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1.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20201104, 2022. tab, graf, ilus, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1286050

ABSTRACT

Continued unsustainable exploitation of natural resources promotes environmental degradation and threatens the preservation of dry forests around the world. This situation exposes the fragility and the necessity to study landscape transformations. In addition, it is necessary to consider the biomass quantity and to establish strategies to monitor natural and anthropic disturbances. Thus, this research analyzed the relationship between vegetation index and the estimated biomass using allometric equations in different Brazilian caatinga forest areas from satellite images. This procedure is performed by estimating the biomass from 9 dry tropical forest fragments using allometric equations. Area delimitations were obtained from the Embrapa collection of dendrometric data collected in the period between 2011 and 2012. Spectral variables were obtained from the orthorectified images of the RapidEye satellite. The aboveground biomass ranged from 6.88 to 123.82 Mg.ha-1. SAVI values were L = 1 and L = 0.5, while NDVI and EVI ranged from 0.1835 to 0.4294, 0.2197 to 0.5019, 0.3622 to 0.7584, and 0.0987 to 0.3169, respectively. Relationships among the estimated biomass and the vegetation indexes were moderate, with correlation coefficients (Rs) varying between 0.64 and 0.58. The best adjusted equation was the SAVI equation, for which the coefficient of determination was R² = 0.50, R2aj = 0.49, RMSE = 17.18 Mg.ha-1 and mean absolute error of prediction (MAE) = 14.07 Mg.ha-1, confirming the importance of the Savi index in estimating the caatinga aboveground biomass.


A exploração contínua e insustentável dos recursos naturais promove a degradação ambiental e ameaça a conservação das florestas secas no mundo. Essa situação expõe a fragilidade e a necessidade de estudar as transformações da paisagem. É necessário considerar o quantitativo de biomassa e o estabelecimento de estratégias para monitorar distúrbios naturais e antrópicos. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a relação entre o índice de vegetação e a biomassa estimada por meio de equações alométricas em diferentes áreas da caatinga brasileira a partir de imagens de satélite. Este procedimento é realizado estimando-se a biomassa de nove fragmentos de floresta tropical seca com o uso em equações alométricas. As delimitações das áreas foram obtidas da coleção da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, a partir dos dados dendrométricos coletados no período entre 2011 e 2012. As variáveis espectrais foram obtidas a partir das imagens ortorretificadas do satélite RapidEye. A biomassa acima do solo variou de 6,88 a 123,82 Mg.ha-1. Os valores de SAVI para os coeficientes L = 1 e L = 0,5, NDVI e EVI variaram de 0,1835 a 0,4294, 0,2197 a 0,5019, 0,3622 a 0,7584 e 0,0987 a 0,3169, respectivamente. As relações entre a biomassa estimada e os índices de vegetação foram moderadas, com coeficiente de correlação (rs) variando entre 0,64 e 0,58. A equação mais bem ajustada foi a Equação do SAVI, com coeficiente de determinação foi R² = 0,50, R2aj = 0.49, RMSE = 17.18 Mg.ha-1 e erro médio absoluto de predição (MAE) = 14.07 Mg.ha-1, confirmando a importância do índice SAVI na estimativa da biomassa aérea da Caatinga.


Subject(s)
Forests , Decision Support Techniques , Biomass , Renewable Energy , Semi-Arid Zone , Remote Sensing Technology
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21210156, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285564

ABSTRACT

Abstract Microgrids have been widely applied to improve the energy quality parameters of a distribution system locally, in addition to ensuring the operation of the system in an isolated manner. The Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a great solution to guarantee the operation of the system considering forecasting models and also physical restrictions of the system, which ensure the optimal operation of the Microgrid. However, the construction of a control scheme following the objectives established in order to meet the connected and isolated operation of a Microgrid is still a challenge. This paper proposes the development of an MPC control scheme that assures optimal system operation in connected and islanded mode, improving power quality indexes, ensuring network requirements, and extending battery life cycle. The proposed control operation in the connected mode can attend to the needs of the Microgrid, reducing the impacts of peak demand and the intermittent variations in renewable generation, where a linear objective function is developed for this purpose. In the islanded mode, grid requirements are guaranteed through load shedding, considering improvements in continuity indicators. Forecasting models are implemented considering the MPC approach and a detailed network model is developed. Simulation results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.


