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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928178

ABSTRACT

Leaf blight outbroke in Rehmannia glutinosa plantation in Wenxian county, Henan province in 2019. R. glutinosa plants with diseased leaves were collected from the plantation, and three strains were isolated from the diseased leaf samples. Pathogenicity test, morphological observation, and phylogenetic analysis of ITS, EF1-α, and Tub suggested that they were respectively Fusarium proliferatum, F. oxysporum, and F.acuminatum. Among them, F. acuminatum, as a pathogen of R. glutinosa leaf disease, had never been reported. To clarify the biological characteristics of F. acuminatum, this study tested the influence of light, pH, temperature, medium, carbon source, and nitrogen source on the mycelial growth rate of the pathogen during a 5-day culture period, and explored the lethal temperature. The results showed that the mycelia grew well under the photoperiod of 12 h light/12 h darkness, at 5-40 ℃(optimal temperature: 25 ℃), at pH 4-11(optimal pH: 7.0), on a variety of media(optimal medium: oatmeal agar), and in the presence of diverse carbon and nitrogen sources(optimal carbon source: soluble starch; optimal nitrogen source: sodium nitrate). The lethal temperature was verified to be 51 ℃(10 min). The conclusion is expected to lay a scientific basis for diagnosis and control of R. glutinosa leaf diseases caused by F. acuminatum.


Subject(s)
Carbon , Nitrogen , Phylogeny , Rehmannia
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928085

ABSTRACT

With the rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix unearthed from the tomb of Haihunhou in the Western Han Dynasty as the re-ference, the present study evaluated the quality of Rehmanniae Radix and investigated the processing technology of rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix to lay the foundation for the research on rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix products. With catalpol and rehmannioside D as the investigation indexes, the quality and grade of Rehmanniae Radix from different producing areas were evaluated with the methods in 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. UPLC method was established for the determination of catalpol and rehmannioside D in the rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix. The effects of steaming time, the amount of supplementary rice, and steaming times in the rice-steamed processing on the quality of products were investigated by L_9(3~4) orthogonal test and multi-index comprehensive balance scoring method combined with the content of catalpol and rehmannioside D and appearance characteristics. At last, the stability of the processing technology was tested. The results showed that the optimal processing technology for rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix was as follows: Rehmanniae Radix and rice(200 g∶4 g) were steamed twice at atmospheric pressure, four hours each time. The mass fractions of catalpol and rehmannioside D were 0.184% and 0.335%, respectively, and the character score was 6.5. The processing conditions are reaso-nable, stable, and feasible. It can provide a basis for the restoration of the ancient rice-steamed processing technology and references for the development of rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix products in the future.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Oryza , Plant Extracts , Rehmannia , Technology
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928082

ABSTRACT

This study aims to acetylate Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharides by acetic anhydride method, optimize process parameters and evaluate their antioxidant activity. With the degree of substitution(D_s) as a criterion, the effects of reaction time, acetic anhydride-to-polysaccharides ratio and temperature were investigated. Process parameters were optimized by single-factor experiment and response surface methodology. The infrared spectroscopy(IR) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) proved the successful acetylation and were employed to preliminarily analyze the structural characteristics of acetylated derivatives. The results showed that the D_s was 0.327 under the optimal technological conditions, including m(acetic anhydride):m(R. glutinosa polysaccharides)=2.70, reaction time 3.0 h and temperature 48 ℃. Further, the antioxidant properties of acetylated derivatives were investigated in vitro and acetylation was found effective to improve the antioxidant activity of R. glutinosa polysaccharides. This study provides a reference for the further development and application of R. glutinosa polysaccharides.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Rehmannia/chemistry
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928025

