Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 491
Filter
1.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(2): 129-136, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364370

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Headache is one of the most frequent symptoms that occur during hemodialysis sessions. Despite the high prevalence of dialysis headache, it has been little studied. Objective: To evaluate the characteristics, impact and factors associated with dialysis headache. The behavior of the cerebral vasculature was also compared between patients with and without dialysis headache. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Consecutive patients who underwent hemodialysis were assessed through a semi-structured questionnaire, the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was performed in the first and fourth hours of hemodialysis. Results: A total of 100 patients were included; 49 of them had dialysis headache. Women (OR=5.04; 95%CI 1.95-13.04), younger individuals (OR=1.05; 95%CI 1.01-1.08), individuals with higher schooling levels (OR=3.86; 95%CI 1.4-10.7) and individuals who had spent longer times on dialysis programs (OR=0.99; 95%CI 0.98-1) had more dialysis headache (logistic regression). Individuals with dialysis headache had worse quality of life in the domains of pain and general state of health (56.9 versus 76.4, p=0.01; 49.7 versus 60.2, p=0.03, respectively). Dialysis headache was associated with significantly greater impact on life (OR=24.4; 95%CI 2.6-226.6; logistic regression). The pulsatility index (transcranial Doppler ultrasonography) was lower among patients with dialysis headache than among those without them. Conclusions: Dialysis headaches occur frequently and are associated with worse quality of life and patterns of cerebral vasodilatation.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A cefaleia é um dos sintomas mais frequentes que ocorrem durante as sessões de hemodiálise. Apesar da alta prevalência, essa cefaleia é pouco estudada. Objetivo: Avaliar as características, impacto e fatores associados à cefaleia da diálise. O comportamento da vasculatura cerebral também foi comparado entre pacientes com e sem cefaleia da diálise. Métodos: Este foi um estudo transversal. Pacientes consecutivos submetidos à hemodiálise foram avaliados por meio de questionário semiestruturado, do Headache Impact Test (HIT-6), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale e Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). Foi realizada ultrassonografia Doppler transcraniana na primeira e na quarta horas de hemodiálise. Resultados: Foram incluídos 100 pacientes, 49 deles tinham cefaleia da diálise. Mulheres (OR=5,04; IC95% 1,95-13,04), indivíduos mais jovens (OR=1,05; IC95% 1,01-1,08), com maior escolaridade (OR=3,86; IC95% 1,4-10,7) e que passaram mais tempo em programas de diálise (OR=0,99, IC95% 0,98-1) tiveram mais cefaleia da diálise (regressão logística). Indivíduos com cefaleia dialítica tiveram pior qualidade de vida nos domínios dor e estado geral de saúde (56,9 versus 76,4, p=0,01; 49,7 versus 60,2, p=0,03, respectivamente). A cefaleia da diálise foi associada a um impacto significativamente maior na vida (OR=24,4; IC95% 2,6-226,6; regressão logística). O índice de pulsatilidade (ultrassonografia Doppler transcraniana) foi menor entre os pacientes com cefaleia da diálise do que entre aqueles sem. Conclusões: A cefaleia da diálise ocorre com frequência e está associada a pior qualidade de vida e a padrões de vasodilatação cerebral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Quality of Life , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Headache/etiology , Headache/diagnostic imaging
2.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 811-820, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349981

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Cardiovascular diseases represent the main cause of death in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and association of the hypertriglyceridemia-waist phenotype (HWP) and visceral adiposity index (VAI) with cardiometabolic risk factors (CR) in patients with CKD on hemodialysis (HD). Materials and methods: The study is based on a cross-sectional design with 265 HD patients in two cities in northeastern Brazil. The VAI was calculated considering the variables body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), triglycerides (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). HWP was defined as the concomitant elevation of WC and TG. The Poisson Regression Model with robust variance estimation was adjusted considering a hierarchical approach for explanatory variables. Prevalence ratios (PR) were also estimated. The level of significance adopted was 5%. Results: In our study HWP and VAI prevalence's were 29.82% and 58.49%, respectively. In the final model, there was an association between VAI and female gender (PR = 1.46; p < 0.0001) and high body fat (% BF) (PR = 1.33; p < 0.0019). HWP was associated with females (PR = 1.80; p = 0.002), alcohol consumption (PR = 1.58; p = 0.033), obesity (PR = 1.89; p = 0.0001), high %BF (PR = 1.76; p = 0.012) and reduced HDL-c (PR = 1.48; p = 0.035). Conclusion: The HWP stood out as the association with more CR factors, representing a promising method for tracking cardiometabolic risk in HD patients, mainly female.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Triglycerides , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Intra-Abdominal Fat/metabolism , Adiposity , Waist Circumference , Heart Disease Risk Factors
3.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(6): 822-827, June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346907

