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1.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e200, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280176

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Although the peace process in Colombia resulted in a significant reduction in the number of anti-personnel mines across the country, there are no reliable data on the effects of this phenomenon on outcomes for patients who were victims of these devices. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess mortality from landmine injuries before and during the Colombian peace process. Furthermore possible associations between peace negotiations and mortality were explored. Methods: For this study, we used the "Colombian Victims of Antipersonnel Mines Injuries registry" (MAP/MUSE database) data from 2002 to 2018. This registry was launched in 2001 by the government of Colombia with the aim of prospectively and systematically collect information on all the cases of anti-personnel mine injuries in the country. The period between 2002-2012 was classified as the pre-negotiation period (período de guerra), and 2014-2018 as the peace negotiations period, with 2013 classified as a washout year. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the association between peace negotiations and mortality among anti-personnel landmine injured individuals. Results: A total of 10306 landmine injury cases were registered. Of these, 1180 (11.4%) occurred in the peace-negotiation period. Mortality was significantly lower during the period of peace negotiations. After adjusting for sex, age group, race, active duty soldier status, rural area, and geographic Departamentos case volumes, the peace negotiation period was found to be associated with lower risk-adjusted odds of mortality after suffering a landmine injury (OR= 0.6, 95% CI, 0.5-0.7; p<0.001). Conclusions: Our findings suggest an association between the period of peace negotiation and a lower likelihood of mortality among victims of anti-personnel landmines.


Resumen Introducción: Aunque el proceso de paz colombiano produjo una reducción en la cantidad de minas antipersona en el país, no hay estimativos sobre el efecto de este fenómeno en los desenlaces de los pacientes víctimas de estos artefactos. Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la mortalidad por minas antipersona antes y durante la negociación del proceso de paz en Colombia. Además, exploramos posibles asociaciones entre las negociaciones de paz y la mortalidad. Métodos: Para este estudio utilizamos los datos del "Registro de víctimas colombianas de lesiones de minas antipersona" (base de datos MAP / MUSE) de 2002 a 2018. Este registro fue lanzado en 2001 por el gobierno de Colombia con el objetivo de recolectar información de manera prospectiva y sistemática de los casos de trauma por minas antipersona en el país. Clasificamos el período comprendido entre 2002 y 2012 como el período previo a la negociación (período de guerra), el comprendido entre 2014 y 2018 como el período de negociaciones de paz y el año 2013 como período de "depuración". Se utilizaron modelos de regresión logística multivariados para explorar las asociaciones entre las negociaciones de paz y la mortalidad. Resultados: Se registraron un total de 10306 casos de lesiones por minas antipersona. De estos, 1180 (11.4%) ocurrieron en el período de negociación de paz. La mortalidad fue significativamente menor durante el período de negociaciones de paz. El análisis de regresión logística multivariado determinó que el período de negociación de paz se asoció con una menor probabilidad de mortalidad después de sufrir una lesión por minas antipersona (OR = 0,6, IC 95%, 0,5-0,7; p <0,001). Conclusiones: Nuestros hallazgos sugieren una asociación entre el período de negociación de paz y una menor probabilidad de mortalidad entre las víctimas de las minas antipersona.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Warfare , Wounds and Injuries , Mortality , Artifacts , Amputation , Military Personnel , Alprostadil , Regression Analysis , Colombia , Delivery of Health Care , Government , Mining , Occupational Groups
2.
Psico USF ; 26(3): 417-428, Jul.-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1351334

ABSTRACT

Crescimento pós-traumático (CPT) refere-se à mudança positiva em algum aspecto da experiência humana como resultado do enfrentamento de adversidades. Investigou-se a relação entre CPT, estilos de enfrentamento e centralidade de evento. Participaram do estudo 65 mulheres que concluíram os tratamentos recomendados para o câncer de mama. Tratou-se de uma pesquisa quantitativa cujos instrumentos foram respondidos on-line. Identificou-se correlações altas entre CPT e centralidade de evento e moderadas entre CPT e os estilos de enfrentamento: estratégia focada no problema, busca de suporte social e práticas religiosas. A centralidade de evento e as estratégias focadas no problema mostraram-se melhores preditoras de CPT. Os resultados sugerem que quanto maior a adversidade percebida, maior a possibilidade de crescimento, sendo as estratégias de enfrentamento focadas no problema um componente importante para a sua ocorrência. Este estudo apontou a possibilidade de crescimento pessoal relacionado ao enfrentamento do CA de mama e indicou estratégias relevantes para desenvolvê-lo. (AU)


Posttraumatic growth (PTG) refers to a positive change in some aspect of the human experience as a result of coping with adversity. This study investigated the relationship between PTG, coping styles, and event centrality, using a cross-sectional research design. The sample consisted of 65 women who had completed the recommended treatments for breast cancer (BC) and answered an online survey. High correlations were identified between PTG and event centrality, and moderate correlations between PTG and the coping styles 'problem-focused strategy', 'social support seeking', and 'religious practices'. Event centrality and problem-focused coping strategies were the best predictors of PTG. The results suggest that the greater the perceived adversity, the greater the possibility of growth, and that problem-focused coping strategies are important for the occurrence of growth in the context of BC. This study pointed to the possibility of personal growth from coping with BC and indicated effective strategies to develop it. (AU)


El crecimiento postraumático (CPT) se refiere al cambio positivo en algún aspecto de la experiencia humana como resultado del enfrentamiento de adversidades. Se investigó la relación entre CPT, estilos de enfrentamiento y centralidad de eventos. Participaron del estudio 65 mujeres que completaron los tratamientos recomendados para el cáncer de mama. Se trató de una investigación cuantitativa respondida on-line. Se identificaron altas correlaciones entre CPT y centralidad de eventos; y moderadas entre CPT y los estilos de enfrentamiento: estrategia centrada en el problema, búsqueda de apoyo social y prácticas religiosas. La centralidad de eventos y las estrategias centradas en el problema demostraron mejores predictores del CPT. Los resultados sugieren que cuanto mayor es la adversidad percibida, mayor es la posibilidad de crecimiento, siendo las estrategias de afrontamientos centradas en el problema un componente importante para su ocurrencia. Este estudio señaló la posibilidad de crecimiento personal frente a la lucha contra el cáncer de mama. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Breast Neoplasms/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , Pastoral Care , Social Support , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis
3.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(2): 1-7, 31 de agosto del 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284505

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El embarazo en adolescentes es un grave problema social con consecuencias perjudiciales para la madre y el niño. Es importante comprender los factores relacionados con este problema para poder desarrollar políticas sociales adecuadas. El presente trabajo identifica los factores predictores del embarazo en adolescentes en el Ecuador. Métodos: Se analiza la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2018 (ENSANUT) del Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos del Ecuador. La muestra fue probabilística, se selecciona-ron registros mujeres de 10 a 24 años. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y una análisis de regresión logística múltiple: la variable embarazo adolescente es la variable dependiente, las variables predictoras: educación, uso de anticonceptivos, situación socioeconómica, área, estado civil, edad en la primera relación sexual. Se reporta Odds ratio. Resultados: Fueron 38 casos/7587 (0.5%) casos de embarazo en mujeres de 10 a 14 años, 714/6053 (11.8%) de mujeres embarazadas de 15 a 18 años, y 1978/8599 (23%) casos de mu-jeres de 19 a 24 años que tuvieron una historia de embarazo adolescente. El embarazo adolescente fue de 2730 casos/22239 (12.28%). La variable estado civil "casada o de Unión libre" OR=2.53 (IC95% 2.50-2.56) P<0.001, relaciones sexuales antes de los 14 años OR 5.72 (IC95% 5.63-5.81) P<0.001, necesidades básicas insatisfechas OR = 1.57 (IC95% 1.55-1.59), Escolaridad OR=0.87 (IC95% 0.866-0.87) P<0.001 y el uso de anticonceptivos OR=0.53 (IC95% 0.525-0.537) P<0.001. La ecuación de predicción tiene una exactitud de 76.1%. Conclusiones: Es posible predecir el embarazo adolescente por lo que se debe trabajar en estas variables.