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the anti-depressant components of Rehmanniae Radix and its action mechanism based on network pharmacology combined with molecular docking. The main components of Rehmanniae Radix were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS), and the related targets were predicted using SwissTargetPrediction. Following the collection of depression-related targets from GeneCards, OMIM and TTD, a protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was constructed using STRING. GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis was performed by Metascape. Cytoscape 3.7.2 was used to construct the networks of "components-targets-disease" and "components-targets-pathways", based on which the key targets and their corresponding components were obtained and then preliminarily verified by molecular docking. Rehmanniae Radix contained 85 components including iridoids, ionones, and phenylethanoid glycosides. The results of network analysis showed that the main anti-depressant components of Rehmanniae Radix were catalpol, melittoside, genameside C, gardoside, 6-O-p-coumaroyl ajugol, genipin-1-gentiobioside, jiocarotenoside A1, neo-rehmannioside, rehmannioside C, jionoside C, jionoside D, verbascoside, rehmannioside, cistanoside F, and leucosceptoside A, corresponding to the following 16 core anti-depression targets: AKT1, ALB, IL6, APP, MAPK1, CXCL8, VEGFA, TNF, HSP90 AA1, SIRT1, CNR1, CTNNB1, OPRM1, DRD2, ESR1, and SLC6 A4. As revealed by molecular docking, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity might be the main action forms. The key anti-depression targets of Rehmanniae Radix were concentrated in 24 signaling pathways, including neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, neurodegenerative disease-multiple diseases pathway, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway, serotonergic synapse, and Alzheimer's disease.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Plant Extracts , Rehmannia
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927921

ABSTRACT

The present study explored the effect and mechanism of repeatedly steamed and sundried Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata(RRP) in delaying brain aging in ovariectomized mice. After ovariectomy, the mice were randomly divided into a model group, an estradiol valerate group(0.3 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-(1.0 g·kg~(-1)), medium-(2.0 g·kg~(-1)), and high-dose(4.0 g·kg~(-1)) RRP groups, and a sham operation group was also set up, with 15 mice in each group. One week after the operation, intragastric administration was carried out for 15 consecutive weeks. The step-down test and Morris water maze test were used to detect the behavioral changes of mice. HE staining and Nissl staining were used to observe the morphological changes of mouse brain tissues. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of Aβ and ER_β in mouse brain tissues. The serum estrogen levels and cholinesterase and cholinesterase transferase levels in brain tissues of mice were detected by assay kits. The extracted hippocampal protein was detected by the Nano-ESI-LC-MS system, identified by the Protein Discovery, and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by the SIEVE. The PANTHER Classification System was used for GO analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of the differential proteins. Compared with the sham operation group, the model group showed decreased learning and memory ability, shortened step-down latency(P<0.05), prolonged escape latency(P<0.05), reduced platform crossings and residence time in the target quadrant, scattered nerve cells in the hippocampus with enlarged intercellular space, increased expression of Aβ-positive cells(P<0.05), declining expression of ER_β-positive cells and estrogen level(P<0.05), and weakened cholinergic function(P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the RRP groups showed improved learning and memory ability, prolonged step-down latency(P<0.05), increased estrogen level(P<0.05), neatly arranged nerve cells in the hippocampus with complete morphology, declining Aβ-positive cells, and elevated expression of ER_β-positive cells. A total of 146 differential proteins were screened out by proteomics, and KEGG pathway enrichment yielded 75 signaling pathways. The number of proteins involved in the dopaminergic synapse signaling pathway was the largest, with 13 proteins involved. In summary, RRP can delay brain aging presumedly by increasing the level of estrogen, mediating the dopaminergic synapse signaling pathway, and improving cholinergic function.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Female , Hippocampus/metabolism , Learning , Mice , Plant Extracts , Proteomics , Rehmannia
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888785

