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1.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(2): e808, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347463

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La COVID-19 es una enfermedad relativamente nueva, que puede causar afecciones en diferentes órganos. El daño renal se asocia a la mortalidad, por lo que debe ser identificado precozmente. Objetivo: Describir el daño renal en pacientes de COVID-19. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de materiales publicados durante el periodo comprendido entre el 20 de abril al 25 de agosto de 2020. Se consultaron las bases de datos PubMed, SciELO, Ebsco y Clinical Key, así como el motor de búsqueda Google Académico. Los métodos utilizados fueron análisis-síntesis, inducción-deducción e histórico-lógico. Análisis e integración de la información: Para realizar un diagnóstico precoz que permita modificar el pronóstico y la historia natural de la mortalidad, se realizan numerosas investigaciones en los pacientes portadores de la COVID-19. En la literatura científica se reportan artículos sobre la importancia de la detección del daño renal. Se ha identificado que, tanto el daño renal previo, como el desarrollo de este durante la COVID-19, desempeñan un rol importante en el aumento de la tasa de letalidad. Conclusiones: La Afección renal crónica es una agravante en pacientes que padecen COVID-19. La descripción de los mecanismos causantes de la lesión renal es fundamental para establecer el pronóstico de estos pacientes, sin embargo, luego de la revisión, se comprobó que aún es escasa la literatura científica que aborde la relación del daño renal durante la COVID-19(AU)


Introduction: COVID-19 is a relatively new disease that affects various organs. Associated as it is to mortality, kidney damage should be identified as early as possible. Objective: Conduct a bibliographic review aimed at describing kidney damage in COVID-19 patients. Methods: A bibliographic review was conducted of materials about the topic published from 20 April to 25 August 2020. The search was carried out in the databases PubMed, SciELO, Ebsco and Clinical Key, as well as the search engine Google Scholar. Analytic-synthetic, inductive-deductive and historical-logical methods were used. Data analysis and integration: In order to obtain an early diagnosis allowing to modify the prognosis and natural evolution of mortality, a large number of studies are performed on patients carrying COVID-19. Papers are found in the scientific literature which refer to the importance of detecting kidney damage. It has been found that kidney damage, either developing before or during the course of the disease, plays an important role in the increase in lethality. Conclusions: Kidney damage is common in COVID-19 patients. Describing the mechanisms causing the kidney injury is a fundamental pillar to establish the prognosis for these patients. The description of kidney damage during COVID-19 is still scarce in the scientific literature(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Play and Playthings , Early Diagnosis , Data Analysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , COVID-19/complications
2.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 34: eAPE03193, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1278068

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Identificar a prevalência da síndrome cardiorrenal (SCR) em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC) crônica descompensada e sua associação com os dados sociodemográficos, clínicos, achados admissionais, mortalidade e tempo de hospitalização. Método: Estudo transversal, com abordagem quantitativa. A amostra foi constituída por 379 prontuários de pacientes adultos com o diagnóstico médico de IC crônica descompensada, admitidos em hospital público no estado de São Paulo, ao longo de 2015. A coleta de dados ocorreu em 2016. A disfunção renal foi considerada em pacientes com diagnóstico prévio de doença renal crônica (DRC) pela taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG) < 89 mL/min/1.73 m2. Testes com valor de p menor ou igual a 0,05 foram estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: A prevalência da SCR foi de 54,1%, sendo 24,8% do tipo 1 e 29,3% do tipo 2. Os principais fatores associados à SCR foram: maior média de idade, mulheres, IC de etiologia isquêmica, menor fração de ejeção, portadores de diabetes mellitus, doença arterial coronariana, uso de estimuladores cardíacos artificiais, hipotireoidismo e doença de Chagas, bem como o perfil hemodinâmico de descompensação da IC nos tipos C e L. Destacam-se, ainda, inapetência, sonolência, estertores na ausculta respiratória, alteração na perfusão tissular, redução do débito urinário, com aumento dos níveis séricos de potássio, ureia e creatinina na avaliação clínica inicial. Os pacientes com disfunção renal apresentaram maior mortalidade, sem diferença significativa quanto ao tempo de hospitalização. Conclusão: Houve alta prevalência da SCR em pacientes com IC crônica descompensada, associada à maior mortalidade e diversos indicadores clínicos.


Resumen Objetivo: Identificar la prevalencia del síndrome cardiorrenal (SCR) en pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca (IC) crónica descompensada y su relación con los datos sociodemográficos, clínicos y descubiertos en la admisión, la mortalidad y el tiempo de hospitalización. Métodos: Estudio transversal, con enfoque cuantitativo. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 379 historias clínicas de pacientes adultos con diagnóstico médico de IC crónica descompensada, ingresados en hospital público en el estado de São Paulo, durante 2015. La recolección de datos se realizó en 2016. La disfunción renal fue considerada en pacientes con diagnóstico previo de enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) por el índice de filtración glomerular (IFG) < 89 mL/min/1.73 m2. Pruebas con un valor de p menor o igual a 0,05 fueron estadísticamente significativos. Resultados: La prevalencia del SCR fue del 54,1 %, del cual el 24,8 % fue de tipo 1 y el 29,3 % de tipo 2. Los principales factores asociados al SCR fueron: mayor promedio de edad, mujeres, IC de etiología isquémica, menor fracción de eyección, portadores de diabetes mellitus, enfermedad arterial coronaria, uso de estimuladores cardíacos artificiales, hipotiroidismo y enfermedad de Chagas, así como también el perfil hemodinámico de descompensación de la IC en el tipo C y L. Además, se destacan la inapetencia, somnolencia, estertores en la auscultación pulmonar, alteración en la perfusión tisular, reducción del flujo urinario, con aumento del nivel en sangre de potasio, urea y creatinina en la evaluación clínica inicial. Los pacientes con disfunción renal presentaron mayor mortalidad, sin diferencia significativa con relación al tiempo de hospitalización. Conclusión: Se observó una alta prevalencia del SCR en pacientes con IC crónica descompensada, relacionada con una mayor mortalidad y diversos indicadores clínicos.