Subject(s)
Quality Control , Electric Wiring/standards , Batteries , Renewable Energy
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21200734, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285561

ABSTRACT

Abstract The State of Paraná stands out in Brazil for its hydraulic potential for electricity generation. Furthermore, the State also shows potential for the use of other sources of energy, such as solar energy, biogas and biomass. The study traces the profile of electric energy consumption and compiles analysis of the alternative energy potentials of Paraná on the use of solar energy, the biomass of forest residues and agricultural crops, the generation of biogas through the residues of farmed animals and the urban solids residues. The work took account for the estimates, the logistical limitations for the biomass or biogas collection and the real availability of the wastes in terms of viability of exploration through distributed generation plants. The use of the business analytics software Tableau Desktop 2020.3.2® made possible the open data analysis at the municipal level. The paper provides realistic estimates about the feasibility of the use of alternative energy sources in the State of Paraná.


Subject(s)
Energy-Generating Resources , Renewable Energy , Brazil , Data Analysis
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200781, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339313

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fruit juice industry generates massive amount of lignocellulosic by-products annually which are excellent raw materials for bioethanol production. In the current study, bioethanol production from apricot (Prunus armeniaca) pomace by Kluyveromyces marxianus was investigated for the first time. Some key parameters for fermentation such as pretreatment methods, biomass and cellulase loading and time, were optimized. Kluyveromyces marxianus produced 30.09 g/L ethanol in the 20% washed apricot pomace and 120 FPU/g cellulose enzyme loading. The highest theoretical yield and Y P/S values were also observed as 94.7% and 0.50 g/g, respectively, when 15 FPU/g cellulose enzyme was used. These results depict that apricot pomace is a promising feedstock for bioethanol production.


Subject(s)
Kluyveromyces , Biofuels , Renewable Energy , Prunus armeniaca
5.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21200045, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278460

ABSTRACT

Abstract Natural gas steam reforming is commonly used for hydrogen production. However, research has shown that ethanol autothermal reforming can produce cleaner hydrogen gas efficiently. Despite this, there is a lack of studies on the energy self-sufficiency conditions of the ethanol autothermal reform. In this paper, we use simulations and the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for the multivariate analysis of the energy self-sufficiency conditions in this process. First, we constructed and validated an industrial flowchart. After that, RSM allowed us to assess the process variables effects. The process variables studied were temperature (0 to 1000 ºC), pressure (20 to 30 bar), steam/ethanol ratio (2 to 5 mol/mol) and O2/ethanol ratio (0 to 1.5 mol/mol). We observe that the temperature and steam/ethanol ratio increase have a positive effect on hydrogen production. On the contrary, the O2/ethanol ratio increase has a negative effect, and the pressure increase is not statistically significant on hydrogen production. Therefore, the pressure was used at its minimum level (20 bar) while the temperature and the steam/ethanol ratio at its maximum levels (1000 ºC and 5 mol/mol). We also evaluated the energy consumption for the Autothermal Reactor (ATR). The reactor consumed 477.92 kJ/mol ethanol to produce 5.12 mol H2/mol ethanol when we use 1000 ºC, 20 bar, steam/ethanol 5 mol/mol, and O2/ethanol 0 mol/mol. ATR's energy self-sufficiency is achieved by using 1000 ºC, 20 bar, steam/ethanol 5 mol/mol, and O2/ethanol 0.86 mol/mol. In these conditions, 3.95 mol H2/mol ethanol is produced with 0 kJ/mol ethanol.