ABSTRACT

The quality control of Chinese herbal medicine is a current challenge for the internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine. Traditional quality evaluation methods lack quantitative analysis, while modern quality evaluation methods ignore the origins and appearance traits. Therefore, an integrated quality evaluation method is urgent in need. Raw Rehmanniae Radix (RRR) is commonly used in Chinese herbal medicine. At present, much attention has been drwan towards its quality control, which however is limited by the existing quality evaluation methods. The present study was designed to establish a comprehensive and practical method for the quality evaluation and control of RRR pieces based on its chemical constituents, appearance traits and origins. Thirty-three batches of RRR pieces were collected from six provinces, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied to determine the following five constituents, including catalpol, rehmannioside A, rehmannioside D, leonuride and verbascoside in RRR pieces. Their appearance traits were quantitatively observed. Furthermore, correlation analysis, principal components analysis (PCA), cluster analysis and t-test were performed to evaluate the qualities of RRR pieces. These batches of RRR pieces were divided into three categories: samples from Henan province, samples from Shandong and Shanxi provinces, and those from other provinces. Furthermore, the chemical constituents and appearance traits of RRR pieces were significantly different from diverse origins. The combined method of chemical contituents, appearance traits and origins can distinguish RRR pieces with different qualities, which provides basic reference for the quality control of Chinese herbal medicine.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Roots/chemistry , Principal Component Analysis , Quality Control , Rehmannia/chemistry
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888135

ABSTRACT

The present study analyzed the effects of planting density on the development, quality, and gene transcription characte-ristics of Rehmannia glutinosa using 85-5 and J9 as materials with three planting densities of 5 000, 25 000, and 50 000 plants/Mu(1 Mu≈667 m~2). The agronomic characteristics of leaves and tuberous roots, the content of catalpol and acteoside, and the changes of gene expression were determined. The results showed that the leaf size, the diameter of tuberous root, leaf biomass, tuberous root number, and tuberous root biomass per plant at low density were significantly higher than those of medium and high densities. The content of catalpol and acteoside in leaves was higher at high density. The content of catalpol in tuberous roots was higher at low density, and the change trend was similar to that in leaves, while the content of acteoside in tuberous roots was higher at high density. Transcriptome analysis found that about 1/2 of the expansin genes could change regularly in response to density treatment, which was rela-ted to the development of tuberous roots. The change trend of the gene expression of multiple catalytic enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of catalpol and acteoside was consistent with that of their content, which was presumedly involved in the accumulation and regulation of density-responsive medicinal components. Based on the analysis of the development, medicinal components, and gene expression characteristics of R. glutinosa at different densities, this study is expected to provide an important basis for regulating the quality and yield of medicinal materials of R. glutinosa by managing the planting density.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Profiling , Plant Leaves/genetics , Plant Roots/genetics , Rehmannia/genetics , Transcription, Genetic
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887951

ABSTRACT

NRT1 family proteins play an important roles for absorbing and transporting of nitrate in different plants. In order to identify the NRT1 family genes of Rehmannia glutinosa, this study used 11 NRT1 homologous proteins of Arabidopsis as probe sequences and aligned with the transcriptome data of R. glutinosa by using NCBI BLASTN software. Resulting there were 18 NRT1 proteins were identified in R. glutinosa. On basis of this, a series of the molecular characteristics of R. glutinosa NRT1 proteins including the conserved domains, the transmembrane structure, the subcellular location and phylogenetic features were in detail analyzed. At same time, it were systematically analyzed that the temporal and spatial expression patterns and characteristics of R. glutinosa NRT1 family genes in response to different stress factors. The results indicated that 18 R. glutinosa NRT1 family genes with the length of coding region from 1 260 bp to 1 806 bp, encoded proteins ranging from 419 to 601 amino acids, and all of they owned the domains of typical peptide transporter with 7 to 12 transmembrane domains. These R. glutinosa NRT1 family proteins mostly were found to locate on cellular plasma membrane, and belonged to the hydrophobic proteins. Furthermore, the evolutionary analysis found that the 18 R. glutinosa NRT1 protein family could be divided into two subfamilies, of which 14 NRT1 family genes might occur the positive selection, and 4 genes occur the passivation selection during the evolution process of R. glutinosa. In addition the expression analysis showed that 18 R. glutinosa NRT1 family genes have the distinct expression patterns in different tissues of R. glutinosa, and their expression levels were also obvious difference in response to various stress. These findings infield that 18 R. glutinosa NRT1 family proteins might have obviously different functional roles in nitrate transport of R. glutinosa. In conclusion, this study lays a solid theoretical foundation for clarifying the absorption and transport molecular mechanism of N element during R. glutinosa growth and development, and at same time for deeply studying the molecular function of R. glutinosa NRT1 proteins in absorption and transport of nitrate.


