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1.
Clinics ; 72(8): 491-498, Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890723

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The free radical theory of aging suggests that cellular oxidative damage caused by free radicals is a leading cause of aging. In the present study, we examined the effects of a well-known anti-oxidant amino acid derivative, selenocysteine, in response to environmental stress and aging using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system. METHOD: The response to oxidative stress induced by H2O2 or ultraviolet irradiation was compared between the untreated control and selenocysteine-treated groups. The effect of selenocysteine on lifespan and fertility was then determined. To examine the effect of selenocysteine on muscle aging, we monitored the change in motility with aging in both the untreated control and selenocysteine-treated groups. RESULTS: Dietary supplementation with selenocysteine significantly increased resistance to oxidative stress. Survival after ultraviolet irradiation was also increased by supplementation with selenocysteine. Treatment with selenocysteine confers a longevity phenotype without an accompanying reduction in fertility, which is frequently observed in lifespan-extending interventions as a trade-off in C. elegans. In addition, the age-related decline in motility was significantly delayed by supplementation of selenocysteine. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary supplementation of selenocysteine can modulate response to stressors and lead to lifespan extension, thus supporting the free radical theory of aging.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aging/drug effects , Selenocysteine/pharmacology , Caenorhabditis elegans/drug effects , Caenorhabditis elegans/physiology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Reproduction/drug effects , Stress, Physiological/drug effects , Time Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Age Factors , Caenorhabditis elegans/radiation effects , Fertility/drug effects , Locomotion/drug effects , Longevity/drug effects
2.
Journal of High Institute of Public Health [The]. 2017; 47 (2): 55-61
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-163429

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The anti-oxidant ascorbic acid [AA] is known as a chelating agent in treatment of lead [Pb] toxicity, and has been reported to protect the cells from oxidative stress


Objective[s]: This work aims to study the efficiency of ascorbic acid on semen quality, sex hormone, antioxidant parameters and testis histology in rats treated with lead acetate


Methods: A total of 50 male rats were divided into five equal groups; control group [received tap water only], Pb group [received 0.2% lead acetate/kg, BW] and the other three groups [received 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg BW AA along with 0.2% lead acetate/kg BW], respectively. Doses [as solutions] were orally administered every day for 8 weeks. Motility, validity, abnormal and dead sperm were assessed. Testosterone, luteinizing [LH] and follicle- stimulating [FSH] hormones were measured. Antioxidant activity [glutathione [GSH], thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS], total antioxidant capacity [TAC] and the level of nitric oxide [NO]] were determined. Histopathological examination was done for testis


Results: The results showed that Pb caused a significant increase in number of abnormal and dead sperms in Pb group [43.0%, 67.2%] comparing to the control group [6.0%, 18.6%] respectively. Motility and validity of the sperm were significantly decreased in Pb group [16.0%, 32.8%] comparing to the control group [84.2%, 81.4%] respectively. Pb caused a significant increase in FSH [1.99 mIU/L] and LH [1.2 mIU/L] and a decrease in Testosterone hormones [0.86 nmol/L] comparing to the control group [0.64 mIU/L, 1.2 mIU/L, 5.24 nmol/L] respectively. On the other hand, AA caused a significant decrease in numbers of abnormal and dead sperms than in Pb group. AA also caused an increase in motility and viability of the sperms at all levels. Testosterone hormone showed a marked increased with AA and the best effect was found with the high level [1500 mg /kg BW]. For antioxidant activity it was found that Pb caused a significant increase in NO and TBARS levels comparing to the control group, while it decreased significantly GSH and TAC levels. The significant effect for AA was found with the high level [1500 mg] on NO [28.5 micro mol/ml] and GSH [4.9 micro mol/ml]. Also, it was found that AA significantly affected TBARS and TAC at all levels. Histopathological examination showed the presence of AA reduced the harmful effect of lead acetate on testis


Conclusion: High daily intake of AA from rich sources or from supplementation can protect reproductive system of male rats from lead toxicity


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Lead/toxicity , Reproduction/drug effects , Antioxidants , Rats , Genitalia/drug effects , Organometallic Compounds , Semen/drug effects , Antioxidants
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(4): e17141, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889423

