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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971529


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the accuracy of cardiac troponin (cTn) levels in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and explore a potential strategy for improving the diagnostic accuracy.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed the data from patients with high-risk chest pain admitted in Zhujiang Hospital from January, 2018 to December, 2020, including 126 patients with and 272 patients without CKD, and 122 patients diagnosed to have AMI and 276 patients without AMI. The baseline clinical data of the patients and blood test results within 12 h after admission were collected.@*RESULTS@#In patients without AMI, cTnT level was significantly higher in those with co-morbid CKD than in those without CKD (P < 0.001), and showed a moderate negative correlation with eGFR (rs=- 0.501, P < 0.001), while cTnI level did not differ significantly between the two groups (P=0.72). In patients with CKD, the optimal cutoff level was 0.177 μg/L for cTnT and 0.415 ng/mL for cTnI for diagnosis of AMI, for which cTnI had a higher specificity than cTnT. The diagnostic model combining both cTnT and cTnI levels [P=eY/(1+ eY), Y=6.928 (cTnT)-0.5 (cTnI)-1.491] had a higher AUC value than cTn level alone.@*CONCLUSION@#In CKD patients, the cutoff level of cTn is increased for diagnosing AMI, and cTnI has a higher diagnostic specificity than cTnT. The combination of cTnT and cTnI levels may further improve diagnostic efficacy for AMI.

Humans , Retrospective Studies , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Troponin T , Troponin I , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Biomarkers
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971137


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the diagnostic efficacy of seven glomerular filtration rate (GFR) evaluation formulas Schwartz2009, Schwartz1976, Counahan-Barratt, Filler, CKD-EPIscysc, Cockrofi-Gault, CKD-EPIScysC-Scr in high concentration of methotrexate (HDMTX) chemotherapy dose adjusted cut-off point (GFR ≤85 ml/min) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).@*METHODS@#One hundred and twenty-four children with ALL were included in the study. GFR determined by renal dynamic imaging (sGFR) was used as the standard to evaluate the accuracy, consistency of eGFR calculated by seven formulas and sGFR, and the diagnostic efficacy of each formula when the sGFR ≤85 ml/min boundary.@*RESULTS@#All of the accuracy of eGFR estimated by Schwartz2009 were greater than 70% in the 0-3, >4 and ≤6, >6 and ≤9, >9 and ≤16 years old group and male group, and the consistency exceeded the professional threshold. When the sensitivity of the ROC curve sGFR ≤85 ml/min was 100% of CKD-EPIscysc in the 0-3, >3 and ≤4 years old group, Filler in the >3 and ≤4 years old group, and Cockrofi-Gault in the >6 and ≤9 years old group, the specificity was 73.02%, 78.95%, 78.95%, 69.32%, respectively, and the AUC under the ROC curve was the largest (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Schwartz2009 formula predicts the highest accuracy of eGFR in the 7 glomerular filtration rate. CKD-EPIscysc, Filler, and Cockrofi-Gault formulas have more guiding signi-ficance for the adjustment of HDMTX chemotherapy in pre-adolescence in children with ALL when sGFR ≤85 ml/min.

Adolescent , Humans , Male , Child , Child, Preschool , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Methotrexate , Creatinine , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis
Med. infant ; 29(4): 286-291, dic 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1416008


Introducción: el método recomendado para la medición de creatinina plasmática (Cr) es el enzimático, que permite obtener la tasa de filtrado glomerular estimado (TFGe) con la fórmula Full-Age-Spectrum (FAS) para todas las edades, al normalizar la TFGe con valores poblacionales de Cr. Objetivos: obtener valores poblacionales de Cr medida con un método enzimático y evaluar la fórmula FAS, en una población pediátrica ambulatoria de la Argentina, puesto que no existen publicaciones al respecto en nuestro país. Material y métodos: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, transversal, por muestreo consecutivo. Se consideró la población pediátrica ambulatoria de 2 a 17 años que concurrió una sola vez, entre 07/2018 y 11/2021 al laboratorio del Hospital Municipal (Bahía Blanca, Argentina) con petición médica de Cr. Se evaluó la distribución poblacional de Cr. Se comparó FAS original (FAS-Belga) con FAS normalizada con valores locales de Cr (FAS-Local). Resultados: se estudiaron 2793 individuos. Los varones tuvieron un valor de Cr superior al de las mujeres a los 16 y 17 años. La TFGe fue menor con FAS-Local que con FAS-Belga [mediana (RI) mL/min/1,73 m2 : 107,3 (22,9) vs. 117,0 (26,5); p=0,0001; rbis=0,87 (tamaño del efecto grande)]. Del análisis del gráfico de Bland-Altman y el índice de concordancia Kappa se obtuvo que FAS-Local no fue comparable con FAS-Belga. Conclusiones: los valores poblacionales de Cr, medida con un método enzimático, son los primeros en obtenerse en una población pediátrica ambulatoria argentina. Dichos valores son necesarios para aplicar FAS en la Argentina (AU)

