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1.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(1): 72-80, feb. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hemodialysis (HD) units is challenging. AIM: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on HD with COVID-19, between March 2020 and January 28, 2021, attending a single HD unit in Bogotá, Colombia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective observational study, incidence, prevalence, and case-fatality rate were estimated, including screening results with RT-PCR and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies in all patients and health personnel in the HD unit. RESULTS: Among patients and health workers, 55 and 9 cases of COVID-19 were identified, respectively. The median age of patients was 63 years (84% males). Fifty five percent of patients were symptomatic, with fever, cough and/or myalgia. The most common comorbidities were hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and coronary heart disease. The cumulative incidence of infection was 30.2%, population seroprevalence was 24.9%, and fatality was 9.1%. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in this HD unit was high. Strict biosafety protocols are required to prevent outbreaks.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La prevención y el control de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 en las unidades de hemodiálisis (HD) es un desafío. OBJETIVO: Describir las características clínicas y la evolución de los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) en HD con COVID-19, entre marzo de 2020 y el 28 de enero de 2021, que acudieron a una unidad de HD en Bogotá, Colombia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional prospectivo con estimación de incidencia, prevalencia y letalidad, incluyendo los resultados del cribado con RT-PCR y anticuerpos IgG e IgM anti-SARS-CoV-2 en todos los pacientes y personal sanitario de la unidad de HD. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 55 casos de pacientes en HD y 9 casos de trabajadores de salud con COVID-19. La mediana de edad de los pacientes fue de 63 años y 84% eran hombres. Cincuenta y cinco por ciento de los pacientes eran sintomáticos, con fiebre, tos y/o mialgia. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y enfermedad coronaria. La incidencia acumulada de infección fue del 30,2%, la seroprevalencia poblacional del 24,9% y la letalidad del 9,1%. CONCLUSIONES: La incidencia de infección por SARS-CoV-2 en esta unidad de HD fue alta. Se requieren de protocolos estrictos de bioseguridad para evitar brotes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Renal Dialysis/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Prospective Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(11): 1540-1544, nov. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442052

ABSTRACT

Liver transplantation is the only effective therapy to reduce the high mortality associated with acute liver failure and acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF). Single-pass albumin dialysis (SPAD) is an extracorporeal supportive therapy used as a bridge to liver transplantation or regeneration. We report a 44-year-old man with alcoholic cirrhosis admitted for critical COVID-19 pneumonia that evolves with ACLF. SPAD technique was performed completing six sessions, with a reduction of bilirubin and ammonia levels. He evolved with severe respiratory failure and refractory septic shock, dying. SPAD is a safe and efficient technique aimed to eliminate liver toxins, preventing multiorgan damage interrupting the process known as the "autointoxication hypothesis". It is easy to implement in any critical patient unit and has lower costs than other extracorporeal liver support therapies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Liver Transplantation , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/etiology , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Renal Dialysis/methods , Albumins/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. cuba. med ; 61(2): e2590, abr.-jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408999

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La fístula arteriovenosa por vía quirúrgica para hemodiálisis constituye el acceso vascular de elección, para ese proceder depurador, no obstante, repercute negativamente sobre el aparato cardiovascular. Objetivo: Actualizar aspectos conceptuales y conductuales relativos a la permanencia de la fístula arteriovenosa para hemodiálisis posterior al trasplante renal. Métodos: Se revisó la literatura publicada en los últimos cinco años en las bases de datos; PubMed/Medline y Scopus y las fuentes de información; Cochrane Library y Ebsco. Resultados: La repercusión de la fístula arteriovenosa sobre el sistema cardiovascular tiene una marcada incidencia en diferentes alteraciones estructurales y funcionales del corazón que requieren de la adopción de una conducta destinada a evitar el riesgo. Se examinan puntos de vista convergentes y divergentes relacionados con la pertinencia de la fístula arteriovenosa como acceso vascular creado para hemodiálisis y la posibilidad de mantenerla luego del trasplante renal. Conclusiones: La fístula arteriovenosa supone el acceso vascular de apropiado para la supervivencia en hemodiálisis, sin embargo, las consecuencias de su permanencia sobre el aparato cardiovascular implican riesgo añadido de morbilidad y mortalidad(AU)


Introduction: Surgical arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis is the vascular access of choice, this purifying procedure, however, has negative impact on the cardiovascular system. Objective: To bring up-to-date conceptual and behavioral aspects related to the permanence of the arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis after renal transplantation. Methods: The literature published in the last five years was reviewed in PubMed/Medline and Scopus and information sources; Cochrane Library and Ebsco databases. Results: The repercussion of the arteriovenous fistula on the cardiovascular system has a marked incidence in different structural and functional alterations of the heart that require the adoption of a behavior to avoid risks. Convergent and divergent points of view related to the relevance of the arteriovenous fistula as a vascular access created for hemodialysis and the possibility of maintaining it after renal transplantation are examined. Conclusions: The arteriovenous fistula is the appropriate vascular access for survival in hemodialysis, however, the consequences of its permanence on the cardiovascular system imply an added risk of morbidity and mortality(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular System , Arteriovenous Fistula/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/methods , Kidney Transplantation , Cardiovascular Abnormalities/complications
5.
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 22(2): e210, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289362

