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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971198


BACKGROUND@#Health screening is a preventive and cost-effective public health strategy for early detection of diseases. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has decreased health screening participation. The aim of this study was to examine regional differences in health screening participation between before and during COVID-19 pandemic and vulnerabilities of health screening participation in the regional context.@*METHODS@#Administrative data from 229 districts consisting of 16 provinces in South Korea and health screening participation rate of each district collected in 2019 and 2020 were included in the study. Data were then analyzed via descriptive statistics and geographically weighted regression (GWR).@*RESULTS@#This study revealed that health screening participation rates decreased in all districts during COVID-19. Regional vulnerabilities contributing to a further reduction in health screening participation rate included COVID-19 concerns, the population of those aged 65+ years and the disabled, lower education level, lower access to healthcare, and the prevalence of chronic disease. GWR analysis showed that different vulnerable factors had different degrees of influence on differences in health screening participation rate.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings could enhance our understanding of decreased health screening participation due to COVID-19 and suggest that regional vulnerabilities should be considered stringent public health strategies after COVID-19.

Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Educational Status , Disabled Persons
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 361-368, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982690


OBJECTIVE@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide, and several virus variants have emerged. Vaccines are administered to help prevent the infection. In Republic of Korea, most people take herbal medicine. This study investigated the use of herbal medicine to counter the side effects of COVID-19 vaccines.@*METHODS@#This cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey. Chi-square tests were used to determine differences in the use of herbal medication according to sociodemographic characteristics. Independent two-sample and paired t-tests were performed to examine the effect and satisfaction of herbal medicine use for countering the side effects of COVID-19 vaccines. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine vaccine-related differences.@*RESULTS@#A total of 233 and 181 participants received the first and second doses of COVID-19 vaccines, respectively. The majority of herbal medicine users were in their thirties, had a bachelor's degree, suffered from side effects of vaccination, and received Vaxzevria for their first COVID-19 vaccine dose and Comirnaty for their second dose. The herbal medicine group had a higher satisfaction level of post-vaccination side effects than the non-herbal medicine group (P < 0.0001). The numeric rating scale scores for vaccination side effects were lower among participants who took herbal medication to alleviate those symptoms (P < 0.0001). The most commonly used herbal formula was Shuanghetang.@*CONCLUSION@#A third of participants receiving COVID-19 vaccines used herbal medication to counter the side effects of vaccination. The use of herbal medicine was associated with age, education level, vaccine brand, and whether side effects of vaccination occurred. Herbal medication use was associated with greater satisfaction compared to vaccine recipients not using herbal medication. Please cite this article as: Yoon HC. Herbal medicine use in Republic of Korea to alleviate side effects of COVID-19 vaccines: A cross-sectional study. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(4):361-368.

Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Plants, Medicinal , Republic of Korea
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 176-183, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971655


OBJECTIVE@#The main aim of this study is to investigate whether acupuncture could be an effective complementary treatment for reducing the risk of macrovascular complications in diabetic patients currently taking antidiabetic medications using a nationwide population-based database.@*METHODS@#We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess the efficacy of acupuncture on cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients using data from patients between 40 and 79 years of age, newly diagnosed with diabetes between 2003 and 2006, found in the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) in Korea. From the data, we identified 21,232 diabetic patients who were taking antidiabetic medication between 2003 and 2006. The selected patients were divided into two groups-those who received acupuncture at least three times and those who received no acupuncture (non-acupuncture) in the year following their diagnosis of diabetes. After 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM), each group had 3350 patients, and the observation ceased at the occurrence of a major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE), which was defined as either myocardial infarction, stroke, or death due to cardiovascular cause.@*RESULTS@#After PSM, the acupuncture group had a lower incidence of MACE (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81-0.94; P = 0.0003) and all-cause mortality (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.70-0.84; P < 0.0001) than the non-acupuncture group; the HRs for stroke-related mortality (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.56-1.00; P = 0.0485), ischemic heart disease mortality (HR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.34-0.84; P = 0.006) and circulatory system disease mortality (HR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.55-0.82; P < 0.0001) were lower in the acupuncture group than in the non-acupuncture group in the secondary analysis.@*CONCLUSION@#Our results indicate that diabetic patients receiving acupuncture treatment might have a lower risk of MACE, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. This population-based retrospective study suggests beneficial effects of acupuncture in preventing macrovascular complications associated with diabetes. These findings call for further prospective cohort or experimental studies on acupuncture treatment for cardiovascular complications of diabetes. Please cite this article as: Jung H, Won T, Kim GY, Jang J, Yeo S, Lim S. Efficacy of acupuncture on cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes mellitus in Korea: A nationwide retrospective cohort. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(2): 176-183.

Humans , Retrospective Studies , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Stroke/complications , Acupuncture Therapy , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 1117-1122, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405231


SUMMARY: COVID-19 has forced anatomists to perform non-face-to-face education using lecture videos. A Korean anatomist has given (white and black) board lectures and distributed lecture videos to the public for many years. This study was to verify the effects of open board lecture videos in the anatomy field. A questionnaire survey was carried out with the help of medical students who were exposed to the board lecture videos. The video provider uploaded the lecture videos on YouTube, where the viewing numbers were counted. At a medical school where the video provider belonged, the students mainly watched the lecture videos before the anatomy class. The watching hours of the lecture videos were related to the written examination scores. Students gave positive and negative comments on the board lectures. At the other two medical schools, students partly watched the lecture videos regardless of the teacher who delivered the lectures. The results suggested that students understood the board lectures themselves. On YouTube, the lecture videos were viewed by approximately 1,000 students. This paper introduces the desirable aspects of open board lecture videos on anatomy. The videos could enhance the quality of both students and teacher.

RESUMEN: COVID-19 ha obligado a los anatomistas a realizar una enseñanza no presencial mediante videos de conferencias. Un anatomista coreano ha impartido conferencias (en blanco y negro) y ha distribuido videos de conferencias al público durante muchos años. El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar los efectos de los videos de conferencias de pizarra abierta en el campo de la anatomía. Se llevó a cabo una encuesta con la ayuda de estudiantes de medicina que habían sido expuestos a los videos de conferencias de la pizarra. El proveedor de videos subió los videos de las conferencias a YouTube, donde se contabilizó el número de visualizaciones. En una facultad de medicina a la que pertenecía el proveedor de videos, los estudiantes vieron principalmente los videos de conferencias antes de la clase de anatomía. Las horas de revisión de los vídeos de las conferencias se relacionaron con las puntuaciones de los exámenes escritos. Los estudiantes dieron comentarios positivos y negativos sobre las conferencias de la pizarra. En las otras dos facultades de medicina, los estudiantes vieron parcialmente los videos de las clases, independientemente del profesor que las impartiera. Los resultados sugerían que los estudiantes entendieron las conferencias de la pizarra por sí mismos. En YouTube, los videos de las conferencias fueron vistos por aproximadamente 1000 estudiantes. Este artículo presenta los aspectos deseables de los videos de conferencias abiertas sobre anatomía. Los videos podrían mejorar la calidad tanto de los estudiantes como del profesor.

Humans , Students, Medical , Video Recording , Education, Distance , Anatomy, Regional/education , Surveys and Questionnaires , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Republic of Korea
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(1): e00118621, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355987


Resumo: Os estudos publicados sobre a resposta da Coreia do Sul à COVID-19 apontam para distintos motivos para seu êxito. Não foram identificadas revisões sobre a Coreia do Sul entre janeiro de 2020 e abril de 2021 ou que analisassem o recrudescimento da pandemia. Visando melhor sistematização sobre o seu sucesso no controle da epidemia, desenvolveu-se uma revisão integrativa para analisar a experiência daquele país no enfrentamento da pandemia de COVID-19, buscando identificar a relação entre as medidas adotadas, as características do sistema de saúde e a evolução de indicadores selecionados. Utilizaram-se distintas bases de dados, além dos boletins epidemiológicos e conferências de imprensa do Centro Sul-coreano de Prevenção e Controle de Doenças (KCDC). Adicionalmente, analisaram-se relatórios da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), do Observatório Europeu de Políticas e Sistemas de Saúde. Os resultados do presente estudo permitem identificar um conjunto de lições com base na experiência sul-coreana visando o controle e manejo da doença. A resposta da Coreia do Sul foi bem-sucedida devido às ações no controle de riscos e danos, atuação sobre determinantes sociais para mitigar os efeitos socioeconômicos da crise sanitária, a experiência prévia em outras epidemias respiratórias e a coordenação nacional expressiva.

Resumen: Los estudios publicados sobre la respuesta de Corea del Sur a la COVID-19 apuntan distintos motivos para su éxito. No se identificaron revisiones sobre Corea del Sur entre enero de 2020 y abril de 2021 o que analizaran el recrudecimiento de la pandemia. Con el fin de una mejor sistematización sobre el éxito en el control de la epidemia, se desarrolló una revisión integradora para analizar la experiencia de aquel país en el combate de la pandemia de COVID-19, buscando identificar la relación entre las medidas adoptadas, las características del sistema de salud y la evolución de indicadores seleccionados. Se utilizaron distintas bases de datos, además de los boletines epidemiológicos y conferencias de prensa del Centro Surcoreano para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (KCDC). Asimismo, se analizaron informes de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y del Observatorio Europeo de Políticas y Sistemas Sanitarios. Los resultados del presente estudio permiten identificar un conjunto de lecciones, basadas en la experiencia surcoreana, con el fin del control y manejo de la enfermedad. La respuesta de Corea del Sur fue exitosa, debido a las acciones en el control de riesgos y daños, actuación sobre determinantes sociales para mitigar los efectos socioeconómicos de la crisis sanitaria, así como su experiencia previa en otras epidemias respiratorias y su significativa coordinación nacional.

Abstract: The studies published on the South Korean response to COVID-19 point to different reasons for the country's success. No reviews were identified on South Korea from January 2020 to April 2021 or that analyzed the pandemic's recrudescence. Aimed at better systematization of South Korea's success in controlling the epidemic, we conducted an integrative review to analyze that country´s experience with the COVID-19 pandemic, seeking to identify the relationship between the measures adopted, the health system's characteristics, and evolution of the selected indicators. Various databases were used, beside epidemiological bulletins and press conferences of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). We also analyzed reports by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. The study's results allow identifying a set of lessons based on the South Korean experience with control and management of the disease. The response by South Korea was successful, due to action in the control of risks and harms, action on social determinants to mitigate the socioeconomic effects of the health crisis, prior experience with other respiratory disease epidemics, and effective national coordination.

Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Brazil , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
Acta bioeth ; 27(2): 173-179, oct. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383264


Abstract In South Korea, the legal and cultural environment keeps terminally ill patients from making an informed refusal to a treatment the discontinuation of which can cause death. Act on Decisions on Life-Sustaining Treatment for Patients in Hospice and Palliative Care or at the End of Life allows several forms of informed refusal, but it is not enough. There is no explicit guarantee, at least under this law, of the right to refuse a treatment given during a period that has not reached an end-of-life process prescribed in the law. Dori, which the family of a terminal patient feels obligated to follow, makes them commit to doing what they believe is right as a family member without asking the patient's intention. Because it reduces the family's motivation to have a difficult talk about death and end-of-life with the patient, the patient is deprived of an opportunity to make a decision based on accurate information. In making a decision for the patient while patient is excluded, the family often ends up choosing a safe decision that puts physical survival first. In conclusion, the culture and the culturally influenced law are making it impractical for terminal patients to make an informed refusal.

Resumen: En Corea del Sur, el entorno legal y cultural impide a los pacientes terminales rechazar con conocimiento de causa un tratamiento cuya interrupción puede causar la muerte. La Ley de Decisiones sobre el Tratamiento de Mantenimiento de la Vida para Pacientes en Hospicio y Cuidados Paliativos o al Final de la Vida permite varias formas de rechazo informado, pero no es suficiente. No se garantiza explícitamente, al menos en esta ley, el derecho a rechazar un tratamiento administrado durante un periodo que no ha llegado a un proceso de final de vida prescrito en la ley. La ley Dori, que la familia de un paciente terminal se siente obligada a seguir, les hace comprometerse a hacer lo que creen correcto como familiares, sin preguntar la intención del paciente. Dado que reduce la motivación de la familia para tener una charla difícil sobre la muerte y el final de la vida con el paciente, éste se ve privado de la oportunidad de tomar una decisión basada en información precisa. Al tomar una decisión por el paciente mientras se le excluye, la familia suele acabar eligiendo una decisión segura que antepone la supervivencia física. En conclusión, la ley, influenciada por la cultura, está haciendo que sea poco práctico para los pacientes terminales hacer un rechazo informado.

Resumo Na Coreia do Sul, o ambiente legal e cultural mantém pacientes com doença terminal à parte de fazer uma recusa informada a um tratamento cuja descontinuação pode causar morte. O Ato sobre Decisões a respeito de Tratamento de Suporte à Vida para Pacientes em Lares de Idosos e Cuidados Paliativos ou ao Fim da Vida permite diversas formas de recusa informada mas não é suficiente. Não há uma garantia explícita, pelo menos sob esta lei, do direito de recusar um dado tratamento durante um período que não alcançou um processo de fim-da-vida prescrito na lei. Dori, que a família de um paciente terminal sente-se obrigada a seguir, faz com que eles se comprometam a fazer o que eles acreditam ser certo como um membro da família, sem perguntar a intenção do paciente. Na medida em que isto reduz a motivação da família em ter uma conversa difícil sobre morte e fim-da-vida com o paciente, o paciente é privado de uma oportunidade de tomar uma decisão baseada em informação precisa. Ao tomar uma decisão pelo paciente enquanto ele é excluído, a família frequentemente termina escolhendo uma decisão segura que coloca a sobrevivência física em primeiro lugar. Em conclusão, a cultura e a lei influenciada pela cultura estão tornando impraticável para pacientes terminais fazer uma recusa informada.

Humans , Terminal Care/ethics , Treatment Refusal/ethics , Terminally Ill , Republic of Korea , Informed Consent
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922185


BACKGROUND@#Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a global health problem. Bisphenol A (BPA), one of most widely used environmental chemicals, is suspected to be a contributor to the development NAFLD. This study was performed to examine the relationship between human BPA levels and risk of NAFLD.@*METHODS@#The data (n = 3476 adults: 1474 men and 2002 women) used in this study were obtained from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey III (2015-2017). BPA levels were measured in urine samples. NAFLD was defined using hepatic steatosis index after exclusion of other causes of hepatic diseases.@*RESULTS@#There was a significant linear relationship between the elevated urinary BPA concentrations and risk of NAFLD. In a univariate analysis, odds ratio (OR) of the highest quartile of urinary BPA level was 1.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.94] compared to the lowest quartile. After adjusted with covariates, the ORs for NAFLD in the third and fourth quartiles were 1.31 [95% CI 1.03-1.67] and 1.32 [95% CI 1.03-1.70], respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Urinary BPA levels are positively associated with the risk of NAFLD in adults. Further experimental studies are needed to understand the molecular mechanisms of BPA on NAFLD prevalence.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Asian People , Benzhydryl Compounds/urine , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Health , Health Surveys , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Phenols/urine , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880371


BACKGROUND@#An acute upper respiratory tract infection (URI) is the most common disease worldwide, irrespective of age or sex. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term effect of diurnal temperature range (DTR) on emergency room (ER) visits for URI in Seoul, Korea, between 2009 and 2013.@*METHODS@#Daily ER visits for URI were selected from the National Emergency Department Information System, which is a nationwide daily reporting system for ER visits in Korea. URI cases were defined according to International Classification of Diseases, 10@*RESULTS@#There were 529,527 ER visits for URI during the study period, with a daily mean of 290 visits (range, 74-1942 visits). The mean daily DTR was 8.05 °C (range, 1.1-17.6 °C). The cumulative day (lag 02) effect of DTR above 6.57 °C per 1 °C increment was associated with a 1.42% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04-2.82) increase in total URI. Children (≤ 5 years of age) were affected by DTR above 6.57 °C per 1 °C, with 1.45% (95% CI 0.32-2.60) at lag 02, adults (19-64 years) with 2.77% (95% CI 0.39-5.20) at lag 07. When the DTR (lag02) was 6.57 °C to 11.03 °C, the relative risk was significant at 6.01% (95% CI 2.45-9.69) for every 1 °C increase in youth subjects aged for 6 to 18 years.@*CONCLUSIONS@#DTR was associated with a higher risk for ER visits for URI. In addition, the results suggested that the lag effects and relative risks of DTR on URI were quite different according to age.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Acute Disease/epidemiology , Cold Temperature/adverse effects , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hot Temperature/adverse effects , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880339


BACKGROUND@#Mounting evidence implicates an association between ambient air pollution and impaired reproductive potential of human. Our study aimed to assess the association between air pollution and ovarian reserve in young, infertile women.@*METHODS@#Our study included 2276 Korean women who attended a single fertility center in 2016-2018. Women's exposure to air pollution was assessed using concentrations of particulate matter (PM@*RESULTS@#The mean age was 36.6 ± 4.2 years and AMH level was 3.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL in the study population. Average AMH ratio was 0.8 ± 0.7 and low AMH was observed in 10.3% of women (n=235). The average concentration of six air pollutants was not different between the normal ovarian reserve and low AMH groups for all averaging periods. In multivariable models, an interquartile range (IQR)-increase in 1 month-average PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#In a cohort of infertile Korean women, there was a suggestive evidence of the negative association between ambient PM concentration and ovarian reserve, highlighting the potential adverse impact of air pollution on women's fertility.

Adult , Female , Humans , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Infertility, Female/etiology , Ovarian Reserve/physiology , Republic of Korea
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880326


BACKGROUND@#One effective way to improve return-to-work (RTW) performance may be to convince the employer that the worker has the necessary skills. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of having a professional certification among workers injured in occupational injuries on their return to work.@*METHODS@#The Panel Study of Workers' Compensation Insurance (PSWCI) targets workers who completed medical care in 2012 after an occupational injury. The study population (n = 2000) was stratified by gender, age, region, disability grade, and rehabilitation service use. A total of 1458 workers were finally selected for this study. The effect of having a certification on RTW status was calculated with an odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals using binomial and multinomial logistic regression analyses. In the binomial logistic regression analysis, the RTW group was made up as a combination of the return to original work and the reemployment groups.@*RESULTS@#The ORs of RTW among those with a certification compared to those without certification were 1.38 (1.16-1.65) in Model 1, 1.25 (1.05-1.50) in Model 2, and 1.22 (1.01-1.47) in Model 3. Among female workers with a certification, the OR of RTW was 4.60 (2.68-7.91), that of return to original work was 3.21 (1.74-5.91), and that of reemployment was 5.85 (3.34-10.27). Among daily workers with a certification, the OR of RTW was 1.32 (1.03-1.69) and that of reemployment was 1.37 (1.07-1.76).@*CONCLUSION@#In conclusion, injured workers with a certification generally had a higher RTW rate. In particular, the RTW rate was higher among female workers and daily workers with a certification than among those without.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Certification/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Injuries/statistics & numerical data , Republic of Korea , Return to Work/statistics & numerical data , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data , Workplace/statistics & numerical data
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879034


Kudzu plants in the subfamily sphenoideae of Leguminosae are commonly used herbs in China, Japan, Korea, India and Thailand, with a long history of medicinal use. They are recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Japanese Pharmacopeia, Korea Pharmacopeia, Ayurveda Pharmacopoeia of India and Flora of Thailand. There are 15-20 species of Pueraria in the world, including 7 species and 2 varieties in China. At present, there are 6 species with medicinal value, such as Pueraria lobata and P. thomsonii. The main chemical components of the genus are isoflavones, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids, coumarins, puerarin glycosides and benzopyrans. A total of 240 compounds have been isolated and identified from this genus, and their pharmacological effects mainly include improvement of the cardiovascular system, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-alcoholic and estrogen-like effects. In this study, chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Pueraria at home and abroad were systematically summarized, in order to provide references for the material basis, quality control and further development of Pueraria genus.

China , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Japan , Plant Roots , Pueraria , Republic of Korea , Thailand
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 30(3): 344-354, Sept.-Dec. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1134674


INTRODUCTION: CoV infections can potentially cause from a simple cold to a severe respiratory syndrome, such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV). The COVID-19 created a new reality for global healthcare modelsOBJETIVE: To evaluate trends in case-fatality rates of COVID-19 in the WorldMETHODS: We conducted a population-based time-series study using public and official data of cases and deaths from COVID-19 in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, France, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand, Nigeria, Peru, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States and Russian, between December, 2019 and August, 2020. Data were based on reports from European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. COVID-19 was defined by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (U07.1). A Prais-Winsten regression model was performed and the Daily Percentage Change (DPC) calculated determine rates as increasing, decreasing or flatRESULTS: During the study period, trends in case-fatality rates in the world were flat (DPC = 0.3; CI 95% [-0.2: 0.7]; p = 0.225). In Africa, Morocco had decreasing trends (DPC = -1.1; CI 95% [-1.5: -0.7]; p < 0.001), whereas it were increasing in South Africa (p < 0.05) and flat in Nigeria (p > 0.05). In the Americas, Argentina showed a decreasing trend in case-fatality rates (DPC = -0.6; CI 95% [-1.1: -0.2]; p = 0.005), the U.S. had flat trends (p > 0.05) and all other American countries had increasing trends (p < 0.05). In Asia, Iran had decreasing trends (DPC = -1.5; CI 95% [-2.6 : -0.2]; p = 0.019); China and Saudi Arabia showed increasing trends (p < 0.05), while in India, Japan and South Korea they were flat (p > 0.05). European countries had mostly increasing trends (p < 0.05): Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK and Russia; France and Switzerland had flat trends (p > 0.05). Finally, in Oceania, trends in case-fatality rates were flat in Australia (p > 0.05) and increasing in New Zealand (p < 0.05CONCLUSION: Trends in case-fatality rates of COVID-19 in the World were flat between December, 31 and August, 31. Argentina, Iran and Morocco were the only countries with decreasing trends. On the other hand, South Africa, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, China, Saudi Arabia, Germany, Spain, United Kingdom, Russian and New Zealand had increasing trends in case-fatality rate. All the other countries analyzed had flat trends. Based on case-fatality rate data, our study supports that COVID-19 pandemic is still in progress worldwide

INTRODUÇÃO: As infecções por CoV podem causar desde um simples resfriado até uma síndrome respiratória grave, como a Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave e a Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio (MERS-CoV). O COVID-19 impôs uma nova realidade em termos de modelos globais de saúdeOBJETIVO: Avaliar as tendências das taxas de letalidade do COVID-19 no mundoMÉTODO: Estudo de séries temporais de base populacional usando dados públicos e oficiais de casos e mortes por COVID-19 na Argentina, Austrália, Brasil, Chile, China, Colômbia, França, Alemanha, Índia, Irã, Itália, Japão, México, Marrocos, Nova Zelândia, Nigéria, Peru, Arábia Saudita, África do Sul, Coreia do Sul, Espanha, Suíça, Reino Unido, Estados Unidos (EUA) e Rússia, entre 31 dezembro de 2019 e 31 agosto de 2020. Os dados foram baseados nos relatórios do Centro Europeu de Prevenção e Controle de Doenças. COVID-19 foi definido pela Classificação Internacional de Doenças, 10ª revisão (U07.1). Para análise estatística, foi realizado o modelo de regressão de Prais-Winsten, a partir do qual foi possível calcular a variação percentual de mudança diária (DPC) das taxas, classificadas como crescentes, decrescentes ou estacionáriasRESULTADOS: Durante o período do estudo, as taxas de letalidade no mundo permaneceram estacionárias (DPC = 0,3; IC 95% [-0,2: 0,7]; p = 0,225). Na África, Marrocos teve tendência decrescente (DPC = -1,1; IC 95% [-1,5: -0,7]; p <0,001), enquanto na África do Sul houve tendência crescente (p < 0,05) e estacionária na Nigéria (p > 0,05). Em relação às Américas, a Argentina revelou tendência decrescente nas taxas de letalidade (DPC = -0,6; IC 95% [-1,1: -0,2]; p = 0,005), os EUA demonstraram tendência estacionária (p > 0,05) e todos os outros países americanos demonstraram tendências crescentes (p < 0,05). Na Ásia, o Irã apresentou tendência decrescente (DPC = -1,5; IC 95% [-2,6: -0,2]; p = 0,019); China e Arábia Saudita apresentaram tendências crescentes (p <0,05), enquanto Índia, Japão e Coreia do Sul mantiveram tendência estacionária (p > 0,05). A maioria dos países europeus apresentaram tendências crescentes (p <0,05): Alemanha, Itália, Espanha, Reino Unido e Rússia; França e Suíça demonstraram tendências estacionárias (p > 0,05). Por fim, na Oceania, a tendência nas taxas de letalidade na Austrália foi estacionária (p > 0,05) e aumentou na Nova Zelândia (p < 0,05CONCLUSÃO: A tendência nas taxas de letalidade por COVID-19 no mundo permaneceu estacionária entre 31 de dezembro de 2019 e 31 de agosto de 2020. Argentina, Irã e Marrocos foram os únicos países com tendências decrescentes. Por outro lado, África do Sul, Brasil, Canadá, Chile, Colômbia, México, Peru, China, Arábia Saudita, Alemanha, Espanha, Reino Unido, Rússia e Nova Zelândia apresentaram tendências crescentes de letalidade. Todos os outros países analisados demonstraram tendências estacionárias. De acordo com dados de letalidade, nosso estudo confirma que a pandemia de COVID-19 ainda está em fase de progressão em todo o mundo

Epidemiology , COVID-19 , COVID-19/mortality , Peru , Argentina , Saudi Arabia , Australia , South Africa , Spain , Switzerland , United States , Brazil , Chile , China , Russia , Colombia , Republic of Korea , France , Germany , United Kingdom , India , Iran , Italy , Japan , Mexico , Morocco , New Zealand , Nigeria
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 825-830, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124861


In Southern Medical University, China, 1,200 medical students study neuroanatomy every year, whereas in Ajou University, Korea, only 45 medical students study neuroanatomy. The considerable difference of student numbers results in differences in educational situations. The purpose of this study was to investigate desirable neuroanatomy education methods for large and small numbers of students. The situations of neuroanatomy education in China and Korea were compared systematically. With a questionnaire survey, positive comments and recommendations for their counterparts were collected from the medical students (168 Chinese and 41 Koreans) and anatomists (6 Chinese and 3 Koreans). By reviewing the opinions, the Chinese and Korean anatomists could learn from each other to improve their strong points and make up for the weak points. The results also disclosed the common problems of neuroanatomy education, which could be relieved by developing the fitting book and the self-learning tools, such as lecture videos and stereoscopic computer models.

En la Universidad de Medicina del Sur, China, 1.200 estudiantes de medicina estudian la neuroanatomía cada año, mientras que en la Universidad de Ajou, Corea, solo 45 estudiantes de medicina estudian neuroanatomía. Esta considerable variable del número de estudiantes resulta en diferencias en las situaciones educativas. El propósito de este estudio fue investigar métodos de educación en neuroanatomía deseables para cantidades mayores y menores de estudiantes. Se compararon sistemáticamente las situaciones de educación en neuroanatomía en China y Corea. Por medio de una encuesta por cuestionario, se obtuvieron comentarios positivos y recomendaciones para sus contrapartes de los estudiantes de medicina (168 chinos y 41 coreanos) y anatomistas (6 chinos y 3 coreanos). Al revisar las opiniones, los anatomistas chinos y coreanos podrían aprender unos de otros para mejorar sus puntos de fortaleza y compensar los aspectos débiles. Los resultados también revelaron los problemas comunes de la educación en neuroanatomía, que podrían aliviarse desarrollando el libro de adaptación y las herramientas de autoaprendizaje, como videos de conferencias y modelos de computadora estereoscópica.

Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , Anatomists/psychology , Neuroanatomy/education , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , China , Surveys and Questionnaires , Republic of Korea , Neuroanatomy/methods
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(3): 298-305, May-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131092


ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between nutritional intake and metabolic syndrome in otherwise healthy middle-aged Korean women. Subjects and methods Retrospectively, medical records were reviewed for nutritional intake of 2,182 Korean women who had undergone routine medical check-ups from 2010 to 2016 at Pusan National University Hospital. The patients who met diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome based on NCEP-ATPIII were included, and each of the patients was assessed through self-report questionnaires and individual interview with a health care provider. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for women in Republic of Korea was based on 2015 criteria discussed in Dietary Reference Intake for Koreans, organized by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Results Through univariate analysis, daily calorie, protein, fat, and carbohydrate consumption were significantly higher and exceeded RDA in the patients with metabolic syndrome; other than major nutrients, iron, vitamin B2, and niacin were also consumed in excess of the RDA in these patients. Multivariate analysis showed that carbohydrate consumption, along with protein and vitamin B2, were significantly higher in the patients with metabolic syndrome. Conclusion In middle-aged Korean women, high consumption of carbohydrates, along with protein and vitamin B2, was found to have a statistically significant association with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(3):298-305

Humans , Female , Energy Intake , Nutrients/administration & dosage , Metabolic Syndrome , Feeding Behavior , Nutrition Surveys , Retrospective Studies , Republic of Korea , Middle Aged
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(3): 332-338, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132603


Abstract Introduction: Age-related hearing impairment is the most common sensory dysfunction in older adults. In osteoporosis, the mass of the ossicles will be decreased, affecting the bone density of the cochlea, and interfering with the sound transmission to the cochlea. Age related hearing loss might be closely related to osteoporosis. Objective: To determine the relationship between age-related hearing impairment and osteoporosis by investigating the relationship between hearing loss and cortical bone density evaluated from femur neck bone mineral density. Methods: We used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine the associations between osteoporosis and age-related hearing impairment from 2009 to 2011. Total number of participants was 4861 including 2273 men and 2588 women aged 50 years or older. Osteoporosis was defined as a bone mineral density 2.5 standard deviations below according to the World Health Organization diagnostic classification. Age-related hearing impairment was defined as the pure-tone averages of test frequencies 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz at a threshold of 40 dB or higher on the more impaired hearing side. Results: Total femur T-score (p < 0.001), lumbar-spine T-score (p < 0.001) and, femur neck T-score (p < 0.001) were significantly lower in the osteoporosis group compared to the normal group. Thresholds of pure-tone averages were significantly different in normal compared to osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups. In addition, there were significantly higher pure-tone averages thresholds in the osteoporosis group compared to other groups (p < 0.001). After adjusting for all covariates, the odds ratio for hearing loss was significantly increased by 1.7 fold with reduced femur neck bone mineral density (p < 0.01). However, lumbar spine bone mineral density was not statistically associated with hearing loss (p = 0.22). Conclusion: Our results suggest that osteoporosis is significantly associated with a risk of hearing loss. In addition, femur neck bone mineral density was significantly correlated with hearing loss, but lumbar spine bone mineral density was not.

Resumo Introdução: A perda auditiva associada ao envelhecimento é a disfunção sensorial mais comum em idosos. Na osteoporose, a massa dos ossículos diminui e afeta a densidade óssea da cóclea, o que irá interferir na transmissão do som para a mesma. A perda auditiva associada à idade pode estar intimamente relacionada à osteoporose. Objetivo: Determinar a relação entre deficiência auditiva relacionada à idade e osteoporose, investigar a relação entre perda auditiva e densidade óssea cortical avaliada a partir da densidade mineral óssea do colo do fêmur. Método: Utilizamos dados da Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey para examinar as associações entre osteoporose e perda auditiva associada ao envelhecimento de 2009 a 2011. O número total de participantes foi de 4.861, incluiu 2.273 homens e 2.588 mulheres com 50 anos ou mais. A osteoporose foi definida como densidade mineral óssea com 2,5 desvios-padrão abaixo da média, de acordo com a classificação diagnóstica da Organização Mundial da Saúde. A perda auditiva associada ao envelhecimento foi definida como as médias de tom puro das frequências de teste de 0,5, 1, 2 e 4 kHz a um limiar de 40 dB ou superior no lado da audição mais afetado. Resultados: O T-score total do fêmur (p < 0,001), o T-score da coluna lombar (p < 0,001) e o T-score do colo do fêmur (p < 0,001) foram significantemente menores no grupo com osteoporose em comparação ao grupo normal. Os limiares de médias de tom puro foram significantemente diferentes nos grupos normais em comparação com aqueles com osteopenia e osteoporose. Além disso, houve limiares significantemente maiores de médias de tom puro no grupo com osteoporose em comparação com os outros grupos (p < 0,001). Após o ajuste para todas as covariáveis, a odds ratio da perda auditiva mostrou estar significantemente aumentada em 1,7 vez com densidade mineral óssea reduzida no colo do fêmur (p < 0,01). No entanto, a densidade mineral óssea da coluna L não se associou estatisticamente à perda auditiva (p = 0,22). Conclusão: Nossos resultados sugerem que a osteoporose está significantemente associada ao risco de perda auditiva. Além disso, a densidade mineral óssea da coluna lombar não se correlacionou com a perda auditiva, apenas a densidade mineral óssea do colo do fêmur foi significantemente correlacionada.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Osteoporosis/complications , Presbycusis/complications , Aging/physiology , Bone Density/physiology , Osteoporosis/physiopathology , Presbycusis/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Health Surveys , Republic of Korea
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782290


@#<![CDATA[Mumps is contagious disease and maintaining immunity to mumps in healthcare worker (HCW) is important for preventing transmission in the hospital. We evaluated the seroprevalence of mumps in HCWs in a tertiary care hospital in Republic of Korea. A total of 6,055 HCWs born between 1950 and 1995 underwent antibody testing. The overall seropositivity rate of mumps was 87% (95% confidence interval, 86%–87%). Our data indicates that, in Korean HCWs, testing for mumps antibody followed by mumps vaccination is more appropriate than routine mumps vaccination without testing for mumps antibody.]]>

Humans , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Korea , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Mumps , Republic of Korea , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tertiary Healthcare , Vaccination