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1.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 366-371, May-June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377381

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The number of nephrologists has risen slowly, compared with the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Brazil. Data on patients referred to nephrology outpatient clinics remains scarce. OBJECTIVE: To determine the demographic and kidney function characteristics of patients at their first appointment with a nephrologist. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study conducted at three nephrology outpatient clinics (public and private services), in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: From December 2019 to February 2020, we collected patient data regarding demographics, kidney function parameters and comorbidities. We then analyzed data on 394 patients who met a nephrologist for their first appointment. RESULTS: The main comorbidities were hypertension (63.7%), diabetes (33.5%) and nephrolithiasis (22.3%). Regarding CKD stages, 24.1%, 9.1%, 13.7%, 15.2%, 15.2% and 2.3% of the patients were in stages 1, 2, 3a, 3b, 4 and 5, respectively. Proteinuria was absent or mild, moderate and high in 17.3%, 15.2% and 11.7%, respectively; and 16.2% had not undergone previous investigation of serum creatinine or proteinuria (55.8%). For 17.5%, referral to a nephrologist occurred late. Patients in public services were older than those in private services (59 years versus 51 years, respectively; P = 0.001), more frequently hypertensive (69.7% versus 57.5%; P = 0.01) and reached a nephrologist later (22.4% versus 12.4%; P = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Referrals to a nephrologist were not being made using any guidelines for CKD risk and many cases could have been managed within primary care. Late referral to a nephrologist happened in one-fifth of the cases and more frequently in the public service.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Nephrology , Proteinuria/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , Brazil/epidemiology , Demography , Retrospective Studies , Nephrologists , Kidney
2.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(2): e00090821, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360290

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be avoided when promptly diagnosed and treated. The objective was to describe quality indicators of CKD detection and health care in the primary care public service of a city in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. This retrospective study analyzed charts of patients who attended primary care in the public service between November 2019 and February 2020. We selected 10 health quality indicators based on their scientific relevance and availability from the medical records that could express how CKD was identified and managed in primary health care. We estimated the adequate percentage of health indicators with data from 1,066 individuals who had ≥ one risk factor for CKD: hypertension, diabetes, or > 60 years old. Among patients, 79.4% had information on serum creatinine, whereas 58.8% were investigated for proteinuria. Blood pressure data were found in 98.9% of the records. The percentage of patients with blood pressure < 140x90mmHg, glycosylated hemoglobin < 6.5% and LDL-cholesterol < 100mg/dL was 79.2%, 49.2%, and 33.3%, respectively. Renin-angiotensin system blockers were prescribed to 82.8% of the patients with hypertension and CKD. Serum potassium was measured in 35.7% for those who were using renin-angiotensin system blockers. Among those people with CKD, 16.7% had CKD assigned in the medical records as a diagnose. Among those participants at higher risk for CKD, the referral rate to a nephrologist was 31.6%. This study confirmed some missed quality indicators of CKD in primary healthcare. Our results may help administrators develop public policies that improve health care for individuals at high risk for CKD. Long-term follow-up of the health indicators we proposed here will be useful to assess the impact of policy intervention.


Resumo: As complicações da doença renal crônica (DRC) podem ser evitadas quando a doença é diagnosticada e tratada oportunamente. O estudo teve como objetivo descrever a qualidade dos indicadores da detecção e assistência para a DRC no sistema púbico de saúde em um município do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O estudo retrospectivo analisou prontuários de pacientes que utilizaram serviços de atenção primária no sistema público entre novembro de 2019 e fevereiro de 2020. Selecionamos dez indicadores de qualidade com base na relevância científica e disponibilidade, a partir dos prontuários médicos. Calculamos o percentual de adequação com dados de 1.066 indivíduos que apresentavam ≥ 1 fatores de risco para DRC: hipertensão, diabetes ou idade > 60 anos. No total, 79,4% dos pacientes apresentavam informação sobre creatinina sérica, e 58,8% foram investigados para proteinúria. Dados de pressão arterial foram encontrados em 98,9% dos prontuários. As proporções de pacientes com pressão arterial < 140x90mmHg, hemoglobina glicada < 6,5% e LDL < 100mg/dL foram 79,2%, 49,2% e 33,3%, respectivamente. Os antagonistas do sistema renina-angiotensina foram prescritos em 82,8% dos pacientes com hipertensão e DRC. O potássio sérico foi medido em 35,7% dos pacientes em uso de antagonistas do sistema renina-angiotensina. Entre os indivíduos com DRC, 16,7% tinham esse diagnóstico registrado no prontuário médico. Entre os participantes com risco mais elevado de DRC, 31,6% foram encaminhados para um nefrologista. O estudo confirmou a falta de alguns indicadores de qualidade para DRC na assistência primária. Os resultados podem ajudar gestores a desenvolverem políticas públicas que melhorem a assistência para indivíduos com risco maior de DRC. O seguimento a longo prazo dos indicadores de saúde propostos aqui será útil para avaliar o impacto dessa política de intervenção.


Resumen: Las complicaciones de la enfermedad crónica de riñón (ECR) se pueden evitar cuando esta enfermedad se diagnostica con prontitud y se trata. El objetivo fue describir indicadores de calidad en la detección de ECR, así como la asistencia en el servicio público de una ciudad, en el Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Este estudio retrospectivo analizó fichas de pacientes que acudían a atención primaria en el servicio público, entre noviembre 2019 y febrero 2020. Seleccionamos 10 indicadores de calidad en salud, basados en relevancia científica y disponibilidad de registros médicos. Calculamos el porcentaje de adecuación de ellos con datos de 1.066 personas que tenían ≥ 1 factor de riesgo ECR: hipertensión, diabetes, o > 60 años. Un 79,4% de los pacientes tenían información sobre la creatinina sérica, y se investigó a un 58,8% en el caso de la proteinuria. Los datos de presión sanguínea se encontraron en un 98,9% de los registros. El porcentaje de pacientes con presión sanguínea < 140x90mmHg, hemoglobina glicada < 6,5% y LDL < 100mg/dL fue 79,2%, 49,2%, y 33,3%, respectivamente. Se prescribieron bloqueadores del sistema renina-angiotensina a un 82,8% de los pacientes con hipertensión y ECR. Se midió el potasio sérico en un 35,7% de aquellos quienes estaban usando bloqueadores del sistema renina-angiotensina. Entre aquellas personas con ECR, 16,7% había ECR asignado en los registros médicos como diagnosis. Entre aquellos participantes en riesgo mayor por ECR, la tasa de derivación a un nefrólogo fue 31,6%. Este estudio confirmó algunos indicadores de calidad olvidados de ECR en los cuidados de salud en la atención primaria. Nuestros resultados quizás podrían ayudar a los gestores a desarrollar políticas públicas que mejoraran el cuidado de salud para las personas con alto riesgo de ECR. El seguimiento a largo plazo de los indicadores de salud que propusimos aquí será útil para evaluar el impacto de la política de intervención.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Middle Aged
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(4): 1207-1219, abr. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285919