Abstract Objective: to identify cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) prevalence in patients with decompensated chronic heart failure (HF) and its association with sociodemographic and clinical data, admission findings, mortality and length of hospital stay. Methods: a cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. The sample consisted of 379 medical records of adult patients with a medical diagnosis of decompensated chronic HF admitted to a public hospital in the state of São Paulo, throughout 2015. Data collection occurred in 2016. Kidney failure was considered in patients with a previous diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <89 mL/min/1.73 m2. Tests with a p value less than or equal to 0.05 were statistically significant. Results: CRS prevalence was 54.1%, with 24.8% being type 1 and 29.3% being type 2. The main factors associated with CRS were: higher mean age; women; HF of ischemic etiology; lower ejection fraction; people with diabetes mellitus; coronary artery disease; artificial cardiac stimulator use; hypothyroidism and Chagas disease; hemodynamic profile of HF decompensation in types C and L. Also noteworthy are inappetence, drowsiness, rales on respiratory auscultation, alteration in tissue perfusion, decreased urine output, with increased serum levels of potassium, urea and creatinine in the initial clinical assessment. Patients with kidney failure had higher mortality, with no significant difference in length of hospital stay. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of CRS in patients with decompensated chronic HF, associated with higher mortality and several clinical indicators.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Medical Records , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Cardio-Renal Syndrome , Heart Failure/etiology , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Nursing Care
3.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3442, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1289782

ABSTRACT

Objective: to identify the prevalence of latent tuberculosis in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis and associated factors. Method: a cross-sectional study conducted with 176 patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. The tuberculin test was performed with the standardized antigen, distributed by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, and the reading occurred after 72 to 96 hours of the application. An association test (Chi-square, Fisher's exact), prevalence ratio, and multivariate regression tests were performed. Results: the prevalence of latent tuberculosis diagnosed through Tuberculosis Skin Test was 8.5% (15/176). The "has/has had diabetes" (aOR: 0.117; 95%CI: 0.015-0.92) and "having regular garbage collection (aOR: 0.076; 95%CI: 0.008-0.702) factors were associated with a lower probability of having a Positive skin test. Conclusion: the low prevalence of latent tuberculosis identified and the factors associated with it reinforce the need for screening for latent tuberculosis infection for diabetics combined with an analysis of previous risk factors and comorbidities.


Objetivo: identificar a prevalência de tuberculose latente em pacientes com doença renal crônica em hemodiálise e fatores associados. Método: estudo transversal realizado com 176 pacientes com doença renal crônica em hemodiálise. O teste tuberculínico foi realizado com o antígeno padronizado, distribuído pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil, e a leitura ocorreu após 72 a 96 horas da aplicação. Foram realizados teste de associação (Qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher), razão de prevalência e regressão multivariada. Resultados: a prevalência de tuberculose latente (teste tuberculínico positivo) foi de 8,5% (15/176). Os fatores "tem/teve diabetes" (ORa:0,117; IC95% 0,015-0,92) e "ter coleta de lixo regular" (ORa:0,076; IC95% 0,008-0,702) foram associados a menores probabilidades de ter teste tuberculínico positivo. Conclusão: a baixa prevalência de tuberculose latente identificada e os fatores associados à mesma reforçam a necessidade de uma triagem da infecção latente por tuberculose para diabéticos combinada com a análise de fatores de risco e comorbidades prévias.


Objetivo: identificar la prevalencia de tuberculosis latente en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica en hemodiálisis y factores asociados. Método: estudio transversal realizado con 176 pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica en hemodiálisis. La prueba cutánea de la tuberculina se realizó con el antígeno estandarizado, distribuido por el Ministerio de Salud de Brasil, y la lectura se realizó después de 72 a 96 horas de la aplicación. Se realizaron pruebas de asociación (Chi-cuadrado, exacta de Fisher), razón de prevalencia y regresión multivariante. Resultados: la prevalencia de tuberculosis latente (prueba de tuberculina positiva) fue de 8,5% (15/176). Los factores "tiene/ha tenido diabetes" (ORa: 0,117; IC del 95%: 0,015-0,92) y "tener recolección regular de residuos" (ORa: 0,076; IC del 95%: 0,008-0,702) se asociaron con menores probabilidades de tener una prueba de tuberculina positiva. Conclusión: la baja prevalencia de tuberculosis latente registrada y sus factores asociados refuerzan la necesidad del cribado de la infección tuberculosa latente en diabéticos combinado con el análisis de factores de riesgo y comorbilidades previas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Latent Tuberculosis/complications , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology
4.
Clinics ; 76: e1876, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153953

ABSTRACT

Although previous studies have indicated that statin therapy can effectively prevent the development of CIN, this observation remains controversial, especially in high-risk patients. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy of statin pretreatment for preventing the development of CIN in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to determine its effectiveness in various subgroups. We searched the online databases PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. RCTs that involved the comparison of the short-term moderate or high-dose statin pretreatment with placebo for CIN prevention in CKD patients undergoing angiography were included. The primary outcome was CIN prevalence. Seven RCTs comprising 4256 participants were investigated in this analysis. The risk of developing CIN in patients pretreated with statins was significantly lower than that in patients pretreated with placebo (RR=0.57, 95%CI=0.43-0.76, p=0.000). The SCr values of the statin group, when analyzed 48h after angiography were lower than those of the placebo group ((SMD=-0.15, 95% CI=-0.27 to -0.04, p=0.011). In the subgroup analysis, statin pretreatment could decrease the risk of CIN in CKD patients with DM (RR=0.54, 95% CI=0.39-0.76, p=0.000), but not in CKD patients without DM (RR=0.84, 95% CI=0.44-1.60, p=0.606). The efficacy of atorvastatin for preventing CIN was consistent with that observed with the use of rosuvastatin. The risk ratios (RR) were 0.51 (95% CI=0.32-0.81, p=0.004) and 0.60 (95% CI=0.41-0.88, p=0.009), respectively. Our study demonstrated that statin pretreatment could prevent the development of CIN in CKD patients. However, subgroup analysis demonstrated that statin pretreatment, despite being effective in preventing CIN in patients with CKD and DM, was not helpful for CKD patients without DM. Rosuvastatin and atorvastatin exhibited similar preventive effects with respect to CIN.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Coronary Angiography , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Rosuvastatin Calcium/therapeutic use
5.
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 21(3): e132, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156380