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Alcohol is the most commonly consumed substance in the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of alcoholic beverages on male reproduction and possible alterations in their offspring. The mice were divided into 4 groups: beer, wine, cachaça (a type of sugarcane rum), with ethanol concentrations of 1.9 g/kg, and control group treated with PBS. The treatment period was 35 days. The animals which received cachaça, demonstrated significant weight loss in the testes and epididymis. The alcoholic beverages promoted significant testosterone level and fertilization index diminution, and morphological alterations in the spermatozoa. The beer group presented decreased implantation sites and a high frequency of dominant lethal. The number of reabsorptions in the wine group was increased. The fermented beverages presented higher potential to induce visceral malformations, while the cachaça caused fetal skeletal malformations. The cachaça treated group presented a negative impact on semen quality and fertilization potential. The treatment with different alcoholic beverages, during spermatogenesis, demonstrated contrasting degrees of induction of toxic effects, interfering in a general aspect in male reproductive performance, fetal viability during intrauterine life, and birth defects. From the data, it is possible to infer that the distillated beverage caused more harmful effects to reproduction in this study.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Reproduction/drug effects , Wine/adverse effects , Alcoholic Beverages/analysis , Fertilization , Beer/adverse effects , Erectile Dysfunction/physiopathology , Infertility, Male/prevention & control
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(2): 796-803, June 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787071

ABSTRACT

Usage of medicinal plants for the treatment of diseases is a remarkable strategy considered in both clinical and experimental studies. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Tribulus terrestris hydroalcoholic extract administration on the serum level of glucose and reproductive parameters in diabetic male rats. In this experimental study, 30 adult male Wistar rats (200­250 g) were divided into 5 groups (n= 6). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin. Experimental groups received daily Intraperitoneal injection of the extract (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg) since one week after inducing diabetes for two weeks. At the end of the experiment, the serum levels of testosterone and glucose were examined by ELISA and Glucodr devices respectively. Sperm parameters including morphology, count and motility were evaluated from the cauda epididymis. The diameters of seminiferous tubules were assessed based on 5 µm paraffin section of H&E stained section of testes. The data were evaluated by One Way ANOVA followed by post-hoc test using SPSS software. In T. terrestris extract groups, there were significant reductions in the levels of blood glucose while increased sperm motility, sperm count and seminiferous tubules diameter, percentage of sperms with normal morphology, level of testosterone hormone and final body weight compared with diabetic group (p <0.001). In conclusion, T. terrestris hydroalcoholic extract decreases serum level of glucose and diminishes the side effects of diabetes on male reproductive system showing by increasing in the serum level of testosterone, improving sperm parameters and returning the seminiferous tubules to normal diameter by a dose dependent manner.


El uso de plantas medicinales para el tratamiento de enfermedades es una importante estrategia considerada en estudios clínicos y experimentales. El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la administración de extracto de Tribulus terrestris hidroalcohólico en el nivel sérico de glucosa y los parámetros reproductivos en ratas macho diabéticas. En este estudio experimental, se dividieron 30 ratas Wistar (200­250 g) macho adultas, en 5 grupos (n= 6). Se indujo diabetes por una sola inyección intraperitoneal (i.p.) de 50 mg/kg de estreptozotocina. Los grupos experimentales recibieron inyección i.p diaria del extracto (100, 250 y 500 mg/kg) una semana después de la inducción de la diabetes durante dos semanas. Al final del experimento, los niveles séricos de testosterona y de glucosa se examinaron por ELISA y el dispositivos Glucodr, respectivamente. Además, fueron evaluados los parámetros de morfología, conteo y motilidad espermática. Los diámetros de los túbulos seminíferos de los testículos se evaluaron sobre la base de secciones de parafina de 5 mm teñidos con H&E. Los datos fueron evaluados por ANOVA de una vía seguido de prueba post-hoc utilizando el programa SPSS (versión 20). En los grupos tratados con extracto de T. terrestris hubo una reducción significativa en los niveles de glucosa en la sangre, mientras que se observó un aumento en el recuento y motilidad espermática, el diámetro de los túbulos seminíferos, el porcentaje de espermatozoides con morfología normal, el nivel de testosterona y el peso corporal final de las ratas en comparación con el grupo de ratas diabéticas (p <0,001). En conclusión, el extracto de T. terrestris hidroalcohólico disminuye los niveles séricos de glucosa y los efectos secundarios de la diabetes en el sistema reproductivo mediante el aumento de los niveles séricos de testosterona, mejorando los parámetros de los espermatozoides y la restitución a diámetro normal de los túbulos seminíferos dependiendo de la dosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Hydroalcoholic Solution , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Reproduction/drug effects , Tribulus , Rats, Wistar , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility/drug effects , Testosterone/blood
5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 61(3): 269-274, May-Jun/2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753173

ABSTRACT

Summary The pineal gland is responsible for producing a hormone called melatonin (MEL), and is accepted as the gland that regulates reproduction in mammals. Prolactin (PRL) also exhibits reproductive activity in animals in response to photoperiod. It is known that the concentrations of PRL are high in the summer and reduced during winter, the opposite of what is seen with melatonin in these seasons. In placental mammals, both prolactin and melatonin affect implantation, which is considered a critical point of pregnancy, since a successful pregnancy requires the development of a synchronous interaction between the endometrium and blastocyst for placental development. It is also known that PRL levels during pregnancy are essential for the maintenance of pregnancy, because this hormone induces the corpus luteum to produce progesterone, in addition to stimulating blastocyst implantation to maintain pregnancy and form the placenta. However, melatonin levels in plasma have also been shown to increase during pregnancy, peaking at the end of this period, which suggests that this hormone plays an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. Thus, it is clear that treatment with prolactin or melatonin interferes with the processes responsible for the development and maintenance of pregnancy.