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é comparar as prevalências autorreferidas e medidas por exames laboratoriais, assim como a ocorrência de valores de falsos positivos e negativos, para diabetes, doença renal crônica e hipercolesterolemia. Foram utilizadas informações da entrevista e exames laboratoriais da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (2013, 2014-2015). Foram calculadas a sensibilidade e a especificidade, segundo sexo, idade, escolaridade, ter plano de saúde e tempo desde a última consulta médica. Por meio de regressão logística, foram analisados fatores associados à ocorrência de falsos positivos e falsos negativos. A sensibilidade foi mais elevada para o diabetes e entre os idosos e os que tiveram consulta médica mais recentemente. A especificidade foi alta para todas as doenças, com melhor desempenho entre os jovens, os com alta escolaridade e os que consultaram há mais de um ano. As chances de falsos positivos e falsos negativos diminuíram com a escolaridade e aumentaram com a idade. A sensibilidade baixa indica que as prevalências podem ser mais elevadas que as medidas autoreferidas apontam.


Abstract This paper aims to compare the self-reported prevalence measured by laboratory tests and the false positive and negative values for diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and hypercholesterolemia. We used information from the interview and laboratory tests of the National Health Survey (2013, 2014-2015). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by gender, age, schooling, having health insurance, and time since the last medical visit. We used logistic regression to analyze associated factors with false positives and negatives. Sensitivity was higher for diabetes and among older adults and those who had a medical visit more recently. Specificity was high for all diseases, with better performance among younger people, those with high schooling, and a visit more than one year ago. The likelihood of false positives and negatives decreased with schooling and increased with age. Low sensitivity suggests that prevalence might be higher than indicated by self-reported measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Hypercholesterolemia/diagnosis , Hypercholesterolemia/epidemiology , Self Report , Laboratories
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(1): 339-350, jan. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153735

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a prevalência de DRC e os fatores a ela associados em adultos jovens (18-59 anos) de Rio Branco, Acre. Trata-se de um inquérito de base populacional realizado em 2014, nas zonas urbana e rural do município de Rio Branco, Acre. A DRC foi definida pela taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG) < 60 ml/min/1,73 m², estimada pela CKD-EPI, e presença de albuminúria > 29 mg/g. Medidas de associação foram estimadas por regressão logística, com grau de confiança de 95%. A prevalência geral de DRC foi de 6,2%. A presença de DRC foi maior entre as mulheres, naqueles com 40 a 59 anos, de cor da pele não-branca, com menor escolaridade e entre os sedentários. Houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas na distribuição segundo a presença de DRC nas variáveis hipertensão arterial, diabetes e internação nos últimos 12 meses. A DRC entre os adultos esteve associada ao sexo feminino (OR: 2,41; IC95%: 1,14-5,12), diabetes (OR: 4,67; IC95%: 1,28-17,03) e hipertensão arterial (OR: 1,98; IC95%: 1,16-3,37). A DRC apresenta alta prevalência e está associada às doenças crônicas, evidenciando a necessidade de medidas em saúde pública para detecção precoce e prevenção da sua progressão.


Abstract The scope of this study was to establish the prevalence of CKD and associated factors among young adults (18-59 years of age) from Rio Branco in the State of Acre. It involved a population-based survey conducted in 2014, in the urban and rural areas of the municipality and CKD was defined as the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 60ml/min/1.73m², estimated by the CKD-EPI, and the presence of albuminuria > 29 mg/g. Association measures were estimated by logistic regression, with a confidence level of 95%. The overall prevalence of CKD was 6.2%. The presence of CKD was higher among women, aged 40 to 59 years, with non-white skin color, with lower schooling, and of sedentary disposition. There were statistically significant differences in the distribution according to the presence of CKD in the hypertension, diabetes and hospitalization variables over the past 12 months. CKD among adults was associated with the female sex (OR: 2.41, 95%CI: 1.14-5.12), diabetes (OR: 4.67, 95%CI: 1.28-17.03) and arterial hypertension (OR: 1.98; 95%CI: 1.16-3.37). CKD reveals a high prevalence and is associated with chronic diseases, calling for the need for public health measures for early detection and prevention of its progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Albuminuria , Glomerular Filtration Rate
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(4): e10022, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153544

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the main chronic diseases affecting the world population due to its high prevalence and increasing morbidity. Similarly, obesity gained the interest of the scientific community as it directly or indirectly increases mortality from cardiovascular causes, and its prevalence characterizes a pandemic. The objective of this study was to investigate obesity measured by body mass index as a predictor for end-stage renal disease in the general adult population. A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out by searching 10 databases for prospective or retrospective cohort studies, with no restrictions on the language of publication, including adults with obesity without previous renal disease and who evolved to CKD (diagnosed by estimated glomerular filtration rate below 60 mL&mac_middot;min-1&mac_middot;(1.73 m2)-1 over the follow-up period. The R software and Meta package were used for data analysis. After removing duplicates, 5431 studies were submitted to the steps of the systematic review, and 21 articles were included in the data analysis. In total, 3,504,303 patients, 521,216 with obesity, and an average follow-up time of 9.86 years were included. The relative risk of obese people for developing CKD in the random effects model was 1.81 (95%CI: 1.52-2.16). The evidence found in this meta-analysis confirmed that obese people are at higher risk of developing CKD that the non-obese population (1.81 times higher), with obesity being a priority risk factor in preventive actions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(11): 4631-4637, nov. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133056

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é verificar a relação entre fragilidade e os aspectos sociodemográficos e clínicos de pacientes com doença renal crônica em hemodiálise. Estudo transversal, conduzido com 107 participantes. Realizou-se análise descritiva, correlação e regressão logística. Os resultados foram considerados significativos com p-valor ≤ 0,05. A prevalência de fragilidade correspondeu a 47,66%, correlacionou-se negativamente com a cognição (r = -0,30; p-valor = 0,002), funcionalidade para atividades instrumentais de vida diária (r = -0,41; p-valor = 0,000) e com o nível de hematócrito (r = -0,19; p-valor = 0,04). Constatou- se a maior proporção de fragilidade em participantes com maior idade (OR = 1,03; IC95% 1,004-1,069; p = 0,02). Os participantes com doença renal crônica em hemodiálise apresentaram elevados percentuais de fragilidade, associada a maior idade e correlacionada a cognição, funcionalidade para atividades básicas de vida diária e menor nível de hematócrito.