Introduction: the recommended test for the measurement of plasma creatinine (Cr) is the enzymatic method, which allows calculating the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with the Full-Age-Spectrum (FAS) equation for all ages, by normalizing the eGFR with population Cr values. Objectives: to obtain population Cr values measured with an enzymatic method and to evaluate the FAS equation in an pediatric outpatient population in Argentina, since there are no reports on this subject in our country. Material and methods: A descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional, consecutive sampling study. The pediatric outpatient population aged 2 to 17 years who attended only once to the laboratory of the Municipal Hospital (Bahía Blanca, Argentina) between 07/2018 and 11/2021 with medical request for Cr measurement. The population distribution of Cr was evaluated. The original FAS (FAS-Belgian) was compared to FAS normalized with local Cr values (FAS-Local). Results: 2793 individuals were studied. Males had a higher Cr value than females at 16 and 17 years of age. The eGFR was lower with FAS-Local than with FAS-Belgian [median (IQR) mL/min/1.73 m2: 107.3 (22.9) vs. 117.0 (26.5); p=0.0001; rbis=0.87 (large effect size)]. Analysis of the Bland-Altman plot and the Kappa concordance index showed that FAS-Local was not comparable to FAS-Belgian. Conclusions: population Cr values, measured with an enzymatic method, are the first to be obtained in an Argentine pediatric outpatient population. These values are necessary to apply the FAS in Argentina (AU)

Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Creatinine/analysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney Function Tests , Argentina , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e53802, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363583


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a global public health challenge. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between self-perception of oral health and clinical condition among patients with CKD. This isa quanti-qualitative survey conducted in a CKD specialized service. The sample consisted of 60 patients who underwent oral examinations to have their severity of caries (DMFT) and need for dental prosthesis checked. Age, sex, time on dialysis, marital status, skin color, education and pre-existing diseases were also analyzed. Among the kidney patients who agreed to undergo the clinical examinations and showed communication skills, some were selected, and three focus groups were created, with the participation of a moderator and six to 10 kidney patients in each group. Their speeches were processed in the IRAMUTEQ software and analyzed through the similarity analysis and word cloud techniques. As for profile, the patients were aged 60.23 ± 10.87 years old; were male (73.33%); were on dialysis for 41.90 ± 56.57 months; were married (61.67%); were white (76.67%); had incomplete primary education (41.66%); had arterial hypertension (76.67%); had a DMFT index of 22.55 ± 8.39; 43.33% needed an upper complete denture; and 30.00% needed a lower complete denture. The similarity analysis revealed many doubts and uncertainties about current health services, which can be proven by the words 'no' and 'treatment'. The quanti-qualitative analysis showed a high rate of dental loss and the need for complete dentures and suggests inequities in oral health care for chronic kidney disease patients, especially in tertiary care. There was a positive representation regarding oral health, but the lexicographical analyses of the textual corpusconfirmed the self-perception of lack of dental care.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Oral Health , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Tertiary Healthcare/organization & administration , Public Health/methods , Tooth Loss/diagnosis , Dental Care/methods , Focus Groups/methods , Dental Prosthesis/methods , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Qualitative Research , Diagnosis, Oral/methods , Dialysis/methods , Health Services/supply & distribution
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 21: e59160, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1384508


RESUMO Objetivo: identificar os fatores associados ao desenvolvimento de doença renal crônica em idosos cuidadores de idosos. Método: estudo transversal, realizado no período de janeiro a setembro de 2019 com 111 idosos cuidadores familiares de idosos da atenção primária à saúde. Para a coleta de dados, foram utilizados o Questionário de Caracterização Sociodemográfica, de Saúde e do Contexto do Cuidado, a Triagem para Doença Renal Oculta, o Exame Cognitivo de Addenbrooke - Versão Revisada, a Escala de Depressão Geriátrica, o Inventário de Sobrecarga de Zarit e a Escala de Estresse Percebido. Foi realizada estatística descritiva e análise múltipla de regressão logística pelo método stepwise forward (p<0,05). Todos os preceitos éticos foram observados. Resultados: a amostra apresentou predomínio de mulheres, casadas, que ofertavam o cuidado ao cônjuge. Através da triagem para doença renal crônica, constatou-se que 99,1% dos participantes apresentaram alta predisposição para o desenvolvimento da doença renal crônica. Cada acréscimo no número de medicamentos aumenta 1,257 vezes a chance de os idosos cuidadores desenvolverem doença renal crônica. Conclusão: houve predominância de alta predisposição para doença renal crônica na amostra de idosos cuidadores, e o número de medicamentos em uso foi o fator associado a esta predisposição.

RESUMEN Objetivo: identificar los factores asociados al desarrollo de enfermedad renal crónica en ancianos cuidadores de ancianos. Método: estudio transversal, realizado en el período de enero a septiembre de 2019 con 111 ancianos cuidadores familiares de ancianos de la atención primaria de salud. Para la recolección de datos, fueron utilizados el Cuestionario de Caracterización Sociodemográfica, de Salud y del Contexto del Cuidado; la Detección de Enfermedad Renal Crónica Oculta; el Test Cognitivo de Addenbrooke - Versión Revisada; la Escala de Depresión Geriátrica; la Escala de Sobrecarga del Cuidador de Zarit y la Escala de Estrés Percibido. Se realizaron estadística descriptiva y análisis múltiple de regresión logística por el método stepwise forward (p<0,05). Todos los preceptos éticos fueron observados. Resultados: la muestra presentó predominio de mujeres, casadas, que ofrecían el cuidado al cónyuge. A través de la clasificación de enfermedad renal crónica, se constató que el 99,1% de los participantes presentó alta predisposición para el desarrollo de la enfermedad renal crónica. Cada aumento en el número de medicamentos aumenta 1,257 veces la probabilidad de que los cuidadores mayores desarrollen enfermedad renal crónica. Conclusión: hubo predominancia de alta predisposición para enfermedad renal crónica en la muestra de ancianos cuidadores, y el número de medicamentos en uso fue el factor asociado a esta predisposición.