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Existe un incremento anual de pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica tributarios a hemodiálisis. Para la realización de esta se requiere de la correcta inserción de accesos vasculares que sean duraderos y funcionales. Objetivo: Caracterizar la durabilidad y funcionabilidad de las fístulas arterio-venosas en pacientes no diabéticos con enfermedad renal crónica. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio ambispectivo en 60 pacientes no diabéticos, con enfermedad renal crónica, portadores de una fístula arterio-venosa interna autóloga. Se describieron las variables: edad, sexo, grado de la enfermedad, lugar de confección, durabilidad, funcionabilidad, intentos, superficialización, uso de prótesis de poli-tetra-fluoro-etileno y complicaciones. Resultados: La edad media de los pacientes fue de 55,7 ± 12,7 años y la mitad estuvo entre 40 y 59 años. Los del sexo masculino ocuparon el 71,7 por ciento. Las fístulas duraderas (66,7 por ciento) y las funcionales (71,7 por ciento) se mostraron como las de mayor aparición. Los pacientes con la enfermedad en grado 4 ocuparon el 51,7 por ciento. Las fístulas en zonas radio-cefálica (43,3 por ciento) y húmero-cefálica (45 por ciento) primaron. Solo el 71,7 por ciento tuvo un intento de cirugía. Únicamente en el 20 por ciento se realizó superficialización y cuatro pacientes (6,4 por ciento) recibieron prótesis de poli-tetra-fluoro-etileno. La trombosis representó la complicación más frecuente (25 por ciento). Conclusiones: La durabilidad y la funcionabilidad de las fístulas elaboradas se asociaron con factores como el grado de la enfermedad, el número de intentos, el uso de prótesis vasculares y las complicaciones(AU)


Introduction: There is an annual increase of patients with chronic renal impairment who need haemodialysis. The correct insertion of vascular accesses that are durable and functional is required to perform haemodialysis. Objective: Characterize the durability and functionability of arterio-venous fistulas in non-diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods: An ambispective study was conducted in 60 non-diabetic patients, with chronic kidney disease carrying an autologous internal arterio-venous fistula. The described variables were: age, sex, stage of the disease, place of manufacture, durability, workability, attempts, superficialization, use of polytetrafluoroethylene prostheses, and complications. Results: The average age of patients was 55.7 ± 12.7 years and half were between 40 and 59 years old. Males were 71.7 percent. Durable (66.7 percent) and functional (71.7 percent) fistulas were shown as the most common ones. Patients with a grade 4 disease represented the 51.7 percent. Fistulas in radio-cephalic zones (43.3 percent) and humerus-cephalic zone (45 percent) prevailed. Only 71.7 percent had an attempt of surgery. Only 20 percent had superficialization and four patients (6.4 percent) received polytetrafluoroethylene prostheses. Thrombosis was the most common complication (25 percent). Conclusions: The durability and functionability of the prepared fistulas were associated with factors such as the stage of the disease, the number of attempts, the use of vascular prostheses, and the complications(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arteriovenous Fistula/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/methods , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Thrombosis/complications
6.
Rev. inf. cient ; 100(3): e3458, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289642

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La insuficiencia renal crónica terminal constituye uno de los problemas de salud más complejos por las afectaciones que provoca a la calidad de vida de los pacientes y por las dificultades que entraña la adherencia del paciente al tratamiento. Objetivo: Identificar la relación entre la calidad de vida percibida y la adherencia al tratamiento de los pacientes portadores de insuficiencia renal crónica terminal que reciben hemodiálisis. Método: Estudio de tipo correlacional realizado en el servicio de Hemodiálisis del Hospital General Docente "Juan B. Viñas González" de Palma Soriano, Santiago de Cuba. Del universo de 32 pacientes se trabajó con la población constituida por 16 pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión/exclusión. Las técnicas utilizadas fueron: cuestionario de calidad de vida de la OMS, revisión de documentos, entrevistas y la observación. Se realizó análisis estadístico descriptivo (análisis de frecuencias) y se aplicó el método no paramétrico de correlación de Spearman. Resultados: Más de la mitad (56,25 %) de la población reflejó una calidad de vida percibida regular, el 25 % buena y el 18,75 % mala. La dimensión de salud física se mostró dentro de las más afectadas, observándose una valoración negativa con respecto a la enfermedad, pues más del 85 % de los encuestados la consideró como grave o muy grave. Se apreciaron afectaciones al sueño, donde más del 60 % de los pacientes se sintió insatisfecho con este aspecto. Los síntomas de la enfermedad son valorados, por la mayoría (81,25 %) como severos o muy severos. Conclusiones: Los pacientes poseen adherencia media al tratamiento y una calidad de vida percibida regular, y existe correlación fuerte y directa entre la adherencia al tratamiento y la calidad de vida percibida.


ABSTRACT Introduction: The end-stage chronic renal disease, due to how it affects the patient´s quality of life and the difficulties involved in the adherence of patient to treatment, is one of the most complex health problems. Objective: To identify the relationship between perceived quality of life and adherence to treatment in patients with end-stage chronic renal disease receiving hemodialysis. Method: A correlative study was conducted in the hemodialysis service room at the Hospital General Docente "Juan B. Viñas González" in Palma Soriano, Santiago de Cuba. The universe studied included 32 patients and 16 (met inclusion/exclusion criteria) were selected to work with. The techniques used were: World Health Organization quality of life questionnaire, document review, interviews and observation. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed (frequency analysis) and the nonparametric method applied was the Spearman's correlation coefficient using the SPSS 19.0 data processing program. Results: More than half of the population (56.25%) reported a fair quality of life, good (25%), and bad (18.75%). The physical health dimension was one of the most affected and it was found a negative assess of the disease in which more than 85% of those polled considered it as serious or very serious. Some sleep disorders was found and more than 60% of patients were unsatisfied related this issue. Most of the patients (81.25%) characterized the disease symptoms as severe or very severe. Conclusions: Patients studied had an adherence to treatment in a medium level and a perceived fair quality of life. There is also a correlation between the patient adherences to treatment and perceived quality of life.