Abstract The objective of this article is to determine the relationship between frailty and socio-demographic/clinical characteristics in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 107 participants. Descriptive, correlation and logistic regression analyses were performed, with the level of significance set to 5% (p < 0.05). The prevalence of frailty was 47.66%. Frailty was negatively correlated with cognition (r = -0.30; p = 0.002), functioning on instrumental activities of daily living (r = -0.41; p = 0.000) and hematocrit level (r = -0.19; p = 0.04). The proportion of frailty increased with the age of the participants (OR = 1.03; 95%CI: 1.004-1.069; p = 0.02). Individuals with chronic kidney disease on dialysis had high percentages of frailty, which was associated with an older age and correlated with cognition, functioning on instrumental activities of daily living and a lower hemotocrit level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Frailty/epidemiology , Activities of Daily Living , Geriatric Assessment , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Frail Elderly , Renal Dialysis
7.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 266-273, Jul.-Sep. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131043

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Se denomina bloqueo interauricular avanzado (BIA) a la existencia de una onda P ≥ 120 ms y bifásica +/- en las derivaciones inferiores (II-III-VF) del electrocardiograma (ECG) de superficie, el cual constituye un factor predictivo significativo del desarrollo de fibrilación auricular. En fecha reciente se han descrito cuatro patrones de BIA atípicos (BIA-At) con base en la morfología y la duración de la onda P, sin conocer si comparten patogenia y características clínicas similares. Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo de pacientes, visitados en el Servicio de Cardiología, en ritmo sinusal y con BIA. Las variables analizadas se obtuvieron de la historia clínica informatizada. El análisis de la onda P se efectuó al aumentar el tamaño del electrocardiograma y mediante calipers electrónicos. El análisis estadístico se realizó con SPSS 19.0, con nivel de significación de p < 0.05. Resultados: Se incluyó a 75 pacientes con media de edad de 74.4 ± 11.7 años, con 62.7% de varones. Se compararon los grupos de pacientes con BIA típico (BIA-T) y BIA-At. El primero se relacionó con la existencia de diabetes mellitus (p = 0.001), enfermedad renal crónica estadio ≥ 3 (p = 0.036), bloqueo auriculoventricular (p = 0.006) y una menor fracción de expulsión ventricular media (p = 0.025); no hubo diferencias respecto de la prevalencia de fibrilación auricular/flúter o accidente cerebrovascular. Sólo la diabetes se acompañó de riesgo de ser un BIA-T (OR: 6.4; p = 0.002; IC 95%: 2.0-21.1). Conclusiones: La diabetes mellitus constituye el único factor de riesgo de que un BIA sea típico. Los pacientes con BIA-T y BIA-At presentan similar prevalencia de fibrilación auricular y accidente cerebrovascular, por lo que son objeto de un mismo tratamiento clínico.


Abstract Objective: It is called advanced interatrial block (IAB) to the existence of a P wave ≥ 120 ms and biphasic ± in the lower leads II-III-VF of the surface electrocardiogram (ECG), which constitutes a significant predictive factor for the development of atrial fibrillation. Recently, four patterns of atypical aIAB (At-IAB) have been described based on the morphology and duration of the P wave, but it’s unknown if they share the same pathogenesis and clinical characteristics. Method: An observational, descriptive and retrospective study was performed with patients, visited in cardiology, who have a sinus rhythm and with aIAB. The analyzed variables were obtained from the computerized clinical history. The analysis of the P wave was made by increasing the size of the ECG and by electronic calipers. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0; level of significance: p < 0.05. Results: A total of 75 patients with an average age of 74.4 ± 11.7 years and with a 62.7% males, were included. It was compared the group of patients with typical aIAB (T-aIAB) and with At-aIAB. The first one was associated with the existence of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.001), chronic kidney disease stage ≥ 3 (p = 0.036), atrioventricular block (p = 0.006) and a lower mean ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.025); there were no differences regarding the prevalence of atrial fibrillation/flutter or stroke. Only diabetes was associated with the risk of T-aIAB (odds ratio: 6.4; p = 0.002; 95% confidence interval: 2.0-21.1). Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus is the only risk factor for an aIAB to be typical. Patients with T-aIAB and At-aIAB have a similar prevalence of atrial fibrillation and stroke, so they must follow the same clinical management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Electrocardiography , Interatrial Block/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Atrioventricular Block/epidemiology , Interatrial Block/complications , Interatrial Block/diagnosis
8.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(2): e531, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149918