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La fístula arterio-venosa para hemodiálisis es el acceso vascular utilizado con mayor frecuencia. De su adecuada funcionalidad depende la calidad de vida de los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los pacientes a los que se les confeccionó fístulas arterio-venosas para hemodiálisis. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo en 73 pacientes, a los que se les confeccionó una fístula arterio-venosa para hemodiálisis. Las variables de estudio fueron: edad, sexo, tipo de fístula arterio-venosa, localización, complicaciones y tratamiento quirúrgico de las complicaciones. Resultados: Se encontró un predominio del sexo masculino y del grupo etario entre 51 y 60 años. El 94,6 por ciento de las fístulas realizadas fueron autólogas; y, de estas, el 44,1 por ciento, radio-cefálicas. El 27,3 por ciento de las autólogas y el 20 por ciento de las protésicas se presentó trombosis, y el 18,2 por ciento y el 40 por ciento presentaron hipertensión venosa para las autólogas y protésicas, respectivamente. El 43,5 por ciento de los tratamientos realizados frente a las complicaciones resultó la confección de una nueva fístula. Conclusiones: Los pacientes a los que se les confeccionó fístulas arterio-venosas eran predominantemente adultos mayores del sexo masculino y las fístulas más realizadas fueron las autólogas radio-cefálicas. Como principal complicación de las fístulas se encontró la trombosis y se realizaron escasos procederes para el rescate de estas(AU)


Introduction: Arterio-venous fistula for haemodialysis is the most commonly used vascular access. Its proper functionality depends on the quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease. Objective: Describe patients to whom were made arterio-venous fistulas for haemodialysis. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted in 73 patients to whom were made an arterio-venous fistula for haemodialysis. The study variables were: age, sex, type of arterio-venous fistula, location, complications and surgical treatment of complications. Results: It was found a predominance of male sex and the age group of 51 to 60 years. 94.6 percent of the fistulas made were autologous; and, of these, 44.1 percent were radio-cephalic. 27.3 percent of the autologous fistulas and 20 percent of the prosthetics ones developed thrombosis, and 18.2 percent and 40 percent showed venous hypertension for autologous and prosthetic fistulas, respectively. 43.5 percent of the treatments performed to face complications resulted in the making of a new fistula. Conclusions: The patients to whom were made arterio-venous fistulas were predominantly older adults of the male sex and the most performed fistulas were the radio-cephalic autologous. As the main complication of fistulas, thrombosis was found and a few practices were performed to rescue them(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Fistula/surgery
7.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(4): e918, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156512

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La COVID-19 se ha caracterizado por un amplio espectro de manifestaciones y formas clínicas que comprenden desde enfermedad ligera hasta la muerte. Es de suma importancia identificar a aquellos con mayores probabilidades de desarrollar las complicaciones. Objetivo: Identificar factores de riesgo para desarrollar complicaciones en los pacientes atendidos con la COVID-19. Métodos: Fueron revisadas las 250 historias clínicas de pacientes ingresados por la COVID-19. Se recopilaron edad, sexo, antecedentes patológicos personales, exámenes de laboratorio y la presencia o no de complicaciones. Se utilizó ji cuadrado para identificar relación entre las complicaciones y el sexo. Fue calculado el Odds Ratio (OR) para complicaciones por grupos de edad, antecedentes patológicos personales y parámetros humorales. Resultados: El distrés respiratorio fue más frecuente en hombres (p = 0,023). Los grupos de edad más afectados fueron de 60 a 79 años y de 80 años y más (OR = 4,85 y 30,53 respectivamente). Fueron factores de riesgo los antecedentes de hipertensión arterial, cardiopatía isquémica, diabetes mellitus, insuficiencia renal crónica y demencia (OR = 4,48; 4,22; 8,75; 17,98 y 10,39 respectivamente). Predispusieron a complicaciones, hematocrito y linfocitos bajo, así como neutrófilos, glucemia, creatinina, ASAT, GGT y LDH altos. Conclusiones: El mayor riesgo de complicaciones lo tuvieron pacientes mayores de 60 años, con enfermedades cardiovasculares, diabetes mellitus, insuficiencia renal y demencia. La presencia de hematocrito y linfocitos bajo, o neutrófilos, glucemia, creatinina, ASAT, GGT y LDH altos, alerta sobre posibles complicaciones(AU)