Subject(s)
Anion Transport Proteins , Membrane Transport Proteins , Nitrates , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Rehmannia/genetics , Transcriptome
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887950

ABSTRACT

Root rot was occurred widely in the production area of Rehmannia glutinosa, and which result in serious influence on the yield and quality of R. glutinosa. In the present work, a new phytopathogen was isolated from roots with root rot symptom in the production area of R. glutinosa. The colony of the pathogen growing on PDA medium was gray-black, the structure of hyphae was compact, the aerial hyphae was less developed, and the back of the colony was black. The hyphae of the pathogen were uneven in size, about 2 to 3 μm in diameter and twined with each other, the conidia of the pathogen were small, nearly round and about 1 μm in diameter. The healthy roots of R. glutinosa were inoculated with the pathogen in vitro, black-brown rot was observed at the inoculate sites after a few days' incubation. The rhizosphere soil of healthy R. glutinosa seedlings were inoculated in vivo, the leaves were wilted and the roots were black-brown rotted after several days' normal culture, the symptoms were consistent with those observed in the field. The genomic DNA of the pathogen was amplified by fungus rDNA-ITS universal primer ITS1/ITS4 and homologous analyzed, the pathogen was in a branch with Heterophoma sp., Phoma sp., P. novae-verbascicola and P. herbarum with the nuclear acid homology of 99.21% to 99.43%. The pathogen shown 97.00% to 98.02% nuclear acid homology with H. verbascicola, H. novae-verbascicola, H. poolensis, P. herbarum, H. sylvatica, H. verbascicola and H. verbasci-densiflori when amplified by the tub2 gene special primer Btub2 fd/Btub4 rd, and H. novae-verbascicola was the highest. The pathogen was in a branch with H. novae-verbascicola when amplified by the lsu gene special primer LR0 R/LR7. Based on the morphological characteristics, nucleotide sequence analysis and Koch's test results, the isolated pathogen causing root rot of R. glutinosa was identified as H. novae-verbascicola. This study is of great significance for the further theoretical research on root rot of R. glutinosa and root rot control in field.


Subject(s)
DNA, Ribosomal , Fungi/genetics , Plant Leaves , Rehmannia/genetics , Seedlings
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921747

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the differential mechanisms of Rehmanniae Radix and Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata in improving diabetes in mice through AMPK-mediated NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway. The diabetic mouse model was established with high-fat diet coupled with streptozotocin(STZ, intraperitoneal injection, 100 mg·kg~(-1), once a day for three consecutive days), after which the mice were randomly divided into model group, low-dose(5 g·kg~(-1)) and high-dose(15 g·kg~(-1)) Rehmanniae Radix groups, low-dose(5 g·kg~(-1)) and high-dose(15 g·kg~(-1)) Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata groups, catalpol group(250 mg·kg~(-1)), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural(5-HMF) group(250 mg·kg~(-1)), metformin group(250 mg·kg~(-1)), with the normal group also set. The organ indexes of heart,liver, spleen, lung, kidney and pancreas were calculated after four weeks of administration. The pathological changes and fibrosis of pancreas, kidney and liver in mice were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and Masson staining. Western blot was used to determine the expression levels of Toll-like receptor-4(TLR4), nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB), Nod-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3),interleukin-1β(IL-1β), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase(AMPK), phosphorylated AMPK(p-AMPK) in the pancreas, kidney and liver of mice. Compared with the model group, the administration groups witnessed significant decrease in the liver,spleen, kidney, pancreas and fat indexes of diabetic mice, and there was no significant difference in heart and lung indexes. The pathological states and fibrosis of pancreatic, kidney and liver tissues were significantly improved after administration. Additionally, the expression levels of TLR4, NF-κB and NLRP3 in pancreas, kidney and liver of diabetic mice were significantly lowered. The expression levels of p-AMPK/AMPK were enhanced significantly in kidney and liver of mice in Rehmanniae Radix group while in pancreas, kidney and liver in Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata group. This suggests that Rehmanniae Radix and Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata differ in the mechanism of regulating energy metabolism of multiple organs and thereby exerting anti-inflammatory effects to alleviate symptoms of diabetic mice.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Plant Extracts , Rehmannia , Signal Transduction , Streptozocin
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 36(4): e360403, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248543