Resumo A glândula pineal é responsável pela produção do hormônio melatonina (MEL), sendo aceita como a glândula reguladora da reprodução em mamíferos. A prolactina (PRL) também exibe atividade reprodutiva em animais, em resposta ao fotoperíodo. Sabe-se que as concentrações de PRL são elevadas durante o verão e baixam durante o inverno, ocorrendo o oposto com os níveis do hormônio melatonina nessas estações. Nos mamíferos placentários, tanto a melatonina quanto a prolactina influenciam a implantação, que é considerada o ponto crítico da gravidez, pois o sucesso da gestação requer o desenvolvimento de uma interação sincronizada entre o endométrio e o blastocisto para o desenvolvimento da placenta. Sabe- -se ainda que os níveis de PRL durante a gestação são essenciais para a manutenção da gravidez, pois esse hormônio induz o corpo lúteo a produzir progesterona, além de estimular a implantação do blastocisto, mantendo a prenhez e o desenvolvimento placentário. Em contrapartida, tem-se demonstrado também que os níveis de melatonina no plasma aumentam durante a gestação, atingindo valores elevados no fim desse período, sugerindo que esse hormônio desempenhe um importante papel na manutenção da gestação. Dessa forma, fica claro que o tratamento com prolactina ou melatonina interfere nos processos responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento e pela manutenção da gestação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Melatonin/pharmacology , Prolactin/pharmacology , Reproduction/drug effects , Blastocyst/physiology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Embryo Implantation/drug effects , Melatonin/metabolism , Photoperiod , Pineal Gland/cytology , Pineal Gland/physiology , Prolactin/metabolism , Reproduction/physiology
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 32(3): 844-849, Sept. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728277

ABSTRACT

Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility drive in males through inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. The color of turmeric is because of a substance called curcumin for which some anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified. In this study, various doses of curcumin (10, 30 and 60 mg/kg) and curcumin plus nicotine (10, 30 and 60 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to male mice for 28 consequent days and reproductive parameters were determined. The results indicated that nicotine administration (0.5 mg/kg) significantly decreased testosterone level, count and motility of sperms, and testis weight compared to control group. However, increasing the dose of curcumin significantly increased reproductive indices in most of the groups. Thus, it seems that curcumin inhibits nicotine-induced adverse effects on reproductive parameters.


El consumo de nicotina puede disminuir la fertilidad en los hombres mediante la inducción de estrés oxidativo y daño del ADN. El color de la cúrcuma se debe a una sustancia llamada curcumina en la cual se han identificado algunas propiedades anti-oxidantes y anti-inflamatorias. En este estudio se administraron diferentes dosis de curcumina (10, 30 y 60 mg/kg) y de curcumina más nicotina (10, 30 y 60 mg/kg) por vía intraperitoneal a ratones machos durante 28 días consecutivos y se determinaron los parámetros reproductivos. La administración de nicotina (0,5 mg/kg) disminuyó significativamente el nivel de testosterona, el número y motilidad de los espermatozoides, y peso de los testículos en comparación con el grupo control. Sin embargo, el incremento de la dosis de curcumina aumentó significativamente los índices reproductivos en la mayoría de los grupos. Este estudio sugiere que la curcumina inhibe los efectos adversos inducidos por la nicotina sobre los parámetros reproductivos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Reproduction/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Curcumin/administration & dosage , Nicotine/toxicity , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Organ Size/drug effects , Seminiferous Tubules/drug effects , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility/drug effects , Testosterone/analysis , Curcumin/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
7.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(5): 421-426, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722317

ABSTRACT

The effect of sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC50/24h) of plant derived molluscicides of singly, binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of the Rutin, Ellagic acid, Betulin and taraxerol with J. gossypifolia latex, leaf and stem bark powder extracts and their active component on the reproduction of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata have been studied. It was observed that the J. gossypifolia latex, stem bark, individual leaf and their combinations with other plant derived active molluscicidal components caused a significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability and survival of young snails. It is believed that sub-lethal exposure of these molluscicides on snail reproduction is a complex process involving more than one factor in reducing the reproductive capacity.