RESUMO Introdução: A insuficiência renal crônica terminal constitui um dos problemas de saúde mais complexos pelos efeitos que causa na qualidade de vida dos pacientes e pelas dificuldades que a adesão do paciente ao tratamento acarreta. Objetivo: Identificar a relação entre a percepção de qualidade de vida e a adesão ao tratamento em pacientes com doença renal terminal em hemodiálise. Método: Estudo do tipo correlacional realizado no serviço de Hemodiálise do Hospital Geral de Ensino "Juan B. Viñas González" em Palma Soriano, Santiago de Cuba. Do universo de 32 pacientes, trabalhamos com a população composta por 16 pacientes que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão / exclusão. As técnicas utilizadas foram: questionário de qualidade de vida da Organização Mundial da Saúde, revisão documental, entrevistas e observação. Foi realizada análise estatística descritiva (análise de frequência) e aplicado o método não paramétrico. Resultados: Mais da metade (56,25%) da população apresentou percepção de qualidade de vida regular, 25% boa e 18,75% ruim. A dimensão saúde física esteve entre as mais afetadas, com avaliação negativa em relação à doença, uma vez que mais de 85% dos inquiridos a consideraram grave ou muito grave. Além disso, foram notados distúrbios do sono, onde mais de 60% dos pacientes se sentiram insatisfeitos com esse aspecto. Os sintomas da doença são avaliados, pela maioria (81,25%), como graves ou muito graves. Conclusões: Os pacientes apresentam média de adesão ao tratamento e percepção de qualidade de vida regular, havendo forte e direta correlação entre adesão ao tratamento e percepção de qualidade de vida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Quality of Life , Renal Dialysis/methods , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Kidney Failure, Chronic/psychology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/drug therapy , Attitude of Health Personnel , Attitude to Health , Indicators of Quality of Life
7.
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 22(1): e150, ene.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251675

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La insuficiencia renal crónica es una enfermedad frecuente que requiere del uso vital de la hemodiálisis, procedimiento común en los pacientes que la padecen, por lo cual resulta necesario disponer de un acceso vascular adecuado. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los pacientes con fístulas arterio-venosas para hemodiálisis en el Hospital Clínico-Quirúrgico "General Freyre de Andrade". Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo-retrospectivo en 88 pacientes con fístulas arterio-venosas. Se recogieron las siguientes variables: edad, sexo, tipo de acceso vascular, localización, complicaciones inmediatas y tardías, y procedimiento corrector. El período de estudio abarcó desde enero de 2018 hasta enero de 2019. Resultados: Se les realizaron a los pacientes un total de 88 fístulas arterio-venosas. Predominó el sexo masculino (67 por ciento). Prevaleció el grupo de edades de 50 a 59 años (36,4 por ciento). La fístula arterio-venosa humero-cefálica (48,9 por ciento) resultó el procedimiento más realizado. El hematoma, la trombosis y la infección fueron las complicaciones inmediatas con mayor frecuencia (3,4 por ciento). De las complicaciones tardías, predominó la trombosis (3,4 por ciento), mientras que la trombectomía prevaleció como procedimiento corrector (37,5 por ciento). Conclusiones: Como parte del acceso vascular, la fístula humero-cefálica presentó los mejores resultados en cuanto a permeabilidad y durabilidad. Por otra parte, la fístula humero-humeral constituyó una alternativa cuando no se pudieron usar las venas cefálica y basílica a nivel del pliegue del codo(AU)


Introduction: Chronic kidney disease is a frequent condition that demands the vital use of hemodialysis, a common procedure in patients who suffer from it; therefore, it is necessary to have adequate vascular access. Objective: To characterize patients with arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis at General Freyre de Andrade Clinical-Surgical Hospital. Methods: A descriptive-retrospective study was carried out in 88 patients with arteriovenous fistulas. The following variables were selected: age, sex, type of vascular access, location, immediate and late complications, and corrective procedure. The study period covered from January 2018 to January 2019. Results: A total of 88 arteriovenous fistulas were approached among all the patients. The male sex predominated (67 percent). The age group 50-59 years (36.4 percent) prevailed. The procedure for creating a humeral cephalic arteriovenous fistula (48.9 percent) was the most performed. Hematoma, thrombosis and infection were the immediate complications with the highest frequency (3.4 percent). Among late complications, thrombosis prevailed (3.4 percent); while thrombectomy prevailed as a corrective procedure (37.5 percent). Conclusions: As part of vascular access, the procedure for creating humeral cephalic fistula presented the best outcome in terms of patency and durability. On the other hand, the procedure for creating the humeral fistula was an alternative when the cephalic and basilic veins could not be used at the level of the elbow crease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Thrombosis/complications , Renal Dialysis/methods , Thrombectomy/methods , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Epidemiology, Descriptive
8.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(1): 128-132, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154655

ABSTRACT

Abstract Thromboembolic events are frequent in patients with COVID-19 infection, and no cases of bilateral renal infarctions have been reported. We present the case of a 41-year-old female patient with diabetes mellitus and obesity who attended the emergency department for low back pain, respiratory failure associated with COVID-19 pneumonia, diabetic ketoacidosis, and shock. The patient had acute kidney injury and required hemodialysis. Contrast abdominal tomography showed bilateral renal infarction and anticoagulation was started. Kidney infarction cases require high diagnostic suspicion and possibility of starting anticoagulation.