ABSTRACT Objective: to identify factors associated with the development of chronic kidney disease in older adult caregivers of elderly people. Method: cross-sectional study, carried out from January to September 2019 with 111 older adult family caregivers of elderly people in primary health care. For data collection, the Sociodemographic, Health and Care Context Characterization Questionnaire, the Screening for Occult Kidney Disease, the Addenbrooke Cognitive Examination - Revised Version, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Zarit Burden Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scalewere used. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed using the stepwise forward method (p<0.05). All ethical precepts were observed. Results: the sample showed a predominance of women, married, who offered care to their spouse. Through screening for chronic kidney disease, it was found that 99.1% of the participants had a high predisposition to the development of chronic kidney disease. Each unit of increase in the number of drugs increased the chance of older adult caregivers developing chronic kidney disease by 1,257 times. Conclusion: there was a predominance of high predisposition to chronic kidney disease in the sample of older adult caregivers and the number of drugs in use was the factor associated with this predisposition.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged , Caregivers/psychology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Cross-Sectional Studies , Geriatric Nursing/organization & administration , Health Services Research/statistics & numerical data
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 31(2): e20211050, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384889


Objetivo: Determinar a razão oferta/necessidade de procedimentos relacionados com o diagnóstico e assistência à doença renal crônica no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), no estado de São Paulo, Brasil, 2019. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, utilizando dados dos sistemas de informações ambulatoriais e hospitalares do SUS. Os números de consultas médicas e exames diagnósticos e de acompanhamento da doença renal realizados no período foram comparados com as estimativas de necessidade obtidas por diretrizes ministeriais. Resultados: Usuários exclusivos do SUS eram 28.791.244, e indivíduos com hipertensão e/ou diabetes mellitus, 5.176.188. O número de procedimentos realizados e a razão entre esse número e a necessidade da população foram de 389.414 consultas com nefrologista (85%); 11.540.371 dosagens de creatinina sérica (223%); 705.709 dosagens de proteinúria (14%); 438.123 ultrassonografias renais (190%); e 1.045 biópsias renais (36%). Conclusão: Na assistência à doença renal crônica no SUS existem, simultaneamente, falta de oferta, desperdício e rastreamento deficiente de procedimentos importantes.

Objetivo: Determinar la relación oferta/necesidad de procedimientos relacionados con el diagnóstico y atención de la enfermedad renal crónica en Sistema Único de Salud (SUS) del Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, en 2019. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo utilizando datos de los sistemas de información ambulatoria y hospitalaria del SUS. Se comparó el número de consultas médicas, pruebas de diagnóstico y seguimiento de la enfermedad renal realizados con las estimaciones de necesidad recomendadas por directrices ministeriales. Resultados: Los usuarios exclusivos de SUS fueron 28.791.244 e hipertensos y/o diabéticos, 5.176.188. El número de procedimientos realizados y la relación entre este número y la necesidad de la población fueran de 389.414 consultas con nefrólogo (85%); 11.540.371 determinaciones de creatinina sérica (223%); 705.709 determinaciones de proteinuria (14%); 438.123 ecografías renales (190%); y 1.045 biopsias renales (36%). Conclusión: En la atención de enfermedad renal en SUS existe, simultáneamente, falta de oferta, desperdicio y seguimiento deficiente de procedimientos importantes.

Objective: To determine the supply/demand ratio for procedures related to diagnosis and treatment for chronic kidney disease in the Brazilian National Health System (SUS), in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, 2019. Methods: This was a descriptive study, using data from the SUS outpatient and hospital information systems. The numbers of medical consultations, diagnostic and chronic kidney disease monitoring tests, performed in the period, were compared with the demand estimation, obtained through ministerial guidelines. Results: Exclusive SUS users were 28,791,244, and individuals with arterial hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus, 5,176,188. The number of procedures performed and the ratio between this number and the needs of the population were 389,414 consultations with nephrologists (85%); 11,540,371 serum creatinine tests (223%); 705,709 proteinuria tests (14%); 438,123 kidney ultrasounds (190%); and 1,045 kidney biopsies (36%). Conclusion: In the chronic kidney disease care in the SUS it could be seen simultaneous existence of lack of supply, waste and inadequate screening of important procedures.

Humans , Primary Health Care , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Unified Health System , Brazil , Utilization Review , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Research , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 31(spe1): e2021385, 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384908


Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência de doença renal crônica (DRC) na população adulta brasileira e descrever suas características, segundo a Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS) de 2013 e 2019. Métodos: Estudo transversal descritivo, com adultos participantes da PNS, a partir de autorrelato de diagnóstico médico de DRC. As prevalências de DRC e seus respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) foram estimados para o Brasil. Resultados: Em 2013, foram analisados 60.202 indivíduos, e, em 2019, 85.854. A prevalência de diagnóstico autorreferido de DRC nas duas edições da PNS foi de 1,4% e crescente com o aumento da faixa etária. Em 2019, a prevalência foi de 3,3% (IC95% 2,9;3,7) nos hipertensos, 4,1% (IC95% 3,4;5,0) entre diabéticos e 3,3% (IC95% 2,8;3,9) nos que referiram hipercolesterolemia. Conclusão: A prevalência de DRC no Brasil manteve-se estável no período, mas reforça-se a necessidade de ampliação do diagnóstico e do fortalecimento da atenção primária no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS).

Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia de enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) en la población adulta brasileña y describir sus características, según la Encuesta Nacional de Salud (PNS) del año 2013 y 2019. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal, con adultos participantes en la PNS, basado en el diagnóstico médico autodeclarado de ERC. Se estimaron las prevalencias de ERC e intervalos de confianza del 95% (IC95%) para Brasil. Resultados: En 2013 se analizaron 60.202 individuos y en 2019, 85.854. La prevalencia del diagnóstico autodeclarado de ERC en ambas ediciones fue del 1,4% y aumentó con la edad. En 2019, la prevalencia fue del 3,3% (IC95% 2,9;3,7) en los hipertensos, del 4,1% (IC95% 3,4;5,0) en los diabéticos y del 3,3% (IC95% 2,8;3,9) en los que declararon hipercolesterolemia. Conclusión: La prevalencia de la ERC en Brasil se mantuvo estable, pero refuerza la necesidad de ampliar el diagnóstico y fortalecer el Sistema Único de Salud brasileño (SUS).

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the adult Brazilian population and to describe its characteristics, according to the National Health Survey (PNS) 2013-2019. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study, with adults participating in the PNS, based on self-reported medical diagnosis of CKD. Prevalence of CKD and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated for Brazil. Results: In 2013, 60,202 individuals were analyzed, and in 2019, 85,854. The prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of CKD in both editions was 1.4% and increased with increasing age. In 2019, the prevalence of self-reported CKD was 3.3% (95%CI 2.9;3.7) in hypertensive individuals, 4.1% (95%CI 3.4;5.0) among diabetics, and 3.3% (95%CI 2.8;3.9) in those reporting hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion: The prevalence of CKD in Brazil remained stable in the period but reinforces the need for expansion of diagnosis and strengthening of primary care in the Brazilian National Health System (SUS).

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Chronic Disease , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Sociodemographic Factors
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(2): e00090821, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360290


Abstract: Complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be avoided when promptly diagnosed and treated. The objective was to describe quality indicators of CKD detection and health care in the primary care public service of a city in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. This retrospective study analyzed charts of patients who attended primary care in the public service between November 2019 and February 2020. We selected 10 health quality indicators based on their scientific relevance and availability from the medical records that could express how CKD was identified and managed in primary health care. We estimated the adequate percentage of health indicators with data from 1,066 individuals who had ≥ one risk factor for CKD: hypertension, diabetes, or > 60 years old. Among patients, 79.4% had information on serum creatinine, whereas 58.8% were investigated for proteinuria. Blood pressure data were found in 98.9% of the records. The percentage of patients with blood pressure < 140x90mmHg, glycosylated hemoglobin < 6.5% and LDL-cholesterol < 100mg/dL was 79.2%, 49.2%, and 33.3%, respectively. Renin-angiotensin system blockers were prescribed to 82.8% of the patients with hypertension and CKD. Serum potassium was measured in 35.7% for those who were using renin-angiotensin system blockers. Among those people with CKD, 16.7% had CKD assigned in the medical records as a diagnose. Among those participants at higher risk for CKD, the referral rate to a nephrologist was 31.6%. This study confirmed some missed quality indicators of CKD in primary healthcare. Our results may help administrators develop public policies that improve health care for individuals at high risk for CKD. Long-term follow-up of the health indicators we proposed here will be useful to assess the impact of policy intervention.

Resumo: As complicações da doença renal crônica (DRC) podem ser evitadas quando a doença é diagnosticada e tratada oportunamente. O estudo teve como objetivo descrever a qualidade dos indicadores da detecção e assistência para a DRC no sistema púbico de saúde em um município do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O estudo retrospectivo analisou prontuários de pacientes que utilizaram serviços de atenção primária no sistema público entre novembro de 2019 e fevereiro de 2020. Selecionamos dez indicadores de qualidade com base na relevância científica e disponibilidade, a partir dos prontuários médicos. Calculamos o percentual de adequação com dados de 1.066 indivíduos que apresentavam ≥ 1 fatores de risco para DRC: hipertensão, diabetes ou idade > 60 anos. No total, 79,4% dos pacientes apresentavam informação sobre creatinina sérica, e 58,8% foram investigados para proteinúria. Dados de pressão arterial foram encontrados em 98,9% dos prontuários. As proporções de pacientes com pressão arterial < 140x90mmHg, hemoglobina glicada < 6,5% e LDL < 100mg/dL foram 79,2%, 49,2% e 33,3%, respectivamente. Os antagonistas do sistema renina-angiotensina foram prescritos em 82,8% dos pacientes com hipertensão e DRC. O potássio sérico foi medido em 35,7% dos pacientes em uso de antagonistas do sistema renina-angiotensina. Entre os indivíduos com DRC, 16,7% tinham esse diagnóstico registrado no prontuário médico. Entre os participantes com risco mais elevado de DRC, 31,6% foram encaminhados para um nefrologista. O estudo confirmou a falta de alguns indicadores de qualidade para DRC na assistência primária. Os resultados podem ajudar gestores a desenvolverem políticas públicas que melhorem a assistência para indivíduos com risco maior de DRC. O seguimento a longo prazo dos indicadores de saúde propostos aqui será útil para avaliar o impacto dessa política de intervenção.