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to observe the regularity of blood glucose changes in hemodialysis patients with diabetes, time of onset of hypoglycemia and blood glucose level during dialysis, and to explore the sensitive early warning indicators of hypoglycemia in dialysis patients. BACKGROUND: Diabetes patients have a high incidence of hypoglycemia during hemodialysis. METHODS: A total of 124 maintenance hemodialysis patients with diabetes were selected for this study. Before dialysis, one, two, and three h after dialysis, and when hypoglycemia symptoms occurred, the blood glucose changes were monitored, the blood glucose drop range was observed when hypoglycemia symptoms occurred, and the correlation between the two was analyzed. RESULTS: After the start of the dialysis, the patient's blood glucose showed a downward trend. The symptoms of hypoglycemia were most obvious within one-two hours, with an incidence rate of 57.9%. When the blood glucose drop percentage reached 37.7%, the specificity and sensitivity of early warning hypoglycemia symptoms were 84.6 and 73%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: For hemodialysis patients with diabetes, attention should be paid to the symptoms of hypoglycemia during dialysis, and blood glucose should be monitored before dialysis and after 1-2 h of dialysis. If the blood glucose drop percentage is greater than 37.7%, the timely measures should be taken.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypoglycemia/diagnosis , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Blood Glucose , Incidence , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects
4.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): e0040, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347261

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A hipertensão ocular aguda durante a hemodiálise constitui evento raro e pode ser causa relevante de interrupção do tratamento dialítico devido à dor. Relata-se o caso de um paciente de 70 anos de idade, do sexo masculino, que apresentou quadros recorrentes de intensa dor ocular unilateral durante sessões dialíticas devido ao aumento de pressão intraocular. O paciente era portador de grave diminuição da acuidade visual no olho direito devido a glaucoma neovascular, controlado com medicação hipotensora tópica. Uma hora após o início da sessão dialítica, apresentou dor excruciante no olho direito, sendo necessário interromper o tratamento por diversas vezes. A dor somente era amenizada com uso de opioides por via endovenosa ou após cerca de 6 horas do procedimento. Injeção intraocular de drogas antiangiogênicas e acetazolamida por via oral, assim como tratamentos tradicionais para quadros agudos de hipertensão intraocular, como uso de hipotensor tópico e medicamentos hiperosmolares, foram insuficientes para o controle da dor. O problema se resolveu com ciclofotocoagulação transescleral realizada com laser diodo, com redução da pressão intraocular basal e controle da dor, o que permitiu a realização de sessões completas de hemodiálise. A base fisiopatológica desse evento incomum e suas opções terapêuticas são discutidas aqui.


ABSTRACT Acute ocular hypertension during hemodialysis is a rare event and may lead to interruption of dialytic therapy due to pain. A case of a 70-year-old male patient is reported, who presented recurrent intense unilateral ocular pain episodes during dialysis sessions for increased intraocular pressure. The patient presented with severely decreased visual acuity in the right eye due to neovascular glaucoma, which was controlled with topical hypotensive medication. One hour after initiating dialysis, he presented an excruciating pain on the right eye, which required interruption of treatment several times. Pain relief was possible only with intravenous opioids, or approximately 6 hours after dialysis. Intraocular injection of antiangiogenic drugs and per oris acetazolamide, as well as other traditional treatments for acute episodes of intraocular hypertension, such as topical antihypertensive agents and hyperosmotic medications, were not sufficient to control pain. The problem was solved with transscleral diode laser cyclophotocoagulation, which reduced baseline intraocular pressure and controlled pain, enabling complete hemodialysis sessions. The pathophysiological aspects and therapeutic options of this unusual condition are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Glaucoma, Neovascular/complications , Ocular Hypertension/etiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Intraocular Pressure , Osmolar Concentration , Aqueous Humor/physiology , Dialysis Solutions , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Acute Pain
5.
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 21(3): e132, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156380

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La fístula arterio-venosa para hemodiálisis es el acceso vascular utilizado con mayor frecuencia. De su adecuada funcionalidad depende la calidad de vida de los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los pacientes a los que se les confeccionó fístulas arterio-venosas para hemodiálisis. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo en 73 pacientes, a los que se les confeccionó una fístula arterio-venosa para hemodiálisis. Las variables de estudio fueron: edad, sexo, tipo de fístula arterio-venosa, localización, complicaciones y tratamiento quirúrgico de las complicaciones. Resultados: Se encontró un predominio del sexo masculino y del grupo etario entre 51 y 60 años. El 94,6 por ciento de las fístulas realizadas fueron autólogas; y, de estas, el 44,1 por ciento, radio-cefálicas. El 27,3 por ciento de las autólogas y el 20 por ciento de las protésicas se presentó trombosis, y el 18,2 por ciento y el 40 por ciento presentaron hipertensión venosa para las autólogas y protésicas, respectivamente. El 43,5 por ciento de los tratamientos realizados frente a las complicaciones resultó la confección de una nueva fístula. Conclusiones: Los pacientes a los que se les confeccionó fístulas arterio-venosas eran predominantemente adultos mayores del sexo masculino y las fístulas más realizadas fueron las autólogas radio-cefálicas. Como principal complicación de las fístulas se encontró la trombosis y se realizaron escasos procederes para el rescate de estas(AU)


Introduction: Arterio-venous fistula for haemodialysis is the most commonly used vascular access. Its proper functionality depends on the quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease. Objective: Describe patients to whom were made arterio-venous fistulas for haemodialysis. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted in 73 patients to whom were made an arterio-venous fistula for haemodialysis. The study variables were: age, sex, type of arterio-venous fistula, location, complications and surgical treatment of complications. Results: It was found a predominance of male sex and the age group of 51 to 60 years. 94.6 percent of the fistulas made were autologous; and, of these, 44.1 percent were radio-cephalic. 27.3 percent of the autologous fistulas and 20 percent of the prosthetics ones developed thrombosis, and 18.2 percent and 40 percent showed venous hypertension for autologous and prosthetic fistulas, respectively. 43.5 percent of the treatments performed to face complications resulted in the making of a new fistula. Conclusions: The patients to whom were made arterio-venous fistulas were predominantly older adults of the male sex and the most performed fistulas were the radio-cephalic autologous. As the main complication of fistulas, thrombosis was found and a few practices were performed to rescue them(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Fistula/surgery
6.
Rev. Col. méd. cir ; 159(1): 3-8, abr 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1096974