Introduction: COVID-19 has been characterized by a wide spectrum of manifestations and clinical forms that range from mild illness to death. Identifying those most likely to develop complications is critical. Objective: To identify risk factors for developing complications in patients treated with COVID-19. Methods: 250 medical records of patients admitted for COVID-19 were reviewed. Age, sex, personal pathological history, laboratory tests and the presence or absence of complications were collected. Chi-square was used to identify the relationship between complications and sex. The Odds Ratio (OR) was calculated for complications by age groups, personal pathological history, and humoral parameters. Results: Respiratory distress was more frequent in men (p=0.023). The most affected age groups were 60 to 79 years and 80 years and over (OR=4.85 and 30.53 respectively). Risk factors were the history of arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney insufficiency and dementia (OR=4.48, 4.22, 8.75, 17.98 and 10.39 respectively). Low hematocrit and lymphocytes were predisposed to complications, as well as high neutrophils, glycaemia, creatinine, ASAT, GGT and LDH. Conclusions: The highest risk of complications was in patients older than 60 years, with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, kidney insufficiency and dementia. The presence of low hematocrit and lymphocytes, or high neutrophils, glycaemia, creatinine, ASAT, GGT and LDH, alerts you to possible complications(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Risk Factors , Myocardial Ischemia/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Hypertension
8.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(3): e976, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126769

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las malformaciones congénitas renales y de las vías urinarias, constituyen la causa más frecuente de la enfermedad renal crónica en niños menores de 5 años. La ultrasonografía renal, se contempla en la actualidad, en el estudio inicial ante la sospecha de enfermedad renal crónica secundaria a malformaciones congénitas renales y de vías urinarias. Objetivo: Identificar los hallazgos sonográficos sugestivos de anomalías renales en los primeros seis meses de vida. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal en niños nacidos entre julio de 2014 y junio de 2015 en el municipio de Santa Clara, con ultrasonido renal prenatal normal. A los 672 niños estudiados, previo consentimiento informado, se les realizó ultrasonido renal en algún momento dentro de los seis primeros meses de vida, lo que permitió identificar a los niños con alteraciones sonográficas sugerentes de algún tipo de anomalías del desarrollo renal. Se continuaron los estudios, según protocolos establecidos, para definir el tipo de malformación congénita renal y de vías urinarias. Resultados: El 5,95 por ciento (40 pacientes) presentaron alguna alteración sonográfica. La hidronefrosis se identificó en el 27,50 por ciento. La ectopia renal y la asimetría renal estuvieron presentes en el 15,00 por ciento de los pacientes. El 10,00 por ciento presentó agenesia renal. El 22, 5 por ciento de los pacientes con hidronefrosis tenían reflujo vesicoureteral. Conclusiones: La hidronefrosis constituye una alteración sonográfica frecuente en pacientes con malformaciones congénitas renales, sobre todo del tipo de reflujo vesicoureteral. Dentro de las alteraciones de tamaño, posición y forma, la ectopia renal constituye la anomalía del desarrollo renal más frecuente(AU)


Introduction: Renal congenital and urinary tract´s malformations represent the most frequent cause of chronical kidney disease in children under five years old. The renal ultrasound it is nowadays included in the initial study while suspecting chronical kidney disease as a consequence of renal congenital and urinary tract´s malformations. Objective: To identify sonographic findings that suggest renal anomalies in the first six months of life. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study in children that were born from July, 2014 to June, 2015 in Santa Clara municipality having a normal prenatal renal ultrasound. The 672 children studied with previous informed consent had a renal ultrasound in the first six months of life which allowed to identify the children with sonographic alterations suggestive to any kind of renal development´s anomalies. The studies were conducted under the established protocols to define the kind of renal congenital and urinary tract´s malformation. Results: 5.5 percent (40 patients) presented any kind of sonographic alteration. Hydronephrosis was identified in 27.50 percent of the patients. Renal ectopy and renal asymmetry were present in the 15.00 percent of the patients. 10.00 percent presented renal agenesis. 22.5 percent of the patients with hydronephrosis had vesicoureteral reflux. Conclusions: Hydronephrosis represents a frequent sonographic alteration in patients with congenital renal malformations, mostly the vesicoureteral reflux type. Among the size, position and shape alterations, renal ectopy is the most frequent renal development´s anomaly(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnostic imaging , Kidney/abnormalities , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ultrasonography/methods
9.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(3): e627, jul.-set. 2020. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144480

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La insuficiencia renal crónica se relaciona con múltiples factores de riesgo vascular. La prevalencia de estas entidades se ha incrementado en Cuba en las últimas décadas, asociado al envejecimiento de la población. Objetivo: Identificar la relación entre la insuficiencia renal crónica, diagnosticada según los estadios de filtrado glomerular, con factores de riesgo vascular (obesidad, hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus, hiperlipoproteinemia, tabaquismo) y la enfermedad cardiovascular establecida. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal, en 2 913 pacientes. Se recolectaron datos generales, antropométricos, factores de riesgo vascular y hemoquímica. Se consideraron portadores de insuficiencia renal crónica aquellos con filtrado glomerular inferior a 60 mL/min/1,73 m2. Se identificó la relación entre la insuficiencia renal crónica y los factores de riesgo vascular mediante el odds ratio. Los valores medios de las variables hemoquímicas se compararon con ANOVA de un factor. Resultados: Se encontró 10,8 por ciento de insuficiencia renal crónica (15,3 por ciento en las mujeres), su frecuencia aumentó con la edad y se asoció con los factores de riesgo seleccionados (enfermedad cardiovascular establecida, OR = 3,58; hiperlipoproteinemia, OR = 2,96; hipertensión arterial, OR = 2,95; diabetes mellitus, OR = 2,70 y obesidad, OR = 1,33). La frecuencia de insuficiencia renal crónica así como los valores de glucemia, colesterol, triglicéridos y HbA1c aumentaron con la suma de factores de riesgo. Conclusiones: La insuficiencia renal crónica fue muy frecuente en esta serie. Predominó en el sexo femenino y en los grupos de edad más avanzada. Se constató una significativa relación con los factores de riesgo seleccionados, que fue mayor en pacientes con enfermedad cardiovascular establecida(AU)