Resumo Fenômenos tromboembólicos são frequentes em pacientes com infecção por COVID-19 e nenhum caso de infarto renal bilateral havia sido relatado. Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, de 41 anos, com diabetes mellitus e obesidade, que deu entrada no serviço de urgência por lombalgia, insuficiência respiratória associada à pneumonia COVID-19, cetoacidose diabética e choque. A paciente apresentava lesão renal aguda e demandava hemodiálise. A tomografia abdominal contrastada mostrou infarto renal bilateral e foi iniciada anticoagulação. Os casos de infarto renal requerem alta suspeita diagnóstica e possibilidade de iniciar a anticoagulação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Diabetes Complications , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/complications , Infarction/complications , Kidney/blood supply , Obesity/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Renal Dialysis/methods , Fatal Outcome , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
9.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(1): e437, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289503

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Al colocar el catéter venoso central en enfermos de insuficiencia renal crónica durante la hemodiálisis, la prevención es imprescindible para evitar la endocarditis infecciosa. El estafilococo dorado es un germen agresivo, que en enfermos inmunodeprimidos con fenómenos cardioembólicos pulmonares y sistémicos, ocasiona daños a funciones de órganos y sistemas. El fenómeno de fallo multiórganos es una complicación temida. Objetivo: Presentar un caso de endocarditis infecciosa agresiva, en un paciente en hemodiálisis. Caso clínico: Paciente femenina, de 31 años de edad, con diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa, con tratamiento oportuno, adecuado y multidisciplinario. Después de una mejoría, pasó a un deterioro marcado, falleció por fallo multiórganos, debido a septicemia y cardioembolismos múltiples. Comentarios: La resistencia de los gérmenes agresivos, se hace más frecuente. La vida de la enferma, inmunodeprimida y manipulada, se sitúa en riesgo significativo con fallo multiórganos(AU)


Introduction: When placing the central venous catheter in patients with chronic renal failure during hemodialysis, prevention is essential to avoid infective endocarditis. Staphylococcus aureus is an aggressive germ, which in immunocompromised patients with pulmonary and systemic cardioembolic phenomena, causes damage to functions of organs and systems. The phenomenon of multi-organ failure is a feared complication. Objective: To present a case of aggressive infective endocarditis in a hemodialysis patient. Clinical case: Female patient, 31 years old, with a diagnosis of infective endocarditis, with timely, adequate and multidisciplinary treatment. After an improvement, he went on to a marked deterioration, died due to multi-organ failure, due to septicemia and multiple cardioembolisms. Comment: The resistance of aggressive germs becomes more frequent. The life of the patient, immunocompromised and manipulated, is at significant risk with multi-organ failure (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Renal Dialysis/methods , Endocarditis , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(3): 191-198, set 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391965

ABSTRACT

A doença renal crônica é uma condição clínica caracterizada pela queda progressiva da função renal, interferindo na homeostase de todo o corpo, incluindo o sistema nervoso central. Nesses pacientes, o comprometimento cognitivo é um achado comum, em comparação com a população geral, e mais frequente nos pacientes em diálise. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar, por meio de revisão integrativa, se há diferença entre a modalida- de dialítica (hemodiálise e diálise peritoneal) e a presença de comprometimento cognitivo nesses pacientes. Foi feito levan- tamento bibliográfico nas plataformas PubMed® e Bireme, com buscas padronizadas de 2014 até abril de 2019, utilizando-se pa- lavras-chave. Para a seleção e a avaliação dos estudos científicos levantados, foram estabelecidos critérios, contemplando os seguintes aspectos: autor, ano/local, grau de recomendação/ nível de evidência científica, amostra, faixa etária, média de idade em anos, métodos de avaliação, resultados e conclusão. Dos 561 artigos encontrados, 365 foram excluídos pela data de publicação, 87 foram excluídos pelo título, 17 pelo resumo, 49 pela leitura do artigo, 36 eram repetidos e oito foram selecio- nados para o estudo. Os pacientes em diálise peritoneal apre- sentaram menor comprometimento cognitivo e menor risco para demência que os pacientes em hemodiálise.


Chronic kidney disease is a clinical condition characterized by progressive decline in renal function, interfering with whole-bo- dy homeostasis, including the central nervous system. Cognitive impairment is a common finding in these patients, compared to the general population, besides being more frequent in dialysis patients. The objective of this study was to identify, through an integrative review, if there is difference between the dialysis mo- dality (hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis) and the presence of cognitive impairment in these patients. A bibliographic search on the PubMed® and Bireme platforms, with standard searches from 2014 to April 2019, using keywords, was conducted. For the selection and evaluation of scientific studies found in the sear- ch, criteria have been established, considering the following as- pects: author, year/location, grade of recommendation/level of evidence, sample, age, mean age in years, evaluation methods, results, and conclusion. Among 561 articles found, 365 were ex- cluded based on the date of publication, 87 based on the title, 17 on the abstract, 48 on the article reading, 36 were repeated, and eight were selected for the study. Patients on peritoneal dialysis have less cognitive impairment and lower risk for dementia than patients on hemodialysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Renal Dialysis/methods , Dementia/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/psychology , Dementia/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Mental Status and Dementia Tests
11.
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(1): 53-58, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098344