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To study effects of Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharides (RGP) on bone tissue structure and skeletal muscle atrophy in rats with disuse. Methods A rat model of disuse osteoporosis combined with muscle atrophy was established by removing the bilateral ovaries of rats and fixing their hind limbs for a long time. Forty SD rats were administered intragastrically for 12 weeks. The bone histomorphometry parameters and the level of oxidative stress were measured. In addition, the changes of muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF1), forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) mRNA expression in skeletal muscle of rats were observed. Results RGP significantly increased the percentage of fluorescence perimeter and bone mineralization deposition rate of the second lumbar vertebrae of rats. It also significantly increased the wet weight ratio and muscle fiber cross-sectional area of the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. At the same time, RGP significantly increased the levels of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the skeletal muscle of rats, and reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharides also significantly reduced the expression levels of FOXO1, MAFbx and MuRF1 mRNA in rat skeletal muscle. Conclusions RGP could improve the bone structure of osteoporotic rats. It could also improve muscle that atrophy may be related to the inhibition of FOXO1-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rehmannia , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Bone and Bones , Muscular Atrophy/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828407

ABSTRACT

Osteoporosis fracture with high disability and mortality is a difficult problem that seriously affects the life quality of individuals. At present, there is still a lack of anti-osteoporosis drugs with clear target and significant efficacy in the clinical practice. Rehmanniae Radix and its prescriptions have significant clinical effects. In this regard, more and more studies have reported the effects and mechanisms of Rehmanniae Radix and its active components, and the certain research outputs have been achieved. In this article, the PubMed, Web of science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang database were searched to collect and organize the latest research progress of Rehmanniae Radix treatment of osteoporosis in the recent 10 years. We summarized the research dynamics as well as the function indexes and mechanisms of the raw and processed Rehmanniae Radix, active ingredients such as catalpol, aucubin, acteoside and Rehmanniae Radix polysaccharide, and their formulating prescriptions, and then excavated the potential active ingredients, targets and signaling pathways, including the effect on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, promoting the osteoblast proliferation and promoting osteogenesis differentiation(increasing alkaline phosphatase, typeⅠ collagen, osteoprotegerin, and osteocalcin and promoting calcium deposits), increasing the bone density, inhibiting the osteoclast quantity and differentiation, promoting the osteoclast apoptosis, and reducing tartrate resistant acid phosphatase and bone resorption pit area to provide the reference and develop new ideas for developing Rehmanniae Radix prescriptions for treatment of osteoporosis and exploring its mechanism.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis , Rehmannia
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828372

ABSTRACT

To establish the HPLC-ELSD specific chromatogram analysis method of Rehmanniae Radix and Rehmanniae Radix Prae-parata, and analyze and compare their chemical compositions, so as to reveal the change regularity of compositions during the proces-sing. By HPLC-ELSD method, the chromatographic column for Prevail Carbohydrate ES(4.6 mm ×250 mm, 5 μm) was adopted, with acetonitrile(A)-water(B) as mobile phase for gradient elution, and the evaporative light-scattering detector was used. A total of 23 batches of Rehmannia Radix samples, and 25 batches of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata samples and processing dynamic samples were compared. The established method had a great repeatability, precision and stability. Eight common chromatographic peaks were extracted from 23 batches of Rehmanniae Radix samples, 8 common peaks were extracted from 25 Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata, and 7 chromatographic peaks were identified. The composition ratio of Rehmannia Radix was changed greatly during the processing. When the simila-rity≥0.95 and the fructose peak area was more than 2 times of stachyose tetrahydrate or more than 20 times of raffinose, the processing degree conformed to the requirements of empirical identification. The three main oligosaccharides of Rehmanniae Radix were sucrose that was heated to generate fructose and glucose, stachyose tetrahydrate that was heated to generate melibiose, sucrose and fructose, and stachyose tetrahydrate that was heated to generate manninotriose. The change in the index of proportion between monosaccharides and oligosaccharides can be used as the quantitative criterion for the processing quality of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Monosaccharides , Plant Roots , Rehmannia
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777532