Introduction: Pregnancy in adolescents is a serious social problem with harmful consequences for the mother and the child. It is important to understand the factors related to this problem in order to develop adequate social policies. The present work identifies the predictive factors of adolescent pregnancy in Ecuador. Methods: The 2018 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) of the National Institute of Sta-tistics and Censuses of Ecuador is analyzed. The sample was probabilistic, female records between 10 and 24 years old were selected. Descriptive statistics and a multiple logistic regression analysis were used: the adolescent pregnancy variable is the dependent variable, the predictor variables: educa-tion, contraceptive use, socioeconomic status, area, marital status, age at first sexual intercourse. Odds ratio is reported. Results: There were 38 cases / 7587 (0.5%) cases of pregnancy in women aged 10 to 14 years, 714/6053 (11.8%) in pregnant women aged 15 to 18 years, and 1978/8599 (23%) cases of women. Women ages 19 to 24 who had a history of teenage pregnancy. Adolescent pregnancy was 2730 cases / 22239 (12.28%). The variable marital status "married or in a free union" OR = 2.53 (95% CI 2.50-2.56) P<0.001, sexual relations before the age of 14 OR 5.72 (95% CI 5.63-5.81) P<0.001, unsatisfied basic needs OR = 1.57 (95% CI 1.55-1.59), Schooling OR = 0.87 (95% CI 0.866-0.87) P<0.001 and contracep-tive use OR = 0.53 (95% CI 0.525-0.537) P<0.001. The prediction equation has an accuracy of 76.1%. Conclusions: It is possible to predict adolescent pregnancy, so it is necessary to work on these variables.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pregnancy in Adolescence , Regression Analysis , Contraceptive Agents , Sexual Health , Sexual and Reproductive Health
4.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-17, jun. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284420

ABSTRACT

Background: Echocardiographic predictors for new onset heart failure in patients with ischemic heart disease with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF) or with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) in Ethiopian and Sub-Saharan African is not well-known.Methods: Two hundred twenty-eight patients with ischemic heart disease were retrospectively recruited and followed. Analysis on baseline clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of patients, and risk factors for new onset HFpEF and new onset HFrEF were done. The exclusion criteria were known heart failure at baseline and those who did not have echocardiography data.Results: During the follow up period, heart failure developed in 62.2% (61/98) of ischemic heart disease patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and in 70.1% (92/130) of ischemic heart disease patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. We did not find significant difference between HFrEF and HFpEF in time to new onset heart failure. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, diabetes, left atrium and diastolic left ventricular dimension had significant association with new onset HFrEF on univariate regression analysis. Whereas new onset HFpEF was significantly associated with age, sex, presence of hypertension, Systolic blood pressure and diastolic left ventricular dimension. On cox regression analysis diastolic left ventricular dimension was associated with both new onset HFpEF and HFrEF. Age, diabetes, and dimension of left atrium were also associated with HFrEF.Conclusion: This cohort study in ischemic heart disease patients suggests a key role for the diastolic left ventricular dimension, left atrium size, diabetes, sex and age as predictors of new onset HFrEF and HFpEF. Strategies directed to prevention and early treatment of diabetes, dilatation of left ventricle and left atrium may prevent a considerable proportion of HFrEF or HFpEF.


Antecedentes: Los predictores ecocardiográficos de nuevos eventos de insuficiencia cardiaca en pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica con fracción de eyección ventricular preservada (HFpEF) o con fracción de eyección ventricular reducida (HFrEF) no son bien conocidos en la Africa etíope y subsahariana.Métodos: Doscientos veintiocho pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica fueron reclutados y seguidos retrospectivamente. Se realizaron análisis sobre las características clínicas y ecocardiográficas basales de los pacientes, así como los factores de riesgo para un nuevo evento de HFpEF y un nuevo evento de HFrEF. Los criterios de exclusión fueron insuficiencia cardíaca conocida al inicio del estudio y aquellos que no tenían datos de ecocardiografía.Resultados: Durante el período de seguimiento, la insuficiencia cardíaca se desarrolló en el 62,2% (61/98) de pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica con fracción de eyección ventricular izquierda preservada y en el 70,1% (92/130) de pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica con fracción de eyección ventricular izquierda reducida. No encontramos diferencias significativas entre HFrEF y HFpEF en el tiempo hasta la nueva aparición de insuficiencia cardíaca. La presión arterial sistólica, la presión arterial diastólica, la diabetes y las dimensiones de la aurícula iquierda y del ventrículo izquierdo en diástole tuvieron una asociación significativa con nuevos eventos de HFrEF en el análisis de regresión univariada. Mientras que un nuevo evento de HFpEF se asoció significativamente con la edad, el sexo, la presencia de hipertensión, la presión arterial sistólica y la dimensión ventricular izquierda diastólica. En el análisis de regresión de cox, la dimensión ventricular izquierda diastólica se asoció con HFpEF de nuevo inicio y HFrEF. La edad, la diabetes y la dimensión de la aurícula izquierda también se asociaron con HFrEF. Conclusión: Este estudio de cohorte en pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica sugiere un papel clave para la dimensión ventricular izquierda diastólica, el tamaño de la aurícula izquierda, la diabetes, el sexo y la edad como predictores de un nuevo evento de HFrEF y HFpEF. Las estrategias dirigidas a la prevención y el tratamiento temprano de la diabetes, la dilatación del ventrículo izquierdo y la aurícula izquierda pueden prevenir una proporción considerable de HFrEF o HFpEF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Echocardiography/methods , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume , Tobacco Use Disorder , Multivariate Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Age Factors , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Risk Assessment/methods , Heart Disease Risk Factors
5.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(2): e721, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347452

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El estigma hacia los afectados por tuberculosis es un desafío importante para el control de la enfermedad. De ahí la necesidad de conocer los factores que lo desencadenan, ya que puede comprometer la adherencia al tratamiento y, por tanto, incremento de complicaciones y mortalidad. Objetivos: Determinar los factores asociados al estigma en personas afectadas por tuberculosis en una región de alto riesgo en el Perú. Métodos: Estudio correlacional en 110 pacientes tratados por tuberculosis. Los factores fueron la funcionalidad familiar medida con la escala de Apgar familiar; las características sociodemográficas y clínicas, los conocimientos sobre la enfermedad y la comunicación médico-paciente, a través de una encuesta. Para el estigma se utilizó la escala de Yang. En el análisis bivariado se utilizó la prueba de chi cuadrado. La relación entre variables se evaluó mediante la correlación de Pearson y la regresión lineal multivariada. Resultados: El nivel de estigma mostró un punto de corte (cutt off) ≥ 9 en 21,3 por ciento en tuberculosis sensible y 69,4 % en tuberculosis multirresistente, con diferencias significativas (p = 0,000). El análisis de regresión lineal multivariado evidenció que el nivel bajo de conocimientos sobre la tuberculosis (ß = -0,32; p = 0,000), bajas puntuaciones en escala Apgar familiar (ß = -0,41; p = <0,000) y la baja comunicación médico-paciente (ß = -0,47; p = 0,000) se asociaron negativamente con estigma. Conclusiones: Se encontró un nivel alto de estigma relacionado con tuberculosis y una asociación negativa entre el estigma con el nivel de conocimientos sobre la enfermedad, la funcionalidad familiar y la comunicación con el médico.(AU)