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Invasive procedures performed by trained nephrologists can reduce delays in making a definitive vascular access, complications, number of procedures on the same patient, and costs for the Public Health System. Objective: to demonstrate that a long-term tunneled central venous catheter (LTCVC) implanted by a nephrologist is safe, effective, and associated with excellent results. Methods: A retrospective study analyzed 149 consecutively performed temporary-to-long-term tunneled central venous catheter conversions in the operating room (OR) from a dialysis facility from March 2014 to September 2017. The data collected consisted of the total procedures performed, demographic characteristics of the study population, rates of success, aborted procedure, failure, complications, and catheter survival, and costs. Results: the main causes of end stage renal disease (ESRD) were systemic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, 37.9% each. Patients had a high number of previous arteriovenous fistula (1.72 ± 0.84) and temporary catheter (2.87 ± 1.9) attempts until a definitive vascular access was achieved, while the preferred vascular site was right internal jugular vein (80%). Success, abortion, and failure rates were 93.3%, 2.7% and 4%, respectively, with only 5.36% of complications (minors). Overall LTCVC survival rates over 1, 3, 6, and 12 months were 93.38, 71.81, 54.36, and 30.2%, respectively, with a mean of 298 ± 280 days (median 198 days). The procedure cost was around 496 dollars. Catheter dysfunction was the main reason for catheter removal (34%). Conclusion: Our analysis shows that placement of LTCVC by a nephrologist in an OR of a dialysis center is effective, safe, and results in substantial cost savings.


Resumo Introdução: Procedimentos invasivos realizados por nefrologistas podem reduzir o número de procedimentos no mesmo paciente, complicações e atrasos na obtenção de acesso vascular definitivo, bem como proporcionar menor custo para o Sistema de Saúde. Objetivo: Demonstrar a segurança, a eficácia e os resultados dos implantes de cateteres venosos centrais de longa permanência (CLP) realizados por nefrologista sem fluoroscopia. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo que analisou 149 implantes de CLP por nefrologista no centro cirúrgico de clínica de diálise, sem auxílio de fluoroscopia, no período de março/2014 a setembro/2017. Os dados coletados consistiram em: características demográficas da população estudada, taxas de sucesso, procedimento abortado, falha no procedimento, complicações observadas, patência do cateter e custos. Resultados: Houve um elevado número de tentativas fístulas arteriovenosas (1,72 ± 0,84) e de cateter de curta permanência (2,87 ± 1,9) até a realização de um acesso vascular definitivo. O sítio vascular preferido foi a veia jugular interna direita (80%). Taxas de sucesso, procedimentos abortados e falhas foram de 93,3%, 2,7% e 4,0%, respectivamente, com apenas 5,36% de pequenas complicações. A patência dos CLP com 1, 3, 6 e 12 meses foram de 93,38%, 71,81, 54,36% e 30,2%, respectivamente, com média de 298 ± 280 dias (mediana 198 dias). Os custos dos procedimentos foram em torno de US$ 496. Disfunção foi o principal motivo da remoção do cateter (34%). Conclusão: Nossa análise mostra que o implante de CLP por nefrologista no centro cirúrgico de clínica de diálise é eficaz e seguro e está associado à redução significativa de custos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Catheterization, Central Venous/methods , Catheters, Indwelling/economics , Catheters, Indwelling/adverse effects , Central Venous Catheters/economics , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Ambulatory Care/methods , Operating Rooms , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Renal Dialysis/methods , Treatment Outcome , Nephrologists , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy
12.
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(1): 38-46, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098336

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The vascular access cannulation technique varies among clinics, and guidelines on vascular access give little importance to cannulation techniques. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cannulation technique and to determine which factors are associated with each detail of the technique. Material and methods: The vascular access cannulation was evaluated in 260 patients undergoing hemodialysis. The type and anatomical location of the vascular access, the cannulation technique, direction, gauge, and distance between needles, besides bevel direction and needle rotation were registered. Results: The arteriovenous fistula was the most frequent vascular access (88%), the most used cannulation technique was area (100%), the needle direction was anterograde in most cases (79.5%), and the mean distance between the tips of needles was 7.57±4.43 cm. For arteriovenous grafts, the proximal anatomical location (brachial artery) and cannulation with 16G needles in anterograde position were more predominant. For arteriovenous fistulas, the distal anatomical location (radial artery) and cannulation through 15G needles were more common. Cannulation of vascular access in retrograde direction was associated with a greater distance between needles (13.2 ± 4.4 vs 6.1 ± 3 cm, p < 0.001). Kt/V was higher when the distance between needles was higher than 5 cm (1.61 ± 0.3 vs. 1.47 ± 0.28, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The vascular access cannulation technique depends on the vascular access characteristics and expertise of cannulators. Clinical trials are required for the formulation of guidelines for vascular access cannulation.