ABSTRACT

Introduction: An epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of devastating consequences has been taking place in El Salvador over the last few decades. In a significant portion of affected subjects, no other common cause of chronic kidney disease is present, such as diabetes and hypertension. This illness is usually called Chronic Kidney Disease from Non-Traditional Causes (CKDnT). Previous studies have shown a high prevalence of exposure to agrochemicals in affected populations, particularly in rural areas. In addition to sustained exposure to agrochemicals, the other leading hypothesis to explain this epidemic is prolonged exposure to high temperatures and dehydration in a context of exhausting agricultural work. Objectives: To assess the possible causal effect of exposure to agrochemicals in the emergence of the CKD epidemic in the adult population of El Salvador. Methods: We conducted a case-control analysis based on the 2015 survey of Chronic Diseases in Adults in El Salvador, a national probabilistic sample that covered 4,817 adults ;20 years old. Those suffering from CKD were considered cases; the rest were managed as controls. Self-reported agrochemical exposures, other risk factors and health conditions were recorded. For binary exposures, the odds ratio (OR) of CKD and CKDnT was estimated. For variables measuring length of exposure, the average valu 8203; 8203;for cases and for controls were compared. In all cases, the corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between exposure to agrochemicals and CKD while controlling for potential confounding variables. Results: Regardless of how past exposure to agrochemicals was characterized (e.g., contact with paraquat or aerial fumigation) the OR of both CKD and CKDnT was always greater than 1.0 (range, 1.36 to 3.75). Similarly, the average number of years of exposure was consistently higher for cases than for controls for all continuous variables examined (greater than 2 years in most cases). Conclusions: The results of this study are consistent with previous epidemiologic and toxicological evidence and support the hypothesis that exposure to agrochemicals may be causally implicated in the ongoing CKD epidemics in El Salvador(AU)


Introducción: Durante las últimas décadas, una epidemia de enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) de consecuencias devastadoras ha tenido lugar en El Salvador. Una parte importante de los sujetos afectados, no padece de una causa frecuente para padecer enfermedad renal crónica, tal como como diabetes e hipertensión. En tal caso, suele distinguirse la dolencia mediante el nombre de Enfermedad Renal Crónica de Causas no Tradicionales (ERCnT). Estudios previos muestran una alta prevalencia de exposición a agroquímicos en las poblaciones afectadas, particularmente en las zonas rurales. Además de la exposición sostenida a agroquímicos, la otra hipótesis principal para explicar esta epidemia es la exposición prolongada a altas temperaturas y deshidratación, en un contexto de trabajo agrícola agotador. Objetivos: Evaluar el posible efecto causal de la exposición a agroquímicos en la irrupción de la epidemia de ERC en la población adulta de El Salvador. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles, a partir de la Encuesta de Enfermedades Crónicas no Transmisibles en Adultos en El Salvador, basada en una muestra probabilística nacional que abarcó 4,817 adultos de 20 o más años de edad, concluida en 2015. Fueron considerados casos todos aquellos que padecían ERC; el resto dos restantes participantes se manejaron como controles. Se registraron las exposiciones a agroquímicos, así como a otros factores de riesgo y condiciones de salud según testimonio de los participantes. Para las exposiciones binarias, se estimó la razón de odds (OR) con respecto a padecer ERC y ERCnT. Para las variables que medían la duración de la exposición, se compararon los valores medios para casos y controles. En todos los casos, se calcularon los respectivos intervalos de confianza al 95 por ciento. Se utilizó la regresión logística multivariada para examinar la asociación entre la exposición a agroquímicos y la ERC, controlando las posibles variables confusoras. Resultados: Independientemente de cómo fuera caracterizada la exposición pasada a agroquímicos (por ejemplo, contacto con paraquat o fumigación aérea), el OR de ERC y ERCnT siempre fue mayor que 1.0 (rango, 1.36 a 3.75). Del mismo modo, la media de años de exposición fue consistentemente más alta para los casos que para los controles, para todas las variables continuas examinadas (más de 2 años en la mayoría de los casos). Conclusiones: Los resultados de este estudio son consistentes con la evidencia epidemiológica y toxicológica previa y respaldan la hipótesis de que la exposición a agroquímicos puede estar causalmente implicada en la epidemia de ERC que se registra en El Salvador(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Agrochemicals/adverse effects , Pesticide Exposure , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Epidemics , Case-Control Studies , El Salvador/epidemiology
9.
Rev. Col. méd. cir ; 159(1): 3-8, abr 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1096974

ABSTRACT

La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS),declaró el 11 de marzo de 2020, la COVID-19 como una pandemia. Aun cuando se observa el crecimiento epidemiológico de esta pandemia, al momento no contamos con un protocolo de manejo de los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica y trasplante renal que sean afectados por esta enfermedad. Los miembros del Departamento de Nefrología y Trasplante del Hospital General San Juan de Dios de Guatemala, desarrollaron este documento con la finalidad de establecer guías de manejo de los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Patient Isolation/methods , Tissue Donors , Comorbidity , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Guatemala/epidemiology
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880774

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the correlation of different glucose metabolism statues with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle-aged and elderly individuals in Lanzhou.@*METHODS@#Based on the baseline data of REACTION Study in Lanzhou area, we randomly sampled 10 038 residents aged 40-75 years in 3 communities in Lanzhou, who were classified into normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and diabetes groups. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) were used to assess the renal function and albuminuria, respectively. Binary logistic regression was performed to analyze the contribution of the risk factors to CKD. Polynominal regression was used to determine the trends of eGFR with the increment of ACR.@*RESULTS@#Among all the participants, the prevalences of albuminuria, CKD and renal insufficiency (RI) were 26.2%, 27.4% and 2.5%, respectively. The prevalence of albuminuria, CKD and RI were significantly higher in the diabetes group than in IGR and NGT groups (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Diabetes mellitus is a significant risk factor for albuminuria and RI, while IGR is not. Screening for albuminuria and eGFR is highly recommended for individuals with diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, especially in women and the elderly population.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Albuminuria/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Glucose , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Risk Factors
11.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(supl.1): s03-s09, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057109

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Chronic kidney disease is highly prevalent (10-13% of the population), irreversible, progressive, and associated with higher cardiovascular risk. Patients with this pathology remain asymptomatic most of the time, presenting the complications typical of renal dysfunction only in more advanced stages. Its treatment can be conservative (patients without indication for dialysis, usually those with glomerular filtration rate above 15 ml/minute) or replacement therapy (hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation). The objectives of the conservative treatment for chronic kidney disease are to slow down the progression of kidney dysfunction, treat complications (anemia, bone diseases, cardiovascular diseases), vaccination for hepatitis B, and preparation for kidney replacement therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/classification , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e9614, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089341