Introduction: The stigma attached to people with tuberculosis is an important challenge posed to the control of this disease. Hence the need to know what factors trigger it, for they may affect adherence to treatment, increasing complications and mortality. Objectives: Determine the factors associated to stigma in people with tuberculosis from a high-risk region in Peru. Methods: A correlational study was conducted of 110 patients treated for tuberculosis. The factors analyzed were family function as gauged by the Family Apgar scale, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, knowledge about the disease and doctor-patient communication as measured through a survey. Stigma was determined by Yang's scale. Bivariate analysis was based on the chi-square test, whereas the relationship between variables was evaluated by Pearson's correlation and multivariate linear regression. Results: The level of stigma showed a cut off value ≥ 9 in 21.3 percent in sensitive tuberculosis and 69.4 percent in multiresistant tuberculosis, with significant differences (p = 0.000). Multivariate linear regression analysis found that a low level of knowledge about tuberculosis (ß = -0.32; p = 0.000), low scores on the Family Apgar scale (ß = -0.41; p = <0.000) and poor doctor-patient communication (ß = -0.47; p = 0.000) were negatively associated to stigma. Conclusions: The study found a high level of stigma associated to tuberculosis, as well as a negative association between stigma and knowledge about the disease, family function and communication with the doctor(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis , Regression Analysis , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , International Cooperation
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): 339-345, oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292094

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio incluyen la reducción de la tasa de mortalidad infantil (TMI), indicador que sigue vigente en las metas de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (2015-2030). En paralelo, se requirieron investigaciones y reportes científicos para evaluar el comportamiento de la TMI y la efectividad de intervenciones para su abordaje. Objetivo. Describir el comportamiento de la TMI en Chile y su reflejo en las publicaciones científicas durante el período 1980-2019. Material y métodos. Aplicación del método de regresión lineal multivariable adaptiva (MARS, por su sigla en inglés) sobre las TMI entre 1980 y 2016, y búsqueda de artículos relacionados publicados entre 1980 y 2019 en SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Cochrane Library y Embase. Se analizó el comportamiento de la TMI y su reflejo en las publicaciones del período. Resultados. Hubo una reducción de la TMI de 28 ‰ a 7,2 ‰ nacidos vivos entre 1980 y 2016 (-74 %) y se identificaron 82 publicaciones en el período. Se registraron dos tipos de estudio sobre la TMI a partir de un punto de corte en 1996 En el primer período, los estudios abordaron patologías evitables e intervenciones, a la par de una reducción de la velocidad de descenso de la TMI. Posteriormente al punto de corte, los estudios se enfocaron en enfermedades no evitables y factores relacionados con inequidades y desigualdades. Conclusiones. La TMI prevalece como indicador sintético de las condiciones de salud. Las modificaciones en su evolución y sus causas se han reflejado en las publicaciones, que han variado sus énfasis y focos de atención según el cambio en este indicador


Introduction. One of the Millennium Development Goals is to reduce the child mortality rate (CMR), an indicator still present in the Sustainable Development Goals (2015-2030). At the same time, scientific investigations and reports were necessary to assess the behavior of the infant mortality rate (IMR) and the effectiveness of interventions to approach it. Objective. To describe IMR behavior in Chile and how it has been reflected in the scientific publications made in the 1980-2019 period. Material and methods. Implementation of the multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS) method in relation to IMR between 1980 and 2016, and search for related articles published between 1980 and 2019 in SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase. The analysis included IMR behavior and its reflection in the publications made in that period. Results. IMR decreased from 28 % to 7.2 % per 1000 live births between 1980 and 2016 (-74 %) and 82 publications were identified in this period. Two types of studies about IMR were reported as of the cutoff point of 1996. In the first period, studies focused on preventable diseases and interventions, while IMR showed a slowing down in its reduction. After the cutoff point, studies focused on non-preventable diseases and factors related to inequalities and inequities. Conclusions. IMR prevails as a synthetic indicator of health conditions. Changes in its evolution and causes have been reflected in publications, which have shifted their focus and areas of interest in accordance with the changes in this indicator.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Infant Mortality , Epidemiologic Studies , Chile , Regression Analysis , Scientific and Technical Publications
7.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe): 105-107, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156139

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT As an important part of human capital, healthy human capital plays a great role in promoting economic development. Based on the overlapping generations (OLG) model, this study establishes a correlation analysis model between healthy human capital and economic growth. This model takes utility maximization as the theoretical carrier to study how individuals promote economic growth while pursuing the maximization of their own health capital accumulation. The model can analyze the promotion mechanism of healthy human capital on economic growth, so as to provide decision support for relevant personnel. Taking the panel data of 11 provinces and cities in China as samples, this paper makes an empirical analysis of the model. The results show that healthy human capital investment in coastal areas is generally high, and the relationship between healthy human capital and economic growth conforms to the inverted U-shaped development model, so we should pay attention to the reasonable proportion of healthy human capital investment. In addition, from the fitting effect of the regression model, the F-statistic values of model 1 and model 2 are 672.6327 and 1240.188, which shows that the fitting accuracy of the two regression models is higher.


RESUMO Como parte importante do capital humano, o capital humano saudável desempenha um grande papel na promoção do desenvolvimento econômico. Com base no modelo de gerações gerações sobrepostas (OLG), este estudo estabelece um modelo de análise de correlação entre o capital humano saudável e o crescimento econômico. Este modelo leva à maximização da utilidade como suporte teórico para estudar como os indivíduos promovem o crescimento econômico, enquanto procedem à maximização de sua própria acumulação de capital saudável. O modelo pode analisar o mecanismo de promoção de capital humano saudável em crescimento econômico, de modo a fornecer suporte de decisão para os profissionais. Tomando os dados do painel de 11 províncias e cidades da China como amostra, o presente estudo faz uma análise empírica do modelo. Os resultados mostram que o investimento em capital humano para a saúde nas zonas costeiras é geralmente elevado, e a relação entre o capital humano saudável e o crescimento econômico está em conformidade com o modelo de desenvolvimento invertido em forma de U, pelo que devemos prestar atenção à proporção razoável de investimento em capital humano saudável. Além disso, a partir do efeito de ajuste do modelo de regressão, os valores F-estatísticos do modelo 1 e do modelo 2 são 672.6327 e 1240.188, o que mostra que a precisão de ajuste dos dois modelos de regressão é maior.


