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3.
Clinics ; 76: e2812, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249575

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We sought to analyze the hemodynamic effects of the multilayer flow-modulated stent (MFMS) in Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs). METHODS: The hemodynamic effects of MFMS were analyzed in aortic thoracoabdominal aneurysms in experimental swine models. We randomly assigned 18 pigs to the stent or control groups and underwent the creation of an artificial bovine pericardium transrenal aneurysm. In the stent group, an MFMS (Cardiatis, Isnes, Belgium) was immediately implanted. After 4 weeks, we evaluated aneurysm sac thrombosis and renal branch patency by angiography, duplex scan, and morphological analysis. RESULTS: All the renal arteries remained patent after re-evaluation in both groups. Aneurysmal sac thrombosis was absent in the control group, whereas in the stent group it was present in 66.7% of aneurysmal sacs (p=0.061). The mean final aneurysm sac diameter was significantly lower in the stent group (mean estimated reduction, 6.90 mm; p=0.021). The proximal neck diameter decreased significantly in the stent group (mean difference, 2.51 mm; p=0.022) and grew significantly in the control group (mean difference, 3.02 mm; p=0.007). The distal neck diameter increased significantly in the control group (mean difference, 3.24 mm; p=0.017). There were no significant findings regarding distal neck measurements in the stent group. CONCLUSION: The MFMSs remained patent and did not obstruct the renal arteries within 4 weeks. In the stent group, the device was also associated with a significant decrease in aneurysmal sac diameter and a large proportion (albeit non-significant) of aneurysmal sac thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aortic Aneurysm , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation , Endovascular Procedures , Prosthesis Design , Renal Artery/surgery , Renal Artery/diagnostic imaging , Swine , Blood Vessel Prosthesis , Cattle , Stents , Treatment Outcome , Models, Theoretical
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 336-339, abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056444

ABSTRACT

La irrigación renal incluye la arteria renal y las arterias renales accesorias. Uno de estos vasos accesorios es la arteria polar renal superior o inferior. Estos vasos tienen un desarrollo embrionario y un origen anatómico similar a la arteria renal, tanto en la aorta abdominal como en sus ramas. Irrigan los segmentos renales correspondientes y se ha observado que su obliteración puede ser causa de aumento de la presión arterial, al estimular un aumento de renina circulante. El objetivo de este trabajo, es presentar un reporte de caso clínico de paciente masculino de 24 años, sin antecedentes mórbidos. Consulta por un cuadro de cefalea y mareos de 2 semanas de evolución. Clínicamente se pesquisó aumento de presión arterial y obesidad, sin fiebre ni otros hallazgos significativos. Los exámenes complementarios arrojan las siguientes alteraciones: triglicéridos (aumentados), presión arterial (aumentada), renina (aumentada) y AngioTac de abdomen evidenció una arteria renal polar accesoria superior izquierda, con estenosis vascular. La literatura indica que la hipertensión arterial esta correlacionada con la obstrucción parcial o total de una arteria renal o de una rama accesoria. Esta alteración en la disminución del flujo sanguíneo podría estimular la liberación de renina al torrente sanguíneo, afectando la presión arterial. Nuestros hallazgos concuerdan con lo descrito en la literatura y requieren ser considerados en el diagnóstico de hipertensión arterial. Este caso evidencia la necesidad de realizar una revisión exhaustiva de la base anatómica de la medicina con un enfoque integrativo, lo que permitirá mejorar el diagnóstico, el tratamiento y el pronóstico de patologías donde esta información es poco clara o inexistente.


The kidney irrigation includes the renal artery and the accessory renal arteries. One of these accessory vessels is the superior or inferior renal polar artery. These vessels have an embryonic development and an anatomical origin similar to the renal artery, both in the abdominal aorta but also of its branches. Irrigate the corresponding renal segments and it has been observed that their obliteration may cause increased blood pressure, by stimulating an increase in circulating renin. The objective of this work is to present a clinical case report of a 24year-old male patient, with no morbid history. Consultation due to headache and dizziness symptoms with 2 weeks of evolution. Clinically increased blood pressure and obesity, without fever or other significant findings. Corresponding exams showed the following changes: triglycerides (increased), blood pressure (increased), renin (increased) and abdominal AngioTac showed a left upper accessory polar renal artery with vascular stenosis. The literature indicates that arterial hypertension is correlated with partial or total obstruction of a renal artery or an accessory branch. This alteration in the decrease in blood flow could stimulate the release of renin into the bloodstream, affecting blood pressure. Our findings agree with what is described in the literature and need to be considered in the diagnosis of arterial hypertension. This case demonstrates the need for an exhaustive review of the anatomical basis of medicine with an integrative approach. This would improve diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of pathologies where this information is unclear or non-existent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Renal Artery/abnormalities , Hypertension , Renal Artery/diagnostic imaging
5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(5): 1022-1032, Sept.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040074

