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Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(nspe2): e224, dic. 2022. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1403318

ABSTRACT

Introducción: alrededor del 30% de las enfermedades infantiles responden a factores sociofamiliares y ambientales, asociados a condiciones de vida, dinámica familiar y exposición a sustancias tóxicas. Conocer las características de la población pediátrica que asiste este centro de salud nos ayudará a identificar factores que pueden estar influyendo en su salud. Objetivos: Describir las características clínico-epidemiológicas de la población menor de 15 años que recibió asistencia en el Centro de Salud Badano Repetto en el período 2020-2021. Conocer diferentes variables que pueden influir en la salud de esta población Identificar asociación de variables familiares y socioculturales con el desarrollo en las diferentes edades. Metodología: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, corte transversal. Se incluyó una muestra por conveniencia del 15% del total de los niños y adolescentes menores de 15 años asistidos en el centro de salud desde 1/10/2020 hasta 31/3/2021. Variables estudiadas: del niño: sexo, edad, antecedentes perinatales, crecimiento y desarrollo, controles en salud, inmunizaciones, escolarización, actividades extracurriculares. De los padres: edad, nivel educativo, consumo de sustancias psicoactivas, antecedentes patológicos, empleo, privación de libertad. Familia y vivienda: estado civil de los padres, antecedentes de violencia doméstica, convivientes, características de la vivienda, servicios básicos, transferencias directas de ayuda, intervención de equipos de territorio. Fuente de datos: historias clínicas y vía telefónica. Registro en planilla prediseñada. Los resultados se expresan en frecuencias absolutas, relativas y medidas de tendencia central con su rango. Se utilizó test de Chi cuadrado o exacto de Fisher. Nivel de significación: 0,05. Programa Epi Info™ versión 7.2. Consentimiento informado telefónico a padres y asentimiento a adolescentes. Aprobado por el Comité de Ética del CHPR. Resultados: consultaron 2.826 menores de 15 años, se incluyeron 426 (15%), pero solo 263 (62%) fueron analizados, dado que 163 (38%) no pudieron ser contactados telefónicamente. El 52% eran de sexo femenino. Media de edad: 4 años (5 días-14 años), 69% ≤5 años. 83% de los pacientes tenían adecuados controles de salud y 91% estaban al día con sus inmunizaciones. 12% tenían sobrepeso/obesidad. El desarrollo neurológico fue adecuado en 93% en los menores de 5 años y en 56% de los mayores de 5 años de edad. En el caso de aquellos con trastornos del neurodesarrollo mayores de 5 años, 46% tenían trastornos del aprendizaje, 39% trastorno de conducta, 32% trastornos del lenguaje, 10% déficit intelectual. 56% estaba escolarizado, todos en escuelas públicas. En el caso de aquellos que no asistían a la escuela, 4 estaban en edad de asistencia obligatoria (6, 7, 9 y 10 años de edad). 20% de los niños/adolescentes había repetido por lo menos un año en escuela o liceo. Datos perinatales: 14% de las madres consumieron drogas; las más frecuentes fueron tabaco y pasta base de cocaína (PBC). 85% fueron recién nacidos de término, 10% presentaron depresión neonatal. 15% de niños/ adolescentes estuvo expuesto a violencia doméstica y 32% de ellos (12/38) tenía por lo menos un padre con uso de drogas psicoactivas en el domicilio. 21% de los niños/adolescentes expuestos a violencia doméstica tenía una dificultad de aprendizaje. 8% de estos pacientes tenía por lo menos un padre que no había terminado educación primaria y 28% que no había terminado ciclo básico. Se encontró una relación significativa entre uso de drogas psicoactivas, declarada por uno o ambos padres, y violencia doméstica. No se encontró una relación significativa entre alteración del neurodesarrollo y violencia doméstica. Conclusiones: estos hallazgos muestran una población social y económicamente vulnerable, padres con baja escolaridad, uso de pasta base de cocaína durante el embarazo en un porcentaje mayor al reportado nacionalmente, y 15% de niños/adolescentes expuestos a violencia doméstica, pero con un buen número de controles de salud. La mayor fortaleza encontrada por este estudio es la importancia de mantener una buena conexión con estas familias, que mostraron un alto nivel de compromiso con el centro de salud. Esto nos desafía a priorizar la prevención y promoción en salud como herramientas valiosas para adquirir salud de calidad para estos niños/adolescentes. Nuevos estudios, con otras metodologías, serán necesarios para analizar estas variables encontradas.


Introduction: around 30% of childhood diseases are caused by social, environmental and family issues, as well as by life conditions, family dynamics and exposure to toxic substances. Understanding the characteristics of the pediatric population assisted at this Health Center, will help us identify health-threatening factors. Objectives: Describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the population under 15 years of age assisted at Badano Repetto Health Center between 2020 and 2021. Understand the different variables that could influence this population´s health. Identify the link between family, social and cultural variables and neurological development at different ages. Methodology: descriptive, retrospective cross-sectional study. Convenience sampling of 15% of the total number of children and adolescents under 15 years of age, assisted at the Health Center from 10/01/2020 to 3/31/2021. Variables: children: sex, age, perinatal history, growth and neurological development, health checkups, vaccines, school attendance, extracurricular activities. Parents: age, education, psychoactive substance use, pathological background, job, prison. Family and household: parent`s marital status, domestic violence history, cohabitants, housing characteristics, basic household services, government aids, community interventions. Data source: medical records and telephone conversations. Data was recorded on template charts. We used results in absolute and relative frequencies, and their measures of central tendency measures and their range, Chi-square test or Fisher´s exact test. Significance level 0,05. Epi Info Program, version 7.2. Informed parent and adolescent consent. Approved by the CHPR Ethics Committee. Results: out of the 2826 patients under 15 years of age assisted at the clinic, we included 426 (15%), but only 263 (62%) were analyzed, since we were not able to reach 163 (38%) by phone. 52% were female. The average age was 4 years of age (5 days-14 years old). 69% of children were under 5 years old. 83% of patients had adequate number of checkups and 91% had an updated vaccination chart. 12% were overweight/obese. Neurodevelopment was adequate in 93% of those under 5 years of age, and 56% of those over 5 years of age. Regarding those with neurodevelopmental difficulties and over 5 years of age, 46% had learning disabilities, 39% had behavioral disorders, 32% language disorders, 10% intellectual deficit. 56% attended school, all of them public schools. For those who did not attend school, 4 of them were old enough to attend mandatory school (6, 7, 9 and 10 years of age). 20% of the children and adolescents had failed at least one year in school or high school. Perinatal findings: 14% of mothers had substance use during pregnancy, mainly tobacco and cocaine base paste. 85% of them had been born to term, 10% had neonatal depression 15% of children/adolescents had been exposed to domestic violence and 32% of them (12/38) had one parent with psychoactive drug use at home. 21% of children/adolescents exposed to domestic violence had a learning disability. 8% had at least one parent who did not finish primary school and 28% who did not finish middle school. Statistically, a significant link was found between psychoactive substance use, declared by one or both parents, and domestic violence. No statistically significant link was found between neurodevelopmental difficulties and domestic violence. Conclusions: these findings show a socially and economically vulnerable population, parents with little formal education, higher cocaine paste base use during pregnancy than the national statistics and 15% of children/adolescents exposed to domestic violence, even though they a high number of them had received their health checkups. The biggest strength shown by this study is the importance of maintaining a good bond with these families, who showed a high level of commitment with the health center. This leads us to prioritize health prevention and promotion as a valuable tool to achieve health quality standards for these children and adolescents. New studies, using other methodologies, will be necessary to analyze this data.