ABSTRACT

The global burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rapidly increasing with a projection of becoming the 5th most common cause of years of life lost globally by 2040. CKD is a major cause of catastrophic health expenditure. The costs of dialysis and transplantation consume up to 3% of the annual healthcare budget in high-income countries. However, the onset and progression of CKD is often preventable. In 2020, the World Kidney Day campaign highlights the importance of preventive interventions - be it primary, secondary, or tertiary. This article focuses on outlining and analyzing measures that can be implemented in every country to promote and advance CKD prevention. Primary prevention of kidney disease should focus on the modification of risk factors and addressing structural abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tracts, as well as exposure to environmental risk factors and nephrotoxins. In persons with pre-existing kidney disease, secondary prevention, including blood pressure optimization and glycemic control, should be the main goal of education and clinical interventions. In patients with advanced CKD, management of co-morbidities such as uremia and cardiovascular disease is a highly recommended preventative intervention to avoid or delay dialysis or kidney transplantation. Political efforts are needed to proliferate the preventive approach. While national policies and strategies for non-communicable diseases might be present in a country, specific policies directed toward education and awareness about CKD screening, management, and treatment are often lacking. Hence, there is an urgent need to increase the awareness of preventive measures throughout populations, professionals, and policy makers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Equity , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Global Burden of Disease , Health Services Accessibility , Preventive Health Services/methods , Mass Screening/economics , Risk Factors , Early Diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/prevention & control , Health Policy , Health Promotion
13.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200044, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101603

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivos: Identificar a prevalência da doença renal crônica (DRC) autorreferida no Brasil e caracterizar os fatores associados a essa enfermidade. Métodos: Trata-se de um inquérito epidemiológico de base domiciliar, a Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS) realizada em 2013. O desfecho analisado foi a prevalência de DRC. Os grupos de variáveis explicativas foram: características sociodemográficas, estilos de vida, doenças crônicas autorreferidas, antropometria e avaliação de saúde. Foram estimadas as prevalências de DRC e os respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% e foram realizados a análise univariada e o modelo de regressão logística múltipla, permanecendo as variáveis estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,05). Resultados: Observou-se que 1,42% (intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95% 1,33 - 1,52) dos 60.202 entrevistados referiram ser portadores de DRC. O odds ratio (OR) aumentou com a idade, sendo 2,68 entre os idosos com 65 anos ou mais (IC95% 1,75 - 4,09). Apresentaram chance maior de DRC: possuir planos de saúde, com OR = 1,51 (IC95% 1,28 - 1,78), tabagismo, hipertensão, colesterol elevado e autoavaliação de saúde ruim, com OR = 1,75 (IC95% 1,45 - 2,12), OR = 1,20 (IC95% 1,02 - 1,42), OR = 1,83 (IC95% 1,56 - 2,15), OR = 4,70 (IC95% 3,75 - 5,88), respectivamente. Conclusões: A prevalência de DRC foi maior em idade mais avançada, baixa escolaridade, possuir plano de saúde, tabagismo, hipertensão, hipercolesterolemia e avaliação regular ou ruim do estado de saúde. O conhecimento da prevalência da DRC e dos fatores de risco e de proteção são essenciais para prevenção da doença e para subsidiar as políticas públicas de saúde.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To identify the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) self-reported in Brazil and characterize the factors associated with it. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional health survey with a household-based, the National Health Survey, performed in 2013. The outcome in the present study was the prevalence of CKD. The groups of explanatory variables were socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyles, chronic self-reported diseases, anthropometry, and health evaluation. The prevalence of CKD, e their 95% respective confidence interval were estimated, univariate analysis and the multiple logistic regression model were calculated, and remained the variables statistically significant (p < 0.05). Results: It noticed that 1.42% (95%CI 1.33 - 1.52) of the 60,202 interviewees self-reported CKD. The OR increased progressively with age, being 2.68 among the elderly with 65 years or more (95%CI 1.75 - 4.09). Having health plans with OR = 1.51 (95%CI 1.28 - 1.78), as well as smoking, hypertension and high cholesterol and poor self-reported health with OR = 1.75 (95%CI 1.45 - 2.12), OR = 1.20 (95%CI 1.02 - 1.42), OR = 1.83 (95%CI 1.56 - 2.15), OR = 4.70 (95%CI 3.75 - 5.88), respectively, showed a higher chance of CKD. Conclusions: The associated variables were increasing age, health plan coverage, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and regular or poor health status. The knowledge of CKD prevalence in Brazil and risk and protection factors are essential for disease prevention and the establishment of supporting public health policies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Self Report , Life Style , Middle Aged
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1227-1237, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056325

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Children with a solitary post-nephrectomy kidney (SNK) are at potential risk of developing kidney disease later in life. In response to the global decline in the number of nephrons, adaptive mechanisms lead to renal injury. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and time of onset of high blood pressure (HBP), proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) disruption and renal tubular acidosis (RTA) in children with SNK. Materials and methods: After obtaining the approval from our institution's ethics committee, we reviewed the medical records of patients under 18 years of age who underwent unilateral nephrectomy between January 2005 and December 2015 in three university hospitals. Results: We identified 43 patients, 35 (81.4%) cases of unilateral nephrectomy (UNP) were due to a non-oncologic pathology and Wilm's tumor was identified in 8 (18.6%) cases. In patients with non-oncologic disease, 9.3% developed de novo hypertension, with an average time of onset of 7.1 years, 25% developed proteinuria de novo, with an average time of onset of 2.2 years. For GFR, 21.8% presented deterioration of the GFR in an average time of 3.4 years. Ten (43.5%) patients developed some type of de novo renal injury after UNP. Patients with oncologic disease developed the conditions slowly and none of them developed proteinuria. Conclusions: Taking into account the high rate of long term postoperative renal injury, it can be considered that nephrectomy does not prevent this disease. The follow-up of children with SNK requires a multidisciplinary approach and long-term surveillance to detect renal injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Solitary Kidney/physiopathology , Solitary Kidney/epidemiology , Nephrectomy/adverse effects , Postoperative Period , Prognosis , Proteinuria/physiopathology , Proteinuria/epidemiology , Acidosis, Renal Tubular/physiopathology , Acidosis, Renal Tubular/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Age of Onset , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/epidemiology
15.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(4): 850-861, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094093

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la Organización Mundial de la Salud, estima que la enfermedad renal crónica estará incluida dentro de las principales causas de discapacidad para el 2020. La prevalencia en países desarrollados es aproximadamente de 500 a 1400 pacientes por millón de habitantes y la incidencia anual se encuentra alrededor de 350 pacientes por millón de población. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de la enfermedad renal oculta e identificar algunos factores de riesgos predisponentes en adultos mayores con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 pertenecientes al Policlínico Universitario "Jimmy Hirzel", Bayamo, Granma, en el período comprendido entre junio 2016 - junio 2017. Materiales y métodos: se realizó estudio observacional descriptivo, de corte transversal en el que se incluyeron 180 gerontes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Resultados: se estableció el diagnóstico de enfermedad renal oculta en 167 individuos de 180 sujetos estudiados, el grupo de 70 - 79 años de edad fue el más afectado por la nefropatía crónica, mientras que el sexo femenino y la raza blanca fueron los de mayor prevalencia. Los principales factores de riesgo predisponentes de enfermedad renal oculta fueron: cardiopatía isquémica crónica, dislipemias e hipertensión arterial. Conclusiones: existe una alta morbilidad de enfermedad renal oculta en los senescentes estudiados.