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose This hybrid retrospective and prospective study performed on 200 consecutive patients undergoing renal CTA, investigates the opacification of renal vasculature, radiation dose, and reader confidence. Materials and Methods 100 patients were assigned retrospectively to protocol A and the other 100 were allocated prospectively to protocol B. Both protocols implemented a contrast material and saline flow rate of 4.5 mL/sec. Protocol A utilized a 100 mL of low-osmolar nonionic IV contrast material (Ioversol 350 mg I/mL) while protocol B employed a patient-tailored contrast media formula using iso-osmolar non-ionic (Iodixanol 320 mg I/mL). Results Arterial opacification in the abdominal aorta and in the bilateral main proximal renal arteries demonstrated no statistical significance (p>0.05). Only the main distal renal artery of the left kidney in protocol B was statistically significant (p<0.046). In the venous circulation, the IVC demonstrated a significant reduction in opacification in protocol B (59.39 HU ± 19.39) compared to A (87.74 HU ± 34.06) (p<0.001). Mean CNR for protocol A (22.68 HU ± 13.72) was significantly higher than that of protocol B (14.75 HU ± 5.76 p< 0.0001). Effective dose was significantly reduced in protocol B (2.46 ± 0.74 mSv) compared to A (3.07 ± 0.68 mSv) (p<0.001). Mean contrast media volume was reduced in protocol B (44.56 ± 14.32 mL) with lower iodine concentration. ROC analysis demonstrated significantly higher area under the ROC curve for protocol B (p< 0.0001), with inter-reader agreement increasing from moderate to excellent in renal arterial visualization. Conclusion Employing a patient-tailored contrast media injection protocol shows a significant refinement in the visualization of renal vasculature and reader confidence during renal CTA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Renal Artery/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media/administration & dosage , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Kidney/blood supply , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Radiation Dosage , Reference Values , Renal Veins/diagnostic imaging , Triiodobenzoic Acids/administration & dosage , Logistic Models , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Computed Tomography Angiography/standards , Middle Aged
7.
J. vasc. bras ; 17(1): f:81-l:88, jan.-mar. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-905078

ABSTRACT

Nos últimos anos, balões farmacológicos surgiram como promissora alternativa terapêutica em intervenções endovasculares. Com essa tecnologia, transferem-se drogas antiproliferativas à parede arterial, sem a necessidade de implante metálico para liberação. Descreve-se o caso de um paciente com uma segunda recidiva de reestenose intra-stent renal tratada por angioplastia com balão coberto por droga, com boa evolução clínica caracterizada por adequado controle pressórico e redução de classes e dosagem dos anti-hipertensivos. Os resultados obtidos com balões farmacológicos em outros territórios e esta experiência isolada podem contribuir como sugestão para o uso desses dispositivos na reestenose intra-stent renal, com resultados iniciais satisfatórios


During recent years, drug-coated balloons (DCBs) have emerged as a promising therapeutic option. DCBs directly transfer antiproliferative drugs to the arterial wall in order to decrease myointimal hyperplasia. We describe a case of de novo renal artery in-stent restenosis (ISR) treated with drug-coated balloon angioplasty with acceptable short-term results, achieving blood pressure control using fewer antihypertensive agents. The experience and results obtained with DCBs in other territories could suggest and justify use of this technology in renal artery ISR


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angioplasty, Balloon/methods , Renal Artery/diagnostic imaging , Stents , Angiography/methods , Aorta, Abdominal , Blood Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Catheterization/methods , Endovascular Procedures/methods
8.
Clinics ; 72(7): 411-414, July 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890712