O efeito de doses sub-letais (40% e 80% de LC50/24h) de moluscicidas derivados de plantas com combinações unitárias, binárias (1:1) e terciárias (1:1:1) de Rutin, ácido Elágico, Betulin e taraxerol com látex da J. gossypifolia, folhas e extrato em pó de casca de caule e seus componentes ativos foram estudados na reprodução do caramujo de água fresca Lymnaea acuminata. Foi observado que o látex da J. gossypifolia, casca do caule, folhas individualmente e suas combinações com componentes moluscicidas ativos derivados de outras plantas causaram redução significante na fecundidade, incubação e sobrevivência dos caramujos jovens. Acredita-se que a exposição sub-letal destes moluscicidas sobre a reprodução dos caramujos é processo complexo envolvendo mais de um fator na redução da capacidade reprodutiva.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Jatropha/chemistry , Lymnaea/drug effects , Molluscacides/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Molluscacides/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Reproduction/drug effects
8.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Aug; 52(8): 825-834
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153766

ABSTRACT

Dendrocalamus hamiltonii plants are slender and tall (15-25 m) thereby, rendering tagging, sampling and tracking the development of flowers difficult. Therefore, a reproducible system of in vitro flowering was established for tracking the stages of flower development. MS medium supplemented with 2.22 µM 6-benzylaminopurine, 1.23 µM indole-3-butyric acid and 2% sucrose was optimized as the flower induction medium (FIM) wherein 28 and 42 days were required for the development of gynoecium and androecium, respectively. Six distinct stages of in vitro flower development were identified, and the flowers were comparable with that of in planta sporadic flowers. Pollen viability of the in vitro flowers was higher than those of in planta ones. The in vitro system developed in the present study facilitates easy tracking of different stages of flower development under controlled environmental conditions. It can also be used for medium- or long-term storage of pollens and manipulation of in vitro fertilization.


Subject(s)
Magnoliopsida/drug effects , Magnoliopsida/growth & development , Benzyl Compounds/pharmacology , Flowers/drug effects , Flowers/growth & development , In Vitro Techniques , Indoles/pharmacology , Pollen/drug effects , Purines/pharmacology , Reproduction/drug effects , Sucrose/chemistry
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 32(1): 119-124, Mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-708733

ABSTRACT

Malathion is an organophosphorous insecticide, used worldwide for pest and disease control; however, it could also affect the reproductive patterns of several species. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of malathion in the cellularity and sperm differentiation in testis and epididymis of rats. Twenty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into a malathion-treated group (n=10, dose of 170 mg/kg via subcutaneous injection for a period of 13 days) and control group (n=10, injected only with normal saline). After treatments, the rats were sacrificed by regulated euthanasia and assessed for sperm count in testis and epididymis and epididymal teratospermia degree. The results showed a significant decrease in body, testicular and epididymal weight in animals treated with malathion. Testicular sperm counts in treated rats exhibited a significant decrease in the number of sperm compared to controls (42.56x106 vs. 95.99x106), as well as in epididymis (77.55x106 vs. 106.54x106). Concerning the degree of teratospermia, a significant increase of abnormal sperm in the epididymis of treated rats versus controls (42.1% vs. 21%, respectively) was observed. We conclude that malathion has a cytotoxic effect in rats, significantly reducing the number of sperm produced by the seminiferous tubules and affecting their quality and number during the process of maturation and capacitation in their transit through the epididymis, thus increasing the level of teratospermia.


El malatión es un insecticida organofosforado, ampliamente usado en el control de plagas y pestes, sin embargo también puede afectar a los patrones reproductivos de las especies. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar los efectos de malatión en la celularidad y diferenciación de espermatozoides en testículo y en epidídimo de ratas. Veinte ratas macho adultas de la cepa Sprague Dawley, fueron divididos en grupo tratado con malatión (n=10) en dosis de 170 mg/kg de peso, inyección sub cutánea (s.c.), por un período de 13 días (duración del ciclo del epitelio seminífero) y grupo control (n=10), los cuales solo fueron inyectados con suero fisiológico. Finalizado el tratamiento las ratas fueron sacrificadas por eutanasia normada y se procedió a medir el recuento espermático en testículo y epidídimo y el grado de teratospermia en epidídimo. Los resultados obtenidos muestran una disminución significativa en el peso corporal, testicular y del epidídimo de ratas machos tratados con malatión. El recuento espermático en testículo de ratas tratadas, al compararlos con ratas controles, muestra una disminución significativa en el número de espermatozoides (42,56x106 / 95,99x106), igual comportamiento se observó en epidídimo (77,55 x106 / 106,54 x106). Al determinar el grado de teratospermia se observó un aumento significativo de espermatozoides anormales, en el epidídimo de las ratas tratadas versus los controles (42,1% y 21%, respectivamente). Se concluye que malatión tiene un efecto citotóxico en ratas, disminuyendo significativamente el número de espermatozoides producidos por los túbulos seminíferos y afectando la calidad y el número de ellos durante el proceso de maduración y capacitación, en su tránsito por el epidídimo, aumentando el nivel de teratospermia.