ABSTRACT

La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS),declaró el 11 de marzo de 2020, la COVID-19 como una pandemia. Aun cuando se observa el crecimiento epidemiológico de esta pandemia, al momento no contamos con un protocolo de manejo de los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica y trasplante renal que sean afectados por esta enfermedad. Los miembros del Departamento de Nefrología y Trasplante del Hospital General San Juan de Dios de Guatemala, desarrollaron este documento con la finalidad de establecer guías de manejo de los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Betacoronavirus , Patient Isolation/methods , Tissue Donors , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Interferons/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control
7.
Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 15, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088639

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Bone disease is common in patients undergoing hemodialysis. It is the result of bone turnover abnormalities and the decrease of bone mineral density (BMD). We aimed to determine the usefulness of serum bone turnover markers and BMD measurement by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in hemodialysis patients. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 90 hemodialysis for more than 12 months. Bone mineral density was assessed by DXA. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from each patient before dialysis in a fasting state within a week of the DXA. Biochemical variables of calcium and phosphate were measured. One bone formation marker (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP), one bone resorption marker (carboxy-terminal telopeptides of type 1 collagen (CTX)) were measured. Total alkaline phosphatase (TAP), intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) which is a bone-derived hormone were also measured. Results: CTX values were 6.25 times higher than the normal limit of the assay. Bone alkaline phosphatase levels were less than 10 ng/mL in 28.8% of cases. 23% of patients have osteoporosis and 45% have osteopenia. Femoral BMD had negative correlations with age and PTH levels. FGF23 levels were significantly increased in patients with osteoporosis affecting the lumbar. The levels of bAP and CTX showed a positive correlation. Both circulating bAP and CTX levels showed also positive correlations with PTH levels. Fractures, observed in 12.2% of cases, were associated with low PTH values and the existence of osteoporosis. Conclusions: Our study showed that osteoporosis and fracture are common in dialysis patients. The reduced BMD was associated with advanced age and elevated levels of PTH. Markers of bone turnover and FGF23 may play a role in the diagnosis of bone disease in hemodialysis patients. DXA measurement is necessary for the monitoring for bone loss.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Bone Density , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Bone Resorption , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation , Collagen Type I/analysis , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Fibroblast Growth Factors/analysis
9.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 33: eAPE20190119, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1130569

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivos Comparar a reutilização do dialisador com o uso único deste material para marcadores bioquímicos, hematológicos, episódios de pirogenias e bacteremias. Métodos Estudo longitudinal com coleta de dados retrospectiva em prontuários de pacientes em hemodiálise, em hospital público universitário. A investigação foi conduzida seis meses com a reutilização do dialisador e seis meses com uso único. Os dados foram analisados no SPSS Versão 18.0. Para comparação das médias dos exames utilizou-se teste t pareado e Wilcoxon, episódios de pirogenia e bacteremia foram analisados pelo teste de Wilcoxon e Razão de Chances (RC) como medida de força de associação. Variáveis categóricas foram analisadas pelos testes de McNemar e Exato de Fisher. O estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa. Resultados Foram analisadas 5.508 sessões de hemodiálise de pacientes predominantemente masculinos 21(62%), média de idade 58(± 14) anos, hipertensos 14(41%), tempo médio de tratamento 6±3 anos. Durante uso único identificou-se redução da ureia pós diálise, creatinina, fósforo, ferritina, hematócrito e hemoglogina em relação ao reutilizado (p < 0,05) e 91% menos risco de pirogenia comparado a reutilização do dialisador (Razão de Chance= 0,091; IC 95%: 0,002-0,625). Não houve diferença significativa na ocorrência de bacteremias. Conclusão Os resultados sugerem maior remoção de biomarcadores bioquímicos e menos episódios de pirogenias quando o dialisador é uso único.ater removal of biochemical biomarkers and fewer pyrogenics episodes when the dialyzer is a single use.


Resumen Objetivos Comparar la reutilización del dializador con el uso único de este material en marcadores bioquímicos, hematológicos, episodios de reacciones pirógenas y bacteriemias. Métodos Estudio longitudinal con recolección de datos retrospectiva en historias clínicas de pacientes en hemodiálisis, en un hospital público universitario. La investigación fue conducida seis meses con la reutilización del dializador y seis meses con un único uso. Los datos fueron analizados en SPSS Versión 18.0. Para comparar los promedios de los análisis, se utilizó el Test-T pareado y prueba de Wilcoxon, los episodios de reacciones pirógenas y bacteriemia fueron analizados mediante la prueba de Wilcoxon y Razón de Momios (RM) como medida de fuerza de asociación. Las variables categóricas se analizaron con la prueba de McNemar y la prueba exacta de Fisher. El estudio fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética e Investigación. Resultados Se analizaron 5.508 sesiones de hemodiálisis de pacientes predominantemente masculinos 21 (62 %), promedio de edad 58 (±14) años, hipertensos 14 (41 %), tiempo promedio de tratamiento 6±3 años. Durante el uso único del dializador, se identificó una reducción de la urea posdiálisis, creatinina, fósforo, ferritina, hematocrito y hemoglobina respecto al dializador reutilizado (p < 0,05) y un 91 % menos de riesgo de reacción pirógena comparado con la reutilización del dializador (Razón de Momios = 0,091; IC 95 %: 0,002-0,625). No hubo diferencia significativa en episodios de bacteriemias. Conclusión Los resultados sugieren mayor eliminación de biomarcadores bioquímicos y menos episodios de reacciones pirógenas cuando el dializador se utiliza una única vez.