Introdução: cerca de 30% das doenças infantis são causadas por questões sociais, ambientais e familiares, bem como por condições de vida, dinâmica familiar e exposição a substâncias tóxicas. Compreender as características da população pediátrica atendida neste Centro de Saúde, nos ajudará a identificar fatores de risco à saúde. Objetivos: Descrever as características clínico-epidemiológicas da população menor de 15 anos de idade atendida no Centro de Saúde Badano Repetto no período 2020-2021. Compreender diferentes variáveis que podem influenciar a saúde dessa população. Identificar uma relação entre as variáveis familiares e socioculturais e o desenvolvimento em diferentes idades. Metodologia: estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, transversal. Foi incluída uma amostra por conveniência de 15% de todas as crianças e adolescentes menores de 15 anos atendidos no Centro de Saúde entre 01/10/2020 e 31/03/2021. Variáveis estudadas: da criança: sexo, idade, história perinatal, crescimento e desenvolvimento, controles de saúde, imunizações, escolaridade, atividades extracurriculares. Dos pais: idade, escolaridade, consumo de substâncias psicoativas, histórico médico, emprego, privação de liberdade. Família e habitação: estado civil dos pais, história de violência doméstica, coabitantes, características da moradia, serviços básicos, transferências de ajuda de custo, intervenção das equipes no território. Fonte de dados: prontuários e enquetes telefônicas. Cadastro em planilha padrão. Os resultados são expressos em frequências absolutas e relativas e medidas de tendência central com sua amplidão. Utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher. Nível de significância 0,05. Programa Epi Info™ versão 7.2. Consentimento informado por telefone pais e consentimento dos adolescentes. Aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética do CHPR. Resultados: 2.826 crianças menores de 15 anos consultadas, 426 (15%) foram incluídas, mas 263 (62%) foram analisadas, pois 163 (38%) não puderam ser contatadas por telefone. 52% eram do sexo feminino. Idade média 4 anos (5 dias -14 anos), 69% ≤ 5 anos. 83% dos pacientes possuíam controles de saúde adequados e 91% estavam com suas imunizações em dia. 12% com sobrepeso/obesidade. O desenvolvimento neurológico foi adequado em 93% dos menores de 5 anos e em 56% dos maiores de 5 anos. No caso dos portadores de transtornos de neurodesenvolvimento com mais de 5 anos, 46% apresentavam transtorno de aprendizagem, 39% transtorno de conduta, 32% transtorno de linguagem, 10% déficit intelectual. 56% estavam na escola, todos em escolas públicas. No caso dos que não frequentaram a escola, 4 deles estavam em idade em idade escolar obrigatória (6, 7, 9 e 10 anos). 20% das crianças/adolescentes repetiram pelo menos um ano na escola ou no ensino médio. Dados perinatais: 14% das mães usavam drogas; pasta base de tabaco e maiormente pasta base de cocaína (PBC). 85% eram recém-nascidos a termo, 10% tinham depressão neonatal. 15% das crianças/adolescentes foram expostos à violência doméstica e 32% deles (12/38) tinham pelo menos um dos pais que usava drogas psicoativas em casa. 21% das crianças/adolescentes expostas à violência doméstica tinham dificuldade de aprendizagem. 8% desses pacientes possuíam pelo menos um dos pais com escola primária incompleta e 28% com ensino médio incompleto. Encontrou-se relação significativa entre o uso de drogas psicoativas, declarado por um ou ambos os pais, e a violência doméstica. Não foi encontrada relação significativa entre transtornos do neurodesenvolvimento e violência doméstica. Conclusões: esses achados mostram uma população social e economicamente vulnerável, pais com baixa escolaridade, uso de pasta base de cocaína durante a gravidez em porcentagem superior ao reportado a nível nacional, e 15% de crianças/adolescentes expostos à violência doméstica, mas com um alto número de controles de saúde. A maior fortaleza encontrada por este estudo é a importância de manter um bom vínculo com essas famílias, que demonstraram alto nível de comprometimento com o centro de saúde. Isso nos leva a priorizar a prevenção e promoção da saúde como ferramentas valiosas para a aquisição de saúde de qualidade para essas crianças/adolescentes. Novos estudos, com outras metodologias, serão necessários para poder analisar essas variáveis encontradas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Public Assistance/statistics & numerical data , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Child Health/statistics & numerical data , Perinatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent Health/statistics & numerical data , Family Relations , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Uruguay/epidemiology , Child Development , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
2.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 21(3): e4379, mayo.-jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409487

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La evaluación del desempeño pedagógico del tutor es vital para elevar la calidad del proceso educativo. Objetivo: Definir la evaluación del desempeño pedagógico del tutor en la especialidad de Medicina General Integral. Material y Métodos: Se realizó una revisión documental de enero a diciembre de 2020. Se utilizaron la base de datos Pubmed y la biblioteca científica electrónica SciELO, así como el buscador de información científica Google Académico. Se evaluaron artículos de revisión, de investigación y páginas Web que tenían menos de 10 años de publicados, en idioma español, portugués e inglés, y que hicieran referencia al tema de estudio a través del título. Desarrollo: Se identificaron regularidades entre los autores de la comunidad científica de la Educación Avanzada: proceso vinculado con los objetos de la pedagogía desde la actuación y el comportamiento de los especialistas con funciones docentes como tutores; se realiza a partir del cumplimiento de los objetivos y métodos propios de su contenido de trabajo; se refiere a ejercer las actividades con cuidado, precisión, exactitud, profundidad, originalidad y rapidez, y está asociado con el proceso de profesionalización. Conclusiones: Se definió la evaluación del desempeño pedagógico del tutor de la especialidad de Medicina General Integral como un proceso sistemático, continuo y flexible que permite comprobar, medir y valorar el cumplimiento de las funciones, acciones y tareas que se expresan en el modo de actuación profesional del tutor desde lo relacionado con el saber, saber hacer y saber ser, en correspondencia con las exigencias actuales en el contexto de la educación en el trabajo(AU)


Introduction: The evaluation of the pedagogical performance of the tutor is vital to raise the quality of the educational process. Objective: To define the evaluation of the pedagogical performance of the tutor in the formation of the specialist in Comprehensive General Medicine. Material and Methods: A literature review was carried out from January to December 2020. Database Pubmed, the scientific electronic library SciELO, and Google Scholar were used. Review articles, research articles, and Web sites published less than 10 years ago in both Spanish and English that made reference to the topic through the title were evaluated. Development: Regularities among authors from the scientific community in Advanced Education were identified: process related to the objects of pedagogy from the action and behavior of specialists with the teaching roles of tutors, which starts from the fulfillment of the objectives and own methods of the work content, and refers to undertake the activities carefully to ensure precision, accuracy, depth, originality, and speed all of which is associated with the professionalization process. Conclusions: The evaluation of the pedagogical professional performance of the tutor in the formation of the specialist in Comprehensive General Medicine is defined as a systematic, continuous, and flexible process that allows to check, measure, and evaluate the fulfillment of the functions, actions, and tasks expressed in the professional performance of the tutor from knowing, knowing how to do, and knowing how to be in accordance with the current requirements within the context of in-service training(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Computer Communication Networks , Residence Characteristics , Total Quality Management , Education , Electronics , General Practice , Libraries
3.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 21(3): e4746, mayo.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409486

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: En Cuba, las personas mayores de 60 años constituyen 21,3 % de la población. Objetivo: Determinar la eficacia de la estrategia para la promoción de estilos de vida saludables en adultos mayores. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio pre-experimental a través de una intervención comunitaria en el Consejo Popular 2 Siboney, Comunidad de Barbosa, Municipio Playa, en el período comprendido de abril de 2015 a diciembre de 2016. Se escogió como universo la totalidad de los adultos mayores de 60 años del Consejo Popular 2 Siboney, Reparto Barbosa, Municipio Playa, La Habana y la población estuvo constituida por 66 adultos mayores para la fase diagnóstica y para la fase de implementación de la estrategia, donde se realizó una valoración del cambio, disminuyó la misma a 58 adultos mayores ya que salieron del estudio por fallecimiento o cambio de domicilio 8 personas mayores. Se analizó el cambio después de aplicada la estrategia en las variables: autocuidado, movilidad, uso de medicamentos, sueño, estado emocional, relaciones sociales, práctica de ejercicio físico y calidad de vida. Resultados: En todas se evidencia progresión hacia la mejoría. El análisis posterior arroja la modificación al área de positividad de los estilos de vida después de aplicada la estrategia. Conclusiones: Se observó un predominio de las categorías positivas. Disminuyeron las categorías negativas y aumentaron significativamente las buenas. Los factores asociados al estilo de vida fueron el autocuidado, ingestión de medicamentos, sueño, relaciones interpersonales y ejercicio físico. La aplicación de la Estrategia de promoción comunitaria fue efectiva para mejorar los estilos de vida.


ABSTRACT Introduction: In Cuba, people over 60 years old constitute 21,3 % of the population. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of a strategy for promotion of healthy lifestyles in older adults. Material and Methods: A pre-experimental study was performed through community intervention in the Popular Council No. 2 Siboney, Barbosa Community, Playa Municipality during the period between April 2015 and December 2016. The universe consisted of all adults over 60 years old from the aforementioned Popular Council. The study population was composed of 66 older adults who were chosen for the diagnostic phase and the strategy implementation phase, where a valuation of the change was carried out and it was reduced to 58 older adults due to deaths or changes of residence of eight of them. After the implementation of the strategy, the change was analyzed in the following variables: self-care, mobility, medication intake, sleep, emotional state, social relationships, physical exercise, and quality of life. Results: Progression to improvement is evidenced in all cases. A further analysis shows a change in the positivity of lifestyles after the implementation of the strategy. Conclusions: A predominance of positive categories was observed; negative categories diminished and the good ones increased significantly. The factors related to lifestyle included: self-care, medication intake, sleep, interpersonal relationships, and physical exercise. The implementation of a community promotion strategy was effective for the improvement of lifestyles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life , Exercise , Residence Characteristics , Efficacy , Eating , Interpersonal Relations , Life Style
4.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 21(3): e4415, mayo.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409479

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La Diabetes Mellitus es una enfermedad frecuente, de enorme impacto sanitario a nivel mundial. El envejecimiento poblacional constituye uno de los principales problemas de salud pública en el mundo y en Cuba, siendo un reto para los tiempos actuales. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los gerontes, diabéticos tipo 2, de Punta Brava, según algunas variables clínicas epidemiológicas, 2020. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal, de base comunitaria, observacional, con los pacientes adultos mayores, con diagnóstico de DM2, según variables cclínicas de interés, en la comunidad de Punta Brava, año 2020. Resultados: Hubo predominio del sexo masculino en cuanto al peso (45,4 %), estado marital con pareja (68,4 %), color de la piel blanco (47,2 %), nivel escolar primaria (32,7 %) y jubilados (60,1 %). Las féminas predominaron en los factores de riesgo dislipidemias, sedentarismo, obesidad, alcoholismo y hábito de fumar, así como en comorbilidades asociadas como la hipertensión arterial (71,0 %) y la cardiopatía isquémica (50,7 %). Conclusiones: La obesidad es un factor de riesgo de mucha importancia, que predispone a complicaciones vasculares crónicas en esta enfermedad. El hábito de fumar y el alcoholismo son adicciones negativas en la aparición de complicaciones cardiovasculares.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a frequent disease of enormous health impact at a global scale. Population aging is one of the main public health problems both globally and in Cuba, being a challenge of the current times. Objective: To characterize older adults with type 2 diabetes from Punta Brava Community according to some clinical and epidemiological variables, 2020. Material and Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional, observational study of older adults with the diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus according to variables of interest was conducted in Punta Brava Community in 2020. Results: There was prevalence of males in terms of weight (45,4 %), marital status, with partners (68,4 %), white skin (47,2 %), elementary school level (32,7 %), and retired people (60,1 %). Females prevailed in terms of risk factors, dyslipidemias, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, alcoholism, and smoking habit, as well as other comorbidities associated with arterial hypertension (71,0 %) and ischemic heart disease (50,7 %). Conclusions: Obesity is a very important risk factor which predisposes to chronic vascular complications of this disease. The smoking habit and alcoholism are negative addictions for the occurrence of cardiovascular complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Comorbidity , Residence Characteristics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Alcoholism
5.
Investig. desar ; 30(1): 198-248, ene.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1385966

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Tras la firma del acuerdo de paz entre el Gobierno colombiano y las FARC-EP se destinaron alrededor del país algunos Espacios Territoriales de Capacitación y Reincorporación (ETCR) como parte del proceso de reincorporación de los excombatientes, cuyo desarrollo y consecución ha tenido grandes dificultades para alcanzar lo pactado en el marco del proceso de paz (demoras, negligencias, rutas claras de reincorporación, seguridad, tensiones políticas). Con base en un trabajo de campo en dos ETCR, uno en la vereda La Fila y otro en El Oso, en el departamento del Tolima, conversamos con algunos firmantes del Acuerdo de Paz y registramos a nivel audiovisual las maneras de apropiación e intervención de estos espacios donde convergen integrantes del partido Comunes, instituciones nacionales, extranjeras y comunidades vecinas. Este trabajo propone una perspectiva sobre los ETCR como guetos de integración y exclusión de los excombatientes. Además, destacamos de qué manera la convivencia en los espacios ha tejido modos de habitar los ETCR expresados en las adecuaciones al espacio, órdenes y símbolos otorgados por firmantes de paz en proceso de reincorporación.


ABSTRACT After the signing of the peace agreement between the Colombian government and the former FARC-EP guerrilla, some Territorial Training and Reincorporation Spaces (ETCR, by its Spanish acronym) were allocated around the country as part of the reincorporation process for ex-combatants, whose development and achievement has had great difficulties in accomplishing what has been agreed in the framework of the peace process (delays, negligence, clear routes of reincorporation, security, political tensions). Based on fieldwork in two ETCRs, one in La Fila and the other in El Oso, in Tolima (Andean region, in the center-west of the country), we spoke with some signatories of the Peace Agreement. During our visit, we recorded at the audiovisual level how these spaces, where members of the Comunes party, national institutions, foreign countries, and neighboring communities converge, are being appropriated and intervened. This paper proposes a perspective on the ETCRs as ghettos of integration and exclusion of ex-combatants. In addition, we highlight how coexistence in spaces has created ways of inhabiting the ETCRs expressed in the adaptations to spaces, orders, and symbols given by peace signatories in the process of reincorporation


Subject(s)
Humans , Safety , Residence Characteristics , Homing Behavior , Organizations , Government , Malpractice
6.
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 38(2): e4389, abr.-jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408332

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El dengue es una enfermedad de interés para la salud pública por el difícil control, la expansión acelerada en países tropicales y subtropicales, la inexistencia de vacunas o medicamentos específicos y la desatención de comunidades con altos niveles de vulnerabilidad y riesgos de enfermar o morir. Objetivo: Explorar las prácticas ancestrales en el control del dengue utilizadas por indígenas de una comunidad embera katío en Córdoba, Colombia. Métodos: Estudio cualitativo con diseño microetnográfico, desarrollado con 20 miembros de una de las comunidades indígenas embera katío del Departamento de Córdoba, Colombia, entre junio de 2019 y mayo de 2020. La recolección de datos se hizo mediante una entrevista a profundidad, desde los postulados de Leininger. Los hallazgos se organizaron, sistematizaron e interpretaron bajo la técnica de análisis de contenido. Resultados: Se pudo constatar que, en la comunidad sujeto de estudio, persiste el uso de prácticas ancestrales, dentro de las cuales se destaca la utilización de plantas en forma de baños y bebidas. Asimismo, el control de las enfermedades se vincula con costumbres basadas en rituales, cantos y procedimientos realizados por el Jaibaná, donde se integra la conexión entre el mundo espiritual, cultural y corporal. Conclusiones: Las plantas de mayor uso para el control del dengue son balsamina (Momordica charantia), corrata (Simaba cedron Planch.), gavilán (Simarouba glauca DC.), matarratón (Gliricidia sepium) y limoncillo (Cymbopogon citratus). Se requiere implementar miradas transdisciplinares y transculturales que potencien la capacidad de las familias como cuidadoras primarias, y de enfermería como agente en la identificación precoz de necesidades e implementación de planes de cuidado(AU)


Introduction: Dengue is a disease of public health concern, due to its difficult control, accelerated expansion in tropical and subtropical countries, the nonexistence of vaccines or specific drugs, as well as the neglect of communities with high levels of vulnerability and morbidity and mortality risks. Objective: To explore the ancestral practices of dengue control used by indigenous people from the Embera Katío community in Córdoba, Colombia. Methods: Qualitative study, with a microethnographic design, developed with twenty members from Embera Katío, one of the indigenous communities in the Córdoba Department, Colombia, between June 2019 and May 2020. Data collection was carried out through in-depth interview, following Leininger postulates. The findings were organized, systematized and interpreted using the content analysis technique. Results: It was found that, in the community under study, the use of ancestral practices persists, among which the use of herbs in the form of baths and drinks stands out. Likewise, disease control is linked to customs based on rituals, chants and procedures performed by the Jaibaná, integrating the spiritual, cultural and corporeal worlds. Conclusions: The most commonly used herbs for dengue control are balsam-pear (Momordica charantia), cedron (Simaba cedron [Planch.]), paradise tree (Simarouba glauca [DC.]), quickstick (Gliricidia sepium) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus). It is necessary to implement transdisciplinary and transcultural approaches, in order to enhance the capacity of families as primary caregivers, as well as of nurses as agents in the early identification of needs and the implementation of care plans(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Residence Characteristics , Indigenous Peoples , Data Collection
7.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(2): 285-291, abr.jun.2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400223

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The home environment is one of the most favorable spaces for the development of mites because of its low light, humidity, and temperature. Thus, it contributes to the growing cases of allergies among atopic individuals. Objective: To investigate the faunal profile of house dust mites in the city of Rio de Janeiro and the allergenic potential in this region. Methods: Thirty dust samples were collected from homes in the city of Rio de Janeiro, and the species found were classified according to their morphology, family, and genus by classification key. For the collection region, the total protein level was assessed by the Lowry method and electrophoresis under denaturing conditions (SDSPAGE). Results: There was a predominance of Pyroglyphidae mites, accounting for 84.9% of samples; Tyrophagus putrescentiae accounted for 8%, Blomia tropicalis for 6%, Cheyletus malaccensis for 1%, and Acarus siro for 0.1%. The allergen protein content of the samples was the following: group 1 ­ 25 kDa (Der 1, Der p 1, and Blo t 1), group 2 ­ 15 kDa (Der f 2, Der 2, Tyr p 2, and Blo t 2), and group 3 ­ 29-30 kDa (Der f 3 and Blo t 3), which indicates that people in this region are susceptible to sensitization to these mites. Conclusion: Knowledge of the mite fauna in the region under study allows the guidance of health care professionals to perform skin tests for specific mites and conduct treatment according to the pool of mite extracts containing antigens, making immunotherapy more effective.


Introdução: O ambiente domiciliar é um dos espaços favoráveis para o desenvolvimento de ácaros, tendo em vista a baixa luminosidade, umidade e temperatura, o que contribui para os crescentes casos de alergias em indivíduos atópicos. Objetivo: Investigar o perfil faunístico dos ácaros na cidade do Rio de Janeiro e o potencial alergêncio para essa região. Métodos: Foram coletadas 30 amostras de poeira em residências na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, e as espécies encontradas foram classificadas quanto à morfologia, família e o gênero por chave de classificação. Para as regiões das coletas, a carga total de proteínas contendo os alérgenos foi determinada pelo método de Lowry e eletroforese em condições desnaturantes (SDS-PAGE). Resultados: Os resultados mostram a predominância de 84,9% de ácaros da família Pyroglyphidae; para os demais ácaros o percentual corresponde a 8% Tyrophagus putrescentiae, 6% Blomia tropicalis, 1% Cheyletus malaccensis, e 0,1% de Acarus siro. O conteúdo proteico alergêncio constituinte das amostras foram, grupo 1: 25 kDa (Der 1, Der p 1 e Blo t 1); grupo 2: 15 kDa (Der f 2, Der 2, Tyr p 2 e Blo t 2); e para o grupo 3: 29-30 kDa (Der f 3 e Blo t 3), o que indica uma região passível à sensibilização de indivíduos por estes ácaros. Conclusão: O conhecimento da acarofauna nas regiões em estudo permite orientar a comunidade médica quanto à realização de testes cutâneos, além da terapêutica a partir do pool de extratos de ácaros contendo os antígenos, a fim de tornar a imunoterapia mais eficaz.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pyroglyphidae , Dust , Hypersensitivity , Mites , Therapeutics , Skin Tests , Allergens , Residence Characteristics , Diagnosis , Home Environment , Humidity , Immunotherapy
8.
Psicol. rev ; 31(1): 207-230, jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399640

ABSTRACT

A partir da necessidade de explorar mais profundamente o modo como a reli-giosidade/espiritualidade (R/E) tem atravessado a formação em Psicologia, o presente estudo apresenta uma reflexão crítica acerca da literatura científica produzida sobre a R/E, tomando por base um relato de experiência profissional que narra a inserção de uma profissional da Psicologia em uma comunidade periférica durante o trabalho com famílias em uma cidade de médio porte do Estado de São Paulo. Este relato tem por objetivo refletir sobre como emerge a dimensão da R/E no contexto familiar e comunitário tendo como norte a Psicologia Social e Comunitária. O profissional que atua com a comunidade tem o compromisso com a promoção de direitos (humanos e sociais), com o protagonismo dos sujeitos e com a qualidade de vida para todos. Esse profis-sional deve acolher as diversas denominações e compreender os sentidos e significados que são atribuídos a elas pelas coletividades com as quais atua. A laicidade da prática psicológica não pode ser confundida com a negligência em torno dessa dimensão, mas sim de seu acolhimento ético, crítico e perene-mente humanizador das populações atendidas.


Given the need to explore more deeply the way in which religiosity/spirituality (R/S) has arisen in the studies of Psychology, this study presents a critical reflection regarding the scientific literature produced on R/S, based on a profes-sional experience report that narrates the insertion of a psychology professional in a peripheral community while working with families in a medium-sized city in the state of São Paulo. This report aims to reflect on how the dimension of R/S emerges in this context with Social and Community Psychology as its guide. The professional who works with the community is committed to the promotion of (human and social) rights, to subjects' protagonism and to quality of life for everyone. This professional must accept different denominations and understand senses and meanings attributed to them by the communities he works with. The secularity of psychological practice cannot be confused with the neglect surrounding this dimension, but rather with its ethical, critical, and permanently humanizing acceptance of the assisted populations.


Basado en la necesidad de explorar más a fondo la forma en que la religio-sidad/espiritualidad (R/E) ha recibido capacitación en psicología, este estudio presenta una reflexión crítica sobre la literatura científica producida en R/E basada en un informe de Experiencia profesional que narra la inserción de un profesional de psicología en una comunidad periférica mientras trabaja con familias en una ciudad mediana en el estado de São Paulo. Este informe tiene como objetivo reflexionar sobre cómo emerge la dimensión de R/E en este contexto, teniendo como guía la psicología social y comunitaria. El profe-sional que trabaja con la comunidad está comprometido con la promoción de los derechos (humanos y sociales), con el protagonismo de los sujetos y con la calidad de vida para todos, teniendo el deber de defender el secularismo para que todos puedan ejercer su R / Y sin sufrir ninguna represión por eso. Este profesional debe aceptar las diferentes denominaciones y comprender los sentidos y los significados que les atribuyen las comunidades con las que trabaja. La secularidad de la práctica psicológica no puede confundirse con el abandono que rodea esta dimensión, sino más bien con su aceptación ética, crítica y humanizadora permanente de las poblaciones atendidas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Psychology, Social , Religion , Spirituality , Family/psychology , Residence Characteristics , Qualitative Research
9.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 26: e1421, abr.2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1387067

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a capacidade funcional e o medo de cair em idosos cadastrados em uma unidade de saúde da família. Método: estudo descritivo e transversal, com abordagem quantitativa, realizado em janeiro de 2019, no domicílio de 157 idosos cadastrados em uma unidade de saúde da família do município de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil. Para a coleta foi utilizado um instrumento semiestruturado, composto de questões sociodemográficas, histórico de quedas, o índice de Barthel e a Escala Internacional de Eficácia em Quedas. A análise foi efetivada pela estatística descritiva e inferencial, utilizando-se o teste de correlação de Spearman. Resultados: houve correlação entre atividades que compõem a análise da capacidade funcional e o medo de cair, em que se observou significância estatística entre elas, verificando-se que quanto menor a capacidade funcional, maior será o medo de cair. Considerações Finais: concluiu-se que, frente ao declínio fisiológico, social e psicológico oriundos do envelhecimento humano, é importante o planejamento de intervenções que abordem o medo de cair em idosos, com vistas a preservar sua capacidade funcional.


RESUMEN Objetivo: evaluar la capacidad funcional y el miedo a las caídas en personas mayores inscritas en una unidad de salud familiar. Método: estudio descriptivo y transversal, con enfoque cuantitativo, realizado en enero de 2019, en los hogares de 157 ancianos inscritos en una unidad de salud familiar en la ciudad de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó un instrumento semiestructurado, compuesto por preguntas sociodemográficas, historial de caídas, índice de Barthel y la Escala Internacional de Eficacia de Caídas. El análisis se realizó mediante estadística descriptiva e inferencial, utilizando la prueba de correlación de Spearman. Resultados: hubo correlación entre las actividades que componen el análisis de capacidad funcional y el miedo a caer, en la que se observó significación estadística entre ellas, comprobándose que, a menor capacidad funcional, mayor miedo a caer. Consideraciones finales: se concluyó que, dado el deterioro fisiológico, social y psicológico derivado del envejecimiento humano, es importante planificar intervenciones que aborden el miedo a las caídas en los ancianos, con el objetivo de preservar su capacidad funcional.


ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the functional capacity and fear of falling in elderly people enrolled in a family health unit. Method: descriptive and cross-sectional study, with a quantitative approach, carried out in January 2019, at the homes of 157 elderly people registered in a family health unit in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. For data collection, a semi-structured instrument was used, composed of sociodemographic questions, history of falls, the Barthel index and the Falls Efficacy Scale-International. The analysis was carried out by descriptive and inferential statistics, using the Spearman correlation test. Results: there was a correlation between activities that make up the analysis of functional capacity and the fear of falling, in which there was statistical significance between them, verifying that the lower the functional capacity, the greater the fear of falling. Final Considerations: it was concluded that, in view of the physiological, social, and psychological decline resulting from human aging, it is important to plan interventions that address the fear of falling in the elderly, in order to preserve their functional capacity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Accidental Falls , Health of the Elderly , Aging , Health Centers , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Family Health
10.
ABCS health sci ; 47: e022215, 06 abr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391901

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Sarcopenia, obesity, and sarcopenic obesity are considered risk factors for the health of the elderly, which may cause or worsen the reduction in functional capacity. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia, obesity, and sarcopenic obesity among community-dwelling and institutionalized female elderly in Caxias do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: Observational epidemiological study, with cross-sectional design. 423 elderly women (≥60 years old) institutionalized and community-dwellers, participated in the study. Sarcopenia was identified according to the criteria established by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). The gait speed test estimated low skeletal muscle mass (SMM) by bioimpedance, low handgrip strength using a hand dynamometer, and low physical performance. Obesity was defined as Body Mass Index ≥27.0kg/m² and sarcopenic obesity by the simultaneous occurrence of obesity and sarcopenia. The Chi-Square test was performed, with a 5% significance level. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of obesity was 53.9%. Sarcopenia was observed in 16.3% of the total sample, affecting 7.5% of the elderly in the community and 25.1% in institutions (p≤0.0001). Regarding sarcopenic obesity, 0.9% of the community and 3.8% of institutionalized elderly presented the dysfunction. Non-sarcopenic elderly women had a high prevalence of obesity. In the elderly of both groups, sarcopenia was more frequent in those with advanced age. CONCLUSION: Institutionalized elderly women had a higher prevalence of sarcopenia, emphasizing the importance of paying attention to the health of this population and highlighting the need for preventive measures.


INTRODUÇÃO: Sarcopenia, obesidade e obesidade sarcopênica são consideradas fatores de risco à saúde dos idosos, podendo ocasionar ou agravar a redução da capacidade funcional. OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de sarcopenia, obesidade e obesidade sarcopênica entre idosas da comunidade e institucionalizadas de Caxias do Sul/RS. MÉTODOS: Estudo epidemiológico observacional, com delineamento transversal. Participaram do estudo 423 idosas (≥60 anos) institucionalizadas e da comunidade. A sarcopenia foi identificada conforme os critérios estabelecidos pelo Grupo de Trabalho Europeu sobre Sarcopenia em Idosos (EWGSOP), utilizando baixa massa muscular esquelética (MME) por bioimpedância, baixa força de preensão manual em dinamômetro manual e baixo desempenho físico no teste de velocidade de marcha. Identificou-se a obesidade pelo Índice de Massa Corporal ≥27,0kg/m² e a obesidade sarcopênica pelo diagnóstico simultâneo de obesidade e sarcopenia. Realizou-se o teste Qui-Quadrado e regressão de Poisson, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: A prevalência geral de obesidade foi de 53,9%. 16,3% da amostra total apresentava sarcopenia, presente em 7,5% das idosas da comunidade e 25,1% das institucionalizadas (p≤0.0001). Referente a obesidade sarcopênica 0,9% da comunidade e 3,8% das institucionalizadas apresentaram a disfunção. Idosas não sarcopênicas apresentaram elevada prevalência de obesidade. Nas idosas de ambos os grupos, a sarcopenia foi mais frequente naquelas com idade avançada. CONCLUSÃO: Idosas institucionalizadas apresentaram maior prevalência de sarcopenia, acentuando a importância em atentar à saúde desta população e evidenciando a necessidade de medidas preventivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Residence Characteristics , Health of Institutionalized Elderly , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Homes for the Aged , Nursing Homes , Obesity/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Sociodemographic Factors , Motor Skills
11.
Saúde Colet. ; 12(74): 9980-9992, mar.2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1412410

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar e descrever o perfil epidemiológico e a tendência da distribuição espacial de ocorrência de óbitos por COVID-19, nos primeiros 18 meses de pandemia na região do Vale do Paraíba ­ São Paulo/ Brasil. Método: Trata-se de um estudo epidemiológico, descritivo do tipo ecológico e de base populacional, cujo grupo de variáveis elencadas incluem dados secundários sobre a ocorrência de óbitos por COVID-19. Os dados são provenientes da plataforma Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise dos Dados, que alimenta as fichas de notificação de Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave, cujos casos evoluíram para óbito. Resultado: A taxa de óbitos por população nos mostrou aproximadamente o percentual da população que faleceu por COVID-19 nos últimos 3 semestres. Conclusão: De forma similar ao cenário mundial, a infecção por COVID-19 configura-se como um problema de saúde pública, sendo necessária atenção à circulação do vírus no interior paulista, alerta aos grupos de risco e intervenções sanitárias efetivas.(AU)


Objective: To analyze and describe the epidemiological profile and trend of the spatial distribution of deaths from COVID-19 in the first 18 months of the pandemic in the region of Vale do Paraíba ­ São Paulo/Brazil. Method: This is an epidemiological, descriptive, population-based, ecological study, whose group of variables listed include secondary data on the occurrence of deaths from COVID-19. The data come from the Foundation State System for Data Analysis platform, which feeds the notification forms for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, whose cases progressed to death. Result: The death rate per population showed us approximately the percentage of the population that died from COVID-19 in the last 3 semesters. Conclusion: Similar to the world scenario, infection by COVID-19 is a public health problem, requiring attention to the circulation of the virus in the interior of São Paulo, alerting risk groups and effective health interventions.(AU)


Objetivo: Analizar y describir el perfil epidemiológico y la tendencia de la distribución espacial de las muertes por COVID-19 en los primeros 18 meses de la pandemia en la región de Vale do Paraíba - São Paulo / Brasil. Método: Se trata de un estudio epidemiológico, descriptivo, poblacional, ecológico, cuyo grupo de variables enumeradas incluye datos secundarios sobre la ocurrencia de muertes por COVID-19. Los datos provienen de la plataforma Foundation State System for Data Analysis, que alimenta los formularios de notificación del Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Severo, cuyos casos progresaron hasta la muerte. Resultado: La tasa de mortalidad por población nos mostró aproximadamente el porcentaje de la población que murió por COVID-19 en los últimos 3 semestres. Conclusión: Similar al escenario mundial, la infección por COVID-19 es un problema de salud pública, que requiere atención a la circulación del virus en el interior de São Paulo, alertando a los grupos de riesgo e interven- ciones de salud efectivas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Residence Characteristics , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Coronavirus Infections , Death , Ecological Studies
12.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 551-559, fev 11, 2022. fig, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359318

ABSTRACT

Introdução: desde 1996, o município de Feira de Santana, na Bahia, apresenta sucessivas epidemias de dengue, sendo as mais importantes, do ponto de vista de incidência da doença, as relatadas em 2002 e 2009, com elevados números de casos registrados, hospitalizações e óbitos. Em 2015, houve destaque no registro de casos das três arboviroses, sendo que além da dengue, observase a introdução da chikungunya em 2014 e da Zika em 2015. O índice alto de infestação do Aedes aegypti nas áreas urbana e rural do município pode ter contribuído para a dispersão do vírus. Objetivo: analisar a distribuição espacial da incidência das três arboviroses nas áreas urbana (bairros) e rural (distritos) do município do estudo e avaliar a relação entre os casos das arboviroses e os determinantes socioeconômicos. Metodologia: estudo descritivo realizado em Feira de Santana, no período de 2009 a 2017. Os dados foram distribuídos com auxílio do QGIS por bairros e distritos, apresentados em mapas temáticos. Utilizou-se o programa estatístico Stata versão 14 para análise de dados. Resultados: o estudo mostrou que os bairros localizados na periferia do município e os distritos apresentaram as maiores incidências e as piores condições socioeconômicas, além da co-circulação das três arboviroses na mesma área geográfica e no mesmo período. Conclusão: faz-se necessário ter uma rede de diagnóstico e de vigilância epidemiológica e entomológica consolidada a fim de melhorar o controle destas arboviroses e aprimorar a assistência à saúde.


Introduction: Since 1996, the municipality of Feira de Santana, in Bahia, has presented successive dengue epidemics, the most important, from the point of view of the incidence of the disease, those reported in 2002 and 2009, with high numbers of registered cases, hospitalizations and deaths. In 2015, there was a highlight in the case report of the three arboviruses, and in addition to dengue, there was the introduction of chikungunya in 2014 and Zika in 2015. The high rate of Aedes aegypti infestation in urban and rural areas of the municipality can have contributed to the spread of the virus. Objective: to analyze the spatial distribution of the incidence of the three arboviruses in the urban (neighborhoods) and rural (districts) areas of the municipality of the study and to evaluate the relationship between the cases of arboviruses and the socioeconomic determinants. Methods: a descriptive study carried out in Feira de Santana, from 2009 to 2017. The data were distributed with the aid of QGIS by neighborhoods and districts, presented in thematic maps. The statistical program Stata version 14 was used for data analysis. Results: The study showed that the neighborhoods located on the outskirts of the municipality and the districts had the highest incidences and the worst socioeconomic conditions, in addition to the co-circulation of the three arboviruses in the same geographical area and in the same period. Conclusion: it is necessary to have a consolidated epidemiological and entomological diagnostic and surveillance network in order to improve the control of these arboviruses and improve health care.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arbovirus Infections , Chikungunya virus , Residence Characteristics , Dengue , Zika Virus , Epidemiology, Descriptive
13.
Fisioter. Bras ; 22(6): 881-894, Fevereiro 7, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358377

ABSTRACT

Background: Adherence to treatment is critical when dealing with chronic diseases. One of the difficulties in maintain long-term adherence is the distance from home to rehabilitation center. Objective: To determine the influence of the distance from subjects' residence to rehabilitation center on adherence of a 12-week pulmonary rehabilitation program in chronic respiratory disease. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed patients' medical records with chronic respiratory diseases from a pulmonary rehabilitation center. Driving distance between patients' home and rehabilitation center was calculated with Google maps. The home-rehabilitation center distances were classified in three levels: up to 10, 10-30 and more than 30 km. Results: 280 medical records from patients with chronic pulmonary diseases with medical indication to follow the pulmonary rehabilitation program were found and 148 medical records were included in our study. Out of them, the majority (n = 93) had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Seventy percent of patients lived up to 10 km, 24% lived between 10 and 30 km and 6% lived more than 30 km. No difference in adherence was found comparing the three groups based on the distance from home to rehabilitation center. Conclusion: In this study, distance between home and rehabilitation center did not influence adherence to pulmonary rehabilitation program. (AU)


Subject(s)
Rehabilitation Centers , Therapeutics , Residence Characteristics , Medical Records , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
14.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(2): 771-782, Fev. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356090

ABSTRACT

Abstract A cross-sectional study enrolled participants from the CUME project (n = 289) who lived in Viçosa, Brazil. The neighborhood unit adopted was the buffer (200 meters), considering the participant's residence as central point. We measure the number of public and private facilities inside the buffer as well as violent criminal occurrences. Food establishments were categorized into establishments with predominant sale of natural or minimally processed foods, mixed establishments, and establishments with predominant sale of ultra-processed foods. Those who attended the face-to-face interview filled two scales of perception of the environment. Overall, 33.6% of participants reported overweight. We observed a higher concentration of individuals close to the central region of the city. Access to different establishments, food environments, and criminal occurrences differed between normal-weight and overweight individuals. The groups deferred in the perception of the location of squares, open public spaces, clubs, and soccer fields. The results indicate the association between environmental characteristics and overweight in Brazilian adults.


Resumo Realizou-se um estudo transversal com participantes do projeto CUME (n = 289) que moravam em Viçosa, Brasil. A unidade de vizinhança adotada foi o buffer (200 metros), considerando a residência do participante como ponto central. Foi contabilizado o número de instalações públicas e privadas dentro do buffer, bem como as ocorrências criminais. Os estabelecimentos alimentares foram categorizados em estabelecimentos com venda predominante de alimentos naturais ou minimamente processados, estabelecimentos mistos e estabelecimentos com venda predominante de alimentos ultraprocessados. Os participantes que compareceram à entrevista presencial, preencheram duas escalas de percepção do ambiente. No total, 33,6% dos participantes apresentaram excesso de peso. Foi observada uma maior concentração de indivíduos próximos à região central da cidade. O acesso a diferentes estabelecimentos, ambientes alimentares e ocorrências criminais diferiram entre indivíduos com eutrofia e com excesso de peso. Os grupos diferiram na percepção da localização de praças, espaços públicos abertos, clubes e campos de futebol. Os resultados indicam a associação entre as características ambientais e o excesso de peso em adultos brasileiros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Social Environment , Overweight/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Cross-Sectional Studies
15.
African Journal of Reproductive Health ; 26(5): 1-11, May 2022;. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1382260

ABSTRACT

Teenage pregnancy puts a heavy cost on the mother and newborn child, family and the wider society. Despite measures taken by the Ghana Health Service to tackle the issue of teenage pregnancy, the phenomenon remains a public health concern that is widespread throughout the country. The study investigated the socio-cultural factors influencing teenage pregnancy in the East Mamprusi Municipality using an exploratory descriptive design. The study was conducted in rural communities in the East Mamprusi Municipality, in the North East Region of Ghana. Eighteen (18) participants were purposively sampled. Data collection was done by face to face interviews using an interview guide. The study found that polygamous families, parents' desire for grandchildren, multiple sexual partners and poverty were reportedly influencing teenage pregnancy in the rural community. The bid to establish close family ties also accounted for early marriages. There is a culture of silence on matters of sexuality in the community. Teenage pregnancy is an observed phenomenon admitted by the participants and teenage girls are at risk of serious health complications. This phenomenon paints a gloomy picture of the girl child education in the municipality. (Afr J Reprod Health 2022; 26[5]: 120-130).


Subject(s)
Pregnancy in Adolescence , Rural Population , Residence Characteristics , Infant Health , Poverty , Sexual Partners , Public Health , Mothers
16.
Ghana med. j ; 56(3 suppl): 61-73, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1399757

ABSTRACT

Objective: to analyse the pandemic after one year in terms of the evolution of morbidity and mortality and factors that may contribute to this evolution Design: This is a secondary analysis of data gathered to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. The number of cases, incidence rate, cumulative incidence rate, number of deaths, case fatality rate and their trends were analysed during the first year of the pandemic. Testing and other public health measures were also described according to the information available. Settings: The 15 States members of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) were considered. Results: As of 31st March 2021, the ECOWAS region reported 429,760 COVID-19 cases and 5,620 deaths. In the first year, 1,110.75 persons were infected per million, while 1.31% of the confirmed patients died. The ECOWAS region represents 30% of the African population. One year after the start of COVID-19 in ECOWAS, this region reported 10% of the cases and 10% of the deaths in the continent. Cumulatively, the region has had two major epidemic waves; however, countries show different patterns. The case fatality rate presented a fast growth in the first months and then decreased to a plateau. Conclusion: We learn that the context of COVID-19 is specific to each country. This analysis shows the importance of better understanding each country's response. During this first year of the pandemic, the problem of variants of concern and the vaccination were not posed.


Subject(s)
Residence Characteristics , Mortality , Vaccination , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Africa, Western
17.
Article in Portuguese | AIM | ID: biblio-1400025

ABSTRACT

Tomar decisões criticamente fundamentadas entre o que podemos fazer e o que devemos evitar, ou o que é melhor fazer quando surgem alguns dilemas,é crucial para o discernimento ético e político. A legitimidade das decisões humanas sobre as aplicações da ciência e da tecnologia para promover a vida, a saúde e o bem-estar dos povos é possível graças à cooperação internacional e à protecção do direitocomo instrumento de protecção e garantia do bem comum, da dignidade e bens fundamentais da pessoa, isto é, o que chamamos de direitos humanos. A Bioética Global propõe uma articulação adequada entre as questões bioéticas e os direitos humanos como paradigma ético universal que deve ser levado em consideração nas decisões, públicas e privadas, no campo das ciências da vida e da saúde. O desafio ético e político é saber como equilibrar ointeresse legítimo da indústria por lucros e o desenvolvimento econômico com inovação científica e tecnológica prudente e para o bem das pessoas e comunidades. O reconhecimento mútuo está na base da relaçãoque nos permite dar a cada um o que é seu e promover a convivência pacífica na nossa casa comum. Se realizada de acordo com os imperativos morais de solidariedade e justiça, atentando para a minimização das distâncias entre pobres e ricos e entre as regiões Norte e Sul Global, a ciência e a tecnologia contribuirão para o desenvolvimento humano de forma eficaz e eticamentesustentável.


Making critically informed decisions between what we can do and what we should avoid, or what is best to do when some dilemmas arise, is crucial for ethical and political discernment. The legitimacy of human decisions on the applications of science and technology to promote life, health and people's well-being is possible thanks to international cooperation and the protection of law as an instrument toprotect and guarantee the common good, dignity and fundamental goods of the person, that is, what we call human rights. Global Bioethics proposes an appropriate articulation between bioethical issues and humanrights as a universal ethical paradigm that should be taken into consideration in decisions, public and private, in the field of life and health sciences. The ethical and political challenge is how to balance the legitimate interest of industry for profits and economic development with prudent scientific and technological innovation for the good of people and communities. Mutual recognition is at the basis of the relationship that allows us to give each his due and to promote peaceful coexistence in our common home. If carried out in accordance with the moral imperatives of solidarity and justice, paying attention to minimizing the gaps between the poor and the rich and between the Global North and South, science and technology will contribute to human development in an effective and ethically sustainable manner


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Residence Characteristics , Sustainable Development , Human Development , Human Rights , Jurisprudence
18.
Afr. health sci. (Online) ; 22(2): 1-9, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400221

ABSTRACT

Background: Gender-based violence (GBV) has been identified to be one of the ripple effects of the global pandemic. In countries like Nigeria, the situation is hypothesized to be worse because of widespread poverty and gender inequalities. Objective: To examine the exposure of females to GBV during the first 3 months of the COVID-19 lockdown. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a low-income community in Lagos. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to 130 respondents selected via systematic random sampling. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 26.89 ± 8.67 years. Majority worked informal jobs, while only 50% had attained beyond primary education. Within the period, the respondents had been subjected to sexual (54.6%), physical (52.3%), verbal assault (41.5%), and online sexual harassment (45.4%); of which only 30% reported to the police. Furthermore, respondents subjected to sexual (p=0.004) and physical assault (p=0.032) during the period earned significantly less money than other respondents. Conclusion: The fact that over 1 out of every 2 females was subjected to at least one form of GBV within the short timeframe shows how unsafe girls and women in low-income communities are. This calls for proactive community-level interventions to curb the GBV menace.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Residence Characteristics , Sexual Harassment , Gender Identity , Poverty , Gender-Based Violence , COVID-19
19.
Curationis ; 45(1): 1-9, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400491

ABSTRACT

Background: When there is a lack of resources in the community to support deinstitutionalisation,family members of a relative diagnosed with substance-induced psychosis disorder (SIPD) are the most affected and vulnerable. Nevertheless, family members' care is still largely unacknowledged in the mental health sector in low- and middle-income countries. Furthermore, no prior research could be found on family members' experiences caring for a relative with SIPD in Giyani, Limpopo province, South Africa. Objectives: To explore and describe family members' experiences caring for a relative with SIPD. Method: The study employed a qualitative research design using interpretative phenomenological analysis as the research method. Telephonic interviews were conducted and analysed. Eight family members were selected to participate in the study using a purposive sampling technique. Results: The analysis of data led to the emergence of the following themes: family members experienced caring for a relative with SIPD as a destabilising responsibility; they experienced acceptance and support from significant others and the community and solace in prayer. Participants also expressed they experienced a need for support from government structures in order to care for a relative with SIPD. Conclusion: The study's findings highlighted the family members' experiences of caring for a relative with SIPD and the role of the family, community and government structures in caring for an individual with SIPD. It is evident from the challenges experienced that the family members need external interventions to develop healthy coping strategies. Contribution: This study adds knowledge to nursing practice, nursing education and nursing research by promoting effective coping amongst family members caring for a relative with SIPD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychotic Disorders , Family , Residence Characteristics , Substance-Related Disorders , Psychoses, Substance-Induced
20.
Babcock Univ. Med. J ; 5(2): 1-11, 2022.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400502

ABSTRACT

Background: The population of migrants all over the world is progressively rising. The major reasons for migration include the desire for self-actualization, moving to a place with more opportunities, tourism, and education, and escaping hardship and political unrest in the home country. In recent times climate change, insecurity, and economic hardship are top of the list. The global economy has suffered a major blow from the multiple waves of the lingering COVID-19 pandemic. To lessen the scourge of inflation and to restore economic stability, several countries are being forced to liberalize their immigration policies and therefore immigrants are welcomed in these nations. This review attempts to investigate how migration in the post-pandemic era affects migrants' mental health. Main Text: Migration and the COVID-19 epidemic both have beneficial and durable effects on the mental health of migrants and immigration laws have a direct impact on several health-related issues. Mental health disorders may develop at any point from the pre-migration phase to the post-migration settlement in the host nations. Factors such as host community, racism, marginalization, political climate, poor support, loss of social status, language barriers, undocumented status, climate change, mode of dressing in the host country, and several others may lead to mental health disorders among migrants. Unfortunately, there is limited access to care, and the services provided may not be culturally sensitive. Conclusion: Despite the benefits gotten from migration like financial benefits and economic development of the native country and the left behind family members, migration has enormous psychological complications which have to be attended to. Access to specialists who are trained to provide culturally sensitive interventions and implement outreach programs to introduce the services to the migrants' community should be encouraged.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , Residence Characteristics , Mental Health , Stress Disorders, Traumatic , COVID-19 , Depression , Emigration and Immigration
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