ABSTRACT

To compare the blood-cooling and hemostasis effects of Rehmanniae Radix before and after carbonizing on rats with blood heat and hemorrhage syndrome. The blood heat and hemorrhage syndrome rat model was established. Indexes including rectal temperature,whole blood viscosity,plasma viscosity,thrombin time(TT),activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT),prothrombin time(PT),fibrinogen content(FIB),red blood cell(RBC),hemoglobin(Hb),hematocrit(HCT),blood platelet count(PLT),mean platelet volume(MPV),serum IL-1,serum IL-6 and lung histopathology were detected to investigate the blood-cooling and hemostasis effects of Rehmanniae Radix and its carbonized products. Compared with the blank control group,the rectal temperature was significantly increased with rise of the high,middle and low whole blood viscosities and plasma viscosity(P<0.05); both the high and low whole blood restore viscosity and the high and low whole blood relative viscosity were increased significantly(P< 0.05); TT,APTT and PT were notably prolonged with the increase in FIB content(P<0.05); RBC,Hb and HCT increased significantly(P< 0.05); concentrations of serum IL-1 and IL-6 were also increased(P< 0.05) in model group. Additionally,obvious hemorrhages in lung and stomach were observed in rats of the model group. Rehmanniae Radix and its carbonized products can significantly reduce rectal temperature,high middle and low whole blood viscosities and plasma viscosity(P<0.05). TT and APTT were shortened,with lower expression of FIB in group of Rehmannia Radix and its carbonized products. Hemorrhages of lung and stomach were improved by Rehmannia Radix and its carbonized products. The results indicated that Rehmannia Radix before and after carbonizing had the hemostasis and blood-cooling effects by promoting coagulation,improving blood rheology and inhibiting expressions of IL-1 and IL-6.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Coagulation , Blood Viscosity , Body Temperature , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Hemorrhage , Drug Therapy , Hemostasis , Interleukin-1 , Metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Metabolism , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Plant Roots , Rats , Rehmannia , Chemistry , Thrombin Time
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777505

ABSTRACT

The consecutive monoculture obstacle is a major problem in the field of Rehmannia glutinosa( R. glutinosa),has severely declined the yield and quality of R. glutinosa. Here,using hi TAIL-PCR and RACE techniques,we have cloned the full-length transcript( 1 573 bp) of Unigene 29334_All screened by DGE as a consecutive monoculture obstacle response gene of R. glutinosa. Based on ORF Finder prediction,all ORFs detected in the full-length transcript were less than 300 nt,which suggested that the above transcript was confirmed to be a long non-coding RNA( LncRNA). With alignment in R. glutinosa transcriptome,this LncRNA was partially homologous to alanine glyoxylate transaminase 2 gene( Rg AGT2),which was named LncRNA-RgATG2. To further explore the function of LncRNA-RgAGT2,we have examined expression patterns of LncRNA-RgAGT2 and Rg AGT2 at five critical development stages( seedling,elongation,pre-expanding,mid-expanding,late-expanding) in the first and second year replanting of R. glutinosa,respectively. The results indicated that LncRNA-RgAGT2,as a potential regulator,is possible to play a vital role in Rg AGT2 expression regulation. Meanwhile,LncRNA-RgAGT2 has presented significant variation in all development stages of R. glutinosa,which could be used as a " diagnostic label" to assess consecutive monoculture obstacle. This study,for the first time,showed that LncRNA was responsible for the response and regulation of consecutive monoculture obstacle,which would be a powerful supplement to reveal the molecular mechanisms of consecutive monoculture obstacle of R. glutinosa.