Subject(s)
Male , Reproduction/drug effects , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Malathion/toxicity , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Epididymis/drug effects , Insecticides, Organophosphate/adverse effects
10.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 31(1): 100-110, ene.-mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-705972

ABSTRACT

La maca (Lepidium meyenii) es una planta que crece sobre los 4000 metros de altitud en los Andes Centrales del Perú, presenta diferentes variedades de acuerdo al color de su hipocótilo. La presente revisión resume los resultados de estudios sobre los efectos de la maca en la función sexual, la espermatogénesis, la función reproductiva femenina, la memoria, la depresión y la ansiedad, como energizante y contra la hiperplasia benigna de próstata, osteoporosis y síndrome metabólico. Se discute también su efecto antienvejecimiento y la seguridad en su consumo. Se han demostrado diferencias en el efecto de las variedades negra, amarilla y roja de maca. La maca negra es la que mejores resultados presenta sobre la espermatogénesis, la memoria y contra la fatiga, mientras que la maca roja es la variedad que mejor revierte la hiperplasia benigna de próstata y la osteoporosis inducida experimentalmente. Además, la maca reduce los niveles de glucosa, y su consumo se relaciona con la reducción de la presión arterial y un mejor puntaje de salud. Estudios experimentales han demostrado que el consumo a corto como a largo plazo no muestra toxicidad tanto in vivo como in vitro. A pesar que los estudios experimentales han demostrado que la maca presenta diversos efectos benéficos, son necesarios más estudios clínicos para confirmar estos resultados.


Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a plant that grows above 4000 altitude meters in Peru’s Central Andes; it has different varieties according to the color of the hypocotyl. This review summarizes the results of studies about the effects of maca on sexual function, spermatogenesis, female reproductive function, memory, depression and anxiety, and energy as well as effects on benign prostatic hyperplasia, osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome. Its anti-aging effect is also discussed as well as safety in consumption. Differences have been shown between the effects of the black, yellow and red maca varieties. Black maca shows the best results on spermatogenesis, memory and fatigue, while red maca is the variety that reverses the benign prostatic hyperplasia and experimentally induced osteoporosis. In addition, maca reduces the glucose levels, and its consumption is related to the lowering of blood pressure and an improved health score. Experimental studies have proven that short and long term consumption don’t show in vivo and in vitro toxicity. Although experimental studies have shown that maca has diverse beneficial effects, more clinical studies are needed to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Lepidium , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Prostatic Hyperplasia/drug therapy , Reproduction/drug effects
11.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Feb; 52(2): 159-167
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150345

ABSTRACT

Citrinin is the one of the well-known mycotoxins, which is possibly spread all over the world. The graded doses of citrinin (1, 3 and 5 ppm CIT in feed) in female Wistar rats 10 weeks prior to mating, during mating and during organogenesis resulted in resorptions and post implantation losses, decreased fetal body weights and crown-rump lengths in fetuses of all groups. Various developmental anomalies recorded in fetuses of treated rats included gross (wrist drop, curled tail, stretched forelimb, subcutaneous haematoma), skeletal (incomplete ossification of skull bones, incomplete fusion of vertebral bodies, complete and partial agenesis of sternaebrae, metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges, fused ribs and swing out ribs) and visceral (internal and external hydrocephalus, cerebellar hypoplasia, microphthalmia, roundening of heart, contracted kidneys, dilated renal pelvis and cryptorchid testes). The results suggest that CIT has adverse effects on fetal development which may be due to the longer bioavailability of citrinin in the animals.


Subject(s)
Abnormalities, Drug-Induced/classification , Abnormalities, Drug-Induced/metabolism , Abnormalities, Drug-Induced/pathology , Animals , Citrinin/administration & dosage , Citrinin/adverse effects , Embryo Loss/chemically induced , Embryo Loss/pathology , Embryonic Development/drug effects , Female , Fetal Development/drug effects , Male , Mycotoxins/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Reproduction/drug effects , Teratology
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 74(1): 175-180, 2/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715582

ABSTRACT

Water hardness is a property depending on the presence of alkaline earth metals, mainly calcium and magnesium. Among the strategies for water quality monitoring, ecotoxicological assays are performed to minimize impacts and classify water bodies. For these laboratory evaluations parameters are previously defined in the guidelines, including water hardness for both cultivation and testing medium. The present work was performed to evaluate the effects of different levels of water hardness on the survival and reproduction of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata and discuss the influence of natural water hardness on the results of ecotoxicological tests with these environmental samples. Comparing the groups it was possible to observe that those maintained in waters with least hardness had lower reproductive success, while the groups maintained in highest hardness showed better reproduction. These data show that waters with low hardness make the reproduction of the snail B. glabrata unfeasible, and this reveal a problem for ecotoxicity assays using natural water samples.