RESUMEN Como parte importante del capital humano, la salud juega un papel importante en la promoción del desarrollo económico. Basado en el modelo de generaciones superpuestas (OLG), este estudio establece un modelo de análisis de correlación entre capital humano saludable y crecimiento económico. Este modelo toma la maximización de la utilidad como portador teórico para estudiar cómo los individuos promueven el crecimiento económico mientras persiguen la maximización de su propia acumulación de capital en salud. El modelo puede analizar el mecanismo de promoción del capital humano saludable sobre el crecimiento económico, a fin de brindar apoyo a las decisiones del personal relevante. Tomando como muestra los datos de panel de 11 provincias y ciudades de China, este artículo realiza un análisis empírico del modelo. Los resultados muestran que la inversión de capital humano saludable en las áreas costeras es generalmente alta, y la relación entre capital humano saludable y crecimiento económico se ajusta al modelo de desarrollo en forma de U invertida, por lo que debemos prestar atención a la proporción razonable de inversión de capital humano saludable. Además, del efecto de ajuste del modelo de regresión, los valores del estadístico F del modelo 1 y del modelo 2 son 672,6327 y 1240,188, lo que muestra que la precisión de ajuste de los dos modelos de regresión es mayor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Economic Development , Public Sector , Private Sector , Investments , Regression Analysis , Models, Economic
8.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(3): 987-1000, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153843

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective was to identify the impact of social distance in the management of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) in the adult population from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. This is an ambispective, population-based cohort study. Descriptive analysis and Poisson regression models were used and the results were reported as prevalence ratio and 95% confidence intervals. From a total of 1,288 participants, 43.1% needed medical care and 28.5% reported impaired management of NCDs during social distance. Female sex, age between 18 and 30 years old, living in the Serra region (central region of the state), people with depression and multimorbidity were more likely to have impaired management of NCDs. Being physically active reduced the probability of having impaired management of NCD by 15%. Reduced monthly income was associated with the difficulty in accessing prescription medicine and avoidance of seeking in-person medical assistance. Depression was associated with difficulties in accessing medications, while avoidance of seeking in-person medical assistance was more likely for people with multimorbidity, arthritis/arthrosis/fibromyalgia, heart disease, and high cholesterol.


Resumo O objetivo foi identificar o impacto do distanciamento social no manejo das doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT) na população adulta do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. Este é um estudo de coorte ambispectivo de base populacional. Foi utilizada análise descritiva e modelos de regressão de Poisson, os resultados são apresentados em razão de prevalência e intervalos de confiança de 95%. De um total de 1.288 participantes, 43,1% necessitaram de cuidados médicos e 28,5% relataram manejo prejudicado de DCNT durante o distanciamento social. Sexo feminino, idade entre 18 e 30 anos, residente na região da Serra (região central do estado), pessoas com depressão e multimorbidade apresentaram maior chance de manejo prejudicado das DCNT. Ser fisicamente ativo reduziu a probabilidade de ter gerenciamento prejudicado de DCNT em 15%. A redução da renda mensal esteve associada à dificuldade de acesso a medicamentos prescritos e a deixar de buscar atendimento médico presencial. A depressão foi associada a dificuldades de acesso a medicamentos, enquanto deixar de buscar assistência médica pessoalmente foi mais provável para pessoas com multimorbidade, artrite/artrose/fibromialgia, doenças cardíacas e colesterol alto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Exercise , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Poisson Distribution , Sex Factors , Regression Analysis , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Depression/psychology , Multimorbidity , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Income , Middle Aged
9.
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto, Online) ; 31: e3116, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1340291

ABSTRACT

Abstract Some children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience the loss of previously acquired abilities, especially that of using words, a phenomenon that is still poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate parents' perceptions of the age of word acquisition and word loss in individuals with ASD as compared to children with Down Syndrome (DS) and those with typical development (CG). Parents of 77 individuals with ASD, 33 with DS, and 63 from CG completed an inventory on the loss of words and developmental abilities. The median age of acquisition of the first words was 14 months for the ASD group, approximately 4 months after those in CG, and 23 months for the SD group. Word loss occurred only in the ASD group (36.4%). The median age of loss was 18 months. Parents' perception of word loss can contribute to the understanding of this phenomenon as a potential early ASD indicator.


Resumo Algumas crianças com Transtorno do Espectro Autista (TEA) apresentam perda de habilidades previamente adquiridas, especialmente a de utilização de palavras, fenômeno ainda pouco compreendido. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a percepção dos pais sobre a idade de aquisição e perda de palavras em indivíduos com TEA, comparados a crianças com Síndrome de Down (SD) e desenvolvimento típico (GC). Pais de 77 indivíduos com TEA, de 33 com SD e 63 do GC preencheram um inventário sobre perda de palavras e habilidades de desenvolvimento. A mediana da idade de aquisição das primeiras palavras foi 14 meses no TEA, em torno de quatro meses após o GC, e 23 meses no grupo SD. A perda de palavras ocorreu apenas no grupo TEA (36,4%). A mediana da idade da perda foi 18 meses. A percepção dos pais sobre a perda de palavras pode contribuir para o entendimento desse fenômeno como um potencial indicador precoce do TEA.


Resumen Algunos niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) experimentan la pérdida de habilidades previamente adquiridas, especialmente palabras, un fenómeno que aún no se comprende bien. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la percepción de los padres sobre laedad de adquisición y la perdida de las primeras palabras em indivíduos con TEA, Síndrome de Down (SD) y grupo control típico (GC). Padres de 77 individuos con TEA, 33 com SD y 63 del GC respondieron un inventario de pérdida de vocabulario y habilidades de desarrollo. La mediana de edad de adquisición de las primeras palabras fue 14 meses em el TEA, alrededor de 4 meses más tarde que el GC, y 23 meses en el grupo SD. La pérdida de vocabulário fue observada solamente em el grupo TEA (36,4%). En este grupo la mediana de edad de ocurrencia de la pérdida fue 18 meses. La percepción de los padres de la pérdida de vocabulário puede contribuir a la comprensión de este fenómeno como un potencial indicador precoz del TEA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Autistic Disorder , Regression Analysis , Dyslexia , Learning Disabilities
10.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e014, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1142613

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different follow-up consultation intervals on caries incidence in children with low caries risk. The study was composed of 224 children aged between 3 and 5 years and with low risk of caries. The children were randomly allocated into two groups, according to two different follow-up consultation intervals: Group 1 (G1) - 12-month follow-up interval; Group 2 (G2) - 18-month follow-up interval. All oral clinical examinations were performed by a single examiner who was previously calibrated and blinded in relation to the study groups. An external dentist provided the advice on oral hygiene and diet and evaluated the children's socioeconomic conditions. The Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used to evaluate the differences between groups. Poisson regression analyses were performed to assess the association of caries incidence with the other variables. At the end of the study there was a significant difference between the groups regarding initial active lesions (p = 0.012), and children in G2 were at a higher risk of developing initial active lesions than those in G1 (p = 0.047). Children who had a higher number of teeth with initial active lesions in the follow-up consultations were at a higher risk of developing cavitated dentin caries (p = 0.001). Both follow-up intervals are justifiable. Although significant results have been observed for initial active caries lesions within the 18-month follow-up interval, it should be noted that these lesions can be treated using just preventive measures. Besides, different return interval had no effect in cavitated dentin lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Oral Hygiene , Regression Analysis , Follow-Up Studies
12.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e13, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251997