Abstract Objectives To compare dialyzer reuse with its single use for biochemical, hematological markers, pyrogenesis and bacteremia episodes. Methods A longitudinal study with retrospective data collection from medical records of patients on dialysis in a public university hospital. The investigation was conducted six months with dialyzer reuse and six months with single use. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 18.0. To compare the tests means, paired t-test and Wilcoxon were used. Pyrogenesis and bacteremia episodes were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test and Odds Ratio (OR) as association strength measures. Categorical variables were analyzed using McNemar and Fisher's Exact tests. The study was approved by the hospital's Research Ethics Committee. Results Five thousand five hundred eight dialysis sessions of predominantly male patients were analyzed, 21 (62%), with mean age of 58 (± 14) years, hypertensive 14 (41%), with mean treatment time 6 ± 3 years. During single use, a reduction in urea after dialysis, creatinine, phosphorus, ferritin, hematocrit and hemoglogin was identified in relation to reuse (p<0.05) and 91% less risk of pyrogenesis compared to dialyzer reuse (Odds Ratio=0.091; 95% CI: 0.002-0.625). There was no significant difference in the occurrence of bacteremia. Conclusion The results suggest greater removal of biochemical biomarkers and fewer pyrogenics episodes when the dialyzer is a single use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Pyrogens , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Bacteremia , Equipment Reuse , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Electronic Health Records
10.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 492-500, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056600

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a major complication of hemodialysis, with a prevalence of about 25% during hemodialysis sessions, causing increased morbidity and mortality. Objective: To study the effects of sertraline to prevent IDH in hemodialysis patients. Methods: This was a double-blind, crossover clinical trial comparing the use of sertraline versus placebo to reduce intradialytic hypotension. Results: Sixteen patients completed the two phases of the study during a 12-week period. The IDH prevalence was 32%. A comparison between intradialytic interventions, intradialytic symptoms, and IDH episodes revealed no statistical difference in the reduction of IDH episodes (p = 0.207) between the two intervention groups. However, the risk of IDH interventions was 60% higher in the placebo group compared to the sertraline group, and the risk of IDH symptoms was 40% higher in the placebo group compared to the sertraline group. Survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier estimator supported the results of this study. Sertraline presented a number needed to treat (NNT) of 16.3 patients to prevent an episode from IDH intervention and 14.2 patients to prevent an episode from intradialytic symptoms. Conclusion: This study suggests that the use of sertraline may be beneficial to reduce the number of symptoms and ID interventions, although there was no statistically significant difference in the blood pressure levels.


Resumo Introdução: A hipotensão intradialítica (HID) é uma das principais complicações da hemodiálise, com uma prevalência de cerca de 25% durante as sessões de hemodiálise, causando aumento da morbimortalidade. Objetivo: Estudar os efeitos da sertralina na prevenção da HID em pacientes em hemodiálise. Métodos: Este foi um ensaio clínico duplo-cego, cruzado, comparando o uso de sertralina versus placebo para reduzir a hipotensão intradialítica. Resultados: Dezesseis pacientes completaram as duas fases do estudo durante um período de 12 semanas. A prevalência de HID foi de 32%. Uma comparação entre intervenções intradialíticas, sintomas intradialíticos (ID) e episódios de HID não revelou diferença estatística na redução dos episódios de HID (p = 0,207) entre os dois grupos de intervenção. No entanto, o risco de intervenções para HID foi 60% maior no grupo placebo em comparação com o grupo Sertralina, e o risco de sintomas ID foi 40% maior no grupo placebo em comparação com o grupo Sertralina. A análise de sobrevida utilizando o estimador de Kaplan-Meier corroborou os resultados deste estudo. A sertralina apresentou um número necessário para tratar (NNT) de 16,3 pacientes para prevenir um episódio de intervenção de HID e 14,2 pacientes para prevenir um episódio de sintomas intradialíticos. Conclusão: Este estudo sugere que o uso de sertralina pode ser benéfico para reduzir o número de sintomas e intervenções de HID, embora não tenha havido diferença estatisticamente significante nos níveis pressóricos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sertraline/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Hypotension/physiopathology , Placebos/administration & dosage , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Double-Blind Method , Prevalence , Renal Dialysis/mortality , Cross-Over Studies , Renal Insufficiency/complications , Hypotension/prevention & control , Hypotension/epidemiology
11.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 481-491, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056601