A dureza da água é uma propriedade dependente da presença de metais alcalino terrosos, principalmente cálcio e magnésio. Entre as estratégias para monitorar a qualidade da água ensaios ecotoxicológicos são realizados para minimizar impactos e classificar os corpos hídricos. Para essas avaliações em laboratório, parâmetros são previamente definidos nos protocolos, incluindo a dureza da água para cultivo e para a água de diluição. O presente trabalho foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de dureza da água sobre a sobrevivência e a reprodução do caramujo de água doce Biomphalaria glabrata e discutir a influência da dureza de águas naturais nos resultados dos testes ecotoxicológicos com estas amostras ambientais. Comparando os grupos foi possível observar que aqueles mantidos em águas com menor dureza tiveram pior sucesso reprodutivo, enquanto os mantidos nas águas com maiores durezas tiveram melhor reprodução. Esses dados mostram que águas com baixas durezas tornam a reprodução do caramujo B. glabrata inviável, e esse fato revela-se como um problema para os ensaios ecotoxicológicos utilizando amostras de água naturais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomphalaria/drug effects , Fresh Water/chemistry , Biological Assay , Biomphalaria/physiology , Reproduction/drug effects , Reproduction/physiology , Toxicity Tests , Water Quality
13.
IJRM-Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 2014; 12 (10): 695-704
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-148985

ABSTRACT

Momordica charantia [M. charantia] seed has been supposed to have an antifertility property but mechanisms underlying the infertility effect have not been investigated. We investigated the antifertility effect of M charantia ethanol seed extracts on reproductive toxicology and seminal and plasma testosterone in male Wistar rats. The control group [I] was provided daily 1 ml dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO] and the experimental groups II and III were given daily 400 and 800 mg dry matter/kg body weight of the extracts dissolved in 1 ml DMSO via the esophageal route. All groups were administered for 42 days [day 42]. Changes in body weight, fertility, reproductive characteristics, testicular histopathology and levels of seminal and plasma testosterone among three groups were compared. On day 42, the extracts caused antifertility [p=0.001]. The extracts demonstrated significant reductions in diameters of seminiferous tubules and epididymides, spermatid density, daily sperm production and caudal epididymal spermatozoa, sperm motility and viability [p=0.046]. Pathological changes in seminiferous tubules revealed atrophy, desquamation, pyknosis nucleus and multinucleated giant cell. Plasma cells were evident in three parts of epididymides of rats treated with high dose of the extract. Furthermore, the high dose of the extract suppressed seminal testosterone level [p=0.001] and plasma testosterone level [p=0.002]. Our data showed that high dose of M Charantia seed extracts caused infertility in male rats. The interruption in their fertility was probably attributed to the direct toxic to seminiferous tubules, epididymis and the lowered testosterone level which might impact on sperm parameters


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Reproduction/drug effects , Ethanol , Rats, Wistar , Seeds , Plant Extracts , Testosterone , Infertility
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-131200

ABSTRACT

Arsenic is a unique element with distinct physical characteristics and toxicity whose importance in public health is well recognized. The toxicity of arsenic varies across its different forms. While the carcinogenicity of arsenic has been confirmed, the mechanisms behind the diseases occurring after acute or chronic exposure to arsenic are not well understood. Inorganic arsenic has been confirmed as a human carcinogen that can induce skin, lung, and bladder cancer. There are also reports of its significant association to liver, prostate, and bladder cancer. Recent studies have also suggested a relationship with diabetes, neurological effects, cardiac disorders, and reproductive organs, but further studies are required to confirm these associations. The majority of research to date has examined cancer incidence after a high exposure to high concentrations of arsenic. However, numerous studies have reported various health effects caused by chronic exposure to low concentrations of arsenic. An assessment of the health effects to arsenic exposure has never been performed in the South Korean population; thus, objective estimates of exposure levels are needed. Data should be collected on the biological exposure level for the total arsenic concentration, and individual arsenic concentration by species. In South Korea, we believe that biological exposure assessment should be the first step, followed by regular health effect assessments.