Subject(s)
Ethanol , Natural Gas , Renewable Energy , Hydrogen , Simulation Exercise , Models, Anatomic
6.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 38: 1-9, Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microbial oils produced by diverse microorganisms are being considered as alternative sources of triglycerides for biodiesel production. However, the standalone production of biodiesel from microorganisms is not currently economically feasible. In case of yeasts, the use of low-value nutrient sources in microbial production and the implementation of cost-efficient downstream processes could reduce costs and make microbial lipids competitive with other commodity-type oils in biodiesel production. Industrial biodiesel synthesis from oleaginous seeds is currently based on a multistep process. However, a simple process called in situ transesterification (ISTE), which takes place within the biomass without a previous lipid extraction step, is receiving increasing interest. In this work, the optimal conditions for an ISTE process to obtain biodiesel from previously selected oleaginous yeast (Rhodotorula graminis S1/S2) were defined using the response surface methodology (RSM). RESULTS: Using the RSM approach, the optimal conditions for the maximum yield with minimum reaction time included a methanol-to-biomass ratio of 60:1, 0.4 M H2SO4, and incubation at 70°C for 3 h. The optimized in situ process yield was significantly higher (123%) than that obtained with a two-step method in which fatty acids from saponifiable lipids were first extracted and then esterified with methanol. The composition of the fatty acid methyl ester mixture obtained from R. graminis S1/S2 by ISTE met Uruguayan standards for biodiesel. CONCLUSION: The characteristics achieved by the optimized method make microbial oil a potential alternative for biodiesel production from yeast at an industrial scale.


Subject(s)
Yeasts/metabolism , Biofuels , Reaction Time , Rhodotorula , Biomass , Environment , Esterification , Esters , Fatty Acids , Renewable Energy , Lipids , Methylation
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62(spe): e19190024, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132153

ABSTRACT

Abstract The current reality of the energy market requires generation, control, distribution and consumption to become more efficient. Recent arrangements with electric energy stored in accumulators appear as strategic tools in the environment where the cost of energy supplied by the concessionaires and permission holders has accumulated successive increases, indirectly enabling the control and management of applications of micro or local minigeneration, from renewable sources in general. Systems with energy storage (e.g. batteries) and local demand management (many consumer units) achieve great efficiency by allowing the optimized consumption of the available energy, both by the local power grid and by the accumulated grid. Other advantages are presented for the distributors, allowing the relief of the electricity network, remunerating the investment in reduced intervals of time. Consideration should be given to the possibility of local autonomy, even if partially, by providing energy from the storage to the local loads in eventual failures in the supply of energy by the distribution network or at times where supply has a higher cost.


Subject(s)
Professional Autonomy , Energy-Generating Resources , Energy Supply/methods , Renewable Energy
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62(spe): e19190023, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100925

ABSTRACT

Abstract Photovoltaic (PV) buildings are increasingly present in urban centers and can generate their own energy becoming independent of the grid, depending on their consumption profile. However, most residential and commercial consumers show their peak demand at night, when there is no photovoltaic generation, needing the electricity grid to meet the demand of these facilities. Peak demand lead to increased costs for these consumers and end up disrupting the power quality of the grid. One possible solution for these listed problems is by applying storage systems to these buildings, which is already being done in some countries and can increase the PV generation. Aiming to seek the state of the art of these systems, this article brings a review of the literature, highlighting the possible modes of operation and a real case of application in PV buildings in the world. Also are described the storage technologies most appropriate for applications in these buildings, highlighting their advantages and disadvantages. It is expected to gain greater knowledge of these systems, in order to overcome the challenges of intermittence generated by renewable sources, enabling the reduction of energy demand costs in these customers so that it can also be applied in the Brazilian scenario.