Subject(s)
Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression , RNA, Long Noncoding , Rehmannia , Transcriptome
16.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 103-110, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760557

ABSTRACT

We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of Pyunkang-tang extract (PGT), a complex herbal extract based on traditional Chinese medicine that is used in Korea for controlling diverse pulmonary diseases, on cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary pathology in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The constituents of PGT were Lonicerae japonica, Liriope platyphylla, Adenophora triphilla, Xantium strumarinum, Selaginella tamariscina and Rehmannia glutinosa. Rats were exposed by inhalation to a mixture of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and sulfur dioxide for three weeks to induce COPD-like pulmonary inflammation. PGT was administered orally to rats and pathological changes to the pulmonary system were examined in each group of animals through measurement of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) at 21 days post-CSE treatment. The effect of PGT on the hypersecretion of pulmonary mucin in rats was assessed by quantification of the amount of mucus secreted and by examining histopathologic changes in tracheal epithelium. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with PGT for 30 min and then stimulated with CSE plus PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate), for 24 h. The MUC5AC mucin gene expression was measured by RT-PCR. Production of MUC5AC mucin protein was measured by ELISA. The results were as follows: (1) PGT inhibited CSE-induced pulmonary inflammation as shown by decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in BALF; (2) PGT inhibited the hypersecretion of pulmonary mucin and normalized the increased amount of mucosubstances in goblet cells of the CSE-induced COPD rat model; (3) PGT inhibited CSE-induced MUC5AC mucin production and gene expression in vitro in NCI-H292 cells, a human airway epithelial cell line. These results suggest that PGT might regulate the inflammatory aspects of COPD in a rat model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Campanulaceae , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Gene Expression , Goblet Cells , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Inhalation , Interleukin-6 , Korea , Lonicera , Lung Diseases , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Models, Animal , Mucins , Mucus , Necrosis , Pathology , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Rats , Rehmannia , Selaginellaceae , Smoke , Sulfur Dioxide , Tobacco Products
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773237

ABSTRACT

Iridoid synthase( IS),the key enzyme in the natural biosynthesis of vegetal iridoids,catalyzes the irreversible cyclization of 10-oxogeranial to epi-iridodial. In this study,we screened the Rehmannia glutinosa transcriptome data by BLASTn with Catharanthus roseus CrIS cDNA,and found four c DNA fragments with length of 1 527,1 743,1 425,1 718 bp,named RgIS1,RgIS2,RgIS3 and RgIS4,respectively. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the four iridoid synthase genes encoding proteins with 389-392 amino acid residues,protein molecular weights were between 44. 30-44. 74 k Da,and theoretical isoelectric points were between 5. 30 and 5. 87. Subcellular localization predictions showed that the four iridoid synthase were distributed in the cytoplasm. Structure analysis revealed that R. glutinosa iridoid synthases contain six conserved short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase( SDR) motifs,and their 3 D models were composed typical dinucleotide-binding " Rossmann" folds covered by helical C-terminal extensions. Using the amino acid sequences of four R. glutinosa iridoid synthases,phylogenetic analysis was performed,the result indicated that RgIS3,CrIS and Olea europaea OeIS were grouped together,the other R. glutinosa iridoid synthases and fifteen proteins in other plants had close relationship. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR revealed that RgIS1 and RgIS3 highly expressed in unfold leaves,however,RgIS2 and RgIS4 highly expressed in stems and tuberous roots,respectively. RgIS3 showed higher expression levels in non-radial striations( nRS) of the two cultivars,and RgIS1 and RgIS2 had higher expression levels in nRS of QH,while RgIS4 had less expression levels in nRS of QH1. RgIS1,RgIS2 and RgIS3 were up-regulated by Me JA treatment,although the time and degree of response differed. Our findings are helpful to reveal molecular function of R. glutinosa iridoid synthases and provide a clue for studing the molecular mechanism of iridoid biosynthesis.


Subject(s)
Cloning, Molecular , Genes, Plant , Iridoids , Metabolism , Ligases , Genetics , Phylogeny , Rehmannia , Genetics
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775358

ABSTRACT

The history of Rehmannia glutinosa breeding has already beyond 100 years. There are rich cultivated varieties and wild germplasm resources in R. glutinosa. However, there also exist a lot of problems, such as, the pedigree of the existing varieties is not clear, the genetic basis is narrow, backward method of germplasm enhancement and breeding. Breeding of new varieties has been unable to meet the demand of R. glutinosa production in the new era. This paper summarizes the species of Rehmannia and their distribution, the diversity of plant morphology and the quality of R. glutinosa germplasm resources, as well as the progress of R. glutinosa breeding in recent 100 years. For ensuring the orderly, effective and safe production of R. glutinosa, the authors suggest to establish the wild resources protection area and germplasm resources garden, deeply study the genetic base of quality, strengthen application of new breeding method such as mutation breeding, haploid breeding and gene editing.