Resumen: Las complicaciones de la enfermedad crónica de riñón (ECR) se pueden evitar cuando esta enfermedad se diagnostica con prontitud y se trata. El objetivo fue describir indicadores de calidad en la detección de ECR, así como la asistencia en el servicio público de una ciudad, en el Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Este estudio retrospectivo analizó fichas de pacientes que acudían a atención primaria en el servicio público, entre noviembre 2019 y febrero 2020. Seleccionamos 10 indicadores de calidad en salud, basados en relevancia científica y disponibilidad de registros médicos. Calculamos el porcentaje de adecuación de ellos con datos de 1.066 personas que tenían ≥ 1 factor de riesgo ECR: hipertensión, diabetes, o > 60 años. Un 79,4% de los pacientes tenían información sobre la creatinina sérica, y se investigó a un 58,8% en el caso de la proteinuria. Los datos de presión sanguínea se encontraron en un 98,9% de los registros. El porcentaje de pacientes con presión sanguínea < 140x90mmHg, hemoglobina glicada < 6,5% y LDL < 100mg/dL fue 79,2%, 49,2%, y 33,3%, respectivamente. Se prescribieron bloqueadores del sistema renina-angiotensina a un 82,8% de los pacientes con hipertensión y ECR. Se midió el potasio sérico en un 35,7% de aquellos quienes estaban usando bloqueadores del sistema renina-angiotensina. Entre aquellas personas con ECR, 16,7% había ECR asignado en los registros médicos como diagnosis. Entre aquellos participantes en riesgo mayor por ECR, la tasa de derivación a un nefrólogo fue 31,6%. Este estudio confirmó algunos indicadores de calidad olvidados de ECR en los cuidados de salud en la atención primaria. Nuestros resultados quizás podrían ayudar a los gestores a desarrollar políticas públicas que mejoraran el cuidado de salud para las personas con alto riesgo de ECR. El seguimiento a largo plazo de los indicadores de salud que propusimos aquí será útil para evaluar el impacto de la política de intervención.

Humans , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Middle Aged
São Paulo med. j ; 139(5): 452-463, May 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290260


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The most-used equations for estimating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations. However, it is unclear which of these shows better performance in Latin America. OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of two equations for estimated GFR (eGFR) in Latin American countries. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review and meta-analysis in Latin American countries. METHODS: We searched in three databases to identify studies that reported eGFR using both equations and compared them with measured GFR (mGFR) using exogenous filtration markers, among adults in Latin American countries. We performed meta-analyses on P30, bias (using mean difference [MD] and 95% confidence intervals [95% CI]), sensitivity and specificity; and evaluated the certainty of evidence using the GRADE methodology. RESULTS: We included 12 papers, and meta-analyzed six (five from Brazil and one from Mexico). Meta-analyses that compared CKD-EPI using creatinine measured with calibration traceable to isotope dilution mass spectrometry (CKD-EPI-Cr IDMS) and using MDRD-4 IDMS did not show differences in bias (MD: 0.55 ml/min/1.73m2; 95% CI: -3.34 to 4.43), P30 (MD: 4%; 95% CI: -2% to 11%), sensitivity (76% and 75%) and specificity (91% and 89%), with very low certainty of evidence for bias and P30, and low certainty of evidence for sensitivity and specificity. CONCLUSION: We found that the performances of CKD-EPI-Cr IDMS and MDRD-4 IDMS did not differ significantly. However, since most of the meta-analyzed studies were from Brazil, the results cannot be extrapolated to other Latin American countries. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42019123434) -

Humans , Adult , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Creatinine , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Latin America
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(4): 1207-1219, abr. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285919


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é comparar as prevalências autorreferidas e medidas por exames laboratoriais, assim como a ocorrência de valores de falsos positivos e negativos, para diabetes, doença renal crônica e hipercolesterolemia. Foram utilizadas informações da entrevista e exames laboratoriais da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (2013, 2014-2015). Foram calculadas a sensibilidade e a especificidade, segundo sexo, idade, escolaridade, ter plano de saúde e tempo desde a última consulta médica. Por meio de regressão logística, foram analisados fatores associados à ocorrência de falsos positivos e falsos negativos. A sensibilidade foi mais elevada para o diabetes e entre os idosos e os que tiveram consulta médica mais recentemente. A especificidade foi alta para todas as doenças, com melhor desempenho entre os jovens, os com alta escolaridade e os que consultaram há mais de um ano. As chances de falsos positivos e falsos negativos diminuíram com a escolaridade e aumentaram com a idade. A sensibilidade baixa indica que as prevalências podem ser mais elevadas que as medidas autoreferidas apontam.

Abstract This paper aims to compare the self-reported prevalence measured by laboratory tests and the false positive and negative values for diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and hypercholesterolemia. We used information from the interview and laboratory tests of the National Health Survey (2013, 2014-2015). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by gender, age, schooling, having health insurance, and time since the last medical visit. We used logistic regression to analyze associated factors with false positives and negatives. Sensitivity was higher for diabetes and among older adults and those who had a medical visit more recently. Specificity was high for all diseases, with better performance among younger people, those with high schooling, and a visit more than one year ago. The likelihood of false positives and negatives decreased with schooling and increased with age. Low sensitivity suggests that prevalence might be higher than indicated by self-reported measures.

