBFR condition (p < 0.05), while CAT activity reduced significantly after the LI condition (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that one session of low intensity strength training with blood flow restriction does not reduce bioavailability of nitric oxide or induce redox imbalance in healthy young men.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Exercise/physiology , Nitric Oxide/physiology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Regional Blood Flow/physiology
18.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(4): 296-305, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886282

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of the cilostazol on the evolution of partially avulsed flaps, using experimental model of cutaneous degloving in rat limbs. Methods: A controlled and randomized experimental study was carried out in which the blood flow and the percentage of flap necrosis were evaluated. We compared the study group, which received cilostazol, and the control group, which received enteral saline solution in the postoperative period. The blood flow in the flap was evaluated through Laser Doppler flowmetry, and a planimetry using the IMAGE J® software was employed for the calculation of the area of necrosis. Results: Enteral administration of cilostazol was associated with a higher mean blood flow in all regions of the flap, with a statistically significant difference in the proximal and middle regions (p<0.001) and a lower percentage of necrotic area in the flap (p<0.001). Conclusion: Postoperative enteral administration of cilostazol increased blood flow and decreased the total area of necrosis of avulsed cutaneous flaps of rat limbs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Degloving Injuries/drug therapy , Reference Values , Regional Blood Flow/drug effects , Surgical Flaps , Tetrazoles/pharmacology , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Laser-Doppler Flowmetry , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Lower Extremity/injuries , Lower Extremity/pathology , Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Degloving Injuries/surgery , Degloving Injuries/pathology , Necrosis/drug therapy
19.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(2): 135-141, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897816

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Post-operative delirium is a serious complication in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. It remains unclear whether peri-operative hemodynamic and perfusion variables affect the risk for postoperative delirium. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the association between perfusion and hemodynamics peri-operative with the appearance of post-operative delirium. Methods: Prospective cohort study of adults 60 years or older undergoing elective open colon surgery. Multimodal hemodynamic and perfusion variables were monitored, including central venous oxygenation (ScvO2), lactate levels, and non-invasive cerebral oxygenation (rSO2), according to a standard anesthesia protocol. Fisher's exact test or Student's t-test were used to compare patients who developed post-operative delirium with those who did not (p < 0.05). Results: We studied 28 patients, age 73 ± 7 years, 60.7% female. Two patients developed post-operative delirium (7.1%). These two patients had fewer years of education than those without delirium (p = 0.031). None of the peri-operative blood pressure variables were associated with incidence of post-operative delirium. In terms of perfusion parameters, postoperative ScvO2 was lower in the delirium than the non-delirium group, without reaching statistical significance (65 ± 10% vs. 74 ± 5%; p = 0.08), but the delta-ScvO2 (the difference between means post-operative and intra-operative) was associated with post-operative delirium (p = 0.043). Post-operative lactate and rSO2 variables were not associated with delirium. Conclusions: Our pilot study suggests an association between delta ScvO2 and post-operative delirium, and a tendency to lower post-operative ScvO2 in patients who developed delirium. Further studies are necessary to elucidate this association.