Subject(s)
Energy Supply/methods , Energy Consumption , Photovoltaic Energy/methods , Renewable Energy
9.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62(spe): e19190019, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055441

ABSTRACT

Abstract In a world where technology is even more essential, quality and reliability of electrical system are fundamental. In Brazil, country where most of the energy is produced thought power plants, the existing distribution network is overwhelmed and the needs for the consolidation of distributed generation is growing. Wind and Solar power generation from biomass and another renewable sources are one alternative to power plants, which requires large areas and massive investment. The renewable energy sources mentioned may be assembled in a way to generate reliable energy to properties far from the cities, such as rural zones, where often energy from power plants doesn't gets to. Distributed generation allows quick development of Brazilian farming and guarantees to the farmer independence from the energy dealerships. Microgrids assembled with renewable sources are one sustainable option and benefits Brazilian economy and society.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Electricity , Renewable Energy , Rural Areas , Sustainable Agriculture
10.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62(spe): e19190020, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055433

ABSTRACT

Abstract Around the world there's a rising interest in the installation of renewable energy sources due to their ecological, economical, political and social advantages. In this article is studied specifically the case of the incentive towards the installation of these sources in the state of Parana's rural area, where they wouldn't just be ecologically interesting, but also would help the improvement on the living conditions of the rural producers, promote income distribution and would cause an increase on the power supply, this way reducing the tariff. However, the problem arises in the acquisition of the energy generator, since even though they are interesting for the rural producers, these sources are majorly too expensive and end up being beyond their purchasing power. Based on that, this article brings a selection of public policies that could make the use of these sources viable in the rural area of the state, based on the experiences of other countries who face or have faced in the past similar difficulties, like China or India, and countries who have become reference in the matter, like Germany.


Subject(s)
Public Policy , Renewable Energy , Brazil , Rural Areas , Electricity
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62(spe): e19190003, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055428

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this paper is to evaluate, through the 100-year Life Cycle Analysis, Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Global Temperature Increasing Potential (GTP) impact categories. It is proposed scenario of replacement of the energy matrix for the supply of electricity by Solar Photovoltaic, adopting as consumption base the facilities of Supermarkets, as they contribute to environmental impacts for greenhouse gas emissions such as: intensive use of electricity, occupation large areas such as the main building or parking lot sealing the ground, the movement of customers' vehicles with air and noise pollution and the use of plastic bags. Modifying the energy matrix using electricity from renewable sources enables the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. According to proposed scenarios for the composition of the energy matrix, based on the emission values of the Concessionaire's matrix, the result of the analysis confirms the premise that the use of renewable sources contributes to the reduction of environmental impacts, and that the substitution of Concessionaire's energy matrix for Photovoltaic Solar Energy represents a reduction in terms of kgCO2-eq, over the 100-year horizon, of 85% for GTP and 86% for GWP.


Subject(s)
Environment , Photovoltaic Energy , Global Warming/prevention & control , Renewable Energy
12.
Hig. aliment ; 32(280/281): 98-102, 30/06/2018. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-910587

ABSTRACT

A crescente preocupação com questões ambientais vem criando a busca por fontes alternativas de combustíveis que sejam renováveis e não agridam o meio-ambiente. Com este pensamento, a elaboração de biodiesel com misturas de óleos vegetais (blend) é um processo que apresenta todos os requisitos necessários para a fabricação de um biocombustível seguro e dentro dos parâmetros estabelecidos pela legislação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a fabricação de biodiesel de óleo de soja misturado com óleo de abacate. Elaboraram se duas formulações de biodiesel com misturas de óleos vegetais: 50% de óleo de soja refinado e 50% de óleo de abacate refinado (F1) e 80% de óleo de soja refinado e 20% de óleo de abacate refinado (F2). Para comparação com o biodiesel derivado da mistura de óleos vegetais, foi efetuada a elaboração de biodiesel de óleo de soja (100%) (R1, R2 e R3). Os resultados das análises físico-químicas apresentaram-se dentro dos padrões especificados, com pequenas diferenças nas viscosidades analisadas. O biodiesel blend referente à formulação (F1) não apresentou separação de fases. A formulação (F2) apresentou um rendimento de 49,65%, próximo do biodiesel de soja, que foi de 53,79%, o que justifica sua elaboração, desde que o álcool anidro em excesso seja recuperado e a glicerina obtida purificada, reduzindo as perdas e os custos, viabilizando o processo de obtenção do biodiesel blend de soja e abacate.