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: It is unclear whether residual renal function (RRF) in dialysis patients can attenuate the metabolic impact of the long 68-hour interdialytic interval, in which water, acid, and electrolyte accumulation occurs. Objective: to evaluate serum electrolyte levels, water balance, and acid-base status in dialytic patients with and without RRF over the long interdialytic interval (LII). Methodology: this was a single-center, cross-sectional, and analytical study that compared patients with and without RRF, defined by diuresis above 200 mL in 24 hours. Patients were weighed and serum samples were collected for biochemical and gasometric analysis at the beginning and at the end of the LII. Results: 27 and 24 patients with and without RRF were evaluated, respectively. Patients without RRF had a higher increase in serum potassium during the LII (2.67 x 1.14 mEq/L, p < 0.001), reaching higher values at the end of the study (6.8 x 5.72 mEq/L, p < 0.001) and lower pH value at the beginning of the interval (7.40 x 7.43, p = 0.018). More patients with serum bicarbonate < 18 mEq/L (50 x 14.8%, p = 0.007) and mixed acid-base disorder (57.7 x 29.2%, p = 0.042), as well as greater interdialytic weight gain (14.67 x 8.87 mL/kg/h, p < 0.001) and lower natremia (137 x 139 mEq/L, p = 0.02) at the end of the interval. Calcemia and phosphatemia were not different between the groups. Conclusion: Patients with RRF had better control of serum potassium, sodium, acid-base status, and volemia throughout the LII.


Resumo Introdução: Não se sabe ao certo se a função renal residual (FRR) de pacientes dialíticos pode atenuar o impacto metabólico do maior intervalo interdialítico (MII) de 68 horas, no qual ocorre acúmulo de volume, ácidos e eletrólitos. Objetivo: Avaliar os níveis séricos de eletrólitos, balanço hídrico e status ácido-básico de pacientes dialíticos com e sem FRR ao longo do MII. Metodologia: Tratou-se de estudo unicêntrico, transversal e analítico, que comparou pacientes com e sem FRR, definida como diurese acima de 200 mL em 24 horas. Para tal, os pacientes foram pesados e submetidos à coleta de amostras séricas para análise bioquímica e gasométrica no início e fim do MII. Resultados: Foram avaliados 27 e 24 pacientes com e sem FRR, respectivamente. Pacientes sem FRR apresentaram maior aumento de potássio sérico durante o MII (2,67 x 1,14 mEq/L, p < 0,001) atingindo valores mais elevados no fim (6,8 x 5,72 mEq/L, p < 0,001); menor valor de pH no início do intervalo (7,40 x 7,43, p = 0,018), maior proporção de pacientes com bicarbonato sérico < 18 mEq/L (50 x 14,8 %, p = 0,007) e distúrbio ácido-básico misto (70,8 x 42,3 %, p = 0,042), além de maior ganho de peso interdialítico (14,67 x 8,87 mL/kg/h, p < 0,001) e menor natremia (137 x 139 mEq/L, p = 0,02) no fim do intervalo. A calcemia e fosfatemia não foram diferentes entre os grupos. Conclusão: Pacientes com FRR apresentaram melhor controle dos níveis séricos de potássio, sódio, status ácido-básico e da volemia ao longo do MII.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Water-Electrolyte Balance/physiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency/blood , Kidney/physiopathology , Phosphates/blood , Potassium/blood , Sodium/blood , Acid-Base Imbalance/physiopathology , Bicarbonates/blood , Weight Gain , Calcium/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Progression , Renal Insufficiency/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency/urine , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/chemistry , Kidney Function Tests/methods
12.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 501-508, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056603

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the association between dysnatremias or dyschloremias and mortality during hospitalization in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing acute hemodialysis. Methods: We carried out a retrospective cohort study on adult patients undergoing acute hemodialysis with AKI or CKD diagnosis at a public hospital in Lima, Peru. Dysnatremias were categorized as hyponatremia (Na < 135mmol/L) or hypernatremia (Na > 145mmol/L), and dyschloremias were defined as hypochloremia (Cl < 98 mmol/L) or hyperchloremia (Cl > 109mmol/L). The outcome of interest was mortality during hospitalization. We performed generalized lineal Poisson family models with bias-corrected and accelerated non-parametric bootstrap to estimate the risk ratios at crude (RR) and adjusted analysis (aRR) by gender, age, HCO3 (for all patients) and Liaño score (only for AKI) with CI95%. Results: We included 263 patients (mean age: 54.3 years, females: 43%): 191 with CKD and 72 with AKI. Mortality was higher in patients with AKI (59.7%) than in patients with CKD (14.1%). In overall, patients with hypernatremia had a higher mortality during hospitalization compared to those who had normal sodium values (aRR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.17-2.83); patients with hyponatremia did not have different mortality (aRR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.69-2.04). We also found that hyperchloremia (aRR: 1.35, 95% CI: 0.83-2.18) or hypochloremia (aRR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.30-14.78) did not increase mortality in comparison to normal chloride values. No association between dysnatremias or dyschloremias and mortality during hospitalization was found in CKD and AKI subgroups. Conclusions: In our exploratory analysis, only hypernatremia was associated with mortality during hospitalization among patients with AKI or CKD undergoing acute hemodialysis.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre distúrbios do sódio ou do cloro e mortalidade hospitalar de pacientes com insuficiência renal aguda (IRA) ou doença renal crônica (DRC) submetidos a hemodiálise aguda. Métodos: O presente estudo de coorte retrospectiva incluiu pacientes adultos submetidos a hemodiálise aguda com diagnóstico de IRA ou DRC em um hospital público de Lima, Peru. Os distúrbios do sódio foram classificados como hiponatremia (Na < 135mmol/L) ou hipernatremia (Na > 145mmol/L), enquanto os distúrbios do cloro foram classificados como hipocloremia (Cl < 98 mmol/L) ou hipercloremia (Cl > 109mmol/L). O desfecho de interesse foi mortalidade hospitalar. Utilizamos modelos de Poisson da família de modelos lineares generalizados com bootstrap não-paramétrico e correção de viés acelerado para estimar os riscos relativos na análise bruta (RR) e ajustada (RRa) para sexo, idade, HCO3 (para todos os pacientes) e escore de Liaño (apenas para IRA) com IC 95%. Resultados: Foram incluídos 263 pacientes (idade média 54,3 anos; 43% do sexo feminino), 191 com DRC e 72 com IRA. A mortalidade foi mais elevada nos pacientes com IRA (59,7%) do que nos indivíduos com DRC (14,1%). No geral, os pacientes com hipernatremia tiveram mortalidade hospitalar mais elevada do que os indivíduos com valores normais de sódio (RRa: 1,82; IC 95%: 1,17-2,83). Os pacientes com hiponatremia não apresentaram mortalidade diferente (RRa: 0,19; IC 95%: 0,69-2,04). Também identificamos que hipercloremia (RRa: 1,35; IC 95%: 0,83-2,18) e hipocloremia (RRa: 0,66; IC 95%: 0,30-14,78) não elevaram a mortalidade em comparação a indivíduos com níveis normais de cloro. Não foi encontrada associação entre distúrbios do sódio ou do cloro e mortalidade hospitalar nos subgrupos com DRC e IRA. Conclusões: Em nossa análise exploratória, apenas hipernatremia apresentou associação com mortalidade hospitalar em pacientes com IRA ou DRC submetidos a hemodiálise aguda.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Sodium/blood , Chlorides/blood , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Peru/epidemiology , Bicarbonates/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hypernatremia/complications , Hypernatremia/mortality , Hyponatremia/complications , Hyponatremia/mortality
13.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 550-559, Out.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056604