Subject(s)
Plant Breeding , Plants, Medicinal , Genetics , Rehmannia , Genetics
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775357

ABSTRACT

The study aims at evaluating genetic diversity and medicinal quality of cultivated germplasm in Rehmannia glutinosa, and providing theoretical guidance for screening excellent germplasm. The genetic diversity of 21 species of R. glutinosa were analyzed by SRAP molecular markers, and the catalpol and verbascoside was determined by HPLC. The mass fraction of catalpol and verbascoside in R. glutinosa germplasm were respectively in the range of 2.393%-6.519% and 0.063%-0.478%, the germplasm 14, 16, 15 and 20 germplasm, witch catalpol and verbascoside content was higher. A total of 57 bands were produced by 10 primer, among which 40 polymorphic bands were polymorphic bands, and the percentage of polymorphic loci was 8.77%-54.39%, the Nei's genetic diversity index (H) was 0.374 1, Shannon's polymorphism information index (I) was 0.546 6. Gst and gene flow Nm were 0.608 8 and 0.321 3, respectively. Based on the genetic uniformity, 21 species of germplasm were grouped into 2 categories. The genetic diversity level of R. glutinosa was medium low. The comprehensive consideration of the genetic diversity and the content inculde catalpol and verbascoside, germplasm 7 and germplasm 18 could be used as the preferred materials for the cultivation of reticulum. Germplasm 15 and 16 can be used as the preservation and breeding object of rhubarb germplasm.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gene Flow , Genetic Variation , Phylogeny , Plant Breeding , Plants, Medicinal , Genetics , Rehmannia , Genetics
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773582

ABSTRACT

Catalpol, a major bioactive component from Rehmannia glutinosa, which has been used to treat diabetes. The present study was designed to elucidate the anti-diabetic effect and mechanism of action for catalpol in db/db mice. The db/db mice were randomly divided into six groups (10/group) according to their blood glucose levels: db/db control, metformin (positive control), and four dose levels of catalpol treatment (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg·kg), and 10 db/m mice were used as the normal control. All the groups were administered orally for 8 weeks. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), random blood glucose (RBG), glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, and glycated serum protein (GSP) and the globe gene expression in liver tissues were analyzed. Our results showed that catalpol treatment obviously reduced water intake and food intake in a dose-dependent manner. Catalpol treatment also remarkably reduce fasting blood glucose (FBG) and random blood glucose (RBG) in a dose-dependent manner. The RBG-lowering effect of catalpol was better than that of metformin. Furthermore, catalpol significantly improved glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance via increasing insulin sensitivity. Catalpol treatment significantly decreased GSP level. The comparisons of gene expression in liver tissues among normal control mice, db/db mice and catalpol treated mice (200 and 100 mg·kg) indicated that there were significant increases in the expressions of 287 genes, whichwere mainly involved in lipid metabolism, response to stress, energy metabolism, and cellular processes, and significant decreases in the expressions of 520 genes, which were mainly involved in cell growth, death, immune system, and response to stress. Four genes expressed differentially were linked to glucose metabolism or insulin signaling pathways, including Irs1 (insulin receptor substrate 1), Idh2 (isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (NADP), mitochondrial), G6pd2 (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 2), and SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3). In conclusion, catalpol ecerted significant hypoglycemic effect and remarkable therapeutic effect in db/db mice via modulating various gene expressions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose , Metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gene Expression , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase , Genetics , Metabolism , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Metabolism , Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Iridoid Glucosides , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Genetics , Metabolism , Liver , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Rehmannia , Chemistry , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 Protein , Genetics , Metabolism
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