The growing concern about environmental issues has created a search for alternative sources of fuel which are renewable and do not harm the environment. The elaboration of biodiesel with mixtures of vegetable oils (blend) is a process that possibly presents all the necessary requirements for the manufacture of a safe biofuel and within the parameters established by the legislation. The objective of this work was to study the of biodiesel production of soybean oil mixed with avocado oil. Two formulations of biodiesel were prepared with mixtures of vegetable oils: 50% refined soybean oil and 50% refined avocado oil (F1) and 80% refined soybean oil and 20% refined avocado oil (F2). In order to compare biodiesel derived from the blend of vegetable oils, soybean oil biodiesel was produced (100%) (R1, R2 and R3). The results of the physical chemical analyzes were within the specified standards, with small differences in the analyzed viscosities. The biodiesel blend (F1) did not show phase separation. The formulation (F2) presented a yield of 49.65%, close to soybean biodiesel, which was 53.79%, which justifies its elaboration, as long as the excess anhydrous alcohol is recovered and the obtained glycerin purified, reducing losses and the costs, enabling the process of obtaining of biodiesel blend of soy and avocado.


Subject(s)
Soybean Oil , Persea , Creativity , Biofuels , Fruit , Chemical Phenomena , Environmental Health , Production of Products , Green Chemistry Technology , Renewable Energy
13.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 33: 52-62, May. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025045

ABSTRACT

The use of nonrenewable energy sources to provide the worldwide energy needs has caused different problems such as global warming, water pollution, and smog production. In this sense, lignocellulosic biomass has been postulated as a renewable energy source able to produce energy carriers that can cover this energy demand. Biogas and syngas are two energy vectors that have been suggested to generate heat and power through their use in cogeneration systems. Therefore, the aim of this review is to develop a comparison between these energy vectors considering their main features based on literature reports. In addition, a techno-economic and energy assessment of the heat and power generation using these vectors as energy sources is performed. If lignocellulosic biomass is used as raw material, biogas is more commonly used for cogeneration purposes than syngas. However, syngas from biomass gasification has a great potential to be employed as a chemical platform in the production of value-added products. Moreover, the investment costs to generate heat and power from lignocellulosic materials using the anaerobic digestion technology are higher than those using the gasification technology. As a conclusion, it was evidenced that upgraded biogas has a higher potential to produce heat and power than syngas. Nevertheless, the implementation of both energy vectors into the energy market is important to cover the increasing worldwide energy demand.


Subject(s)
Biofuels/analysis , Lignin/metabolism , Power Plants , Anaerobic Digestion , Biomass , Renewable Energy , Hot Temperature , Lignin/chemistry , Methane
14.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 61(spe): e18000025, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974148

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The creation and updating of ANEEL (National Electricity Regulatory Agency) regulatory resolution on distributed generation provided a new business environment for the electricity sector, as well as enabling consumers to generate energy. In this context, distributed microgeneration plants management is a challenge, mainly for electric power distributors and for the entire supply chain and services. In this sense, it is urgent to develop a monitoring and dispatch system in microgeneration plants, in order to optimize the capacity factor of the enterprises and to enable the creation of Virtual Power Plants (VPP). VPPs are part of a new dynamic of the energy sector's strategic environment, which strengthens distributed generation through smart meters capable of communicating with operational centers and thus influencing new business models already diffused by the known smart grids. Included in this scenario, this paper presents a proposal for a monitoring and dispatch system for distributed micro-generation of renewable energies, as well as the engineering solution for a final product focused on market expectations.


Subject(s)
Electricity , Energy-Generating Resources/economics , Renewable Energy/economics , Environmental Monitoring , Energy Supply
15.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 61(spe): e18000560, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974139

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT For combustion engines to perform well, it is necessary that the fuel used be of high quality. Fuel quality can be analyzed through different physicochemical properties. This study presents comparisons between the values presented in literature, legislation and those obtained through experimental tests of different biodiesel samples. Biodiesel is a promising alternative of renewable energy obtained from raw material. The properties observed in this study are: Viscosity, density, cloud point, pour point and calorific value. The data explored by this work aims to bring solidification to the methodologies and equipment necessary for a better characterization of biodiesel.