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. To describe the mortality trends of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Colombia, by sex and age group, from 1979 to 2017. Methods. We carried out an ecological study using mortality data from the Colombian National Administrative Department of Statistics. Crude and age-standardized annual mortality rates per 100 000 people were estimated. Trends of standardized rates were described by sex and age groups. Joinpoint regression models were performed to study mortality trends. Results. Throughout the whole period, the total number of DM recorded deaths in Colombia was 200 650, 58% (116 316) in women (p<0.05). The age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) by sex increased from 13.2 to 26.6 deaths per 100 000 in women and from 10.1 to 22.7 in men from 1979 to 1999. We observed a decrease from 26.6 to 15.4 per 100 000 in women, and from 22.7 to 15.9 in men for the period 1999-2017. The joinpoint regression analysis showed that the average annual percentage change of the period did not vary in both sexes (men: -0.2%, 95% CI -1.0 to 1.4%; women: 0.7%, 95% CI -0.1 to 1.6%). Conclusions. The DM mortality showed a decreasing trend after 2000 in women and 2004 in men. Primary and secondary prevention programs must continue to be strengthened for an earlier diagnosis of diabetes.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Describir las tendencias de la mortalidad por diabetes mellitus (DM) en Colombia, por sexo y grupo de edad, entre 1979 y 2017. Métodos. Estudio ecológico con datos de mortalidad del Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística de Colombia. Se estimaron las tasas de mortalidad anuales brutas y ajustadas por edad por cada 100 000 personas. Se describieron las tendencias de las tasas ajustadas por sexo y grupos de edad. Se realizaron modelos de regresión joinpoint para estudiar las tendencias de la mortalidad. Resultados. En el período del estudio, el número total de muertes por DM registradas en Colombia fue de 200 650, el 58% (116 316) en mujeres (p<0,05). Las tasas de mortalidad ajustadas por edad, en cada sexo, aumentaron de 13,2 a 26,6 muertes por 100 000 en las mujeres y de 10,1 a 22,7 en los hombres entre 1979 y 1999. En el período 1999-2017 se observó una disminución de 26,6 a 15,4 por 100 000 en las mujeres y de 22,7 a 15,9 en los hombres. El análisis de regresión joinpoint demostró que el cambio porcentual anual medio del período no varió en ambos sexos (hombres: -0,2%, IC 95% -1,0 a 1,4%; mujeres: 0,7%, IC 95% -0,1 a 1,6%). Conclusiones. La mortalidad por DM mostró una tendencia decreciente después del año 2000 en las mujeres y del 2004 en los hombres. Es necesario seguir fortaleciendo los programas de prevención primaria y secundaria a fin de alcanzar un diagnóstico más temprano de la diabetes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Mortality/trends , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Sex Factors , Death Certificates , Regression Analysis , Age Factors , Colombia/epidemiology
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1586-1590, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134483

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The purpose of this research is to determine a regression equation for estimation of stature from length of sternum measurements. This research was carried out on 1001 subjects (504 male and 497 female) among the population of Montenegrin adolescents. The stature and length of sternum measurements were taken according to the ISAK protocol, and the data were analyzed statistically. Linear regression analysis determined the prediction of and length of sternum on the criterion variable a body height at the significance level of p <0.05. These relations are presented in the form of scatter diagram. Thereby, we obtained the coefficient of determination, the multiple correlation coefficients, the partial correlation coefficient, the regression, t-test and standardized beta coefficient. The results of this research study confirmed that length of sternum reliably predicts stature in both sexes of Montenegrin adolescents and revealed a very useful finding for physical anthropologists and experts from related fields. It was confirmed that there is a correlation between length of sternum and body height (males: 33.1 %, females: 31.3 %). Therefore, length of sternum has proven to be a reliable predictor on the basis of which the actual body height can be estimated.


RESUMEN: El propósito de este estudio fue determinar una ecuación de regresión para la estimación de la estatura a partir de la longitud del esternón. El análisis se llevó a cabo en 1001 sujetos (504 hombres y 497 mujeres) entre la población de adolescentes montenegrinos. Se tomaron medidas de la estatura y la longitud del esternón de acuerdo con el protocolo ISAK, y los datos se analizaron estadísticamente. El análisis de regresión lineal determinó la predicción y la longitud del esternón en la variable de criterio de la altura del cuerpo con nivel de significancia de p <0,05. Las relaciones se presentan en forma de diagrama de dispersión. De este modo, obtuvimos el coeficiente de determinación, los coeficientes de correlación múltiple, el coeficiente de correlación parcial, la regresión, la prueba t y el coeficiente beta estandarizado. Los resultados de este estudio confirmaron que la longitud del esternón logra predecir la estatura en ambos sexos de adolescents montenegrinos de manera confiable, y reveló un hallazgo útil para los antropólogos físicos y los expertos de áreas relacionadas. Se confirmó que existe una correlación entre la longitud del esternón y la altura del cuerpo (hombres: 33,1 %, mujeres: 31,3 %). Por lo tanto, la longitud del esternón ha demostrado ser un predictor confiable sobre la base de la cual se puede estimar la altura real del cuerpo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Sternum/anatomy & histology , Body Height , Anthropometry , Regression Analysis , Montenegro , Forecasting
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1681-1685, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134498

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The purpose of this research is to determine a regression equation for the estimation of stature from sitting height measurements in the Southern Region of Kosovo. This research was carried out on 225 individuals (120 male and 105 female). The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the ISAK protocol. The relationships between standing height and sitting height measurements were determined using simple correlation coefficients at a 95 % confidence interval. A comparison of means of standing height and sitting height between genders was performed using a t-test. After that, a linear regression analysis was carried out to examine the extent to which sitting height can reliably predict standing height. The results revealed that Southern Kosovan males are 178.61±5.73 cm tall and have a sitting height of 94.05±3.09 cm, while Southern Kosovan females are 165.33±4.46 cm tall and have a sitting height of 89.34±2.50 cm. The results have shown that both genders made Southern-Kosovans a tall group, taller than the general Kosovan population. This research study confirmed that sitting height reliably predicts stature in both genders of adolescents in the Southern Region of Kosovo and revealed a very useful finding for physical anthropologists and experts from related fields.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar una ecuación de regresión para la estimación de la estatura a partir de mediciones de la altura sentada en la Región Sur de Kosovo. La investigación se realizó en 225 individuos (120 hombres y 105 mujeres). Las medidas antropométricas se tomaron según el protocolo ISAK. Se determinaron las relaciones entre la altura de pie y la altura sentada utilizando coeficientes de correlación simples con un intervalo de confianza del 95 %. Se realizó una comparación de las medias de la altura de pie y la altura sentada entre sexos mediante una prueba t. Además, se llevó a cabo un análisis de regresión lineal para la estimar la confiabilidad de la medición de altura de pie, considerando la altura sentada. Los resultados indican que los varones del sur de Kosovo miden 178,61 ± 5,73 cm de altura y tienen una altura sentada de 94,05 ± 3,09 cm, mientras que las mujeres miden 165,33 ± 4,46 cm de altura y tienen una altura sentada de 89,34 ± 2,50 cm. Los resultados han demostrado que ambos sexos kosovares del sur son más altos que la población general de Kosovo. Este estudio confirmó que la altura sentada predice de manera confiable la estatura de ambos sexos en adolescentes de la región sur de Kosovo y reveló un hallazgo útil para los antropólogos físicos y los expertos de áreas relacionadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Posture , Body Height , Anthropometry , Confidence Intervals , Prospective Studies , Regression Analysis , Kosovo , Sitting Position
15.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 257-266, set. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130600