Introduction: Chronic renal insufficiency is related to multiple vascular risk factors. The prevalence of these entities has increased in Cuba in recent decades, associated with population aging. Objective: To identify the relationship between chronic renal failure, diagnosed according to glomerular filtration stages, with vascular risk factors (obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia, smoking) and established cardiovascular disease. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in 2913 patients. General, anthropometric data, vascular risk factors, and hemochemistry were collected. Carriers of chronic renal insufficiency were considered those with glomerular filtration rate lower than 60 mL / min / 1.73 m2. The relationship between chronic renal insufficiency and vascular risk factors was identified using the Odds Ratio. The mean values of the hemochemical variables were compared with one-way ANOVA. Results: 10.8 percent of chronic renal insufficiency (15.3 percent in women) was found, its frequency increased with age and was associated with the selected risk factors (established cardiovascular disease: OR 3,58; hyperlipoproteinemia: OR 2,96; hypertension: OR 2,95; diabetes mellitus: OR 2,70 and obesity: OR 1,33). The frequency of chronic renal insufficiency as well as blood glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and HbA1c levels increased with the sum of risk factors. Conclusions: chronic renal insufficiency was very frequent in this series. It prevailed in the female sex and in the most advanced age groups. A significant relationship with the selected risk factors was found, which was higher in patients with established cardiovascular disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Obesity , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications
10.
Rev. Col. méd. cir ; 159(1): 3-8, abr 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1096974

ABSTRACT

La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS),declaró el 11 de marzo de 2020, la COVID-19 como una pandemia. Aun cuando se observa el crecimiento epidemiológico de esta pandemia, al momento no contamos con un protocolo de manejo de los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica y trasplante renal que sean afectados por esta enfermedad. Los miembros del Departamento de Nefrología y Trasplante del Hospital General San Juan de Dios de Guatemala, desarrollaron este documento con la finalidad de establecer guías de manejo de los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Betacoronavirus , Patient Isolation/methods , Tissue Donors , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Interferons/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control
11.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(4): 154-158, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123621

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El hiperparatiroidismo secundario (HPTS) es una complicación de la enfermedad renal crónica terminal (ERCT). A pesar de nuevas terapias médicas como calcimiméticos, en HPTS refractarios la paratiroidectomía (PTX) continúa siendo necesaria. Una complicación frecuente en estos pacientes posterior a la PTX es el síndrome de hueso hambriento (SHH), caracterizado por una profunda y prolongada hipocalcemia asociada a hipofosfatemia, secundaria a un excesivo aumento de su captación ósea. Una complicación menos descrita, pero con consecuencias graves e incluso fatales, es la hiperkalemia. El propósito de este trabajo consiste en enfatizar el riesgo de hiperkalemia por SHH a partir de un caso clínico, señalar los mecanismos fisiopatológicos, factores de riesgo y consideraciones terapéuticas. Caso clínico: Mujer de 35 años, con ERCT de causa desconocida, HPTS refractario con PTX total e implante de glándulas en antebrazo hace 9 años. Ingresa por recurrencia de HPTS. Cintigrama MIBI SPECT/CT® evidenció implante hiperfuncionante, indicándose PTX del injerto. Exámenes preoperatorios: calcemia 8.6 mg/dL, fosfatasas alcalinas 1115 UI/L (VN <100), PTH intacta (PTHi) 3509 pg/ml y kalemia 4.8 mEq/L. Biopsia: hiperplasia paratiroidea nodular. En postoperatorio inmediato presentó hiperkalemia de 7.1 mEq/L con cambios electrocardiográficos, requiriendo hemodiálisis de urgencia. Posteriormente desarrolló hipocalcemia, hipofosfatemia e hipomagnesemia, de difícil control. Discusión: El SHH post HPTS puede coexistir con hiperkalemia postoperatoria inmediata grave, incluso fatal si no se identifica y corrige a tiempo. El mecanismo fisiopatológico aún no está bien dilucidado. Varios factores pudieran intervenir, incluyendo aumento del metabolismo celular, traumatismo tisular, fármacos anestésicos, fluidos perioperatorios y flujo de iones transmembrana. El nivel de potasio previo a la cirugía, menor edad, género masculino, tiempo entre la última hemodiálisis y la cirugía, y duración de la PTX, son factores de riesgo para hiperkalemia postoperatoria. El conocimiento de esta grave complicación permitirá estar preparado para monitorizar y eventualmente tratar.


Introduction: Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a complication of End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Although new medical therapies (i.e.calcimimetics,) parathyroidectomy (PTX) continues to be necessary in refractory cases. A well-known complication after PTX is an entity called Hungry Bone Syndrome (HBS), characterized by deep and prolonged hypocalcemia associated with hypophosphatemia, secondary to an excessive increase in bone formation. A less reported complication, but with severe or even fatal consequences, is hyperkalemia. The purpose of this work consists of emphasizing the risk of hyperkalemia in HBS, reporting a clinical case that points out the physiopathological mechanisms, risk factors, and therapeutic considerations. Clinical case: 35-year-old woman with ESRD of unknown cause with refractory SHPT with total PTX and forearm gland grafts nine years ago. She presented SHPT recurrency. MIBI SPECT/CT® scan showed a hyperfunctioning implant, indicating graft PTX. Preoperative tests: calcemia 8.6 mg/dL, phosphatemia 7.3 mg/dL, alkaline phosphatases 1115 UI/L (VN<100), intact PTH (iPTH) 3509 pg/ml and kalemia 4.8 mEq/L. Biopsy: parathyroid nodular hyperplasia. In the immediate postoperative period, she presented hyperkalemia at 7.1 mEq/L with electrocardiographic changes, requiring emergency hemodialysis. Later she developed hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and hypomagnesemia of difficult control. Discussion: HBS post PTX can coexist with severe immediate postoperative hyperkalemia, which can be even fatal if not detected and corrected. The physiopathological mechanism is still not entirely elucidated. Various factors could interfere, including an increase in cell metabolism, tissue traumatism, anesthetic drugs, intraoperative fluids, and transmembrane ion flow. Preoperative potassium levels, younger age, male gender, the time elapsed between last hemodialysis and surgery, and duration of PTX are risk factors for post-surgical hyperkalemia. Knowing this severe complication will allow the medical team to be prepared for monitoring and eventually treating it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/etiology , Parathyroidectomy/adverse effects , Hyperkalemia/etiology , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/surgery , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/complications
12.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC4819, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056060