Humans , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Hypercholesterolemia/diagnosis , Hypercholesterolemia/epidemiology , Self Report , Laboratories
West Indian med. j ; 69(1): 4-8, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341865


ABSTRACT Background: The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is relatively high in Guyana. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) reporting allows for early-stage CKD identification when therapeutic interventions can prevent CKD progression. Accurate creatinine measurements are essential for valid eGFR calculations. Objective: This study was undertaken to assess the accuracy of creatinine measurements in Guyana prior to implementing routine eGFR reporting. Methods: Sixteen Guyanese laboratories participated in this study. Each laboratory received a common set of blinded human serum samples (n = 3) containing clinically relevant creatinine concentrations, assigned by an international reference method (ID-GCMS). Laboratories performed repeated measurements of creatinine in each sample. These data were used to calculate bias, precision and total error (TE) for each creatinine method. Linear regression was used to compare measured creatinine results to assigned reference sample values and to post-analytically correct calibration bias, a priori, for recent patient results from each laboratory. Patient eGFR profiles were compared before and after bias correction. Results: The mean across samples CV and bias for all labs were 9% (range 2.5%-39.3%) and 11% positive (range 0.4%-29.1%), respectively. The mean TE was 28.6%. If the mean TE from a subset of the better performing laboratories (CV < 7%) was to apply nationally, an 'all stage' eGFR misclassification rate of 36% would result. Conclusion: There is a pressing need to improve the accuracy of creatinine measurements in Guyana as, at this time, routine reporting of eGFR by Guyanese laboratories cannot be recommended based on the accuracy data presented in this study.

Humans , Creatinine/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Data Accuracy , Laboratories, Clinical , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Guyana
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(3): 409-421, mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389448


The evaluation of renal function in older adults is usually carried out with a creatinine clearance or an estimation of glomerular filtration rate using formulas such as Cockcroft-Gault, MDRD or CKD-EPI. The results obtained with these formulas are often regarded as equivalent. However, in adults older than 70 years, the Cockcroft-Gault formula frequently underestimates the glomerular filtration rate with respect to reference methods and the MDRD formula overestimates it. CKD-EPI has a more unpredictable behavior. This leads to erroneously classifying patients in the stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), artificially increasing the prevalence of this condition, overloading health systems and generating emotional disorders in patients mistakenly classified as carriers of CKD. Also, when kidney function is overestimated, CKD patients are prevented from receiving the treatments appropriate for their condition. In recent years, new formulas have been proposed (FAS, BIS) with a greater accuracy to estimate glomerular filtration rate in older adults. This review describes the behavior of these formulas in a significant number of older adults, from various countries, and proposes using those equations with the best performance in older adults.

Humans , Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Creatinine , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(1): 88-102, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154649


Abstract Pregnancy requires several physiological adaptations from the maternal organism, including modifications in the glomerular filtration rate and renal excretion of several products. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can negatively affect these modifications and consequently is associated with several adverse maternal and fetal adverse outcomes (gestational hypertension, progression of renal disease, pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and preterm delivery). A multidisciplinary vigilance of these pregnancies is essential in order to avoid and/or control the harmful effects associated with this pathology. Dialysis and transplantation can decrease the risks of maternal and fetal complications, nonetheless, the rates of complications remain high comparing with a normal pregnancy. Several recent developments in this area have improved quality and efficacy of treatment of pregnant women with CKD. This article summarizes the most recent literature about CKD and pregnancy.

Resumo A gravidez requer várias adaptações fisiológicas do organismo materno, incluindo modificações na taxa de filtração glomerular e na excreção renal de vários produtos. A doença renal crônica (DRC) pode afetar negativamente essas modificações e, consequentemente, está associada a vários desfechos adversos maternos e fetais (hipertensão gestacional, progressão da doença renal, pré-eclâmpsia, restrição do crescimento fetal e parto prematuro). A vigilância multidisciplinar dessas gestações é fundamental para evitar e/ou controlar os efeitos deletérios associados a essa patologia. A diálise e o transplante podem diminuir os riscos de complicações maternas e fetais, no entanto, as taxas de complicações permanecem altas em comparação com uma gravidez normal. Vários desenvolvimentos recentes nesta área melhoraram a qualidade e a eficácia do tratamento de mulheres grávidas com DRC. Este artigo resume a literatura mais recente sobre DRC e gravidez.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis , Glomerular Filtration Rate
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(2): 187-195, feb. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389443


Background: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation in older adults using a creatinine clearance/24-hour (CrCl) or an equation based on serum creatinine, are often considered equivalent by clinicians. Aim: To compare GFR estimated (eGFR) with the available equations and measured CrCl in patients ≥ 70 years. A secondary aim was to know the differences in chronic kidney disease (CKD) classification, when using the different eGFR formulas. Patients and Methods: In 144 patients aged 77 ± 5 years (58% men), CrCl was measured and GFR was estimated using MDRD, CKD-EPI, BIS-1 and FAS formulas. The eGFR and the stage of CKD were compared according to the different equations used. Results: GFR estimated by MDRD and CKD-EPI equations was 7.8 and 8.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 lower than 24-hour ClCr, respectively. This difference was even greater using the BIS-1 and FAS equations. Twenty-four-hour CrCl classified 47.2% of the patients in a category of renal function > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, while MDRD and CKD-EPI equations classified just over a third, and BIS-1 and FAS formulas around 20% of the patients. Conclusions: The practice of considering equivalent the GFR estimation using the creatinine-based equations with measured creatinine clearance in older adults should be reconsidered, because their results differ markedly.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Creatinine , Glomerular Filtration Rate
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(3): 191-198, set 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391965


A doença renal crônica é uma condição clínica caracterizada pela queda progressiva da função renal, interferindo na homeostase de todo o corpo, incluindo o sistema nervoso central. Nesses pacientes, o comprometimento cognitivo é um achado comum, em comparação com a população geral, e mais frequente nos pacientes em diálise. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar, por meio de revisão integrativa, se há diferença entre a modalida- de dialítica (hemodiálise e diálise peritoneal) e a presença de comprometimento cognitivo nesses pacientes. Foi feito levan- tamento bibliográfico nas plataformas PubMed® e Bireme, com buscas padronizadas de 2014 até abril de 2019, utilizando-se pa- lavras-chave. Para a seleção e a avaliação dos estudos científicos levantados, foram estabelecidos critérios, contemplando os seguintes aspectos: autor, ano/local, grau de recomendação/ nível de evidência científica, amostra, faixa etária, média de idade em anos, métodos de avaliação, resultados e conclusão. Dos 561 artigos encontrados, 365 foram excluídos pela data de publicação, 87 foram excluídos pelo título, 17 pelo resumo, 49 pela leitura do artigo, 36 eram repetidos e oito foram selecio- nados para o estudo. Os pacientes em diálise peritoneal apre- sentaram menor comprometimento cognitivo e menor risco para demência que os pacientes em hemodiálise.