Subject(s)
Plant Oils , Biofuels , Renewable Energy , Natural Gas
16.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 61(spe): e18000015, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974135

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Sludge oil derived from the effluent generated in poultry abattoirs offers a promising biomass for the production of biodiesel. In this work, determination was made of its physicochemical characteristics, including acidity, density at 20ºC, peroxide index, moisture content, and saponification index, together with evaluation of a route for its conversion to biodiesel.


Subject(s)
Biofuels , Abattoirs , Biomass , Renewable Energy
17.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 61(spe): e18000390, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974133

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Unlike some countries, Brazil has a predominantly hydraulic energy matrix, a clean and renewable source. But, in recent years, both the non-renewal of the normal volumes of water in the reservoirs and the lack of consciousness in the consumption of water and energy have placed the country in a critical state of energy supply leading to many intensive policies to reduce its consumption. In contrast, energy from Photovoltaic (PV) on-Grid Systems has grown dramatically in recent years. In this sense, this study presents an analysis of the contribution of the energy generated by a PV on-Grid Systems to be installed in CINDACTA II, in order to make re-contracting a lower demand possible and also reduce electric energy consumption and its cost.


Subject(s)
Photovoltaic Energy/methods , Brazil , Energy Supply/economics , Renewable Energy/economics
18.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 61(spe): e18000300, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974132

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Solar energy as a form of electric power generation is gaining ground in Brazil, being the subject of worldwide discussions on sustainability. The electric energy, a right of all citizens, represents a consumption of natural resources on a large scale. State schools in Paraná invested more than R$ 46 million to guarantee electricity and thus provide essential running conditions to the system in 2016. Through open data, 15 schools from "Regional Administrativa do Cajuru", in Curitiba/PR, were evaluated in consumption and expenses of electric energy from January to May of 2017 and a solar photovoltaic system was dimensioned to supply the demand of each school. From that, it was estimated the total saving from the electricity that would no longer be spent on electricity which could be directed to other educational programs and projects of interest to the community towards sustainability within the school. The savings estimated totalized more than R$ 435 thousand annually.


Subject(s)
Solar Energy/economics , Renewable Energy/economics , Sustainable Development , Schools , Public Administration
19.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 61(spe): e18000190, 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974130

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Concerns about the environment and a growing demand for electricity have led to the intensive search for renewable energy sources. Photovoltaic solar energy, in the form of distributed generation, has shown a very high growth rate to an extent that in some regions it will be adopted on a large scale, thus being responsible for the supply of a significant portion of the load of this region. Some factors have favored the adoption of distributed generation: the drop in the price of solar panels and inverters, as well as its easy installation and maintenance. However, the large-scale adoption of solar distributed generation brings new challenges to the power distribution system. Network voltage control is an example. In conventional systems, voltage control is a properly addressed problem, but in networks with the presence of distributed generation, where at certain times of the day reverse energy flows can be observed, more detailed studies on voltage behavior are necessary concerning the power quality. This article makes an analysis of relevant studies on the effects that the insertion of photovoltaic distributed generation can cause in the voltage of the electric power distribution system under the optics of two phenomena: the fluctuation and the voltage ripple.


Subject(s)
Electric Wiring , Environment , Photovoltaic Energy , Solar Energy , Renewable Energy
20.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 61(spe): e18000510, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974121

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The present study evaluates the economic viability of the application of solar energy for electric power generation via the use of photovoltaic systems in a residential consumption unit in the city of Curitiba. Since the energy from the sun is abundant, clean, renewable and has the potential to compete in productivity and profitability, the evaluation of the applicability of these systems in homes, not only in industrial parks, is of great interest. A household with the determined consumption profile was chosen for this case study through simulations with the HomerPro software. After analyzing the data, the photovoltaic potential of the State of Paraná was estimated to investigate the possibility of photovoltaic generation growth in the state energy matrix and its consequences.


Subject(s)
Solar Energy/economics , Renewable Energy/economics , Brazil , Photovoltaic Energy/economics
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