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the presence of clinical symptoms of peripheral artery disease and severe renal artery stenosis in patients referred for renal angiography. METHOD: We included 82 patients with clinical suspicion of renovascular hypertension and performed an imaging investigation (renal Doppler ultrasound and/or renal scintigraphy) for possible renal artery stenosis. All patients underwent renal arteriography and were examined for peripheral artery disease based on the presence of intermittent claudication and ankle-brachial index test results. Severe renal artery stenosis was defined as a lesion causing 70% obstruction. RESULTS: Severe renal artery stenosis was present in 32 of 82 (39%) patients. Patients with severe renal artery stenosis were older (63±12 vs 56±12 years, p=0.006), had more intermittent claudication (55 vs 45%, p=0.027), and had a greater prevalence of an ankle-brachial index <0.9 (44% vs 20%, p=0.021) than patients without severe renal artery stenosis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of intermittent claudication was independently associated with renal artery stenosis ≥70% (OR: 3.33; 95% CI 1.03-10.82, p=0.04), unlike the ankle-brachial index, which showed no association (OR: 1.44; 95% CI 0.37-5.66, p=0.60). CONCLUSION: Intermittent claudication is independently associated with severe renal artery stenosis (≥70%) in patients clinically suspected of having renovascular hypertension.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Hypertension, Renovascular/complications , Intermittent Claudication/complications , Renal Artery Obstruction/complications , Renal Artery/diagnostic imaging , Angiography , Hypertension, Renovascular/diagnostic imaging , Intermittent Claudication/diagnostic imaging , Radionuclide Imaging , Renal Artery Obstruction/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Ultrasonography, Doppler
9.
J. vasc. bras ; 15(4): 280-286, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841393

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Knowledge of testicular artery variations is vital to ensure that they are not neglected during a variety of different operative techniques, since damage can cause testicular atrophy. Objectives The present study was therefore intended to identify variants in the origin and course of the testicular arteries. An attempt was made to classify the arteries based on their various origins. Methods This study examined 42 formalin-fixed cadavers of 40 to 70-year-old adult males. Variant origins of the testicular artery were identified and classified. Variations in the origin and course of the artery were colored, photographed, and documented. The distances between the origins of the testicular arteries and the mid-points of the origins of the renal arteries were measured. Results Testicular arteries were classified into four categories on the basis of origin. This variability was defined in relation to the renal and inferior mesenteric arteries. The mean distance between the origin of the testicular artery and the mid-point of the origin of the renal artery were 3.08 and 3.47 cm, on the right and left sides respectively. Variations were almost exclusively found on the left side. The variations observed included multiple arterial twigs forming the testicular artery, suprarenal arteries arising from the testicular artery, and testicular artery duplication. Conclusion This study provides an insight into variations in the testicular artery and proposes a classification which could help surgeons during a variety of procedures on the male abdomen and pelvis.


Resumo Contexto O conhecimento de variações da artéria testicular é vital para assegurar que essas artérias não serão negligenciadas durante a realização de diferentes técnicas operatórias, já que qualquer dano poderia causar atrofia testicular. Objetivos Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar variações na origem e no trajeto das artérias testiculares. Foi feita uma tentativa de classificar as artérias com base em suas diferentes origens. Métodos Este estudo examinou 42 cadáveres de adultos do sexo masculino com idade entre 40 e 70 anos preservados em formol. As diferentes origens da artéria testicular foram identificadas e classificadas. Variações na origem e no trajeto da artérias foram coloridas, fotografadas e documentadas. Foram medidas as distâncias entre a origem das artérias testiculares e o ponto médio da origem das artérias renais. Resultados As artérias testiculares foram classificadas em quatro categorias com base em sua origem. Essa variabilidade foi definida com relação às artérias renal e mesentérica inferior. A distância média entre a origem da artéria testicular e o ponto médio da origem da artéria renal foi de 3,08 e 3,47 cm nos lados direito e esquerdo, respectivamente. As variações foram encontradas quase exclusivamente no lado esquerdo. As variações observadas incluíram múltiplos ramúsculos formando a artéria testicular, artérias suprarrenais surgindo a partir da artéria testicular, e duplicação da artéria testicular. Conclusão Este estudo traz informações sobre variações da artéria testicular e propõe uma classificação que poderia ajudar os cirurgiões durante diferentes procedimentos realizados no abdome e na pelve de pacientes do sexo masculino.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aorta, Abdominal/anatomy & histology , Aorta, Abdominal/physiology , Renal Artery/anatomy & histology , Dissection/classification , Renal Artery/diagnostic imaging
10.
West Indian med. j ; 62(7): 667-671, Sept. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045723

ABSTRACT

Extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysms are rare. They may result in thromboembolic phenomena but spontaneous rupture is rare. The clinical presentation may be an asymptomatic neck mass or there may be symptoms of upper aerodigestive tract compression. The diagnosis may be suspected on clinical examination but radiologic investigations play an important role in diagnosis as well as in assessing the risk of complications of surgical intervention. We present a case of a patient with an extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysm, along with a short review of the treatment options.