ABSTRACT Introduction: the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that chronic hidden renal disease (ERC) will be included within the principal causes of disability by 2020. The prevalence in developed countries is around 500 to 1400 patients per million inhabitants, and the yearly incidence is around 350 patients per million people. Objective: to determine the prevalence of the hidden renal disease and to identify some predisposing risk factors in elder people with type II diabetes mellitus belonging to the University Policlinic "Jimmy Hirzel", Bayamo, Gramma, in the period between June 2016 and June 2017. Material and methods: an observational descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in 180 elder people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results: the chronic hidden renal disease was diagnosed in 167 individuals from the 180 studied subjects; the 70-79 years-old-group was the most affected one by chronic renal disease, while the female sex and white race showed the highest prevalence. The main risk factors predisposing to chronic hidden renal disease were: chronic ischemic heart disease, dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension. Conclusions: there is a high morbidity due to hidden renal disease in the studied senescent people.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Morbidity , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/prevention & control , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/etiology , Hypertension/etiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetic Nephropathies/etiology , Observational Study , Kidney Diseases/etiology
16.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 208-214, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012536

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Having national data on chronic dialysis is essential in treatment planning. Objective: To present data of the survey from the Brazilian Society of Nephrology on patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis in July 2017. Methods: Data was collected from dialysis units in Brazil. The data collection was done using a questionnaire completed online by the dialysis units. Results: Two hundred and ninety-one centers (38.4%) answered the questionnaire. In July 2017, the estimated total number of dialysis patients was 126,583. National estimates of prevalence and incidence rates of dialysis patients per million population (pmp) were 610 (range: 473 in the North region and 710 in the Midwest) and 194, respectively. The incidence rate of new dialysis patients with diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy was 77 pmp. The annual gross mortality rate was 19.9%. Of the prevalent patients, 93.1% were on hemodialysis and 6.9% on peritoneal dialysis, with 31,226 (24%) on the waiting list for renal transplantation. Venous catheter was used as access in 22.6% of patients on hemodialysis. The prevalence rate of positive serology for hepatitis C continued with a tendency to decrease (3.3%). Conclusion: The absolute number of patients and rates of incidence and prevalence on dialysis continued to increase; the mortality rate tended to rise. There were obvious regional and state discrepancies in these rates.


Resumo Introdução: Dados nacionais sobre diálise crônica são fundamentais no planejamento do tratamento. Objetivo: Apresentar dados do inquérito da Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia sobre os pacientes com doença renal crônica em tratamento dialítico em julho de 2017. Métodos: Levantamento de dados de unidades de diálise do país. A coleta de dados foi feita utilizando questionário preenchido on-line pelas unidades de diálise. Resultados: 291 (38,4%) centros responderam ao questionário. Em julho de 2017, o número total estimado de pacientes em diálise foi de 126.583. As estimativas nacionais das taxas de prevalência e de incidência de pacientes em tratamento dialítico por milhão da população (pmp) foram 610 (variação: 473 na região Norte e 710 no Centro-Oeste) e 194, respectivamente. A taxa de incidência de novos pacientes em diálise com diagnóstico de nefropatia diabética foi de 77 pmp. A taxa anual de mortalidade bruta foi de 19,9%. Dos pacientes prevalentes, 93,1% estavam em hemodiálise e 6,9% em diálise peritoneal, com 31.226 (24%) em fila de espera para transplante. Cateter venoso era usado como acesso em 22,6% dos pacientes em hemodiálise. A taxa de prevalência de sorologia positiva para hepatite C continua a mostrar tendência para redução (3,3%). Conclusão: O número absoluto de pacientes e as taxas de incidência e prevalência em diálise continuam a aumentar; a taxa de mortalidade tendeu a elevar-se. Há discrepâncias regionais e estaduais evidentes nessas taxas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires , Peritoneal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Prevalence , Mortality/trends , Kidney Transplantation , Diabetic Nephropathies/therapy , Diabetic Nephropathies/epidemiology
17.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 176-184, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012539

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The aim of the study was to report the implementation of a functional network for the early diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with risk factors and the coordinated work between primary and specialized care in social security in Perú. Material and methods: A cross-sectional analysis of the data of patients evaluated in a health network in the city of Lima (2013 to 2016), older than 18 years, with risk factors for CKD, evaluated with serum creatinine and creatine albumin ratio in random urine (ACR). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the factors associated with the finding of CKD. Results: The implementation included training in renal health, installation of a digital database, organization of laboratories, and empowerment of primary care. We evaluated 42,746 patients of which 41.8% were men, with median age 69.2 years. The most frequent cause of detection was hypertension (HBP): 23,921 (55.9%). The prevalence of CKD was 12,132 (28.4%), the most frequent stage of CKD was 3a: 4735 (39.0%). Of the total, 6214 (14.5%) patients had microalbuminuria and 1335 (3.1%), macroalbuminuria. The risk of CKD increased 2.5 times (95% CI: 2.3-2.7) in patients with diabetes (DM) and HBP, in men (OR 1.2, 95% CI: 1.2-1.3) and as age increased (> 77 years: OR 2.7, 95% CI: 2.5-2.8). The identification of the disease in the primary care setting is 60% less likely than in specialized care. Conclusions: One of every four patients are diagnosed with CKD, and the simultaneous diagnosis of DM and HBP and old age are the most important factors.