RESUMO Introdução: A técnica de canulação do acesso vascular varia entre instituições de saúde, e as diretrizes sobre o acesso vascular dão pouca importância às técnicas de canulação. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a técnica de canulação e determinar quais fatores estão associados a cada detalhe da técnica. Material e métodos: A canulação do acesso vascular foi avaliada em 260 pacientes em hemodiálise. Foram registrados o tipo e localização anatômica do acesso vascular, a técnica de canulação, a direção, a bitola e a distância entre as agulhas, além da direção do bisel e da rotação da agulha. Resultados: A fístula arteriovenosa foi o acesso vascular mais frequente (88%), a técnica de canulação mais utilizada foi a área (100%), a direção da agulha foi anterógrada na maioria dos casos (79,5%) e a distância média entre as pontas das agulhas foi de 7,57 ± 4,43 cm. Para enxertos arteriovenosos, a localização anatômica proximal (artéria braquial) e a canulação com agulhas 16G em posição anterógrada foram mais predominantes. Para as fístulas arteriovenosas, a localização anatômica distal (artéria radial) e a canulação através de agulhas 15G foram mais comuns. A canulação do acesso vascular na direção retrógrada foi associada a uma maior distância entre as agulhas (13,2 ± 4,4 v.s. 6,1 ± 3 cm, p < 0,001). O Kt / V foi maior quando a distância entre as agulhas foi superior a 5 cm (1,61 ± 0,3 vs. 1,47 ± 0,28, p < 0,01). Conclusões: A técnica de canulação do acesso vascular depende das características do acesso vascular e da experiência dos "canuladores". Ensaios clínicos são necessários para a formulação de diretrizes para a canulação do acesso vascular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Catheterization/instrumentation , Catheterization/methods , Arteriovenous Fistula , Renal Dialysis/methods , Needles , Brazil , Blood Vessel Prosthesis , Risk , Cross-Sectional Studies , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Access Devices
14.
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(2,supl.1): 41-43, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134828

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Vascular accesses for hemodialysis are considered the patient's lifeline and their maintenance is essential for treatment continuity. Following the example of institutions in other countries affected by the Covid-19 pandemic, the Brazilian Society of Nephrology developed these guidelines for healthcare services, elaborating on the importance of carrying out procedures for the preparation and preservation of vascular accesses. Creating definitive accesses for hemodialysis, grafts and arteriovenous fistulas are non-elective procedures, as well as the transition from the use of non-tunneled catheters to tunneled catheters, which cause less morbidity. In the case of patients with suspected or confirmed coronavirus infection, one may postpone the procedures for the quarantine period, to avoid spreading the disease.


RESUMO Os acessos vasculares para hemodiálise são considerados a linha da vida do paciente, e sua manutenção é essencial para o seguimento do tratamento. A exemplo de instituições de outros países atingidos pela pandemia da Covid-19, a Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia elaborou estas orientações para os serviços de saúde, esclarecendo a importância da realização dos procedimentos de confecção e preservação de acessos vasculares. Consideramos como não eletivos os procedimentos de confecção de acessos definitivos para hemodiálise, próteses e fístulas arteriovenosas, bem como a transição do uso de cateteres não tunelizados para cateteres tunelizados, os quais acarretam menor morbidade. Nos casos de pacientes com infecção suspeita ou confirmada por coronavírus, é aceitável o adiamento dos procedimentos pelo período de quarentena, para evitar disseminação da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical/methods , Renal Dialysis/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Vascular Access Devices , Betacoronavirus , Societies, Medical , Brazil , Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical/standards , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures/standards , Advisory Committees , Emergencies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Nephrology/standards
15.
Horiz. enferm ; 31(1): 107-115, maio.2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1223760

ABSTRACT

La adherencia al tratamiento resulta una problemática que incide en los servicios de hemodiálisis y complejiza la calidad de vida de los pacientes. El artículo expone las características del paciente hemodializado y reflexiona sobre las conductas no adhesivas al tratamiento y su impacto sobre el estado de salud. Se discuten resultados de investigaciones realizadas en este contexto, identificándose que la relación médico-paciente, el tipo de tratamiento, los efectos adversos al tratamiento farmacológico que acompañan la terapia dialítica y las características personales del enfermo se establecen como factores con marcada incidencia sobre la conducta no adherente.


Adherence to treatment is a problem that affects hemodialysis services and complicates the quality of life. The article aims to reflect on non-adhesive behaviors to dialysis treatment and its impact on the health status of patients. Results of research carried out in this context are discussed, identifying the doctor-patient relationship, type of treatment, adverse effects to pharmacological treatment that accompany dialysis therapy and personal characteristics of the patient as factors with marked incidence on non-adherent behavior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renal Dialysis/methods , Patient Compliance , Renal Insufficiency/drug therapy , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Social Factors , Physician-Patient Relations , Quality of Life , Life Expectancy
16.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 564-569, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056599

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a chronic granulomatous inflammatory condition of unknown cause that involves large vessels - particularly the aorta and its branches - such as the carotid, coronary, pulmonary, and renal arteries. The left subclavian artery is the most frequently involved vessel. Stenosis of the renal artery has been reported in 23-31% of the cases and may result in malignant hypertension, ischemic renal disease, decompensated heart failure, and premature death. Involvement of both renal arteries is uncommon. Early onset anuria and acute kidney injury are rare and have been reported only in a few cases in the literature. This report describes the case of a 15-year-old female with constitutional symptoms evolving for a year, combined with headache, nausea, and vomiting, in addition to frequent visits to emergency services and insufficient clinical examination. The patient worsened significantly six months after the onset of symptoms and developed acute pulmonary edema, oliguria, acute kidney injury, and difficult-to-control hypertension, at which point she was admitted for intensive care and hemodialysis. Initial ultrasound examination showed she had normal kidneys and stenosis-free renal arteries. The patient was still anuric after 30 days of hospitalization. A biopsy was performed and revealed her kidneys were normal. Computed tomography angiography scans of the abdominal aorta presented evidence of occlusion of both renal arteries. The patient met the diagnostic criteria for Takayasu arteritis and had a severe complication rarely described in the literature: stenosis of the two renal arteries during the acute stage of ischemic renal disease.