ABSTRACT

EL HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) es un estimador de insulinorresistencia (IR) pero depende de la determinación de insulina. Los índices triglicéridos-glucosa (T-G)-circunferencia de la cintura (CC) (T-G-CC) o triglicéridos-glucosa-índice de masa corporal (TG- IMC) podrían ser sustitutos. Los objetivos de este trabajo consistieron en investigar en personas con riesgo de desarrollar diabetes tipo 2 (DT2): a) los índices T-G, T-G-CC y T-G-IMC como estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1; b) determinar su poder discriminante. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo en el que se estudiaron 223 individuos ≥45 años con riesgo de desarrollar diabetes tipo 2 (DT2). La relación T-G se calculó como ln [triglicéridos (mg/dL) x glucemia (mg/dL)/2]. La relación T-G-CC y T-G-IMC fue el producto de T-G por CC o IMC. Se utilizó análisis de regresión logística y se calcularon las áreas bajo las curvas ROC (receiver operating characteristic curves) (ABC) para comparar las asociaciones de T-G, T-G-CC y T-G-IMC con HOMA-IR>2,1. Mediante análisis discriminante se evaluó la clasificación de los sujetos entre HOMA-IR>2,1 y HOMA-IR≤2,1. ABC, sensibilidad, especificidad, poder predictivo positivo y negativo para T-G-CC y T-G-IMC fueron mayores que para T-G, con los siguientes valores de corte: T-G=8,75, T-G-CC=821 y T-G-IMC=255. Los odds ratios (OR) para HOMA-IR>2,1, ajustados para confusores, fueron: T-G>8,75, OR: 4,85 (IC 95% 2,73-8,62); T-G-CC>821, OR: 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53); T-GIMC> 255, OR: 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53). Con el análisis discriminante T-G>8,75 clasificó correctamente 69,2% individuos con HOMA-IR≤2,1 y 68,3% con HOMA-IR>2,1; T-G-CC y T-G-IMC clasificaron 74,4% y 78,2% respectivamente (p<0,001 en todos los casos). Se concluyó que T-GCC> 821 y T-G-IMC>255 fueron mejores estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1 que T-G>8,75. Estas son determinaciones simples y accesibles y podrían ser útiles en la práctica clínica y en estudios epidemiológicos.


HOMA-IR ((homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) is a surrogate estimator of insulin resistance (IR) but it depends on insulin determination. Triglyceride-glucose-waist circumference (T-G-WC) or triglyceride-glucose-body mass index (BMI) (T-G-BMI) could be substitutes. The objectives of this work were: to investigate in people at risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D): a) T-G, T-G-CC and T-G-BMI as estimators of HOMA-IR>2.1 and b) to determine their discriminating power. A prospective study was conducted studying 223 individuals ≥45 years of age at risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). The T-G ratio was calculated as ln [triglycerides (mg/dL) x glycemia (mg/dL)/2]. The T-G-CC and T-G-BMI ratio was the product of T-G by CC or BMI. Logistic regression analysis was used and the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) curves were calculated to compare the associations of T-G, T-G-CC and T-G-BMI with HOMA-IR>2.1. Using a discriminant analysis, the classification of the subjects between HOMA-IR>2.1 or HOMA-IR≤2.1 was evaluated. AUC, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive powers for T-G-CC and T-G-BMI were higher than for T-G, with the following cut-off values: TG=8.75, T-G-CC=821 and T-G-BMI=255. Odds ratios (OR) for HOMA-IR>2.1, adjusted for confounders, were: T-G>8.75, OR 4.85 (95% CI 2.73-8.62); T-G-CC>821, OR 10.41 (95% CI 5.55-19.53); T-G-BMI>255, OR 10.41 (95% CI 5.55-19.53). With the discriminant analysis T-G>8.75, 69.2% correctly classified with HOMA-IR≤2.1 and 68.3% with HOMA-IR>2.1; T-G-CC and T-G-BMI correctly classified 74.4% and 78.2% respectively (p <0.001 in all cases). It is concluded that T-G-CC>821 and T-G-BMI>255 were better estimators of HOMA-IR>2.1 than T-G>8.75. T-G-WC and T-G-BMI are simple and reliable determinations and could be useful in clinical practice and epidemiological studies.


O HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) e um estimador de resistencia a insulina (RI), mas depende da determinacao da insulina. Triglicerideos-glicose (T-G), circunferencia da cintura (CC) (T-G-CC) ou triglicerideos-glicose-indice de massa corporal (T-G-IMC) poderiam ser substitutos. Os objetivos desse trabalho foram investigar em pessoas com risco de desenvolver diabetes tipo 2 (DT2): a) os indices T-G, T-G-CC e T-G-IMC como estimadores de HOMA-IR> 2,1; b) determinar seu poder discriminante. Um estudo prospectivo foi realizado em 223 pessoas ≥45 anos com risco de desenvolver diabetes tipo 2 (DT2). A razao T-G foi calculada como ln [triglicerideos (mg/dL) x glicemia (mg/dL)/2]. A razao T-G-CC e T-G-IMC foi o produto de T-G por CC ou IMC. A analise de regressao logistica foi utilizada e as areas sob as curvas ROC (receiver operating features) ABC foram calculadas para comparar as associacoes de T-G, T-G-CC e T-G-IMC com HOMA-IR>2.1. Por meio de analise discriminante, avaliou-se a classificacao dos sujeitos entre HOMA-IR>2,1 e HOMA-IR≤2,1. ABC, sensibilidade, especificidade, poder preditivo positivo e negativo para TG-CC e TG-IMC foram maiores que para TG, com os seguintes valores de corte: TG=8,75, TG-CC=821 e TG-IMC=255. Odds Ratios (OR) para HOMA-IR>2,1, ajustados para fatores de confusao, foram: TG>8,75, OR 4,85 (IC95% 2,73-8,62); T-G-CC>821, OR 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53); T-G-IMC>255, OR 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53). Com a analise discriminante T-G>8,75, 69,2% foram classificados corretamente com HOMA-IR≤2,1 e 68,3% com HOMA-IR>2,1; T-G-CC e T-G-IMC classificaram 74,4% e 78,2%, respectivamente (p<0,001 em todos os casos). Conclui-se que T-G-CC>821 e TG- IMC>255 foram melhores estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1 que T-G>8,75. Elas sao determinacoes simples e acessiveis e poderiam ser uteis na pratica clinica e em estudos epidemiologicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Triglycerides , Power, Psychological , Epidemiologic Studies , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Classification , Area Under Curve , Courtship , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Glucose , Goals , Insulin , Persons , Organization and Administration , Association , Blood Glucose , Insulin Resistance , Body Mass Index , Discriminant Analysis , Risk , Regression Analysis , Waist Circumference
16.
Psico USF ; 25(3): 507-518, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1135731

ABSTRACT

In this study we investigated the relationship between the anti-prejudice norm and the expression of attitudes towards minority groups. Participated 100 people who evaluated a list with 16 target groups of prejudice, answering two questions: indicate the groups that feel less prejudice; and which ones do you prefer. The results showed that there are different levels of prejudice depending on the target-group, with the women, blacks and people with disabilities being the most protected by the norm. A hierarchical analysis of clusters evidenced an organization of the groups, classified as naturalised, blamed, sexual and political minorities. The anti-prejudice norm and the attitudes presented a strong and positive relation (r = 0.65, p < 0.001). A multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that this relation was moderated by the type of group. These results contribute to the studies on the expression of prejudice, besides demonstrating the role of norms in the understanding of the phenomenon. (AU)