Subject(s)
Arsenic/toxicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Female , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/chemically induced , Reproduction/drug effects
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-131197

ABSTRACT

Arsenic is a unique element with distinct physical characteristics and toxicity whose importance in public health is well recognized. The toxicity of arsenic varies across its different forms. While the carcinogenicity of arsenic has been confirmed, the mechanisms behind the diseases occurring after acute or chronic exposure to arsenic are not well understood. Inorganic arsenic has been confirmed as a human carcinogen that can induce skin, lung, and bladder cancer. There are also reports of its significant association to liver, prostate, and bladder cancer. Recent studies have also suggested a relationship with diabetes, neurological effects, cardiac disorders, and reproductive organs, but further studies are required to confirm these associations. The majority of research to date has examined cancer incidence after a high exposure to high concentrations of arsenic. However, numerous studies have reported various health effects caused by chronic exposure to low concentrations of arsenic. An assessment of the health effects to arsenic exposure has never been performed in the South Korean population; thus, objective estimates of exposure levels are needed. Data should be collected on the biological exposure level for the total arsenic concentration, and individual arsenic concentration by species. In South Korea, we believe that biological exposure assessment should be the first step, followed by regular health effect assessments.


Subject(s)
Arsenic/toxicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Female , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/chemically induced , Reproduction/drug effects
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104703

ABSTRACT

To compare an injectable progesterone (MAD-4) with an intravaginal device (IPD), and natural O17 with synthetic oestradiol (OB) in a synchronisation protocol, 51 cows were divided into four groups. Each group was treated with one of the two sources of progesterone and one of the two oestradiol formulations. Oestrus behaviour, follicle diameter, and pregnancy rates were evaluated. Oestrus behaviour (p = 0.902), numbers of cows in oestrus (p = 0.917), follicle diameter (p = 0.416), and pregnancy rates (p = 0.873) were similar among the four groups. More cows in the group treated with the IPD and OB scored > 200 oestrus behaviour points compared to the other groups (p = 0.038). A longer interval between the end of treatment and oestrus was observed among cows treated with MAD-4 than cows given the IPD (p = 0.030), but no differences were found between animals receiving the two oestradiol formulations (OB and O17). While the use of MAD-4 requires further testing, similar responses to natural oestradiol observed in the present study could allow the use of this formulation in reproductive protocols because it is not associated with the potential human health risks of OB.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravaginal , Animals , Cattle , Estradiol/administration & dosage , Estrus/drug effects , Estrus Synchronization/methods , Female , Injections, Subcutaneous/veterinary , Ovarian Follicle/drug effects , Postpartum Period/drug effects , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Rate , Progesterone/administration & dosage , Reproduction/drug effects
17.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 56(2): 96-103, Mar. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622529

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate physical and sexual development and reproductive physiology in female rat offspring that developed in hyperglycemia conditions in utero and during lactation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Maternal diabetes was induced in female rats by a single IV injection of streptozotocin before mating. Female offspring development was evaluated by means of the following parameters: physical development; age of vaginal opening and first estrus; weight and histological evaluation of uterus and ovaries; duration of the estrous cycle, sexual behavior, and fertility after natural mating. RESULTS: In the female offspring, maternal diabetes caused delays in initial physical development; diminution in ovary weight and number of follicles; and inferior reproductive performance compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The exposure to hyperglycemia in uterus and during lactation caused delays in physical and sexual development, and affected the reproductive physiology of female rats negatively.


OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desenvolvimento físico e sexual e a fisiologia reprodutiva de ratas que se desenvolveram em condições hiperglicêmicas in utero e lactação. MATERIAIS E METODOS: Para induzir o diabetes nas ratas, foi utilizada estreptozotocina em dose única via intravenosa antes do acasalamento. A prole feminina foi avaliada por meio dos seguintes parâmetros: o desenvolvimento físico; a idade de abertura vaginal e do primeiro estro, peso e avaliação histológica do útero e ovários; a duração do ciclo estral, o comportamento sexual e a fertilidade após acasalamentos naturais. RESULTADOS: O diabetes materno provocou, na prole feminina, retardo no desenvolvimento físico; diminuição do peso dos ovários e do número de folículos; a performance reprodutiva foi inferior à do grupo controle. CONCLUSÕES: Concluiu-se que a exposição aos meios intrauterino e lactacional hiperglicêmicos provocou retardo no desenvolvimento físico e sexual e prejudicou a fisiologia reprodutiva de ratas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Pregnancy , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Lactation/drug effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/physiopathology , Reproduction/drug effects , Sexual Development/drug effects , Animals, Newborn/growth & development , Disease Models, Animal , Fertility/drug effects , Ovary/drug effects , Ovary/growth & development , Random Allocation , Streptozocin , Sexual Behavior, Animal/drug effects
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74829

ABSTRACT

Methylmercury is a hazardous substance that is of interest with regard to environmental health, as inorganic mercury circulating in the general environment is dissolved into freshwater and seawater, condensed through the food chain, ingested by humans, and consequently affects human health. Recently, there has been much interest and discussion regarding the toxicity of methylmercury, the correlation with fish and shellfish intake, and methods of long-term management of the human health effects of methylmercury. What effects chronic exposure to a low concentration of methylmercury has on human health remains controversial. Although the possibility of methylmercury poisoning the heart and blood vessel system, the reproductive system, and the immune system is continuously raised and discussed, and the carcinogenicity of methylmercury is also under discussion, a clear conclusion regarding the human health effects according to exposure level has not yet been drawn. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives proposed to prepare additional fish and shellfish intake recommendations for consumers based on the quantified evaluation of the hazardousness of methylmercury contained in fish and shellfish, methylmercury management in the Korea has not yet caught up with this international trend. Currently, the methylmercury exposure level of Koreans is known to be very high. The starting point of methylmercury exposure management is inorganic mercury in the general environment, but food intake through methylation is the main exposure source. Along with efforts to reduce mercury in the general environment, food intake management should be undertaken to reduce the human exposure to methylmercury in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Environmental Exposure , Fishes/metabolism , Food Chain , Humans , Mercury Poisoning, Nervous System/etiology , Methylmercury Compounds/chemistry , Neurons/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Public Health , Reproduction/drug effects , Thymocytes/cytology
19.
IJRM-Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 2012; 10 (1): 7-14
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-117347

ABSTRACT

Phthalate esters have been shown to cause reproductive toxicity in both developing and adult animals. This study was designed to assess long-term effects of maternal exposure to Di [2-ethylhexyl] Phthalate [DEHP] on reproductive ability of both neonatal and adult male offspring. 60 female rats randomly divided in four equal groups; vehicle control and three treatment groups that received 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg/day DEHP via gavage during gestation and lactation. At different ages after birth, the volumes of testes were measured by Cavellieri method, testes weights recorded and epididymal sperm samples were assessed for number and gross morphology of spermatozoa. Following tissue processing, seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height evaluated with morphometric techniques. Mean testis weight decreased significantly [p<0.05] in 500 mg/kg/day dose group from 28 to 150 days after birth. Significant decreases were seen in total volumes of testis in 100 [p<0.05] and 500 [p<0.01] mg/kg/day doses groups until 150 days after birth. Seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height decreased significantly in 100 [p<0.05] and 500 [p<0.01] mg/kg/day doses groups during postnatal development. Also, mean sperm density in 100 mg/kg/day [p<0.05] and 500 mg/kg/day [p<0.01] doses groups and percent of morphologically normal sperm in highest dose group [p<0.05] decreased significantly until 150 days after birth. Present study showed that maternal exposure to Di [2-ethylhexyl] Phthalate during gestation and lactation caused to permanent and dose-related reductions of sperm and testicular parameters in rats offspring


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Testis/drug effects , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Reproduction/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Gene Expression/drug effects
20.
Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences. 2012; 13 (4): 11-19
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-124466

ABSTRACT

The pregnancy period is very sensitive and complicative stages of life. It has been shown that addictive drugs such as ecstasy [MDMA: Methylene Dioxy Metha Amphetamine] can interfere in this stage. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Methylene Dioxy Metha Amphetamine administration during pregnancy on reproductive system of BALB/c mice. In this experimental study, 10 and 5 female BALB/c mice were randomly selected as cases and controls, respectively. The pregnancy was induced following ovarian hyperstimulation with PMSG and hCG followed by mating with male animals. MDMA [5 mg/kg] and saline was injected intraperitoneally in day 7 and 14 of pregnancy in experimental and controls, respectively. The ovarian structure, as well as uterine tube, uterine horns and body, and vagina were studied histologically using light microscopy 27 days post delivery date. Data analyzed by using SPSS-17 and Chi-Square and Fisher exact test. The rate of primary follicles was decreased from 18.42% in experimental to 33.33% in controls [P<0.05]. The rate of mature follicles was significantly increased in experimental mice as compared to controls [P<0.05]. The number of atretic bodies was lower in experimental than controls. The cellular alterations were observed in some portions of uterine tubes and uterine horns after ecstasy administration. However, no alterations observed in other parts of reproductive system. This study showed that MDMA cause some structural alterations in the uterine tubes and uterine horns, increase follicular maturation and reduction of follicular atresia in BALB/c mice


Subject(s)
Female , Animals, Laboratory , Pregnancy, Animal , Reproduction/drug effects , Mice, Inbred BALB C
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