RESUMO A Arterite de Takayasu (AT) é uma doença inflamatória crônica, granulomatosa, de causa desconhecida, que afeta grandes vasos, principalmente a aorta e seus ramos, incluindo artérias carótidas, coronárias, pulmonares e renais, sendo a artéria subclávia esquerda o vaso mais acometido. A estenose da artéria renal é relatada em 23-31% dos casos e pode resultar em hipertensão maligna, insuficiência renal por isquemia, descompensação cardíaca e morte prematura. O acometimento bilateral de artérias renais é incomum, sendo rara a presença de anúria súbita e lesão renal aguda como sintoma inicial da doença, com poucos relatos na literatura. O caso reporta uma adolescente de 15 anos com sintomas constitucionais durante um ano de evolução, associados a problemas como cefaleia, náuseas e vômitos, com idas frequentes a serviços de emergência, sem adequada investigação clínica. Após 6 meses do início dos sintomas, a paciente evoluiu de forma grave, com quadro de edema agudo de pulmão, oligúria, lesão renal aguda e hipertensão arterial de difícil controle, sendo necessário suporte em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva e hemodiálise. A ultrassonografia inicial mostrava rins normais e artérias renais sem sinais de estenose. Após 30 dias de internamento, paciente permanecia anúrica, sendo realizada biópsia renal que se mostrou dentro dos padrões da normalidade. Angiotomografia de aorta abdominal evidenciou oclusão bilateral de artérias renais. A paciente descrita fechou critérios diagnósticos para arterite de Takayasu e manifestou uma complicação grave pouco descrita na literatura: estenose bilateral de artérias renais, ainda na fase aguda da nefropatia isquêmica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Renal Artery Obstruction/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Oliguria/diagnosis , Oliguria/etiology , Pulmonary Edema/diagnosis , Pulmonary Edema/etiology , Acute Disease , Renal Dialysis/methods , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Treatment Outcome , Takayasu Arteritis/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/etiology
17.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 560-563, Out.-Dec. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056609

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Human-induced climate change has been an increasing concern in recent years. Nephrology, especially in the dialysis setting, has significant negative environmental impact worldwide, as it uses large amounts of water and energy and generates thousands of tons of waste. While our activities make us responsible agents, there are also several opportunities to change the game, both individually and as a society. This call-to-action intends to raise awareness about environmentally sustainable practices in dialysis and encourages this important discussion in Brazil.


RESUMO A mudança climática induzida pela atividade humana tem sido foco de preocupações crescentes nos últimos anos. A nefrologia, particularmente a diálise, produz significativos impactos ambientais em todo o mundo em virtude da grande utilização de água e energia e da geração de milhares de toneladas de resíduos. Embora nossas atividades nos tornem agentes responsáveis, há várias oportunidades para mudar esse cenário, tanto individualmente como em sociedade. O presente artigo pretende ampliar a conscientização sobre práticas ambientalmente sustentáveis em diálise e estimular essa importante discussão no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Program Evaluation/methods , Renal Dialysis/methods , Peritoneal Dialysis/methods , Awareness/physiology , Climate Change/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Waste Disposal, Fluid/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/ethics , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Environment
18.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 462-471, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056610

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) has an incidence rate of 5-6% among intensive care unit (ICU) patients and sepsis is the most frequent etiology. Aims: To assess patients in the ICU that developed AKI, AKI on chronic kidney disease (CKD), and/or sepsis, and identify the risk factors and outcomes of these diseases. Methods: A prospective observational cohort quantitative study that included patients who stayed in the ICU > 48 hours and had not been on dialysis previously was carried out. Results: 302 patients were included and divided into: no sepsis and no AKI (nsnAKI), sepsis alone (S), septic AKI (sAKI), non-septic AKI (nsAKI), septic AKI on CKD (sAKI/CKD), and non-septic AKI on CKD (nsAKI/CKD). It was observed that 94% of the patients developed some degree of AKI. Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) stage 3 was predominant in the septic groups (p = 0.018). Nephrologist follow-up in the non-septic patients was only 23% vs. 54% in the septic groups (p < 0.001). Dialysis was performed in 8% of the non-septic and 37% of the septic groups (p < 0.001). Mechanical ventilation (MV) requirement was higher in the septic groups (p < 0.001). Mortality was 38 and 39% in the sAKI and sAKI/CKD groups vs 16% and 0% in the nsAKI and nsAKI/CKD groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Patients with sAKI and sAKI/CKD had worse prognosis than those with nsAKI and nsAKI/CKD. The nephrologist was not contacted in a large number of AKI cases, except for KDIGO stage 3, which directly influenced mortality rates. The urine output was considerably impaired, ICU stay was longer, use of MV and mortality were higher when kidney injury was combined with sepsis.