Neste estudo investigamos a relação entre a norma antipreconceito e a expressão de atitudes frente a grupos minoritários. Participaram 100 pessoas que avaliaram uma lista com 16 grupos-alvo de preconceito, respondendo a duas perguntas: indique os grupos que sente menos preconceito; e quais os que mais prefere. Os resultados indicaram que há níveis diferentes de preconceito consoante o tipo de grupo-alvo, sendo os grupos de mulheres, negros e pessoas com deficiência os mais protegidos pela norma. Uma análise hierárquica de clusters evidenciou uma organização dos grupos, classificados como naturalizados, culpabilizados, minorias sexuais e políticas. A norma antipreconceito e as atitudes apresentaram uma relação forte e positiva (r = 0,65; p < 0,001). Uma análise de regressão logística multinível mostrou que essa relação foi moderada pelo tipo de grupo. Tais resultados contribuem aos estudos sobre a expressão do preconceito, além de demonstrarem o papel das normas na compreensão do fenômeno. (AU)


En este estudio investigamos la relación entre la norma anti-prejuicio y la expresión de actitudes frente a grupos minoritarios. Participaron 100 personas que evaluaron una lista con 16 grupos que sufren prejuicio, respondiendo a dos preguntas: indique los grupos que siente menos prejuicio; y los que más prefiere. Los resultados demuestran que hay niveles diferentes de expresión del prejuicio según el tipo de grupo, siendo los grupos de mujeres, negros y personas con discapacidad los más protegidos por la norma. Un análisis jerárquico de clusters evidenció una organización de los grupos, clasificados como naturalizados, culpabilizados, minorías sexuales y políticas. La norma anti-prejuicio y las actitudes presentaron una relación fuerte y positiva (r = 0,65, p < 0,001). Un análisis de regresión logístico multinivel mostró que esta relación fue moderada por el tipo de grupo. Tales resultados contribuyen a los estudios sobre la expresión del prejuicio, además de demostrar el papel de las normas en la comprensión del fenómeno. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Prejudice/psychology , Minority Groups/psychology , Cluster Analysis , Regression Analysis
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 961-969, May-June, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1129665

ABSTRACT

A total of 6593 weight records collected from 796 male and female Anglo-Nubian goats aged up to 130 days, offspring from 29 sires and 225 dams, were used to compare models and estimate genetic parameters throughout the growth curve by applying random regression models. Direct and maternal additive genetic effects and direct and maternal permanent environmental effects were included as random in the models. The contemporary groups were included as fixed effects and goat age at kidding was included as a covariable (linear and quadratic). The choice of the best model was based on the AIC, BIC and AICc criteria. Variance estimates of the four random effects increased as the animals aged. Direct heritability (h2) rose from 0.13 to 0.40 with age, whereas maternal heritability showed a low value. Genetic correlations of weight between closer ages were high. The most suitable random regression model to compare the fitting of random effects was that which employed the Legendre polynomials of quadratic order with homogeneous variance (3333-1).(AU)


Utilizaram-se 6593 pesos de 796 caprinos da raça Anglonubiana, coletados em machos e fêmeas com idade até 130 dias, descendentes de 29 reprodutores e 225 matrizes, com o objetivo de se compararem modelos e de se estimarem parâmetros genéticos ao longo da curva de crescimento com aplicação de modelos de regressão aleatória. Nos modelos, incluíram-se os efeitos genéticos aditivos diretos e maternos e os de ambiente permanente diretos e maternos como aleatórios; os grupos de contemporâneos foram incluídos como efeitos fixos, e a idade da cabra ao parto como covariável (linear e quadrática). A escolha do melhor modelo foi realizada pela avaliação dos critérios AIC, BIC e AICc. As estimativas de variâncias dos quatro efeitos aleatórios cresceram de acordo com o aumento da idade. A herdabilidade direta (h2) aumentou de 0,13 a 0,40 com a idade, e a materna apresentou baixo valor. As correlações genéticas do peso entre idades mais próximas foram altas. O modelo de regressão aleatório mais adequado ao se comparar o ajuste dos efeitos aleatórios foi o que empregou polinômios de Legendre de ordem quadrática com variância homogênea (3333-1).(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Ruminants/growth & development , Regression Analysis , Genetic Profile , Heredity , Correlation of Data
18.
Acta bioeth ; 26(1): 91-100, mayo 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114602

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To estimate the influence of clinical and demographical information in the understanding of cataract surgery informed consent, identifying less understandable areas. To assess informed consent document concept. METHODS: Multiple-choice questionnaire was designed to collect information and to evaluate the understanding of cataract surgery and informed consent. An ordinary regression model was adjusted to express the effect of clinical and demographic variables to the questionnaire score. RESULTS: The study comprised 180 patients. Sex (female, p=0.404), non-ophthalmologist source of information (p=0.397), previous surgical history (p=0.571), not having a companion (p=0.396) nor the days since the signing of informed consent form (p=0.535) had no influence in the understanding of cataract surgery informed consent. Age (r=-0.083, p<0.001) and educational level (secondary studies r=1.845, p<0.001; tertiary studies r=4.289, p<0.001) showed statistical significance with greater strength of association educational level (OR secondary studies = 6.33, OR tertiary studies = 72.86) than age had (OR = 0.92). CONCLUSION: Patient's knowledge about cataract informed consent is influenced by age and educational level. The purpose and the risks, consequences of not performing surgery and postoperative indications are the least understood topics. Informed consent is seen as a forced legal obligation.


OBJETIVOS: estimar la influencia de la información clínica y demográfica en la comprensión del consentimiento informado de la cirugía de cataratas, identificando áreas menos comprensibles. Evaluar el concepto de "documento de consentimiento informad". MÉTODOS: el cuestionario de opción múltiple se diseñó para reunir información y evaluar la comprensión de la cirugía de cataratas y el consentimiento informado. Se ajustó un modelo de regresión ordinario para expresar el efecto de las variables clínicas y demográficas en la puntuación del cuestionario. RESULTADOS: El estudio abarcó 180 pacientes. Sexo (femenino, p = 0.404); fuente de información no oftalmológica (p = 0.397); historial quirúrgico previo (p = 0.571); no tener acompañante (p = 0.396), y los días desde la firma del formulario de consentimiento informado (p = 0,535), que no tuvo influencia en la comprensión del consentimiento informado en la cirugía de cataratas. La edad (r = -0.083, p <0.001) y el nivel educativo (estudios secundarios r = 1.845, p <0.001; estudios terciarios r = 4.289, p <0.001) mostraron significación estadística con una mayor fuerza del nivel educativo de asociación (OR estudios secundarios = 6.33, OR estudios terciarios = 72.86) que la edad (OR = 0.92). CONCLUSIÓN: El conocimiento del paciente sobre el consentimiento informado en cirugía de cataratas está influenciado por la edad y el nivel educativo. Los temas menos entendidos son el propósito y los riesgos, las consecuencias de no realizar la cirugía y las indicaciones postoperatorias. El consentimiento informado se considera una obligación legal forzada.