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fluid volume and hemodynamic management in hemodialysis patients is an essential component of dialysis adequacy. Restoring salt and water homeostasis in hemodialysis patients has been a permanent quest by nephrologists summarized by the 'dry weight' probing approach. Although this clinical approach has been associated with benefits on cardiovascular outcome, it is now challenged by recent studies showing that intensity or aggressiveness to remove fluid during intermittent dialysis is associated with cardiovascular stress and potential organ damage. A more precise approach is required to improve cardiovascular outcome in this high-risk population. Fluid status assessment and monitoring rely on four components: clinical assessment, non-invasive instrumental tools (e.g., US, bioimpedance, blood volume monitoring), cardiac biomarkers (e.g. natriuretic peptides), and algorithm and sodium modeling to estimate mass transfer. Optimal management of fluid and sodium imbalance in dialysis patients consist in adjusting salt and fluid removal by dialysis (ultrafiltration, dialysate sodium) and by restricting salt intake and fluid gain between dialysis sessions. Modern technology using biosensors and feedback control tools embarked on dialysis machine, with sophisticated analytics will provide direct handling of sodium and water in a more precise and personalized way. It is envisaged in the near future that these tools will support physician decision making with high potential of improving cardiovascular outcome.


Resumo O volume de fluidos e o controle hemodinâmico em pacientes em hemodiálise é um componente essencial da adequação da diálise. A restauração da homeostase do sal e da água em pacientes em hemodiálise tem sido uma busca constante por parte dos nefrologistas, no que condiz à abordagem do "peso seco. Embora essa abordagem clínica tenha sido associada a benefícios no desfecho cardiovascular, recentemente tem sido questionada por estudos que mostram que a intensidade ou agressividade para remover fluidos durante a diálise intermitente está associada a estresse cardiovascular e dano potencial a órgãos.para remover fluidos durante a diálise intermitente está associada a estresse cardiovascular e dano potencial a órgãos. Uma abordagem mais precisa é necessária para melhorar o desfecho cardiovascular nessa população de alto risco. A avaliação e monitorização do estado hídrico baseiam-se em quatro componentes: avaliação clínica, ferramentas instrumentais não invasivas (por exemplo, US, bioimpedância, monitorização do volume sanguíneo), biomarcadores cardíacos (e.g. peptídeos natriuréticos), algoritmos e modelagem de sódio para estimar a transferência de massa. O manejo otimizado do desequilíbrio hídrico e de sódio em pacientes dialíticos consiste em ajustar a remoção de sal e líquido por diálise (ultrafiltração, dialisato de sódio), e restringir a ingestão de sal e o ganho de líquido entre as sessões de diálise. Tecnologia moderna que utiliza biosensores e ferramentas de controle de feedback, hoje parte da máquina de diálise, com análises sofisticadas, proporcionam o manejo direto sobre o sódio e a água de uma maneira mais precisa e personalizada. Prevê-se no futuro próximo que essas ferramentas poderão auxiliar na tomada de decisão do médico, com alto potencial para melhorar o resultado cardiovascular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sodium/metabolism , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Hemodynamics/physiology , Homeostasis/physiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Water-Electrolyte Balance/physiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Algorithms , Biomarkers/metabolism , Dialysis Solutions/chemistry , Cardiovascular System/physiopathology , Renal Dialysis/standards , Treatment Outcome , Cardiovascular Deconditioning , Nephrologists/statistics & numerical data , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology
14.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 472-480, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056605