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We describe a patient with tertiary hyperparathyroidism with history of three episodes of deep vein thrombosis and on rivaroxaban. The patient underwent a subtotal parathyroidectomy, developing cervical hematoma with airway compression. Therefore, emergency surgical decompression was necessary. Later, on the ninth postoperative day, the serum ionized calcium levels were low. Medical team knowledge about preexisting diseases and their implication in the coagulation state are essential conditions to reduce morbidity and mortality of surgeries. However, no reports were found in literature about the association of hypocalcemia with the use of the new class of anticoagulants, which act as factor X inhibitors (Stuart-Prower factor), predisposing to increased bleeding in the immediate postoperative period.


RESUMO Descrevemos um paciente com hiperparatireoidismo terciário com história de três episódios de trombose venosa profunda e em uso de rivaroxabana. O paciente foi submetido a uma paratireoidectomia subtotal, desenvolvendo hematoma cervical com compressão das vias aéreas. Foi necessária descompressão cirúrgica de emergência. No nono dia de pós-operatório, os níveis séricos de cálcio iônico estavam baixos. O conhecimento da equipe médica sobre doenças preexistentes e de sua implicação no estado de coagulação é condição indispensável para a redução da morbimortalidade do procedimento cirúrgico. No entanto, não há relatos na literatura associando hipocalcemia com o uso da nova classe de anticoagulantes que atuam como inibidores do fator X (fator de Stuart-Prower), predispondo ao aumento do sangramento no pós-operatório imediato.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Hypocalcemia/chemically induced , Calcium/blood , Risk Factors , Parathyroidectomy/adverse effects , Parathyroidectomy/methods , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Hyperparathyroidism/surgery , Hyperparathyroidism/etiology , Hypocalcemia/surgery , Middle Aged
14.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(supl.1): s31-s36, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057105

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Hyperkalemia is a frequent finding in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This increase in serum potassium levels is associated with decreased renal ion excretion, as well as the use of medications to reduce the progression of CKD or to control associated diseases such as diabetes mellitus and heart failure. Hyperkalemia increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmia episodes and sudden death. Thus, the control of potassium elevation is essential for reducing the mortality rate in this population. Initially, the management of hyperkalemia includes orientation of low potassium diets and monitoring of patients' adherence to this procedure. It is also important to know the medications in use and the presence of comorbidities to guide dose reduction or even temporary withdrawal of any of the potassium retention-related drugs. And finally, the use of potassium binders is indicated in both acute episodes and chronic hyperkalemia.


RESUMO A hiperpotassemia é um achado frequente em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC). Esta elevação do nível sérico de potássio está associada à diminuição da excreção renal do íon, assim como ao uso de medicações para retardar a progressão da DRC ou para controlar doenças associadas, como diabetes mellitus e insuficiência cardíaca. A hiperpotassemia aumenta o risco de episódios de arritmia cardíaca e morte súbita. Assim, o controle da elevação de potássio é essencial para a diminuição da taxa de mortalidade nessa população. O manejo da hiperpotassemia inclui, inicialmente, orientação de dietas com baixo teor de potássio e acompanhamento da aderência dos pacientes a esse procedimento. Também é importante conhecer as medicações em uso e a presença de comorbidades, a fim de orientar a redução de doses ou até mesmo a suspensão temporária de alguma das drogas relacionadas à retenção de potássio. E, finalmente, o uso de quelantes de potássio é indicado tanto em episódios agudos como nos casos de hiperpotassemia crônica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Potassium/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Hyperkalemia/etiology , Polystyrenes/therapeutic use , Potassium/blood , Comorbidity , Silicates/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Hyperkalemia/drug therapy , Hyperkalemia/blood
16.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(6): 696-704, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056663