OBJETIVO: Estimar a influência de informações clínicas e demográficas na compreensão do consentimento informado para cirurgia de catarata, identificando áreas menos compreensíveis. Avaliar o conceito do documento de consentimento informado. MÉTODOS: Um questionário de múltipla escolha foi desenvolvido para coletar informações e avaliar a compreensão sobre cirurgia de catarata e de consentimento informado. Um modelo de regressão ordinária foi ajustado para expressar o efeito das variáveis clínicas e demográficas no escore do questionário. RESULTADOS: O estudo envolveu 180 pacientes. Sexo (feminino, p=0,404), fonte de informações não oftalmológica (p=0,397), história cirúrgica prévia (p=0,571), não ter um/a companheiro/a (p=0,396) nem os dias desde a assinatura do formulário de consentimento informado (p=0,535) tiveram influência na compreensão do consentimento informado para cirurgia de catarata. Idade (r=-0,083, p<0,001) e nível educacional (estudos secundários r=1,845, p<0,001; estudos terciários r=4,289, p<0,001) mostraram significância estatística, com maior força de associação para o nível educacional (OR estudos secundários = 6,33, OR estudos terciários = 72,86) que para a idade (OR = 0,92). CONCLUSÃO: O conhecimento do paciente sobre o consentimento informado para cirurgia de catarata é influenciado pela idade e nível educacional. O objetivo e os riscos, consequências, de não fazer a cirurgia e as indicações pós-operatórias são os tópicos menos compreensíveis. O consentimento informado é visto como uma obrigação legal compulsória.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Cataract Extraction/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cataract Extraction/ethics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis , Age Factors , Paternalism , Personal Autonomy , Educational Status , Informed Consent/psychology , Informed Consent/ethics , Jurisprudence
19.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(2): 87-91, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088975

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The present study's aim was to compare the biomechanical properties of corneal tissue in patients who underwent deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) surgery, with successful big bubble formation and manual lamellar dissection, during failed big bubble formation. Methods: This retrospective comparative study included 60 eyes from 60 keratoconus patients who previously underwent DALK surgery. These patients were categorized as big bubble (+) or big bubble (−) based on the success or failure of big bubble formation during the surgery. The big bubble (+) group included 42 eyes, while the big bubble (−) group had 18 eyes. Moreover, the patients were regrouped as 0.25 mm and 0.50 mm to evaluate the effects of the disparity between donor and trephine punches on the biomechanical properties of the cornea. These biomechanical properties, characterized by corneal hysteresis and the corneal resistance factor, were measured using the Ocular Response Analyzer 12 months after the surgery. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the big bubble (+) and big bubble (−) groups in the biomechanical properties of the cornea (corneal hysteresis: 10.06, 10.25; p=0.716/corneal resistance factor: 10.15, 10.07; p=0.805, respectively). In addition, pachymetry results were not statistically different between the two groups. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor were positively associated with central corneal thickness (p<0.001/r2=0.506; p<0.001/r2=0.561, respectively). However, the study did not demonstrate a relationship between any of the punch sizes and corneal hysteresis or between the punch sizes (p=0.673) and the corneal resistance factor (p=0.643). Conclusions: The corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor values were similar in big bubble and manual lamellar dissection after DALK. Thus, manual lamellar dissection was not a disadvantage considering the cornea's biomechanical properties.


RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo foi comparar pa râmetros biomecânicos corneanos de pacientes com cirurgia de ceratoplastia lamelar anterior profunda com formação bem-sucedida de bolha e dissecção lamelar manual, frente à falha de formação da grande bolha. Métodos: Este estudo comparativo retrospectivo incluiu 60 olhos de 60 pacientes com ceratocone submetidos à cirurgia de ceratoplastia lamelar anterior profunda. Os pacientes foram agrupados como grande bolha (+) e grande bolha (-) de acordo com o sucesso da formação da grande bolha durante a cirurgia. O grupo grande bolha (+) incluiu 42 olhos, enquanto o grupo grande bolha (-) tinha 18 olhos. Além disso, para a avaliação dos efeitos da disparidade entre alterações individuais nas propriedades biomecânicas da córnea, reagrupamos os pacientes em 0,25 mm e 0,50 mm. Parâmetros biomecânicos da córnea, caracterizados por histerese corneana e fator de resistência corneana foram medidos com o ORA 12 meses após a cirurgia. Resultados: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos grande bolha (+) e grande bolha (-) em relação aos parâmetros biomecânicos da córnea (histerese corneana: 10,06, 10,25, p=0,716/fator de resistência da córnea: 10,15, 10,07, p=0,805, respectivamente). Além disso, os resultados de paquimetria não diferiram estatisticamente entre os dois grupos. A análise de regressão multivariada demonstrou que a histerese da córnea e o fator de resistência corneana estavam associados positivamente com a espessura corneana central (p<0,001/r2=0,506, p<0,001/r2=0,561 respectivamente). No entanto, o estudo não revelou associação entre qualquer um dos tamanhos de punção e histerese corneana, bem como entre os tamanhos de punção e o fator de resistência corneano (p=0,673, p=0,643). Conclusões: A histerese da córnea e os valores do fator de resistência da córnea foram comparáveis com formação de grande bolha e dissecção manual lamelar na ceratoplastia lamelar anterior profunda. Assim, a dissecção manual lamelar não foi uma desvantagem, considerando os fatores biomecânicos da córnea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Corneal Transplantation/methods , Cornea/surgery , Keratoconus/surgery , Reference Values , Biomechanical Phenomena , Multivariate Analysis , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Cornea/physiopathology , Dissection/methods , Keratoconus/physiopathology
20.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(2): 93-97, abr. 30, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151849

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine regression models to predict the mesiodistal widths of the maxillary anterior teeth from interalar width of the nose in subjects with facial harmony. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 75 subjects with facial harmony and ages ranging from 18 to 30 years (21.28±3.75 years). The mesiodistal width of the central (CI), lateral (LI) incisors, and canines (C), as well as the interalar width (IW) of each subject were measured using a digital vernier caliper. Simple linear regression analyses were used to predict the width of the maxillary anterior teeth from the nasal interalar width, from which formulas for predicting the dimensions of each anterior tooth were obtained. Results: A statistically significant relationship was found between the nasal interalar width and the mesiodistal widths of the upper central incisor (p=0.019, R2=5.23%), upper lateral incisor (p=0.019, R2=2.31%), and upper canine (p=0.016, R2=12.04%) that allowed to develop simple linear prediction models for each tooth represented by the following formulas: CI=7.04+0.04(IW); LI=6.01+0.03 (IW); C=6.19+0.05 (IW). Conclusion: The nasal interalar width is a good predictor of the mesiodistal widths of the maxillary anterior teeth.


Objectivo: Determinar modelos de regresión para predecir los anchos mesiodistales de los dientes anterosuperiores a partir del ancho interalar de la nariz en individuos con armonía facial. Materiales and Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal con una muestra de 75 sujetos con armonía facial entre 18 a 30 años (21.28 ± 3.75 años), se midió el ancho mesiodistal de incisivos centrales (IC), laterales (IL) y caninos (C) así como el ancho interalar (AI) de cada sujeto empleando un calibrador vernier digital. Para la predicción del ancho de los dientes anterosuperiores a partir del ancho interalar nasal se emplearon análisis de regresión lineal simple, a partir de los cuales se obtuvieron fórmulas de predicción de las dimensiones de cada pieza dentaria anterior. Resultados: Se encontró relación estadísticamente significativa entre el ancho interalar nasal y los anchos mesiodistales del incisivo central superior (p=0.019, R2 5.23%), incisivo lateral superior (=0.019, R2=2.31%) y canino superior (p=0.016, R2=12.04%) que permitieron generar modelos de predicción lineal simple para cada pieza dentaria representados mediante las siguientes fórmulas: IC=7.04+0.04(AI); IL=6.01+0.03(AI); C=6.19+0.05(AI). Conclusión:El ancho interalar nasal es un buen predictor de los anchos mesiodistales de los dientes anterosuperiores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Nose/anatomy & histology , Cuspid/anatomy & histology , Incisor/anatomy & histology , Maxilla/anatomy & histology , Peru , Linear Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Regression Analysis
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