Los aneurismas de la arteria carótida interna extracraneal son raros. Pueden ocasionar fenómenos tromboembólicos pero la ruptura espontánea no es común. La manifestación clínica puede ser una masa asintomático en el cuello, o pueden presentarse síntomas de compresión de las vías aerodigestivas superiores. Pueden producirse indicios para el diagnóstico a partir de sospechas durante el examen clínico, pero las investigaciones radiológicas desempeñan un papel importante a la hora de diagnosticar, y evaluar el riesgo de complicaciones de la intervención quirúrgica. Presentamos un caso de un paciente con un aneurisma de la arteria carótida interna extracraneal, junto con una breve reseña de las opciones de tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Vascular Surgical Procedures/methods , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery, Internal , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/diagnostic imaging , Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Renal Artery/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery Diseases/surgery , Carotid Artery, Internal/surgery , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Aneurysm/surgery
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202310

ABSTRACT

Percutaneous catheter-based therapy has recently been introduced to decrease blood pressure by ablation of efferent and afferent sympathetic renal nerves. The patient described here had a seven-year history of hypertension and presented with poorly controlled blood pressure despite antihypertensive therapy with four different drugs. A 44-yr-old man underwent percutaneous renal denervation under local anesthesia using an ablation catheter. After six months of follow-up his blood pressure had dropped 49/37 mmHg with a decrease in 24-hr ambulatory BP of 20/18 mmHg. Renal Doppler ultrasound showed no significant stenosis in either renal artery. This is the first case of successful percutaneous renal denervation, which has recently become available in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Pressure , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Heart Failure/complications , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Male , Renal Artery/diagnostic imaging , Republic of Korea , Sympathectomy
12.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2009 Feb; 76(2): 218-20
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-80668

ABSTRACT

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a rare neuroradiologic condition associated with headache, seizures, altered sensorium, visual disturbances, and characteristic lesions on neuroimaging predominantly affecting the posterior regions of the brain. We report a 10-years-8-months-old girl who presented with headache, multiple seizures, and altered sensorium. Her blood pressure was 130/100 mmHg and left brachial pulse was not palpable. CT scan brain showed typical non-enhancing hypodensities in bilateral parieto-occiptal lobes. Prompt treatment of the hypertension led to rapid reversal of neurological symptoms. CT aortogram revealed aortoarteritis with bilateral renal artery stenosis.


Subject(s)
Brain/blood supply , Brain/physiopathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Hypertension/etiology , Infant , Kidney/blood supply , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Renal Artery/physiopathology , Renal Artery/diagnostic imaging , Renal Artery Obstruction/complications , Renal Artery Obstruction/physiopathology , Renal Artery Obstruction/diagnostic imaging , Takayasu Arteritis/complications , Takayasu Arteritis/physiopathology , Takayasu Arteritis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
Bulletin of Alexandria Faculty of Medicine. 2009; 45 (4): 697-712
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-100720

ABSTRACT

Renal artery stenosis is most commonly due to either fibromuscular dysplasia or atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis accounts for 90 percent of cases of renal-artery stenosis. Renal-artery stenosis may occur alone [isolated anatomical renal-artery stenosis] or in association with hypertension, renal insufficiency [ischemic nephropathy], or both. The aim of the present work was to study the role of renovascular disease as a novel risk marker of cognitive impairment in elderly. The study included 80 patients divided into 4 groups: Group 1: 20 cases of elderly patients above 65 years and suffering from grade 2 or 3 CKD. Group II: 20 cases aged 20-40 years and suffering from grade 2 or 3 CKD. Group III: 20 healthy controls aged above 65 years. Group IV: 20 healthy controls aged 20-40. They had been evaluated for their: Clinical condition, including physical examination and history taking, ECG, BMI estimation, MMMS examination, Routine investigation including: complete blood picture with differential counting, bleeding and coagulation time, liver functions tests, lipid profile, fasting and post-prandial plasma glucose, renal function tests, complete urine analysis, 24-hours proteins in urine, assessment of glomerular filtration rate [GFR] by MDRD and creatinine clearance and in addition specific laboratory investigations were done including: Serum CRP using turbidimetry, Microalbuminurea using turbidimetry, v-WF Ag by ELISA, s-ICAM. By ELISA and Duplex study was performed on carotid and renal arteries. The results of the present study showed that there was a significant increase in the BMI in groups land II in comparison to group III which was higher than group IV. The MMMS test was significantly lower in group I in comparison to groups II and III which were in turn significantly lower than group IV. Hemoglobin was significantly lower in groups I and II than group III and IV. Platelets count was significantly lower in groups I and II than group III which was also significantly lower than group IV. Creatinine clearance was significantly lower in groups I and II than in groups III and IV vWF levels were significantly lower in groups land II than in groups III and IV s.ICAM I was significantly higher in groups I and II compared to groups Ill and IV. CRP was significantly increased in groups I and II in comparison to groups III and IV Carotid plaque score was significantly higher in group I than group II which was higher than groups III. Resistive index was significantly lower in groups land II than in groups III and IV Acceleration index was significantly lower in groups I and II than in groups III and IV. A significant positive correlation was found between age and urinary albumin, CRP, and s.ICAM. A significant negative correlation between age and cereatinine clearance and MDRD in groups I, II and III. Reno vascular disease is common in elderly and the most important cause is atherosclerosis in this group of patients. There are many risk factors for cognitive impairment in patients suffering from renovascular disease and most of them are correctable. Renovascular disease can be considered as a novel risk factor of cognitive impairment through many interacting mechanisms