Resumo Introdução: O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever a implementação de uma rede funcional para o diagnóstico precoce de doença renal crônica (DRC) em pacientes com fatores de risco e o coordenar os trabalhos entre atenção primária e especializada no sistema de seguridade social peruano. Material e métodos: Análise transversal dos dados de pacientes maiores de 18 anos com fatores de risco para DRC avaliados em uma rede de saúde na cidade de Lima (2013 a 2016) por meio de creatinina sérica e relação albumina/creatinina (RAC) em amostra aleatória de urina. Análise de regressão logística multivariada foi executada para avaliar os fatores associados à presença de DRC. Resultados: A implementação incluiu treinamento em saúde renal, instalação de um banco de dados digital, organização de laboratórios e empoderamento da atenção primária. Foram avaliados 42.746 pacientes, dos quais 41,8% eram homens, com idade mediana de 69,2 anos. A causa mais comum de detecção foi hipertensão, observada em 23.921 indivíduos (55,9%). A prevalência de DRC foi de 12.132 (28,4%), com estágio 3A sendo o mais frequente com 4735 casos (39,0%). Do total, 6214 (14,5%) pacientes apresentavam microalbuminúria e 1335 (3,1%) macroalbuminúria. O risco de DRC foi 2,5 vezes maior (IC 95%: 2,3-2,7) nos pacientes com diabetes e hipertensão, em homens (OR 1,2, IC 95%: 1,2-1,3) e idosos (> 77 anos: OR 2,7, IC 95%: 2,5-2,8). A identificação da doença no cenário da atenção primária é 60% menos provável do que na atenção especializada. Conclusões: Um em cada quatro pacientes é diagnosticado com DRC. Idade avançada e diagnóstico simultâneo de DM e hipertensão são os fatores mais relevantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Primary Health Care , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Peru/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Creatinine/blood , Early Diagnosis , Diabetes Complications , Albuminuria , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Hypertension/complications
18.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 200-207, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012544

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing, with a potential impact in the risk of acceleration of dementia. The potential association between glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and cognitive performance was scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive performance levels across different degrees of kidney function. Methods: We analyzed 240 outpatients in a nephrology service, classified according to eGFR: Advanced (≤ 30ml/min/1.73m2), Moderate (30,1ml/min/1.73m2 to ≤ 60ml/min/1.73m2), and Mild CKD (> 60ml/min/1.73m2). Word list memory, Semantic fluency, Mental State Mini Exam and Trail Making Test (TMT) were applied to evaluate cognitive performance. In the TMT, lower scores are associated with better cognition. In linear regression, cognitive function was considered as dependent variables while groups based on eGFR were considered explanatory variables. The group with eGFR > 60ml/min was the reference and models were adjusted for confounding factors. Results: In our population (n = 240) 64 patients (26.7%) were classified as having advanced, 98(40,8%) moderate, and 78(32,5%) mild. There was no statistical difference among them in MMSE or in the verbal fluency test. However, comparing to mild, patients with advanced CKD presented significantly worse cognitive performance measured by TMTA [50,8s ± 31.1s versus 66,6s ± 35,7s (p = 0.016)] and TMTB [92,7s ± 46,2s versus 162,4s ± 35,7s (p < 0.001)]. Significantly lower TMTB scores (CI95%) 33,0s (4,5-61,6s) were observed in patients with mild compared to advanced CKD in the multivariate analysis adjusting for age, education, sex, diabetes, and alcohol use. Conclusion: Advanced CKD is independently associated with poorer cognitive performance measured by an executive performance test compared to mild CKD.


RESUMO Introdução: A elevação da prevalência de doença renal crônica (DRC) traz consigo um impacto potencial sobre o risco de aceleração da demência. A possível associação entre taxa de filtração glomerular (TFGe) e desempenho cognitivo foi pouco estudada. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os níveis de desempenho cognitivo em indivíduos com diferentes graus de função renal. Métodos: Foram analisados 240 pacientes ambulatoriais atendidos em um serviço de nefrologia classificados segundo a TFGe em grupos com DRC avançada (≤ 30ml/min/1,73m2), moderada (30,1ml/min/1,73m2 a ≤ 60ml/min/1,73m2) ou leve (> 60ml/min/1,73m2). Testes de memória por listas de palavras, fluência semântica, o mini exame do estado mental e o teste das trilhas (TT) foram aplicados para avaliar o desempenho cognitivo. No TT, escores mais baixos representam melhor cognição. Na regressão linear, função cognitiva foi considerada como variável dependente, enquanto os grupos baseados na TFGe foram considerados como variáveis explicativas. O grupo com TFGe > 60ml/min foi utilizado como referência e os modelos foram ajustados para fatores de confusão. Resultados: Em nossa população (n = 240), 64 pacientes (26,7%) foram diagnosticados com DRC avançada, 98 (40,8%) com DRC moderada e 78 (32,5%) com DRC leve. Não houve diferença estatística entre eles no MEEM ou no teste de fluência verbal. Contudo, em relação aos indivíduos com DRC leve, os pacientes com DRC avançada apresentaram desempenho cognitivo significativamente pior medido pelo TT A [50,8s ± 31,1s x 66,6s ± 35,7s (p = 0,016)] e TT B [92,7s ± 46,2s x 162,4s ± 35,7s (p < 0,001)]. Escores significativamente mais baixos no TT B (IC95%) 33,0s (4,5-61,6s) foram observados nos pacientes com DRC leve em comparação com o grupo com DRC avançada na análise multivariada ajustada para idade, escolaridade, sexo, diabetes e uso de álcool. Conclusão: DRC avançada esteve independentemente associada a pior desempenho cognitivo medido por um teste de desempenho executivo em comparação à DRC leve.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Creatinine/blood , Executive Function , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Glomerular Filtration Rate
19.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(1): 48-54, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002416