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the carotid intima-media thickness and factors associated with cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease. Material and methods: Observational, cross-sectional study carried out at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (chronic kidney disease outpatient clinics) with 55 patients (60% males) with a median age of 11.9 years (I25-I75: 9.2-14.8 years). Of the 55 patients, 43 were on conservative treatment and 12 were on dialysis. Serum laboratory parameters (creatinine, uric acid, C-reactive protein, total cholesterol and fractions, and triglycerides), nutritional status (z-score of body mass index, z-score of height/age), body fat (fat percentage and waist circumference), and blood pressure levels were evaluated. The carotid intima-media thickness measure was evaluated by a single ultrasonographer and compared with percentiles established according to gender and height. Data collection was performed between May 2015 and March 2016. Results: Of the children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease, 74.5% (95% CI: 61.0; 85.3) showed an increase (>P95) in carotid intima-media thickness. In patients with stages I and II hypertension, 90.9% had increased carotid intima-media thickness. Nutritional status, body fat and laboratory tests were not associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness. After multivariate adjustment, only puberty (PR = 1.30, p = 0.037) and stages I and II arterial hypertension (PR = 1.42, p = 0.011) were independently associated with carotid intima-media thickness alterations. Conclusion: The prevalence of increased carotid thickness was high in children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease. Puberty and arterial hypertension were independently associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a espessura médio-intimal da carótida e os fatores associados à doença cardiovascular em crianças e adolescentes com doença renal crônica. Material e métodos: Estudo observacional transversal feito na Universidade Federal de São Paulo (ambulatórios de doença renal crônica) com 55 pacientes (60% do sexo masculino) com mediana de 11,9 anos (I25-I75: 9,2-14,8). Dos 55 pacientes, 43 estavam em tratamento conservador e 12 em terapia dialítica. Foram avaliados os parâmetros laboratoriais séricos (creatinina, ácido úrico, proteína C-reativa, colesterol total e frações e triglicérides), estado nutricional (escore z de índice de massa corpórea, escore z de estatura/idade), gordura corporal (percentual de gordura e circunferência abdominal) e pressão arterial. A medida da espessura médio-intimal da carótida foi avaliada por um único ultrassonografista e comparada com percentis estabelecidos de acordo com o sexo e a estatura. A coleta de dados foi feita entre maio de 2015 e março de 2016. Resultados: Das crianças e adolescentes com doença renal crônica, 74,5% (IC 95%: 61,0; 85,3) apresentaram aumento (> P95) da espessura médio-intimal da carótida. Nos pacientes com hipertensão arterial estágios I e II, 90,9% apresentaram aumento da espessura médio-intimal da carótida. O estado nutricional, a gordura corporal e os exames laboratoriais não apresentaram associação com o aumento da espessura médio-intimal da carótida. Após ajuste multivariado, apenas a puberdade (RP = 1,30; p = 0,037) e a hipertensão arterial estágios I e II (RP = 1,42; p = 0,011) mostraram-se independentemente associados à alteração da espessura médio-intimal da carótida. Conclusão: A prevalência do aumento da espessura da carótida foi elevada em crianças e adolescentes com doença renal crônica. A puberdade e a hipertensão arterial mostraram-se independentemente associadas ao aumento da espessura médio-intimal da carótida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Carotid Arteries/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Sexual Maturation , Blood Pressure , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Puberty , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/physiopathology
17.
Rev. fac. cienc. méd. (Impr.) ; 16(2,n.esp): 58-65, jul.-dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1097318

ABSTRACT

La Nefropatía mesoamericana, entidad de reciente definición que se caracteriza por episodios de Insuficiencia Renal Aguda y alta incidencia de Enfermedad Renal Crónica de etiología desconocida. Objetivo:Proporcionar información actualizada sobre Nefropatía mesoamericana de interés para la salud pública. Materiales y métodos: Búsqueda PubMed© utilizando términos Mesoamerican and Nephropathy‖ totalizando 67 resúmenes, seleccionando los que incluyen los últimos avances y puntos de interés clínico-epidemiológico.Resultados: Se postulan teorías basadas en datos de múltiples estudios transversales que tienen implicaciones de importancia para la salud pública y la mitigación en la incidencia de casos, así como para el manejo clínico; a pesar de eso no parece estar a la vista la identificación de la etiología. Conclusión: La falta de definición objetiva de caso sometido a riesgo de Insuficiencia Renal Crónica en zonas y ocupaciones de riesgo elevado para Nefropatía mesoamericana es uno de los obstáculos más importantes para desarrollar estrategias de prevención en salud pública...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Databases, Bibliographic , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods
18.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 472-480, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056605

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Anemic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be divided into anemic patients without or with functional iron deficiency (FID). The increase in the number of cases of hemosiderosis in patients on hemodialysis (HD) attributed to excessive intravenous iron replacement has called for the investigation of the factors involved in the genesis of FID. Objectives: This study aimed to describe the prevalence of FID in patients with CKD on HD, characterize the included individuals in terms of clinical and workup parameters, and assess their nutritional, oxidative stress, and inflammation statuses. This cross-sectional study assembled a convenience sample of 183 patients with CKD on HD treated in Southern Brazil. Patients meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were divided into two groups, one with anemic subjects with FID and one with anemic patients without FID. Participants answered a questionnaire probing into socio-epidemiological factors, underwent anthropometric measurements, and were tested for markers of anemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and nutrition. Statistical analysis: The date sets were treated on software package GraphPad InStat version 3.1. Variables were tested with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, chi-square, Student's t, and Mann-Whitney tests. Statistical significance was attributed to differences with a p < 0.05. Results: Markers of inflammation were not statistically different between the two groups. Markers of anemia and nutrition were significantly lower in patients with FID. Patients with FID were prescribed higher doses of parenteral iron (p < 0,05). Discussion: FID was associated with lower nutritional marker levels, but not to increased levels of markers of inflammation or oxidative stress, as reported in the literature. Additional studies on the subject are needed.


Resumo Introdução: A anemia na DRC pode ser dividida em anemia sem deficiência funcional de ferro e com deficiência funcional de ferro (ADFF). Diante do aumento dos casos de hemossiderose em pacientes em hemodiálise, atribuídos à reposição excessiva de ferro endovenoso, maiores conhecimentos sobre os fatores envolvidos na gênese da ADFF são importantes. Objetivos: documentar a prevalência de ADFF em renais crônicos em hemodiálise. Caracterizar clínica e laboratorialmente os portadores de ADFF em HD e avaliar o estado nutricional, estresse oxidativo e inflamatório. Estudo transversal, amostra de conveniência, envolvendo 183 renais crônicos em hemodiálise no sul do Brasil. Após aplicação dos critérios de exclusão, os pacientes foram separados em dois grupos: portadores de anemia com e sem deficiência funcional de ferro. Foram submetidos a questionário socioepidemiológico, à análise antropométrica e análise laboratorial dos marcadores de anemia, estresse oxidativo, inflamatórios e nutricionais. Análise estatística: programa GraphPad InStat versão 3.1. Foram aplicados os testes: Kolmogorov-Smirnov, qui-quadrado, t de Student e Mann-Whitney. Nível de significância adotado de 5%. Resultados: não houve diferença significativa nos marcadores inflamatórios entre os dois grupos. Houve diferença significativa nos marcadores de anemia e nutrição, significativamente menores nos pacientes com ADFF. Pacientes com ADFF receberam doses mais elevadas de ferro parenteral (p < 0,05). Discussão: ADFF esteve associada a menores valores de marcadores nutricionais, mas não esteve associada a marcadores inflamatórios ou de estresse oxidativo aumentados, como relatado na literatura. Estudos adicionais sobre o tema são necessários.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Anemia/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Nutrition Assessment , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/epidemiology , Administration, Intravenous , Hemosiderosis/epidemiology , Anemia/epidemiology , Iron/administration & dosage , Iron/adverse effects , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
19.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 462-471, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056610