Chronic kidney disease is a clinical condition characterized by progressive decline in renal function, interfering with whole-bo- dy homeostasis, including the central nervous system. Cognitive impairment is a common finding in these patients, compared to the general population, besides being more frequent in dialysis patients. The objective of this study was to identify, through an integrative review, if there is difference between the dialysis mo- dality (hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis) and the presence of cognitive impairment in these patients. A bibliographic search on the PubMed® and Bireme platforms, with standard searches from 2014 to April 2019, using keywords, was conducted. For the selection and evaluation of scientific studies found in the sear- ch, criteria have been established, considering the following as- pects: author, year/location, grade of recommendation/level of evidence, sample, age, mean age in years, evaluation methods, results, and conclusion. Among 561 articles found, 365 were ex- cluded based on the date of publication, 87 based on the title, 17 on the abstract, 48 on the article reading, 36 were repeated, and eight were selected for the study. Patients on peritoneal dialysis have less cognitive impairment and lower risk for dementia than patients on hemodialysis.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Renal Dialysis/methods , Dementia/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/psychology , Dementia/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Mental Status and Dementia Tests
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): e0045, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347259


ABSTRACT Exudative retinal detachment occurs when fluid accumulates between the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium. Ocular diseases or multisystem conditions such as nephrotic syndrome may lead to exudative retinal detachment. This report describes a case of nephrotic syndrome secondary to minimal change disease, anasarca and bilateral serous macular detachment in an adult patient. A 75-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department with generalized edema, asthenia, and visual impairment. Medical history included a recent diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome secondary to minimal change disease, which had been controlled with corticosteroid therapy. At presentation, best corrected visual acuity was 20/100. Slit-lamp examination revealed xanthelasmas and mild bilateral eyelid edema and chemosis. Dilated fundus examination confirmed bilateral macular detachment. The patient did not respond to diuretic therapy. Ttherefore, hemodialysis was started. Two months later, visual acuity improved to 20/25 and near normal restoration of retinal anatomy was achieved, with concurrent remission of proteinuria. Exudative retinal detachment is a multifactorial condition. However, in diseases associated with severe hypoalbuminemia, such as nephrotic syndrome, low oncotic pressure in choroidal vessels and high interstitial pressure in the choroid may explain retinal detachment. Patients with chronic kidney disease carry a high risk of ophthalmic disease development. Several mechanisms that affect ocular vessels, the retina and the choroid are thought to be involved. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial to resolve the ophthalmic condition and improve overall health.

RESUMO O descolamento de retina exsudativo ocorre quando o fluido se acumula entre a retina neurossensorial e o epitélio pigmentado da retina. Patologias oculares isoladas ou doenças multissistêmicas, como a síndrome nefrótica, podem levar ao descolamento de retina exsudativo. Apresenta-se aqui o caso de um adulto com síndrome nefrótica por doença de lesões mínimas, anasarca e descolamento de retina exsudativo macular bilateral. Trata-se de um homem de 75 anos de idade, que recorreu ao serviço de urgência com edema generalizado, astenia e diminuição da acuidade visual. Os antecedentes pessoais incluíam diagnóstico recente de síndrome nefrótica secundária à doença de lesões mínimas, em uso de corticoterapia. Na apresentação, a melhor acuidade visual corrigida era 20/100. A biomicroscopia revelou xantelasmas, edema palpebral leve e quemose nos dois olhos. Fundoscopia mostrou descolamento macular bilateral. O doente iniciou diuréticos com pouca resposta clínica, tendo sido adicionada hemodiálise. Verificou-se melhora da acuidade visual para 20/25 e restauração quase total da anatomia da retina 2 meses após o início do tratamento, coincidindo com a remissão da proteinúria. A fisiopatologia dos descolamentos de retina exsudativos é multifatorial, mas, em doenças com hipoalbuminemia grave, como a síndrome nefrótica, a baixa pressão oncótica e a alta pressão intersticial na coroide podem explicar o descolamento macular exsudativo. Doentes com doença renal crônica constituem um grupo de risco para o desenvolvimento de doença ocular, envolvendo vários mecanismos que afetam vasos, retina e coroide. Uma abordagem multidisciplinar é crucial para a melhoria da doença oftalmológica e do estado geral do doente.

Humans , Male , Aged , Retinal Detachment/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Ophthalmoscopy , Retinal Detachment/diagnosis , Visual Acuity , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Exudates and Transudates , Slit Lamp Microscopy , Fundus Oculi , Macula Lutea
Acta méd. costarric ; 62(4)dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1383346


Resumen Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 25 años con historia de enfermedad renal crónica estadio 5, en relación con una glomerulopatía primaria idiopática que presentó una neuropatía urémica; es una polineuropatía sensitivamotora simétrica distal que afectó los miembros superiores e inferiores y progresó hasta impedir la marcha. Tras un trasplante renal de donante vivo relacionado, se documentó los hallazgos clínicos y neurofisiológicos que sugieren una reversión parcial de la neuropatía urémica, con persistencia de afectación a nivel de miembros inferiores.