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Anemic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be divided into anemic patients without or with functional iron deficiency (FID). The increase in the number of cases of hemosiderosis in patients on hemodialysis (HD) attributed to excessive intravenous iron replacement has called for the investigation of the factors involved in the genesis of FID. Objectives: This study aimed to describe the prevalence of FID in patients with CKD on HD, characterize the included individuals in terms of clinical and workup parameters, and assess their nutritional, oxidative stress, and inflammation statuses. This cross-sectional study assembled a convenience sample of 183 patients with CKD on HD treated in Southern Brazil. Patients meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were divided into two groups, one with anemic subjects with FID and one with anemic patients without FID. Participants answered a questionnaire probing into socio-epidemiological factors, underwent anthropometric measurements, and were tested for markers of anemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and nutrition. Statistical analysis: The date sets were treated on software package GraphPad InStat version 3.1. Variables were tested with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, chi-square, Student's t, and Mann-Whitney tests. Statistical significance was attributed to differences with a p < 0.05. Results: Markers of inflammation were not statistically different between the two groups. Markers of anemia and nutrition were significantly lower in patients with FID. Patients with FID were prescribed higher doses of parenteral iron (p < 0,05). Discussion: FID was associated with lower nutritional marker levels, but not to increased levels of markers of inflammation or oxidative stress, as reported in the literature. Additional studies on the subject are needed.


Resumo Introdução: A anemia na DRC pode ser dividida em anemia sem deficiência funcional de ferro e com deficiência funcional de ferro (ADFF). Diante do aumento dos casos de hemossiderose em pacientes em hemodiálise, atribuídos à reposição excessiva de ferro endovenoso, maiores conhecimentos sobre os fatores envolvidos na gênese da ADFF são importantes. Objetivos: documentar a prevalência de ADFF em renais crônicos em hemodiálise. Caracterizar clínica e laboratorialmente os portadores de ADFF em HD e avaliar o estado nutricional, estresse oxidativo e inflamatório. Estudo transversal, amostra de conveniência, envolvendo 183 renais crônicos em hemodiálise no sul do Brasil. Após aplicação dos critérios de exclusão, os pacientes foram separados em dois grupos: portadores de anemia com e sem deficiência funcional de ferro. Foram submetidos a questionário socioepidemiológico, à análise antropométrica e análise laboratorial dos marcadores de anemia, estresse oxidativo, inflamatórios e nutricionais. Análise estatística: programa GraphPad InStat versão 3.1. Foram aplicados os testes: Kolmogorov-Smirnov, qui-quadrado, t de Student e Mann-Whitney. Nível de significância adotado de 5%. Resultados: não houve diferença significativa nos marcadores inflamatórios entre os dois grupos. Houve diferença significativa nos marcadores de anemia e nutrição, significativamente menores nos pacientes com ADFF. Pacientes com ADFF receberam doses mais elevadas de ferro parenteral (p < 0,05). Discussão: ADFF esteve associada a menores valores de marcadores nutricionais, mas não esteve associada a marcadores inflamatórios ou de estresse oxidativo aumentados, como relatado na literatura. Estudos adicionais sobre o tema são necessários.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Anemia/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Nutrition Assessment , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/epidemiology , Administration, Intravenous , Hemosiderosis/epidemiology , Anemia/epidemiology , Iron/administration & dosage , Iron/adverse effects , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(6): 709-717, jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020719

ABSTRACT

Background: Pregnancies in women with end stage renal failure are uncommon. However, correction of anemia and improvement in dialysis techniques increases the rate of successful pregnancies. Aim: To describe a 16 years' experience treating pregnant women on hemodialysis and to analyze maternal-fetal outcomes. Materials and Methods: Observational study of a dialysis center historical cohort in a university hospital, between 2001 and 2016. Results: Thirteen pregnancies were found in 11 women aged 23 to 32 years, 77% on dialysis prior to pregnancy. Residual diuresis was 1,300 [625-1,575] mL in 24 hrs. The baseline hemoglobin was 9.0 [7.6-9.9] g/dL and 92% of patients did not use contraception. The pre-dialysis blood urea nitrogen was 34 [29-36] mg /dL. An ultrasound to confirm pregnancy was done in all. At 23 [14-25] weeks of pregnancy, dialysis hours were increased, reaching 24 [19.5-24.0] hours per week. The most common complications were severe arterial hypertension (54%), severe anemia (46%), polyhydramnios (31%) and severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) (23%). The median time of pregnancy at delivery was 34 [29-34] weeks. Neonatal median hospitalization length was 4 [4-32] days, with 18% of neonatal deaths. Conclusions: Pregnancies in dialysis are no longer exceptional. Despite better maternal and fetal outcomes, morbidity and mortality remains higher than in the normal population, which makes multidisciplinary management essential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications/etiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Gestational Age , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy
17.
Licere (Online) ; 22(2): 331-352, junho.2019. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010184

ABSTRACT

Este estudo descreve e analisa a rotina de trabalho de um programa de recreação e ginástica para pacientes com insuficiência crônica renal. O tipo de trabalho desenvolvido foi a pesquisa-ação empírica. Um questionário-diagnóstico foi aplicado a 85 sujeitos adultos em hospital situado em Maringá-PR. No estudo foram utilizados diferentes tipos de instrumentos de coleta: 1) Questionário SF 36 de qualidade de vida; 2) Entrevistas semiestruturadas; e 3) Registro fotográfico. Os resultados apresentam e discutem o cotidiano e a rotina do hospital e os procedimentos necessários para desenvolvimento de atividades em sala de hemodiálise. Em conclusão, este estudo caracterizou as necessidades dos pacientes, as dificuldades encontradas na implantação do programa e estratégias desenvolvidas para intervenção.