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) has an incidence rate of 5-6% among intensive care unit (ICU) patients and sepsis is the most frequent etiology. Aims: To assess patients in the ICU that developed AKI, AKI on chronic kidney disease (CKD), and/or sepsis, and identify the risk factors and outcomes of these diseases. Methods: A prospective observational cohort quantitative study that included patients who stayed in the ICU > 48 hours and had not been on dialysis previously was carried out. Results: 302 patients were included and divided into: no sepsis and no AKI (nsnAKI), sepsis alone (S), septic AKI (sAKI), non-septic AKI (nsAKI), septic AKI on CKD (sAKI/CKD), and non-septic AKI on CKD (nsAKI/CKD). It was observed that 94% of the patients developed some degree of AKI. Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) stage 3 was predominant in the septic groups (p = 0.018). Nephrologist follow-up in the non-septic patients was only 23% vs. 54% in the septic groups (p < 0.001). Dialysis was performed in 8% of the non-septic and 37% of the septic groups (p < 0.001). Mechanical ventilation (MV) requirement was higher in the septic groups (p < 0.001). Mortality was 38 and 39% in the sAKI and sAKI/CKD groups vs 16% and 0% in the nsAKI and nsAKI/CKD groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Patients with sAKI and sAKI/CKD had worse prognosis than those with nsAKI and nsAKI/CKD. The nephrologist was not contacted in a large number of AKI cases, except for KDIGO stage 3, which directly influenced mortality rates. The urine output was considerably impaired, ICU stay was longer, use of MV and mortality were higher when kidney injury was combined with sepsis.


Resumo A Lesão Renal Aguda (LRA), cuja etiologia mais frequente é sepse, tem incidência de 5-6% na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Objetivo: Avaliar pacientes que permaneceram mais de 48 horas na UTI e desenvolveram LRA ou Doença Renal Crônica agudizada (DRCag) e/ou sepse; identificar fatores associados e causas que possam afetar a evolução desses pacientes. Método: Estudo prospectivo, observacional, coorte e quantitativo dos pacientes em UTI entre maio a dezembro de 2013 com sepse e LRA. Excluídos pacientes < 48 horas e/ou dialíticos prévios. Resultados: Dos 1156 pacientes admitidos, 302 foram incluídos e divididos em grupos: sem sepse e sem LRA (SSSLRA), apenas sepse (S), LRA séptica (LRAs), LRA não séptica (LRAns), DRCag séptica (DRCags), DRCag não séptica (DRCagns). Foi verificado que 94% apresentaram algum grau de lesão renal; Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 3 foi predominante nos grupos sépticos (p = 0.018); o nefrologista foi chamado apenas em 23% dos pacientes não sépticos vs. 54% dos sépticos (p < 0.001); houve necessidade de diálise em 8% dos não sépticos vs. 37% dos sépticos (p < 0.001); necessidade de Ventilação Mecânica (VM) em 61% da LRAns versus 90% na LRAs (p < 0.001). A mortalidade foi 38% e 39% na LRAs e DRCags vs. 16% e 0% na LRAns e DRCagns, respectivamente (p < 0.001). Conclusão: LRAs e DRCags têm pior prognóstico que a não séptica. O nefrologista ainda não é solicitado em grande parte dos casos com influência direta na mortalidade (p < 0.001), o débito urinário é consideravelmente prejudicado; o tempo de permanência na UTI, necessidade de VM e mortalidade são maiores quando há associação da sepse e LRA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Sepsis/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/microbiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Mortality/trends , Renal Dialysis/methods , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Nephrology/statistics & numerical data
20.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(6): 523-529, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094520

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Findings regarding the effects of hyperuricemia on renal function and mortality have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of hyperuricemia on incident renal replacement therapy and all-cause mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study conducted in a medical center in Taiwan. METHODS: Patients with CKD in stages 3-5, without histories of renal replacement therapy, were consecutively recruited from 2007 to 2013. Their medical history, laboratory and medication data were collected from hospital records. The mean uric acid level in the first year of follow-up was used for analyses. Hyperuricemia was defined as mean uric acid level ≥ 7.0 mg/dl in men or ≥ 6.0 mg/dl in women. The primary outcomes were incident renal replacement therapy and all-cause mortality, and these data were retrospectively collected from hospital records until the end of 2015. RESULTS: A total of 4,381 patients were analyzed (mean age 71.0 ± 14.8 years; males 62.7%), and the median follow-up period was 2.5 years. Patients with hyperuricemia were at increased risk of incident renal replacement therapy and all-cause mortality, especially those with CKD in stages 4 or 5. Compared with patients with CKD in stage 3 and normouricemia, patients with CKD in stages 4 or 5 presented significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality only if they had hyperuricemia. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CKD in stages 3-5, hyperuricemia was associated with higher risk of incident renal replacement therapy and all-cause mortality. Whether treatment with uric acid-lowering drugs in these patients would improve their outcomes merits further investigation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Renal Replacement Therapy , Hyperuricemia/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Uric Acid/analysis , Severity of Illness Index , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Hyperuricemia/complications , Hyperuricemia/physiopathology , Hyperuricemia/mortality , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/mortality , Glomerular Filtration Rate
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