Resumo A Lesão Renal Aguda (LRA), cuja etiologia mais frequente é sepse, tem incidência de 5-6% na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Objetivo: Avaliar pacientes que permaneceram mais de 48 horas na UTI e desenvolveram LRA ou Doença Renal Crônica agudizada (DRCag) e/ou sepse; identificar fatores associados e causas que possam afetar a evolução desses pacientes. Método: Estudo prospectivo, observacional, coorte e quantitativo dos pacientes em UTI entre maio a dezembro de 2013 com sepse e LRA. Excluídos pacientes < 48 horas e/ou dialíticos prévios. Resultados: Dos 1156 pacientes admitidos, 302 foram incluídos e divididos em grupos: sem sepse e sem LRA (SSSLRA), apenas sepse (S), LRA séptica (LRAs), LRA não séptica (LRAns), DRCag séptica (DRCags), DRCag não séptica (DRCagns). Foi verificado que 94% apresentaram algum grau de lesão renal; Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 3 foi predominante nos grupos sépticos (p = 0.018); o nefrologista foi chamado apenas em 23% dos pacientes não sépticos vs. 54% dos sépticos (p < 0.001); houve necessidade de diálise em 8% dos não sépticos vs. 37% dos sépticos (p < 0.001); necessidade de Ventilação Mecânica (VM) em 61% da LRAns versus 90% na LRAs (p < 0.001). A mortalidade foi 38% e 39% na LRAs e DRCags vs. 16% e 0% na LRAns e DRCagns, respectivamente (p < 0.001). Conclusão: LRAs e DRCags têm pior prognóstico que a não séptica. O nefrologista ainda não é solicitado em grande parte dos casos com influência direta na mortalidade (p < 0.001), o débito urinário é consideravelmente prejudicado; o tempo de permanência na UTI, necessidade de VM e mortalidade são maiores quando há associação da sepse e LRA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Sepsis/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/microbiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Mortality/trends , Renal Dialysis/methods , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Nephrology/statistics & numerical data
20.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 330-335, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040248

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) are the best hemodialysis vascular accesses, but their failure rate remains high. Few studies have addressed the role of the vascular surgeon's skills and the facility's practices. We aimed to study these factors, with the hypothesis that the surgeon's skills and facility practices would have an important role in primary failure and patency rates at 12 months, respectively. Methods: This was a single-center, prospective cohort study carried out from March 2005 to March 2017. Only incident patients were included. A single surgeon made all AVFs, either in the forearm (lower) or the elbow (upper). Vascular access definitions were in accordance with the North American Vascular Access Consortium. Results: We studied 113 AVFs (65% lower) from 106 patients (39% diabetics, 58% started with catheter). Time to first connection was 21.5 days (IR: 14 - 31). Only 14 AVFs (12.4%) underwent primary failure and 18 failed during the first year. Functional primary patency rate was 80.9% (SE 4.1) whereas primary unassisted patency rate, which included PF, was 70.6% (4.4). Logistic regression showed that diabetes (OR = 3.3, 95%CI 1.38 - 7.88, p = .007) and forearm location (OR = 3.03, 95CI% 1.05 - 8.76, p = 0.04) were predictors of AVF failure. Patency of lower and upper AVFs was similar in non-diabetics, while patency in diabetics with lower AVFs was under 50%. (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Results suggest that a long-lasting, suitable AVF is feasible in almost all patients. The surgeon's skills and facility practices can have an important role in the long term outcome of AVF.


Resumo Introdução: Fístulas arteriovenosas (FAV) são os melhores acessos vasculares para hemodiálise, mas sua taxa de falhas permanece alta. Poucos estudos abordaram o papel das habilidades do cirurgião vascular e das práticas hospitalares. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar esses fatores, com a hipótese de que as habilidades do cirurgião e as práticas hospitalares teriam um papel importante nas taxas de falhas primárias e perviedade em 12 meses, respectivamente. Métodos: Este foi um estudo de coorte prospectivo de um único centro, realizado de março de 2005 a março de 2017. Apenas os pacientes incidentes foram incluídos. Um único cirurgião fez todas as FAVs, seja no antebraço (inferior) ou no cotovelo (superior). As definições de acesso vascular estavam de acordo com o Consórcio Norte-Americano de Acesso Vascular. Resultados: Estudamos 113 FAVs (65% inferiores) de 106 pacientes (39% diabéticos, 58% começaram com cateter). O tempo até a primeira conexão foi de 21,5 dias (RI: 14 - 31). Apenas 14 FAV (12,4%) tiveram falha primária e 18 falharam durante o primeiro ano. A taxa de patência funcional primária foi de 80,9% (SE 4,1), enquanto a taxa de permeabilidade primária não assistida, que incluiu FP, foi de 70,6% (4,4). A regressão logística mostrou que o diabetes (OR = 3,3, 95% IC 1,38 - 7,88, p = 0,007) e localização no antebraço (OR = 3,03, 95% IC 1,05 - 8,76, p = 0,04) foram preditores de falha da FAV. A patência das FAVs inferior e superior foi semelhante em não-diabéticos, enquanto a perviedade em diabéticos com FAV inferior foi menor que 50%. (p = 0,003). Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que uma FAV duradoura e adequada é viável em quase todos os pacientes. As habilidades do cirurgião e das práticas hospitalares podem ter um papel importante no resultado a longo prazo da FAV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Vascular Patency , Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical , Clinical Competence , Surgeons , Health Facilities , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Renal Dialysis/methods , Treatment Failure , Diabetes Mellitus , Elbow/surgery , Forearm/surgery , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy
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