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cognition Disorders , C-Reactive Protein/blood , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/blood , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Renal Artery/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Aged , Risk Factors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173065

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of the use of multi-detector row CT (MDCT) to predict vascular anatomy in living kidney donors and to reveal the prevalence of vascular variations in a Korean population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 153 living kidney donors that had undergone preoperative CT and nephrectomy, either with open or laparoscopic surgery, were selected retrospectively. The initial CT results were compared with the surgical findings and repeated review sessions of CT scans were performed to determine the causes of mismatches in discordant cases. RESULTS: The accuracy of CT angiography was 95% to predict the number of renal vessels. Four arteries and two veins were missed during the initial CT interpretation due to perception errors (for two arteries and two veins) and technical limitations (two arteries). The prevalence of multiple renal arteries and veins, early branching of a renal artery and late confluence of a renal vein were 31%, 5%, 12%, 17%, respectively. The circumaortic renal vein and the bilateral inferior vena cava were found in two cases each (1.3%). One case (0.7%) each of a retroaortic renal vein and a supradiaphragmatic originated renal artery were found. CONCLUSION: MDCT provides a reliable method to evaluate the vascular anatomy and variations of living kidney donors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiography/methods , Female , Humans , Kidney/blood supply , Living Donors , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Artery/diagnostic imaging , Renal Veins/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/standards , Young Adult
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211217

ABSTRACT

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an acute viral disease characterized by fever, hemorrhage and renal failure. Among the various hemorrhagic complications of HFRS, spontaneous rupture of the kidney and perirenal hematoma are very rare findings. We report here on a case of HFRS complicated by massive perirenal hematoma, and this was treated with transcatheter arterial embolization.


Subject(s)
Embolization, Therapeutic , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome/complications , Humans , Kidney Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Artery/diagnostic imaging
17.
Indian Heart J ; 2003 Mar-Apr; 55(2): 175-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-3430

ABSTRACT

A 23-year-old female patient with type III nonspecific aortoarteritis (Takayasu's arteritis) presented with multiple obstructive lesions and severe congestive heart failure. Large, cutting balloons 5-8 mm in diameter were used to dilate lesions in the abdominal aorta, both renal arteries, right common carotid artery, proximal left subclavian artery, and ostium of the left vertebral artery. Wide luminal expansion without residual stenosis, substantial dissection or need for adjunctive stenting was achieved at all six angioplasty sites. The use of cutting balloons appears suitable for treating obstructive lesions in aortoarteritis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , Aorta, Abdominal/diagnostic imaging , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation , Carotid Artery, Common/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Renal Artery/diagnostic imaging , Stents , Subclavian Artery/diagnostic imaging , Takayasu Arteritis/diagnosis , Vertebral Artery/diagnostic imaging
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-171857

ABSTRACT

In stenosis of a segmental branch or among multiple renal arteries, Doppler sampling of intrarenal arteries in the upper, mid and lower poles demonstrates strikingly different waveform patterns that might otherwise be overlooked. We report a case of segmental branch renal artery stenosis in which a pulsus parvus et tardus waveform was observed in a segmental branch of a renal artery. In this case, systematic analysis of Doppler waveforms of intrarenal arteries at more than three different locations facilitated a rapid and confident diagnosis of seg-mental branch renal artery stenosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Renal Artery/diagnostic imaging , Renal Artery Obstruction/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Doppler
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