The current study describes and analyzes the routine of the recreation and exercise program in chronic renal failure patients. The type of research was empirical action research. The diagnostic questionnaire was applied to 85 adults in a hospital of Maringá-PR. This study also used other different types of instruments: 1) SF 36 quality of life questionnaire; 2) Semi-structured interviews and 3) Photographic record. The results presented and discussed the routine of the hospital and the necessary procedure for activities development in the hemodialysis room. In conclusion, this study was characterized the patients needs and the difficulties of implementation and development of the intervention program.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life , Complementary Therapies , Exercise , Mental Health , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/psychology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Workflow , Inpatients , Interpersonal Relations , Leisure Activities , Nurse-Patient Relations
18.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 18(2)jun. 2019. tab
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1123613

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analisar o conhecimento dos pacientes renais crônicos submetidos à hemodiálise referente ao tratamento hemodialítico, de acordo com os indicadores do resultado de enfermagem Conhecimento: procedimentos de tratamento. MÉTODO: Estudo descritivo realizado em um hospital público em Pernambuco através da aplicação do resultado de enfermagem Conhecimento: procedimentos de tratamento em 51 pacientes submetidos à hemodiálise. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes pesquisados apresentaram nenhum conhecimento, conhecimento limitado e moderado e não apresentaram o conhecimento amplo e/ou substancial sobre a hemodiálise. DISCUSSÃO: A hemodiálise é um procedimento complexo e que exige do paciente uma adaptação no estilo de vida. Para tanto, conhecer a doença e seu tratamento pode contribuir para o sucesso da terapia. CONCLUSÃO: Através da aplicação dos indicadores do resultado de enfermagem na prática clínica, verificou-se que indivíduos renais crônicos têm um conhecimento moderado, limitado ou não têm conhecimento sobre a hemodiálise.


OBJETIVO: Analizar el conocimiento de pacientes renales crónicos sometidos a hemodiálisis con respecto al tratamiento de hemodiálisis, de acuerdo con los indicadores de resultados de enfermería Conocimiento: procedimientos de tratamiento. MÉTODO: Estudio descriptivo realizado en un hospital público de Pernambuco mediante la aplicación del resultado de enfermería Conocimiento: procedimientos de tratamiento en 51 pacientes sometidos a hemodiálisis. RESULTADOS: Los pacientes encuestados presentaron ningún conocimiento, conocimiento limitado y moderado y no presentaban conocimiento amplio y/o sustancial sobre hemodiálisis. DISCUSIÓN: La hemodiálisis es un procedimiento complejo y requiere del paciente una adaptación de su estilo de vida. Por lo tanto, conocer la enfermedad y su tratamiento puede contribuir al éxito de la terapia. CONCLUSIÓN: Mediante la aplicación de indicadores de resultados de enfermería en la práctica clínica, se descubrió que los pacientes renales crónicos tienen un conocimiento moderado, limitado o no tienen conocimientos sobre la hemodiálisis.


OBJECTIVES: To analyze the knowledge of the chronic renal patients undergoing hemodialysis regarding this treatment, according to the indicators of the "Knowledge:Treatment procedures" nursing outcome. METHOD: A descriptive study carried out in a public hospital of Pernambuco through the application of the "Knowledge: Treatment procedures" nursing outcome in 51 patients undergoing hemodialysis. RESULTS: The surveyed patients had no knowledge, or limited and moderate knowledge, and did not have broad and/or substantial knowledge on hemodialysis. DISCUSSION: Hemodialysis is a complex procedure and requires an adaptation of the patient's lifestyle. Therefore, knowing the disease and its treatment may contribute to a successful therapy. CONCLUSION: Through the application of the nursing outcome indicators in the clinical practice, it was verified that chronic renal patients have moderate, limited or no knowledge of hemodialysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Renal Dialysis/classification , Renal Dialysis/nursing , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Standardized Nursing Terminology , Public Health , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Nephrology Nursing
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(4): 458-464, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014247

ABSTRACT

Background: Placing central venous lines under ultrasonographic guidance reduces the complications of the procedure. Aim: To compare prevalences of complications of central venous line placements with or without ultrasonographic guidance. Material and Methods: Descriptive study that contemplated the comparison of two groups of patients subjected to a central venous line placement at a nephrology service for renal replacement therapy. In one group of 100 patients, the line was placed without ultrasonographic guidance between 2008 and 2012. Between 2015 and 2017 the line was placed in 138 patients using ultrasonographic guidance. The prevalences of complications with both types of procedures were recorded. Results: The frequency of complications of procedures with and without ultrasonographic guidance was 0.7 and 18% respectively (prevalence ratio 0.04, 95% confidence interval 0-0.3). Ninety five percent of recorded complications were arterial puncture, followed by hematomas in 10% and pneumothorax in 5%. The higher prevalence of complications was observed in emergency line placement without ultrasonographic guidance. There was a direct association between the number of line placement attempts in a single procedure and the prevalence of complications. Conclusions: Ultrasonographic guidance is associated with a reduction in the prevalence of central venous line complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Intraoperative Complications/etiology , Intraoperative Complications/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Catheterization, Central Venous/instrumentation , Catheterization, Central Venous/methods , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Renal Dialysis/instrumentation , Renal Dialysis/methods , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Sex Distribution , Hematoma/etiology , Hematoma/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL