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1.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(1): e00118621, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355987

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Os estudos publicados sobre a resposta da Coreia do Sul à COVID-19 apontam para distintos motivos para seu êxito. Não foram identificadas revisões sobre a Coreia do Sul entre janeiro de 2020 e abril de 2021 ou que analisassem o recrudescimento da pandemia. Visando melhor sistematização sobre o seu sucesso no controle da epidemia, desenvolveu-se uma revisão integrativa para analisar a experiência daquele país no enfrentamento da pandemia de COVID-19, buscando identificar a relação entre as medidas adotadas, as características do sistema de saúde e a evolução de indicadores selecionados. Utilizaram-se distintas bases de dados, além dos boletins epidemiológicos e conferências de imprensa do Centro Sul-coreano de Prevenção e Controle de Doenças (KCDC). Adicionalmente, analisaram-se relatórios da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), do Observatório Europeu de Políticas e Sistemas de Saúde. Os resultados do presente estudo permitem identificar um conjunto de lições com base na experiência sul-coreana visando o controle e manejo da doença. A resposta da Coreia do Sul foi bem-sucedida devido às ações no controle de riscos e danos, atuação sobre determinantes sociais para mitigar os efeitos socioeconômicos da crise sanitária, a experiência prévia em outras epidemias respiratórias e a coordenação nacional expressiva.


Resumen: Los estudios publicados sobre la respuesta de Corea del Sur a la COVID-19 apuntan distintos motivos para su éxito. No se identificaron revisiones sobre Corea del Sur entre enero de 2020 y abril de 2021 o que analizaran el recrudecimiento de la pandemia. Con el fin de una mejor sistematización sobre el éxito en el control de la epidemia, se desarrolló una revisión integradora para analizar la experiencia de aquel país en el combate de la pandemia de COVID-19, buscando identificar la relación entre las medidas adoptadas, las características del sistema de salud y la evolución de indicadores seleccionados. Se utilizaron distintas bases de datos, además de los boletines epidemiológicos y conferencias de prensa del Centro Surcoreano para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (KCDC). Asimismo, se analizaron informes de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y del Observatorio Europeo de Políticas y Sistemas Sanitarios. Los resultados del presente estudio permiten identificar un conjunto de lecciones, basadas en la experiencia surcoreana, con el fin del control y manejo de la enfermedad. La respuesta de Corea del Sur fue exitosa, debido a las acciones en el control de riesgos y daños, actuación sobre determinantes sociales para mitigar los efectos socioeconómicos de la crisis sanitaria, así como su experiencia previa en otras epidemias respiratorias y su significativa coordinación nacional.


Abstract: The studies published on the South Korean response to COVID-19 point to different reasons for the country's success. No reviews were identified on South Korea from January 2020 to April 2021 or that analyzed the pandemic's recrudescence. Aimed at better systematization of South Korea's success in controlling the epidemic, we conducted an integrative review to analyze that country´s experience with the COVID-19 pandemic, seeking to identify the relationship between the measures adopted, the health system's characteristics, and evolution of the selected indicators. Various databases were used, beside epidemiological bulletins and press conferences of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). We also analyzed reports by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. The study's results allow identifying a set of lessons based on the South Korean experience with control and management of the disease. The response by South Korea was successful, due to action in the control of risks and harms, action on social determinants to mitigate the socioeconomic effects of the health crisis, prior experience with other respiratory disease epidemics, and effective national coordination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Brazil , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#An acute upper respiratory tract infection (URI) is the most common disease worldwide, irrespective of age or sex. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term effect of diurnal temperature range (DTR) on emergency room (ER) visits for URI in Seoul, Korea, between 2009 and 2013.@*METHODS@#Daily ER visits for URI were selected from the National Emergency Department Information System, which is a nationwide daily reporting system for ER visits in Korea. URI cases were defined according to International Classification of Diseases, 10@*RESULTS@#There were 529,527 ER visits for URI during the study period, with a daily mean of 290 visits (range, 74-1942 visits). The mean daily DTR was 8.05 °C (range, 1.1-17.6 °C). The cumulative day (lag 02) effect of DTR above 6.57 °C per 1 °C increment was associated with a 1.42% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04-2.82) increase in total URI. Children (≤ 5 years of age) were affected by DTR above 6.57 °C per 1 °C, with 1.45% (95% CI 0.32-2.60) at lag 02, adults (19-64 years) with 2.77% (95% CI 0.39-5.20) at lag 07. When the DTR (lag02) was 6.57 °C to 11.03 °C, the relative risk was significant at 6.01% (95% CI 2.45-9.69) for every 1 °C increase in youth subjects aged for 6 to 18 years.@*CONCLUSIONS@#DTR was associated with a higher risk for ER visits for URI. In addition, the results suggested that the lag effects and relative risks of DTR on URI were quite different according to age.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Cold Temperature/adverse effects , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hot Temperature/adverse effects , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , Young Adult
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a global health problem. Bisphenol A (BPA), one of most widely used environmental chemicals, is suspected to be a contributor to the development NAFLD. This study was performed to examine the relationship between human BPA levels and risk of NAFLD.@*METHODS@#The data (n = 3476 adults: 1474 men and 2002 women) used in this study were obtained from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey III (2015-2017). BPA levels were measured in urine samples. NAFLD was defined using hepatic steatosis index after exclusion of other causes of hepatic diseases.@*RESULTS@#There was a significant linear relationship between the elevated urinary BPA concentrations and risk of NAFLD. In a univariate analysis, odds ratio (OR) of the highest quartile of urinary BPA level was 1.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.94] compared to the lowest quartile. After adjusted with covariates, the ORs for NAFLD in the third and fourth quartiles were 1.31 [95% CI 1.03-1.67] and 1.32 [95% CI 1.03-1.70], respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Urinary BPA levels are positively associated with the risk of NAFLD in adults. Further experimental studies are needed to understand the molecular mechanisms of BPA on NAFLD prevalence.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Benzhydryl Compounds/urine , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Health , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Phenols/urine , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
4.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 93(3): 260-266, May.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841345

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by resistant strains of bacteria is increasingly prevalent in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors for UTI caused by community-acquired extended-spectrum β-lactamase (CA-ESBL)-producing bacteria in infants. Methods: This was a retrospective study performed over 5 years in a single Korean center. Hospitalized infants with febrile UTI were enrolled and divided into two groups (CA-ESBL vs. CA non-ESBL UTI). The yearly prevalence was calculated. Baseline characteristics and clinical course such as fever duration, laboratory and radiological findings were compared between the two groups. Risk factors associated with the CA-ESBL UTI were investigated. Results: Among the enrolled infants (n = 185), 31 (17%) had CA-ESBL UTI. The yearly prevalence of ESBL of CA-ESBL UTI increased during the study (0% in 2010, 22.2% in 2015). Infants with CA-ESBL UTI had a longer duration of fever after initiating antibiotics (2.0 ± 1.1 vs. 1.5 ± 0.6 days, p = 0.020). Cortical defects on renal scan and early treatment failure were more frequent in CA-ESBL (64.5 vs. 42.2%, p = 0.023; 22.6 vs. 4.5%, p = 0.001). A logistic regression analysis revealed that urinary tract abnormalities and previous UTI were independent risk factors for CA-EBSL UTI (odds ratio, 2.7; p = 0.025; 10.3; p = 0.022). Conclusion: The incidence of UTI caused by ESBL-producing bacteria has increased in Korean infants. Recognition of the clinical course and risk factors for ESLB-producing UTI may help to determine appropriate guidelines for its management.


Resumo Objetivo: A infecção do trato urinário (ITU) causada por cepas de bactérias resistentes está cada vez mais prevalente em crianças. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as características clínicas e os fatores de risco de ITU causada por bactérias produtoras de β-lactamases de espectro ampliado adquiridas na comunidade (ESBL CA) em neonatos. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo feito por mais de cinco anos em um único centro sul-coreano. Neonatos internados com ITU febril foram inscritos e divididos em dois grupos (ITU por ESBL CA em comparação com não ESBL CA). A prevalência anual foi calculada. As características básicas e o curso clínico, como duração da febre e achados laboratoriais e radiológicos, foram comparados entre os dois grupos. Os fatores de risco associados à ITU por ESBL CA foram investigados. Resultados: Entre os neonatos inscritos (n = 185), 31 (17%) apresentaram ITU por ESBL CA. A prevalência anual de ESBL em ITU por ESBL CA aumentou durante o estudo (0% em 2010, 22,2% em 2015). Os neonatos com ITU por ESBL CA apresentaram maior duração de febre após o início dos antibióticos (2 ± 1,1 em comparação com 1,5 ± 0,6 dias, p = 0,020). Os defeitos corticais no exame renal e a falha precoce no tratamento foram mais frequentes em ESBL CA (64,5 em comparação com 42,2%, p = 0,023; 22,6 em comparação com 4,5%, p = 0,001). Uma análise de regressão logística revelou que as anomalias do trato urinário e a ITU anterior eram fatores de risco independentes de ITU por ESBL CA (razão de chance: 2,7; p = 0,025; 10,3; p = 0,022). Conclusão: A incidência de ITU causada por bactérias produtoras de ESBL aumentou em neonatos sul-coreanos. O reconhecimento do curso clínico e dos fatores de risco de ITU por ESBL poderá ajudar a determinar as diretrizes adequadas de manejo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Drug Resistance , Epidemiologic Methods , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Klebsiella , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(2): 256-263, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840828

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To examine an association between the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) and neuropsychological parameters. Moreover, we investigate the factors that affect each item in the questionnaire. Materials and Methods A total of 376 patients (males: 184; females: 192) with probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) were recruited. Cognitive testing was conducted using the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale, Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), and Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) was assessed using OABSS and voiding diary. Results The prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) (defined as OABSS ≥3 with an urgency score of ≥2) in patients with AD was 72.6%. Among the OAB subjects, the most common severity of symptom was moderate (72.6%), followed by mild (21.2%), and severe (5.8%). It was found that OABSS had a very high correlation with aging (r=0.75; p<0.001). When compared with neuropsychological parameters, it was found that OABSS was highly correlated with the CDR scores (r=0.446; p<0.001). However, no significant correlation was found between the changes in OABSS scores and those in other neuropsychological parameters. Based on the individual symptom scores, urgency incontinence was highly correlated with the CDR scores (r=0.43; p<0.001). Conclusions OABSS is a useful tool in assessing AD patients with LUTS. There was a consistent positive association between OABSS severity, including urgency incontinence, and CDR scores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/physiopathology , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/psychology , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Urination/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Activities of Daily Living , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Age Factors , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests
6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 226-233, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126253

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Traumatic events and adverse stressful experiences are major etiological factors in a wide variety of physical and mental disorders. Developing psychological instruments that can be easily administered and that have good psychometric properties have become an integral part for research and practice. This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Lifetime Stressor Checklist-Revised (LSC-R) in a consecutive sample of psychiatric outpatients. The LSC-R is a 30-item self-reporting questionnaire examining lifetime traumatic and non-traumatic stressors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A final sample of 258 outpatients with anxiety or depressive disorders was recruited at the psychiatric department of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. Self-reported data included the Life Events Checklist (LEC), the Zung Self-Rating Depression and Anxiety Scales, and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, in addition to the LSC-R. A convenience sample of 50 college students completed the LSC-R on two occasions separated by a three week-interval for test-retest reliability. RESULTS: Mean kappa for temporal stability was high (κ=0.651) and Cronbach alpha was moderate (α=0.724). Convergent validity was excellent with corresponding items on the LEC. Concurrent validity was good for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that 11 factors explained 64.3 % of the total variance. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated good psychometric properties of the Korean version of the LSC-R, further supporting its use in clinical research and practice with a Korean speaking population.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Checklist , Depression/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Male , Outpatients , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 174-179, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65047

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: During the late autumn to winter season (October to December) in the Republic of Korea, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common pathogen causing lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). Interestingly, in 2014, human coronavirus (HCoV) caused not only upper respiratory infections but also LRTIs more commonly than in other years. Therefore, we sought to determine the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, outcomes, and severity of illnesses associated with HCoV infections at a single center in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with positive HCoV respiratory specimens between October 2014 and December 2014 who were admitted to Severance Children’s Hospital at Yonsei University Medical Center for LRTI. Charts of the patients with HCoV infection were reviewed and compared with RSV infection. RESULTS: During the study period, HCoV was the third most common respiratory virus and accounted for 13.7% of infections. Coinfection was detected in 43.8% of children with HCoV. Interestingly, one patient had both HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-NL63. Mild pneumonia was most common (60.4%) with HCoV, and when combined with RSV, resulted in bronchiolitis. Two patients required care in the intensive care unit. However, compared with that of RSV infection, the disease course HCoV was short. CONCLUSION: Infections caused by HCoVs are common, and can cause LRTIs. During an epidemic season, clinicians should be given special consideration thereto. When combined with other medical conditions, such as neurologic or cardiologic diseases, intensive care unit (ICU) care may be necessary.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Seasons
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-133741

ABSTRACT

We explored factors influencing presentation with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease by age group. Data were derived from a city-wide cross-sectional survey of 759 HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. The significance of each observed factor was assessed via multivariate logistic regression. Of subjects aged 20-34 years, lower educational level had a positive influence on presentation with advanced HIV disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-4.34); those recently diagnosed with HIV were more likely to be presented with advanced HIV disease (aOR, 3.17; 95% CI, 0.99-10.2). Of the subjects aged 35-49 years, those w ith advanced HIV disease were more likely to have been diagnosed during health check-ups (aOR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.15-7.32) or via clinical manifestations (aOR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.39-9.36). Of the subjects aged > or = 50 years, presentation with advanced HIV disease was significantly more common in older subjects (aOR per increment of 5 years, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.32-3.23) and less common among individuals diagnosed with HIV in 2000-2006 (aOR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.04-0.83). In conclusion, a lower educational level in younger subjects and more advanced age in older subjects positively influence the presentation of advanced HIV disease.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demography , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-133740

ABSTRACT

We explored factors influencing presentation with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease by age group. Data were derived from a city-wide cross-sectional survey of 759 HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. The significance of each observed factor was assessed via multivariate logistic regression. Of subjects aged 20-34 years, lower educational level had a positive influence on presentation with advanced HIV disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-4.34); those recently diagnosed with HIV were more likely to be presented with advanced HIV disease (aOR, 3.17; 95% CI, 0.99-10.2). Of the subjects aged 35-49 years, those w ith advanced HIV disease were more likely to have been diagnosed during health check-ups (aOR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.15-7.32) or via clinical manifestations (aOR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.39-9.36). Of the subjects aged > or = 50 years, presentation with advanced HIV disease was significantly more common in older subjects (aOR per increment of 5 years, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.32-3.23) and less common among individuals diagnosed with HIV in 2000-2006 (aOR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.04-0.83). In conclusion, a lower educational level in younger subjects and more advanced age in older subjects positively influence the presentation of advanced HIV disease.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demography , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28308

ABSTRACT

Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are common disorders. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA in Korean females. We examined the associations between IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level and nutritional intakes. The study was performed using on data collected from 10,169 women (aged > or =10 yr), including 1,232 with anemia, 2,030 with ID, and 690 with IDA during the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V; 2010-2012). Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and path analysis was performed to identify a multivariate regression model incorporating IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level, and nutritional intakes. The overall prevalence of anemia, ID and IDA was 12.4%, 23.11%, and 7.7%, respectively. ID and IDA were more prevalent among adolescents (aged 15-18 yr; 36.5% for ID; 10.7% for IDA) and women aged 19-49 yr (32.7% for ID; 11.3% for IDA). The proposed path model showed that IDA was associated with an elevated cadmium level after adjusting for age and body mass index (beta=0.46, P<0.001). Vitamin D levels were found to affect IDA negatively (beta=-0.002, P<0.001). This study shows that the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA are relatively high in late adolescents and women of reproductive age. Path analysis showed that depressed vitamin D levels increase the risk of IDA, and that IDA increases cadmium concentrations in blood. Our findings indicate that systematic health surveillance systems including educational campaigns and well-balanced nutrition are needed to control anemia, ID, and IDA.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/blood , Body Mass Index , Cadmium/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoradiometric Assay , Middle Aged , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Regression Analysis , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk , Vitamin D/blood , Young Adult
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28304

ABSTRACT

Anemia is common in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Though erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have been strongly endorsed in guidelines, it is of particular financial interest. Recently, the reimbursement of ESAs in non-dialytic patients was started by the Korean National Health Insurance System. Thus, we investigated the impact of the reimbursement of ESAs on the anemia care in non-dialytic CKD patients. Medical records of patients with advanced CKD (estimated GFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2) were reviewed. Use of ESAs, blood transfusion, and hemoglobin concentrations were analyzed from one year prior to reimbursement to three years following. We used multivariable modified Poisson regression to estimate the utilization prevalence ratio (PRs). A total of 1,791 medical records were analyzed. The proportion of patients receiving ESAs increased from 14.8% before reimbursement to a peak 33.6% in 1 yr after reimbursement; thereafter, ESA use decreased to 22.4% in 3 yr after reimbursement (compared with baseline; PR, 2.19 [95% CI, 1.40-3.42]). In patients with Hb <10 g/dL, the proportion of receiving ESAs increased from 32.1% before reimbursement to 66.7% in 3 yr after reimbursement (compared with baseline; PR, 2.04 [95% CI, 1.25-3.32]). Mean hemoglobin concentrations were 10.06±1.54 g/dL before reimbursement and increased to 10.78±1.51 g/dL in 3 yr after the reimbursement change (P=0.001). However, the requirement of blood transfusion was not changed over time. With the reimbursement of ESAs, the advanced CKD patients were more likely to be treated with ESAs, and the hemoglobin concentrations increased.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anemia/complications , Blood Transfusion , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hematinics/therapeutic use , Hematocrit , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , National Health Programs , Poisson Distribution , Prevalence , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
12.
Gut and Liver ; : 212-219, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Controversy exists regarding the characteristics of Helicobacter pylori infection-negative gastric cancer (HPIN-GC). The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathologic features of HPIN-GC compared to H. pylori infection-positive gastric cancer (HPIP-GC) using a comprehensive analysis that included genetic and environmental factors. METHODS: H. pylori infection status of 705 resectable gastric cancer patients was determined by the rapid urease test, testing for anti-H. pylori antibodies, histologic analysis and culture of gastric cancer tissue samples, and history of H. pylori eradication. HPIN-GC was defined as gastric cancer that was negative for H. pylori infection based on all five methods and that had no evidence of atrophy in histology or serology. RESULTS: The prevalence of HPIN-GC was 4% (28/705). No significant differences with respect to age, sex, smoking, drinking, family history of gastric cancer or obesity were observed between the two groups. HPIN-GC tumors were marginally more likely to involve the cardia (14.3% for HPIN-GC vs 5.3% for HPIP-GC, p=0.068). The Lauren classification, histology, and TNM stage did not differ according to H. pylori infection status. Microsatellite instability was not different between the two groups, but p53 overexpression in HPIN-GC was marginally higher than in HPIP-GC (56.0% for HPIN-GC vs 37.0% for HPIP-GC, p=0.055). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HPIN-GC was extremely low, and its clinicopathologic characteristics were similar to HPIP-GC.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bacterial/analysis , Female , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Urease/analysis
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) represents a major clinical problem because these bacteria are resistant to most antibiotics. CPE remain relatively uncommon in Korea. We report the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and molecular epidemiology of CPE isolates collected from five university hospitals in Korea. METHODS: Between January and December 2015, 393 non-duplicated isolates that were nonsusceptible to ertapenem were analyzed. Production of carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase, and AmpC β-lactamase was determined by genotypic tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined by using an Etest. Clonality of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-2-producing and oxacillinase (OXA)-232-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS: Of the 393 isolates tested, 79 (20.1%) were CPE. Of these 79 isolates, 47 (59.5%) harbored the bla(OXA-232) gene while the remaining isolates carried genes bla(KPC-2) (n=27), bla(IMP-1) (n=4), and bla(NDM-1) (n=1). Among the 24 KPC-2 K. pneumoniae isolates from hospital B, 100% were resistant to carbapenems, 8% to colistin, and 0% to tigecycline. Among the 45 OXA-232 K. pneumoniae at hospital C, 95% were resistant to ertapenem, 68% to imipenem, 95% to meropenem, 10% to colistin, and 24% to tigecycline. PFGE analysis revealed a unique pattern for KPC-2 K. pneumoniae and identified 30 isolates belonging to the dominant pulsotypes (PT)1 and PT2 among 41 OXA-232 K. pneumoniae isolates. CONCLUSIONS: CPE strains are present in Korea, with the majority of K. pneumoniae isolates producing OXA-232 and KPC-2. The prevalence and predominant genotypes of CPE show hospital-specific differences.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/diagnosis , Female , Genotype , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , beta-Lactamases/genetics
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are important pathogens causing nosocomial infections in Korean hospitals. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and genetic diversity of clinical S. aureus isolates in healthcare settings from 2001 to 2008. METHODS: Samples and data were obtained from 986 individuals as part of the National Antimicrobial Surveillance Project, involving 10 regions nationwide. Molecular typing studies, including multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing were performed, and a representative clone of Korean MRSA was classified by combinational grouping using a DiversiLab (DL; bioMérieux, France) repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) system. RESULTS: Nine Korean MRSA clones (KMRSA-1 to -9) were identified by analysis of genetic backgrounds and molecular characteristics. KMRSA-1 to -3, expressing clonal complex (CC) 5 (carrying SCCmec II), CC8 (carrying SCCmec III), and CC72 (carrying SCCmec IV) were spread nationwide. In contrast, KMRSA-6 was highly prevalent in Gyeongsangnam-do, and KMRSA-4 was highly prevalent in Jeollanam-do and Jeollabuk-do. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemic KMRSA clones were genetically similar to major clones identified from the USA, with the exception of KMRSA-2, which had the SCCmec III type. Our results provide important insights into the distribution and molecular genetics of MRSA strains in Korea and may aid in the monitoring of MRSA spread throughout the country.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Hospitals , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-37152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although transfusion is a paramount life-saving therapy, there are multiple potential significant risks. Therefore, all adverse transfusion reaction (ATR) episodes require close monitoring. Using the computerized reporting system, we assessed the frequency and pattern of non-infectious ATRs. METHODS: We analyzed two-year transfusion data from electronic medical records retrospectively. From March 2013 to February 2015, 364,569 units of blood were transfused. Of them, 334,582 (91.8%) records were identified from electronic nursing records. For the confirmation of ATRs by blood bank physicians, patients' electronic medical records were further evaluated. RESULTS: According to the nursing records, the frequency of all possible transfusion-related events was 3.1%. After the blood bank physicians' review, the frequency was found to be 1.2%. The overall frequency of febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs) to red blood cells (RBCs), platelet (PLT) components, and fresh frozen plasmas (FFPs) were 0.9%, 0.3%, and 0.2%, respectively, and allergic reactions represented 0.3% (RBCs), 0.9% (PLTs), and 0.9% (FFPs), respectively. The pre-storage leukocyte reduction significantly decreased the frequency of FNHTRs during the transfusion of RBCs (P<0.01) or PLTs (Pfalling dots0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of FNHTRs, allergic reactions, and "no reactions" were 22.0%, 17.0%, and 60.7%, respectively. Leukocyte-reduction was associated with a lower rate of FNHTRs, but not with that of allergic reactions. The development of an effective electronic reporting system of ATRs is important in quantifying transfusion-related adverse events. This type of reporting system can also accurately identify the underlying problems and risk factors to further the quality of transfusion care for patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Transfusion/adverse effects , Humans , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Transfusion Reaction/epidemiology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36479

ABSTRACT

This study explored epidemiological trends in trichomoniasis in Daegu, South Korea. Wet mount microscopy, PCR, and multiplex PCR were used to test for Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swab samples obtained from 621 women visiting 2 clinics in Daegu. Of the 621 women tested, microscopy detected T. vaginalis in 4 (0.6%) patients, PCR detected T. vaginalis in 19 (3.0%) patients, and multiplex PCR detected T. vaginalis in 12 (1.9%) patients. Testing via PCR demonstrated high sensitivity and high negative predictive value for T. vaginalis. Among the 19 women who tested positive for T. vaginalis according to PCR, 94.7% (18/19) reported vaginal signs and symptoms. Notably, more than 50% of T. vaginalis infections occurred in females younger than 30 years old, and 58% were unmarried. Multiplex PCR, which simultaneously detects pathogens from various sexually transmitted infections, revealed that 91.7% (11/12) of patients were infected with 2 or more pathogens. Mycoplasma hominis was the most prevalent co-infection pathogen with T. vaginalis, followed by Ureaplasma urealyticum and Chlamydia trachomatis. Our results indicate that PCR and multiplex PCR are the most sensitive tools for T. vaginalis diagnosis, rather than microscopy which has been routinely used to detect T. vaginalis infections in South Korea. Therefore, clinicians should take note of the high prevalence of T. vaginalis infections among adolescent and young women in order to prevent persistent infection and transmission of this disease.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Ambulatory Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Microscopy/standards , Middle Aged , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Trichomonas Infections/epidemiology , Trichomonas vaginalis/physiology , Vaginal Smears/standards , Young Adult
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36477

ABSTRACT

Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings.


Subject(s)
Anaplasma/genetics , Animals , Arachnid Vectors/microbiology , Bartonella/genetics , Chaperonin 60/genetics , Deer/parasitology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Ticks/microbiology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36475

ABSTRACT

Lyme disease is a tick-borne zoonotic infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. The present study assessed the infection status of B. burgdorferi among horses reared in Korea using ELISA and PCR. Between 2009 and 2013, blood samples were collected from 727 horses throughout Korea. Data for each animal including age, gender, breed, and region of sample collection were used for epidemiological analysis. Overall, 38 (5.2%; true prevalence: 5.5%) of 727 horses were seropositive by ELISA. There were statistically significant differences according to breed and region (P<0.001) whose differences might be attributed to the ecology of vector ticks and climate conditions. Using 2 nested PCR, none of the samples tested positive for B. burgdorferi. Thus, a positive ELISA result can indicate only that the tested horse was previously exposed to B. burgdorferi, with no certainty over the time of exposure. Since global warming is likely to increase the abundance of ticks in Korea, continuous monitoring of tick-borne diseases in Korean horses is needed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Borrelia burgdorferi/physiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Female , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Horses , Lyme Disease/epidemiology , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
19.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 271-276, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67083

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of workplace violence toward newly licensed nurses and the relationship between workplace violence and job outcomes. METHODS: An online survey was conducted of newly licensed registered nurses who had obtained their license in 2012 or 2013 in South Korea and had been working for 5-12 months after first being employed. The sample consisted of 312 nurses working in hospitals or clinics. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II was used to measure violence and nurse job outcomes. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between violence and job outcomes. RESULTS: Verbal abuse was most prevalent (59.6%), followed by threats of violence (36.9%), physical violence (27.6%), bullying (25.6%), and sexual harassment (22.4%). Approximately three quarters of the nurses had experienced at least one type of violence. The main perpetrators were patients and nurse colleagues, although the distribution of perpetrators varied depending on the type of violence. Bullying had a significant relationship with all four job outcomes (job satisfaction, burnout, commitment to the workplace, and intent to leave), while verbal abuse was associated with all job outcomes except for intent to leave. Violence perpetrated by nurse colleagues had a significant relationship with all four job outcomes, while violence by physicians had a significant inverse relationship with job satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Workplace violence is experienced by a high percentage of newly licensed nurses, and is associated with their job outcomes.


Subject(s)
Bullying/statistics & numerical data , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Nurses/psychology , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sexual Harassment/psychology , Workplace Violence/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
20.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 295-299, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67079

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Emergency department (ED) nurses suffer from persistent stress after experiencing the traumatic event of exposure to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which can subsequently lead to burnout. This study aimed to assess ED nurses' burnout level during an outbreak of MERS-CoV and to identify influencing factors in order to provide basic information for lowering and preventing the level of burnout. METHODS: Study participants were ED nurses working in eight hospitals designated for treating MERS-CoV-infected patients in Korea. We performed multiple regression analysis to explore the factors influencing burnout. RESULTS: The ED nurses' burnout was affected by job stress (β = 0.59, p < .001), poor hospital resources for the treatment of MERS-CoV (β = −0.19, p < .001) and poor support from family and friends (β = −0.14, p < .05). These three variables explained 47.3% of the variance in burnout. CONCLUSIONS: ED nurses taking care of MERS-CoV-infected patients should be aware that burnout is higher for nurses in their divisions than nurses in other hospital departments and that job stress is the biggest influential factor of burnout. To be ready for the outbreak of emerging contagious diseases such as MERS-CoV, efforts and preparations should be made to reduce burnout. Job stress should be managed and resolved. Working conditions for mitigating job stress and systematic stress management programs should be provided, and hospital resources for the treatment of MERS-CoV need to be reinforced. Moreover, promoting support from family and friends is required.


Subject(s)
Adult , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Emergency Nursing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Nurses/psychology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Young Adult
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