Resumo Justificativa: O delírio pós-operatório é uma complicação séria em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia abdominal de grande porte. Ainda não está claro se as variáveis hemodinâmicas e de perfusão no período perioperatório afetam o risco de delírio pós-operatório. O objetivo deste estudo piloto foi avaliar a associação entre perfusão e hemodinâmica no perioperatório com o surgimento de delírio pós-operatório. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo de coorte de adultos com 60 anos ou mais, submetidos à cirurgia eletiva aberta do cólon. As variáveis multimodais de hemodinâmica e perfusão foram monitoradas, inclusive oxigenação venosa central (ScvO2), níveis de lactato e oxigenação cerebral não invasiva (rSO2), de acordo com um protocolo-padrão de anestesia. O teste exato de Fisher ou o teste t de Student foram usados para comparar os pacientes que desenvolveram delírio pós-operatório com aqueles que não desenvolveram p < 0,05. Resultados: Avaliamos 28 pacientes, 73 ± 7 anos, 60,7% do sexo feminino. Dois pacientes desenvolveram delírio pós-operatório (7,1%). Esses dois pacientes tinham menos anos de escolaridade do que aqueles sem delírio pós-operatório (p = 0,031). Nenhuma das variáveis de pressão arterial no perioperatório foi associada à incidência de delírio. Quanto aos parâmetros de perfusão, ScvO2 foi menor no grupo que apresentou delírio pós-operatório do que no grupo que não apresentou delírio, sem atingir significância estatística (65 ± 10% vs. 74 ± 5%; p = 0,08), mas o delta-ScvO2 (a diferença entre as médias no pós-operatório e intraoperatório) foi associado ao delírio (p = 0,043). As variáveis de lactato e rSO2 no pós-operatório não foram associadas ao delírio. Conclusões: Nosso estudo piloto sugere uma associação entre delta-ScvO2 e delírio e uma tendência à diminuição da ScvO2 no pós-operatório de pacientes com delírio. Estudos adicionais são necessários para elucidar essa associação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Colonic Diseases/surgery , Delirium/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Regional Blood Flow , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Colonic Diseases , Colonic Diseases/complications , Delirium/etiology , Hypotension/complications
20.
Rev. bras. cineantropom. desempenho hum ; 20(2): 219-228, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958348

ABSTRACT

Abstract Low-intensity training with blood flow restriction (BFR) has been suggested as an alternative to physical training for older adults. The present study aimed to review the literature regarding the effect of training with BFR for older adults. The search strategy consisted of experimental studies aimed at verifying the effects of training with BFR on any outcome in older adults. An electronic search in PubMed / Medline, Bireme Scielo, Lilacs and Cochrane Library databases, published until December 2015 was conducted. Experimental studies that considered individuals aged 50 years and over published in English or Portuguese, were included. The Downs & Black scale was used to assess the methodological quality of articles. Of the 60 studies, 12 were included in the review. Training with BFR improved body mass, torque and muscle power; functional capacity; bone health; venous compliance; peak oxygen uptake; and blood flow; balance and overall performance. The methodological quality of studies had mean score of 16.2 points (SD = 1.6). The prescription of low-intensity exercises with BFR may be an alternative of training for older adults. However, future studies should address the methodological quality, especially external validity and power, the main gaps in articles reviewed in this study.


Resumo O treinamento de baixa intensidade com restrição do fluxo sanguíneo (RFS) tem sido sugerido como alternativa para o treinamento adultos mais velhos e idosos. Assim, o presente estudo objetivou revisar a literatura existente referente ao efeito do treinamento com RFS em adultos mais velhos e idosos. A estratégia de busca consistiu a partir de estudos experimentais que objetivaram verificar os efeitos do treinamento com RFS sobre qualquer desfecho em indivíduos com 50 anos ou mais. Foi realizada busca eletrônica nas bases de dados Pubmed/ Medline, Bireme, Scielo, Lilacs e Cochrane, publicados até dezembro de 2015. Foram incluídos estudos experimentais, publicados em inglês e português, com adultos com 50 anos ou mais. A escala Downs & Black foi utilizada para averiguar a qualidade metodológica dos artigos. Dos 60 estudos encontrados, 12 foram incluídos na revisão. O treinamento com RFS melhorou o grau de força, a massa, o torque e a potência muscular, a capacidade funcional, a saúde óssea, a complacência venosa, o consumo de oxigênio de pico, o fluxo sanguíneo e o equilíbrio e a performance geral. Quanto à qualidade metodológica os estudos apresentaram um escore médio de 16,2 pontos (DP=1,6). A prescrição de exercícios de baixa intensidade com RFS pode ser uma alternativa para o treinamento de adultos mais velhos e idosos. Porém, futuros estudos devem atentem para a qualidade metodológica, especialmente validade externa e poder, principais lacunas apresentadas pelos estudos revisados.


Subject(s)
Regional Blood Flow , Exercise , Health of the Elderly
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