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Aim: To determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory factors associated with CKD in Mexican HIV-infected patients. Methods: Cross-sectional study. We included 274 patients with HIV/AIDS. CKD was defined by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 assessed by CKD-EPI) and albuminuria criteria from KDIGO guidelines. Clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics were compared between patients with and without CKD. The factors associated with CKD were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean age was 41±11 years, and 72.3% of the patients were men. The global prevalence of CKD was 11.7% (n = 32); 7.2% (n = 20) were defined by eGFR criterion; 7.6% (n = 21), by the albuminuria criterion; and 3.2% (n = 9), by both CKD criteria. The most frequently observed stages of CKD were KDIGO G3A1 stage with 4.7% (n = 13), KDIGO G1A2 stage with 3.6% (n = 10) and KDIGO G3A2 stage with 1.7% (n = 5). The factors associated with CKD were use of abacavir/lamivudine (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.1-8.9; p = 0.03), a CD4 lymphocyte count < 400 cells/µL (OR 2.6; 95% 1.03-6.4, p = 0.04), age (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.04-1.2, p = 0.001) and albuminuria (OR 19.98; 95% CI: 5.5-72.2; p < 0.001). Conclusions: CKD was a frequent complication in HIV-infected patients. These findings confirm the importance of screening and the early detection of CKD, as well as the importance of identifying and treating traditional and non-traditional risk factors associated with CKD.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a prevalência de doença renal crônica (DRC) e os fatores epidemiológicos, clínicos e laboratoriais associados à DRC em pacientes mexicanos infectados pelo HIV. Métodos: Estudo transversal. Incluímos 274 pacientes com HIV/AIDS. A DRC foi definida pela taxa de filtração glomerular estimada (TFGe < 60 mL/min/1,73 m2, avaliada pelo CKD-EPI) e pelos critérios de albuminúria das diretrizes do KDIGO. As características clínicas, epidemiológicas e laboratoriais foram comparadas entre pacientes com e sem DRC. Os fatores associados à DRC foram avaliados por análise de regressão logística. Resultados: A média da idade foi de 41 ± 11 anos e 72,3% dos pacientes eram homens. A prevalência global de DRC foi de 11,7% (n = 32); 7,2% (n = 20) foram definidos pelo critério TFGe; 7,6% (n = 21), pelo critério da albuminúria; e 3,2% (n = 9), pelos dois critérios para DRC. Os estágios mais frequentemente observados da DRC foram o estágio KDIGO G3A1 com 4,7% (n = 13); estágio KDIGO G1A2 com 3,6% (n = 10) e estágio KDIGO G3A2 com 1,7% (n = 5). Os fatores associados à DRC foram o uso de abacavir/lamivudina (OR 3,2; IC95% 1,1-8,9; p = 0,03), contagem de linfócitos CD4 < 400 células/µL (OR 2,6; 95% 1,03-6,4, p = 0,04), idade (OR 1,1; IC95% 1,04-1,2, p = 0,001) e albuminúria (OR 19,98; IC95%: 5,5-72,2; p < 0,001). Conclusões: A DRC foi uma complicação frequente em pacientes infectados pelo HIV. Esses achados confirmam a importância do rastreamento e da detecção precoce da DRC, bem como a importância de identificar e tratar os fatores de risco tradicionais e não tradicionais associados à DRC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Dideoxynucleosides/adverse effects , Logistic Models , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Lamivudine/adverse effects , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Diabetes Complications , Albuminuria , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hypertension/complications , Mexico/epidemiology
20.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(1): 65-73, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002423

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Evaluate the association between the thumb adductor muscle thickness and the patient's nutritional status, and propose cutoff points for muscle mass depletion in elderly patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) under conservative treatment. Epidemiological and cross-sectional study, including patients with CKD stages 3 to 5, older than 60 years. Socioeconomic, clinical, physical activity and anthropometric data was obtained. TAMT was described and compared according to CKD stage, socioeconomic data, physical activity, nutritional status and correlated with age, glomerular filtration rate and anthropometric variables. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were produced, considering the lean tissue index classification as reference. The cut-off point was defined by the Youden index. Results: We evaluated 137 individuals. The TAMT was lower in malnourished and/or depleted muscle mass individuals; among males it was higher among those who practiced physical activities (p <0.05). This measure was moderately correlated with BMI, calf and brachial circumferences, lean body tissue, lean tissue index and body cell mass (r <0.7); negatively with age (r = -0.34). The ROC curve analysis determined cut points of 15.33 mm for females and 20.33 mm for males, with 72.22% and 62.50% accuracy, respectively. Conclusion: TAMT is used to estimate muscle mass and we suggest the cutoff point is useful to rule out the likelihood of muscle mass depletion. It is recommended that it be used in a complementary way in nutritional assessment.


Resumo Introdução: Avaliar a associação da espessura do músculo adutor do polegar (EMAP) com o estado nutricional e propor pontos de corte para depleção de massa muscular em idosos portadores da doença renal crônica (DRC) em tratamento conservador. Metodologia: Estudo epidemiológico, delineamento transversal, incluindo portadores de DRC estágios 3 a 5, acima de 60 anos. Obteve-se dados socioeconômicos, clínicos, prática de atividade física e antropométricos. A EMAP foi descrita e comparada de acordo com o estágio da DRC, dados socioeconômicos, atividade física e estado nutricional e correlacionada com idade, taxa de filtração glomerular e variáveis antropométricas. Foram produzidas curvas Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), considerando como padrão de referência a classificação do índice de tecido magro. O ponto de corte foi definido pelo índice Youden. Resultados: Avaliou-se 137 indivíduos. A EMAP foi inferior nos desnutridos e/ou com depleção de massa muscular; no sexo masculino foi superior nos praticantes de atividade física (p<0,05). A medida se correlacionou moderadamente com IMC, circunferência da panturrilha e braquial, tecido de massa magra, índice de tecido magro e massa celular corporal (r<0,7), e negativamente com a idade (r=-0,34). A análise da curva ROC determinou pontos de corte de 15,33 mm para o sexo feminino e 20,33 mm para o masculino, com acurácia de 72,22% e 62,50%, respectivamente. Conclusão: A EMAP serve para estimar a massa muscular, e o ponto de corte sugerido é útil para afastar a probabilidade de depleção de massa muscular. Recomenda-se que seja utilizada de forma complementar na avaliação nutricional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Thumb/pathology , Aging/physiology , Nutrition Assessment , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Conservative Treatment , Body Composition , Muscular Atrophy/diagnosis , Exercise , Body Mass Index , Nutritional Status/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , ROC Curve , Age Factors , Glomerular Filtration Rate
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