Abstract This paper presents the case of a 25-year-old patient with a history of chronic kidney disease stage 5 related to an idiopathic primary glomerulopathy presenting a uremic neuropathy; it is a Symmetrical distal sensitive-motor polyneuropathy that affected upper and lowers limbs and continued to progress until walking was no longer possible, in this patient after a kidney transplantation from alive related donor presents clinical and neurophysiological findings suggesting a reversal of the uremic neuropathy.

Humans , Male , Adult , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Costa Rica
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(5): 432-437, sep.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249942


Resumen Introducción: La presión de pulso ampliada (PPA) se asocia a un filtrado glomerular calculado ≤ 60/mL/minuto/1.73 m2, por lo que puede ser útil como prueba diagnóstica para identificar a personas con insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC) estadio K/DOQI III-b. Objetivo: Determinar la utilidad de la PPA como prueba diagnóstica de IRC estadio K/DOQI III-b. Método: Estudio de prueba diagnóstica que incluyó a pacientes adultos sin comorbilidades, registrados en la Cohorte de Trabajadores de la Salud. Se utilizó la fórmula CKD-EPI para calcular la filtración glomerular. Se determinó la presión de pulso restando la presión arterial diastólica a la presión arterial sistólica. Se calculó sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo, valor predictivo negativo y prevalencia. Se elaboró una curva ROC para determinar el área bajo la curva. Resultados: Se incluyeron 6215 pacientes. Se observó que una PPA ≥ 50 mm Hg tuvo sensibilidad de 74 %, especificidad de 70 %, valor predictivo positivo de 1 %, valor predictivo negativo de 100 % y prevalencia de 1 %. El punto de inflexión en la curva ROC para identificar IRC K/DOQI III-b fue de 0.71. Conclusión: La PPA ≥ 50 mm Hg es útil como prueba diagnóstica para identificar a personas con IRC estadio K/DOQI III-b.

Abstract Introduction: Increased pulse pressure (IPP) is associated an estimated glomerular filtration ≤ 60/mL/min/1.73 m2; thus, it can be useful as a diagnostic test to identify people with K/DOQI stage III-b chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective: To determine the usefulness of IPP as a diagnostic test for K/DOQI stage III-b CKD. Method: Diagnostic test study that included adult patients without comorbidities, registered in the Health Workers Cohort. The CKD-EPI formula was used to calculate glomerular filtration. Pulse pressure was determined by subtracting diastolic from systolic blood pressure. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and prevalence were calculated using standard formulas. A ROC curve was generated to determine the area under the curve. Results: A total of 6,215 patients were included. An IPP ≥ 50 mmHg was observed to have a sensitivity of 74 %, specificity of 70 %, positive predictive value of 1 %, negative predictive value of 100 % and a prevalence of 1 %. The inflection point in the ROC curve to identify K/DOQI III-b CKD was 0.71. Conclusion: An IPP ≥ 50 mmHg is useful as a diagnostic test to identify people with K/DOQI stage III-b CKD.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Blood Pressure/physiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Blood Pressure Determination/methods , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Area Under Curve , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 25(10): 4021-4032, Out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133007


Resumo Indivíduos com doença renal crônica (DRC) frequentemente utilizam polifarmácia o que os expõe ao risco de problemas relacionados a medicamentos (PRMs). No Brasil, não existem instrumentos que possam sistematizar a avaliação da farmacoterapia e a gestão de PRMs nesta população. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a adaptação transcultural do instrumento PAIR (Pharmacotherapy Assessment in Chronic Renal Disease) para o português brasileiro. O PAIR consiste numa lista de 50 PRMs considerados clinicamente significativos para renais crônicos. O processo de adaptação transcultural envolveu as etapas de tradução, síntese, retrotradução, análise por um comitê de especialistas e pré-teste da versão preliminar. O comitê de 2 farmacêuticos e 2 nefrologistas analisou a equivalência semântica, idiomática, experiencial e conceitual entre as versões original e traduzida. Todos os itens que obtiveram acordo inferior a 80% foram revisados. Foram realizados ajustes de palavras, assim como a exclusão de 6 PRMs devido à não aplicabilidade ao contexto brasileiro. Assim, foi obtida a versão final do PAIR definida como "Avaliação da farmacoterapia na doença renal crônica", traduzida e adaptada na língua portuguesa do Brasil.

Abstract Individuals suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD) are often on multiple medications, which exposes them to drug-related problems (DRP). There are no available tools in Brazil to assess the pharmacotherapy and management of DRPs systematically in this population. The scope of this study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of PAIR criteria (Pharmacotherapy Assessment in Chronic Renal Disease) to Brazilian Portuguese. PAIR criteria consist of 50 DRP clinically significant items for CKD. The process of cross-cultural adaptation involved translation, synthesis, back-translation, and an analysis by an expert committee as well as a pre-test of the first draft document. A review committee consisting of 2 pharmacists and 2 nephrologists analyzed the semantic, linguistic, experiential, and conceptual equivalence between the original and translated versions. All items that obtained a score below 80% were reviewed. Word adjustments were made, as well as the exclusion of 6 DRP due to non-applicability to the Brazilian context. Thus, the final version of PAIR defined as "Avaliação da farmacoterapia na doença renal crônica" was translated and adapted into the Brazilian Portuguese language.

Humans , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy , Translations , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires