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1.
Medwave ; 21(6): e8231, jul. 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284247

ABSTRACT

Objetivos Describir las características clínicas y evaluar los factores asociados con la mortalidad de los pacientes adultos con la nueva enfermedad causada por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) ingresados a un hospital de referencia nacional de Perú. Métodos Se realizó un estudio de cohorte prospectivo. Se incluyó a pacientes mayores de 18 años hospitalizados con el diagnóstico de infección por coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (SARS-CoV-2). Se excluyó a quienes ingresaron con prueba rápida serológica positiva al ingreso, sin clínica sugestiva ni imágenes compatibles. Los datos se recolectaron a partir de la historia clínica. Resultados Se incluyó un total de 813 adultos, 544 (66,9%) tuvieron COVID-19 confirmado. La media de la edad fue de 61,2 años (desviación estándar: 15) y 575 (70,5%) fueron de sexo masculino. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron hipertensión arterial (34,1%) y obesidad (25,9%). Los síntomas más frecuentes al ingreso fueron disnea (82,2%) y tos (53,9%). Un total de 114 (14%) pacientes recibieron ventilación mecánica, 38 (4,7%) ingresaron a unidad de cuidados intensivos y 377 (46,4%) fallecieron. Se asociaron a la mortalidad el requerimiento de soporte ventilatorio, el mayor compromiso pulmonar y los marcadores inflamatorios. Encontramos que por cada 10 años que aumentó la edad, el riesgo de morir se incrementó en 32% (riesgo relativo: 1,32; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,25 a 1,38). Aquellos pacientes que requirieron ingreso a unidad de cuidados intensivos y ventilación mecánica tuvieron 1,39 (intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,13 a 1,69) y 1,97 (intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,69 a 2,29) veces el riesgo de morir, respectivamente. Conclusión La mortalidad encontrada en nuestro estudio fue alta y estuvo asociada a la edad, marcadores inflamatorios y compromiso respiratorio.


Objectives To describe and assess clinical characteristics and factors associated with mortality in adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to a national referral hospital in Peru. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study that included hospitalized patients older than 18 years with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection diagnosis. Patients with a positive rapid serological test on admission but no respiratory symptoms nor compatible images were excluded. We collected the data from clinical records. Results A total of 813 adults were included, 544 (66.9%) with confirmed COVID-19. The mean age was 61.2 years (standard deviation: 15.0), and 575 (70.5%) were male. The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (34.1%) and obesity (25.9%). On admission, the most frequent symptoms were dyspnea (82.2%) and cough (53.9%). A total of 114 (14.0%) patients received mechanical ventilation, 38 (4.7%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 377 (46.4%) died. The requirement for ventilatory support, greater lung involvement, and inflammatory markers were associated with higher mortality. It was found that for every 10-year age increase, the risk of dying increased 32% (relative risk: 1.32; 95% confidence interval: 1.25 to 1.38). Those who were admitted to the intensive care unit and and were placed on mechanical ventilation had 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 1.13 to 1.69) and 1.97 (95% confidence interval: 1.69 to 2.29) times the risk of dying compared to those who did not, respectively. Conclusion We found a high mortality rate among hospitalized patients associated with older age, higher inflammatory markers, and greater lung involvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Peru/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals
2.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(3): 261-266, may.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346105

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La implementación del ultrasonido pulmonar (LUS) en los pacientes con COVID-19 puede ayudar a establecer el grado de afectación pulmonar, evaluar la respuesta al tratamiento y estimar el desenlace intrahospitalario. Objetivo: Evaluar la aplicación de un protocolo LUS en pacientes con infección por COVID-19 para predecir mortalidad intrahospitalaria. Métodos: El estudio se realizó del 1 de abril al 1 de agosto de 2020 en pacientes con infección por COVID-19, ingresados en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva. Se realizó evaluación pulmonar por médicos entrenados en ultrasonografía crítica. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes fue del sexo masculino, la edad mediana fue de 56 años y 59 % requirió ventilación mecánica. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria fue de 39.4 % y en aquellos con puntuación de LUS ≥ 19, de 50 %. El modelo de regresión logística múltiple mostró que la puntuación de LUS ≥ 19 se asoció significativamente a mortalidad (cociente de riesgo = 2.55, p = 0.01). Conclusiones: El LUS es una herramienta clínica segura y rápida que puede realizarse al lado de la cama de los pacientes con infección por COVID-19, para establecer el grado de afectación parenquimatosa y predecir la mortalidad.


Abstract Introduction: Lung ultrasound (LUS) implementation in patients with COVID-19 can help to establish the degree of pulmonary involvement, evaluate treatment response and estimate in-hospital outcome. Objective: To evaluate the application of LUS in patients with COVID-19 infection to predict in-hospital mortality. Methods: The study was carried out from April 1 to August 1, 2020 in patients with COVID-19 infection admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. Lung evaluation was carried out by physicians trained in critical care ultrasonography. Results: Most patients were males, median age was 56 years, and 59 % required mechanical ventilation. In-hospital mortality was 39.4 %, and in those with a LUS score ≥ 19, mortality was higher (50 %). The multiple logistic regression model showed that a LUS score ≥ 19 was significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio = 2.55, p = 0.01). Conclusions: LUS is a safe and fast clinical tool that can be applied at bedside in patients with COVID-19 infection to establish the degree of parenchymal involvement and predict mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Ultrasonography , Hospital Mortality , COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Critical Care , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization
3.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(2): 188-195, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289079

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Describir la práctica habitual de asistencia kinésica motora en la unidad de cuidados intensivos de adultos, tanto en pacientes con y sin COVID-19. Métodos: Estudio observacional transversal de tipo encuesta online. Se incluyeron kinesiólogos que trabajan en unidades de cuidados intensivos de adultos en Argentina. Se realizaron 16 preguntas de respuesta múltiple o simple agrupadas en 3 apartados. El primero caracterizado por datos personales, profesionales o del ámbito laboral. El segundo, destinado a conocer el accionar habitual y un tercero enfocado en las prácticas bajo la pandemia COVID-19. Resultados: Sobre 351 kinesiólogos, el 76.1% reportó que la movilización de los pacientes estaba a cargo exclusivamente de ellos. El objetivo máximo a alcanzar desde el aspecto motor fue variable según cuatro escenarios: Pacientes en ventilación mecánica, desvinculados de la ventilación mecánica, los que nunca estuvieron asociados a la ventilación mecánica y con COVID-19 en ventilación mecánica. En el primer y último escenario el objetivo máximo fue optimizar valores de fuerza muscular. En los restantes fue realizar actividades de la vida diaria. Por último, la mayor limitante en el abordaje de pacientes con COVID-19 fue el aislamiento respiratorio y/o de contacto. Conclusión: Los kinesiólogos en Argentina reportaron encargarse de la movilización de los pacientes en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Los objetivos máximos desde el aspecto motor para cuatro escenarios clásicos en el área cerrada podrían estar determinado por la asociación con la ventilación mecánica. La mayor limitación a la hora de movilizar a pacientes con COVID-19 fue el aislamiento respiratorio y de contacto.


Abstract Objective: To describe the usual practice of mobility therapy in the adult intensive care unit for patients with and without COVID-19. Methods: Online survey in which physical therapists working in an adult intensive care unit in Argentina participated. Sixteen multiple-choice or single-response questions grouped into three sections were asked. The first section addressed personal, professional and work environment data. The second section presented questions regarding usual care, and the third focused on practices under COVID-19 pandemic conditions. Results: Of 351 physical therapists, 76.1% answer that they were exclusively responsible for patient mobility. The highest motor-based goal varied according to four patient scenarios: Mechanically ventilated patients, patients weaned from mechanical ventilation, patients who had never required mechanical ventilation, and patients with COVID-19 under mechanical ventilation. In the first and last scenarios, the highest goal was to optimize muscle strength, while for the other two, it was to perform activities of daily living. Finally, the greatest limitation in working with patients with COVID-19 was respiratory and/or contact isolation. Conclusion: Physical therapists in Argentina reported being responsible for the mobility of patients in the intensive care unit. The highest motor-based therapeutic goals for four classic scenarios in the closed area were limited by the need for mechanical ventilation. The greatest limitation when mobilizing patients with COVID-19 was respiratory and contact isolation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Physical Therapists/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Argentina , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Activities of Daily Living , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Critical Illness/rehabilitation , Muscle Strength
4.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(2): 196-205, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289074

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar apresentações mais graves de COVID-19. Métodos: Pacientes consecutivamente admitidos à unidade de terapia intensiva foram submetidos à análise de clusters por meio de método de explorações sequenciais Resultados: Analisamos os dados de 147 pacientes, com média de idade de 56 ± 16 anos e Simplified Acute Physiological Score 3 de 72 ± 18, dos quais 103 (70%) demandaram ventilação mecânica e 46 (31%) morreram na unidade de terapia intensiva. A partir do algoritmo de análise de clusters, identificaram-se dois grupos bem definidos, com base na frequência cardíaca máxima [Grupo A: 104 (IC95% 99 - 109) batimentos por minuto versus Grupo B: 159 (IC95% 155 - 163) batimentos por minuto], frequência respiratória máxima [Grupo A: 33 (IC95% 31 - 35) respirações por minuto versus Grupo B: 50 (IC95% 47 - 53) respirações por minuto] e na temperatura corpórea máxima [Grupo A: 37,4 (IC95% 37,1 - 37,7)ºC versus Grupo B: 39,3 (IC95% 39,1 - 39,5)ºC] durante o tempo de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva, assim como a proporção entre a pressão parcial de oxigênio no sangue e a fração inspirada de oxigênio quando da admissão à unidade de terapia intensiva [Grupo A: 116 (IC95% 99 - 133) mmHg versus Grupo B: 78 (IC95% 63 - 93) mmHg]. Os subfenótipos foram distintos em termos de perfis inflamatórios, disfunções orgânicas, terapias de suporte, tempo de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva e mortalidade na unidade de terapia intensiva (com proporção de 4,2 entre os grupos). Conclusão: Nossos achados, baseados em dados clínicos universalmente disponíveis, revelaram dois subfenótipos distintos, com diferentes evoluções de doença. Estes resultados podem ajudar os profissionais de saúde na alocação de recursos e seleção de pacientes para teste de novas terapias.


Abstract Objective: To identify more severe COVID-19 presentations. Methods: Consecutive intensive care unit-admitted patients were subjected to a stepwise clustering method. Results: Data from 147 patients who were on average 56 ± 16 years old with a Simplified Acute Physiological Score 3 of 72 ± 18, of which 103 (70%) needed mechanical ventilation and 46 (31%) died in the intensive care unit, were analyzed. From the clustering algorithm, two well-defined groups were found based on maximal heart rate [Cluster A: 104 (95%CI 99 - 109) beats per minute versus Cluster B: 159 (95%CI 155 - 163) beats per minute], maximal respiratory rate [Cluster A: 33 (95%CI 31 - 35) breaths per minute versus Cluster B: 50 (95%CI 47 - 53) breaths per minute], and maximal body temperature [Cluster A: 37.4 (95%CI 37.1 - 37.7)°C versus Cluster B: 39.3 (95%CI 39.1 - 39.5)°C] during the intensive care unit stay, as well as the oxygen partial pressure in the blood over the oxygen inspiratory fraction at intensive care unit admission [Cluster A: 116 (95%CI 99 - 133) mmHg versus Cluster B: 78 (95%CI 63 - 93) mmHg]. Subphenotypes were distinct in inflammation profiles, organ dysfunction, organ support, intensive care unit length of stay, and intensive care unit mortality (with a ratio of 4.2 between the groups). Conclusion: Our findings, based on common clinical data, revealed two distinct subphenotypes with different disease courses. These results could help health professionals allocate resources and select patients for testing novel therapies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Critical Illness/therapy , Critical Care/methods , COVID-19/physiopathology , Intensive Care Units , Phenotype , Severity of Illness Index , Algorithms , Cluster Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Patient Selection , Respiratory Rate/physiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Length of Stay
5.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(1): 68-74, jan.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289049

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar se as modificações na atenção médica em razão da aplicação dos protocolos para COVID-19 afetaram os desfechos clínicos de pacientes sem a doença durante a pandemia. Métodos: Este foi um estudo observacional de coorte retrospectiva conduzido em uma unidade de terapia intensiva clínica e cirúrgica com 38 leitos, localizada em hospital privado de alta complexidade na cidade de Buenos Aires, Argentina, e envolveu os pacientes com insuficiência respiratória admitidos à unidade de terapia intensiva no período compreendido entre março e abril de 2020 em comparação com o mesmo período no ano de 2019. Compararam-se as intervenções e os desfechos dos pacientes sem COVID-19 tratados durante a pandemia em 2020 e os pacientes admitidos em 2019. As principais variáveis avaliadas foram os cuidados respiratórios na unidade de terapia intensiva, o número de exames de tomografia computadorizada do tórax e lavados broncoalveolares, complicações na unidade de terapia intensiva e condições quando da alta hospitalar. Resultados: Observou-se, em 2020, uma redução significante do uso de cânula nasal de alto fluxo: 14 (42%), em 2019, em comparação com 1 (3%), em 2020. Além disso, em 2020, observou-se aumento significante no número de pacientes sob ventilação mecânica admitidos à unidade de terapia intensiva a partir do pronto-socorro, de 23 (69%) em comparação com 11 (31%) em 2019. Contudo, o número de pacientes com ventilação mecânica 5 dias após a admissão foi semelhante em ambos os anos: 24 (69%), em 2019, e 26 (79%) em 2020. Conclusão: Os protocolos para unidades de terapia intensiva com base em recomendações internacionais para a pandemia de COVID-19 modificaram o manejo de pacientes sem COVID-19. Observamos redução do uso da cânula nasal de alto fluxo e aumento no número de intubações traqueais no pronto-socorro. Entretanto, não se identificaram alterações na percentagem de pacientes intubados na unidade de terapia intensiva, número de dias sob ventilação mecânica ou número de dias na unidade de terapia intensiva.


Abstract Objective: To analyze whether changes in medical care due to the application of COVID-19 protocols affected clinical outcomes in patients without COVID-19 during the pandemic. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational cohort study carried out in a thirty-eight-bed surgical and medical intensive care unit of a high complexity private hospital. Patients with respiratory failure admitted to the intensive care unit during March and April 2020 and the same months in 2019 were selected. We compared interventions and outcomes of patients without COVID-19 during the pandemic with patients admitted in 2019. The main variables analyzed were intensive care unit respiratory management, number of chest tomography scans and bronchoalveolar lavages, intensive care unit complications, and status at hospital discharge. Results: In 2020, a significant reduction in the use of a high-flow nasal cannula was observed: 14 (42%) in 2019 compared to 1 (3%) in 2020. Additionally, in 2020, a significant increase was observed in the number of patients under mechanical ventilation admitted to the intensive care unit from the emergency department, 23 (69%) compared to 11 (31%) in 2019. Nevertheless, the number of patients with mechanical ventilation after 5 days of admission was similar in both years: 24 (69%) in 2019 and 26 (79%) in 2020. Conclusion: Intensive care unit protocols based on international recommendations for the COVID-19 pandemic have produced a change in non-COVID-19 patient management. We observed a reduction in the use of a high-flow nasal cannula and an increased number of tracheal intubations in the emergency department. However, no changes in the percentage of intubated patients in the intensive care unit, the number of mechanical ventilation days or the length of stay in intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Critical Illness/therapy , Disease Management , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Surveys , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data
6.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 526-532, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249962

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Se informa que la mayoría de los niños afectados por SARS-CoV-2 cursan asintomáticos y que en ellos la mortalidad por COVID-19 es baja; en México se desconoce la información al respecto en este grupo de la población. Objetivo: Evaluar los factores de riesgo asociados a mortalidad en niños mexicanos con COVID-19. Método: Análisis secundario de la base de datos de la Dirección General de Epidemiología. Se incluyeron niños menores de 19 años, en quienes se confirmó SARS-CoV-2 mediante RT-PCR. Resultados: Se incluyeron 1443 niños. La mediana de edad fue de ocho años; 3.3 % ingresó a la unidad de cuidados intensivos, 1.8 % requirió ventilación mecánica asistida y la mortalidad fue de 1.9 %. En los modelos multivariados, el desarrollo de neumonía constituyó el principal factor de riesgo de mortalidad, con razón de momios (RM) de 6.45 (IC 95 % 1.99, 20.89); los pacientes que requirieron intubación tuvieron RM de 8.75 (IC 95 % 3.23, 23.7). Conclusiones: Los niños con COVID 19 tienen alta mortalidad en México, por lo que en ellos se debe procurar evitar la neumonía, especialmente en los menores de cuatro años, con riesgo cardiovascular o inmunosupresión.


Abstract Introduction: Most children affected by SARS-CoV-2 are reported to be asymptomatic, and COVID-19-related mortality in them is low; in Mexico, there is a lack of information on the subject in this population group. Objective: To assess the risk factors associated with mortality in Mexican children with COVID-19. Method: Secondary analysis of the General Directorate of Epidemiology database. Children younger than 19 years, in whom SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed by RT-PCR, were included. Results: 1443 children were included. Median age was eight years; 3.3 % were admitted to the intensive care unit, 1.8 % required assisted mechanical ventilation, and mortality was 1.9 %. In multivariate models, the development of pneumonia was the main risk factor for mortality, with an odds ratio (OR) of 6.45 (95 % CI 1.99, 20.89); patients who required intubation had an OR of 8.75 (95 % CI 3.23, 23.7). Conclusions: Children with COVID-19 exhibit high mortality in Mexico, and avoiding pneumonia should therefore be tried in them, especially in children younger than four years with cardiovascular risk or immunosuppression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Mexico/epidemiology
7.
Medwave ; 20(11)dic. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146025

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Esta revisión sistemática viva tiene como objetivo entregar un resumen oportuno, riguroso y continuamente actualizado de la evidencia disponible sobre los efectos de remdesivir en pacientes con COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Se buscaron ensayos aleatorios que evaluaran el uso de remdesivir versus placebo o ningún tratamiento en pacientes con COVID-19. Se realizó una búsqueda en la plataforma L·OVE COVID-19 (Living OVerview of Evidence), un sistema que mantiene búsquedas regulares en bases de datos, registros de ensayos, servidores preprint y sitios web relevantes en COVID-19. Todas las búsquedas fueron realizadas hasta el 25 de agosto de 2020. No se aplicaron restricciones de fecha ni de idioma. Dos revisores evaluaron de forma independiente los artículos potencialmente elegibles, de acuerdo con criterios de selección predefinidos, y extrajeron los datos mediante un formulario estandarizado. Los resultados fueron combinados mediante un metanálisis utilizando modelos de efectos aleatorios y evaluamos la certeza de la evidencia utilizando el método GRADE. Una versión viva de esta revisión estará abiertamente disponible durante la pandemia de COVID-19. RESULTADOS: La búsqueda inicial arrojó 574 referencias. Finalmente, identificamos 3 ensayos aleatorios, que evaluaban el uso de remdesivir adicionado al tratamiento estándar versus tratamiento estándar. La evidencia es muy incierta acerca del efecto del remdesivir sobre la mortalidad (RR 0,7; IC del 95%: 0,46 a 1,05; certeza de la evidencia muy baja) y la necesidad de ventilación mecánica invasiva (RR 0,69; IC del 95%: 0,39 a 1,24; certeza de evidencia muy baja). Por otro lado, es probable que el uso de remdesivir produzca un aumento en la incidencia de efectos adversos en pacientes con COVID-19 (RR 1,29; IC del 95%: 0,58 a 2,84; evidencia de certeza moderada). CONCLUSIONES: La evidencia disponible sobre el papel del remdesivir en el tratamiento de pacientes con COVID-19 es insuficiente en relación a los desenlaces críticos para tomar decisiones, por lo que no es posible realizar un correcto balance entre los beneficios potenciales, los efectos adversos y los costos.


OBJECTIVE: Provide a timely, rigorous and continuously updated summary of the evidence on the role of remdesivir in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Eligible studies were randomized trials evaluating the effect of remdesivir versus placebo or no treatment. We conducted searches in the special L·OVE (Living OVerview of Evidence) platform for COVID-19, a system that performs regular searches in databases, trial registries, preprint servers and websites relevant to COVID-19. All the searches covered the period until 25 August 2020. No date or language restrictions were applied. Two reviewers independently evaluated potentially eligible studies according to predefined selection criteria, and extracted data on study characteristics, methods, outcomes, and risk of bias, using a predesigned, standardized form. We performed meta-analyses using random-effect models and assessed overall certainty in evidence using the GRADE approach. A living, web-based version of this review will be openly available during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Our search strategy yielded 574 references. Finally, we included three randomized trials evaluating remdesivir in addition to standard care versus standard care alone. The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of remdesivir on mortality (RR 0.7, 95% CI 0.46 to 1.05; very low certainty evidence) and the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.24; very low certainty evidence). On the other hand, remdesivir likely results in a large increase in the incidence of adverse effects in patients with COVID-19 (RR 1.29, 95% CI 0.58 to 2.84; moderate certainty evidence). CONCLUSIONS: The evidence is insufficient for the outcomes critical for making decisions on the role of remdesivir in the treatment of patients with COVID-19, so it is impossible to balance potential benefits, if there are any, with the adverse effects and costs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use
8.
Medwave ; 20(11)dic. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146034

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO Proporcionar un resumen oportuno, riguroso y continuamente actualizado de la evidencia disponible sobre el papel de los macrólidos para el tratamiento de pacientes con COVID-19. DIDEÑO Revisión Sistemática Viva. BASE DE DATOS: La búsqueda de evidencia se realizó en el repositorio centralizado L·OVE (Living OVerview of Evidence) COVID-19; una plataforma que mapea las preguntas PICO para identificar la evidencia en la base de datos Epistemonikos. En respuesta a la emergencia de COVID-19, L·OVE se adaptó para ampliar el rango de evidencia que cubre y hoy se mantiene a través de búsquedas regulares en 39 bases de datos. MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron estudios experimentales que evaluaban el efecto de los macrólidos, como monoterapia o en combinación con otros fármacos, versus placebo o ningún tratamiento en pacientes con sospecha o confirmación de COVID-19. Se buscó identificar experimentos clínicos aleatorizados que evaluaran macrólidos en infecciones causadas por otros coronavirus, como MERS-CoV y SARS-CoV. Dos revisores examinaron de forma independiente la elegibilidad de cada estudio, extrajeron los datos y evaluaron el riesgo de sesgo. Se evaluó el efecto de los macrólidos sobre la mortalidad por todas las causas; necesidad de ventilación mecánica invasiva; oxigenación por membrana extracorpórea, duración de la estancia hospitalaria, insuficiencia respiratoria, eventos adversos graves, tiempo hasta la negatividad de la RT-PCR del SARS-CoV-2. La certeza de la evidencia para cada desenlace se evaluó siguiendo la aproximación GRADE. Esta revisión se mantendrá viva y disponible abiertamente durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Se someterán actualizaciones de su publicación cada vez que cambien las conclusiones o cuando haya actualizaciones sustanciales. RESULTADOS: Se identificó un experimento clínico aleatorio que evaluó el uso de azitromicina en combinación con hidroxicloroquina en comparación con el uso de hidroxicloroquina sola, en pacientes hospitalizados por COVID 19. Las estimaciones para todos los resultados evaluados resultaron en un poder estadístico insuficiente para llegar a conclusiones válidas. La calidad de la evidencia para los resultados principales fue baja a muy baja. CONCLUSIONES: El uso de macrólidos en el tratamiento de pacientes con COVID 19 no ha mostrado efectos beneficiosos en comparación con el tratamiento estándar. La evidencia para todos los desenlaces no es concluyente. Se necesitan estudios sobre un mayor número de pacientes con COVID 19, para determinar los efectos del uso de macrólidos sobre los desenlaces relacionados con la enfermedad.


OBJECTIVE This living, systematic review aims to provide a timely, rigorous, and continuously updated summary of the evidence available on the role of macrolides for treating patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: a living, systematic review. DATABASE: We conducted searches in the centralized repository L·OVE (Living OVerview of Evidence). L·OVE is a platform that maps PICO questions to evidence from the Epistemonikos database. In response to the COVID-19 emergency, L·OVE was adapted to expand the range of evidence it covers and customized to group all COVID-19 evidence in one place. Today it is maintained through regular searches in 39 databases.METHODS: We included randomized trials evaluating the effect of macrolides ­ as monotherapy or in combination with other drugs ­ versus placebo or no treatment in patients with COVID-19. Randomized trials evaluating macrolides in infections caused by other coronaviruses, such as MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, and non-randomized studies in COVID-19 were searched in case we found no direct evidence from randomized trials. Two reviewers independently screened each study for eligibility, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. Measures included all-cause mortality; the need for invasive mechanical ventilation; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, length of hospital stay, respiratory failure, serious adverse events, time to SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negativity. We applied the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence for each outcome. A living, web-based version of this review will be openly available during the COVID-19 pandemic. We will resubmit it every time the conclusions change or whenever there are substantial updates. RESULTS: The search in the L·OVE platform retrieved 424 references. We considered 260 as potentially eligible and were reviewed in full texts. We included one randomized clinical trial that evaluated the use of azithromycin in combination with hydroxychloroquine compared to hydroxychloroquine alone in hospitalized patients with COVID 19. The estimates for all outcomes evaluated resulted in insufficient power to draw conclusions. The quality of the evidence for the main outcomes was low to very low. CONCLUSIONS: Macrolides in the management of patients with COVID 19 showed no beneficial effects compared to standard of care. The evidence for all outcomes is inconclusive. Larger trials are needed to determine the effects of macrolides on pulmonary and other outcomes in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification
9.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(4): 487-492, out.-dez. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156249

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever as características clínicas e os preditores de ventilação mecânica em pacientes adultos internados com COVID-19. Métodos: Conduziu-se um estudo de coorte retrospectiva com inclusão de pacientes hospitalizados entre 17 de março e 3 de maio de 2020, que tiveram o diagnóstico de infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2. As características clínicas e demográficas foram extraídas de registros em prontuário eletrônico. Resultados: Incluíram-se no estudo 88 pacientes consecutivos. A mediana da idade dos pacientes foi de 63 anos (IQR: 49 - 71); 59 (67%) pacientes eram do sexo masculino, 65 (86%) tinham educação universitária e 67 (76%) tinham, no mínimo, uma comorbidade. Dentre eles, 29 (33%) pacientes foram admitidos à unidade de terapia intensiva, 18 (20%) necessitaram de ventilação mecânica e nove (10,2%) morreram durante a hospitalização. O tempo mediano de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva e o tempo mediano de ventilação mecânica foram, respectivamente, de 23 e 29,5 dias. Idade acima ou igual a 65 anos foi fator de risco independente para ventilação mecânica (RC: 8,4; IC95% de 1,3 - 55,6; valor de p = 0,02). Conclusão: Nossos achados descrevem a primeira onda de pacientes brasileiros hospitalizados por COVID-19. Em nossa população, idade foi o maior preditor de insuficiência respiratória e necessidade de ventilação mecânica.


Abstract Objective: This study aims to describe the clinical characteristics and predictors of mechanical ventilation of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in a single center. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed and included adult inpatients hospitalized from March 17th to May 3rd, 2020, who were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical and demographic characteristics were extracted from electronic medical records. Results: Overall, 88 consecutive patients were included in this study. The median age of the patients was 63 years (IQR 49 - 71); 59 (67%) were male, 65 (86%) had a college degree and 67 (76%) had at least one comorbidity. Twenty-nine (33%) patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, 18 (20%) patients needed mechanical ventilation, and 9 (10.2%) died during hospitalization. The median length of stay in the intensive care unit and the median duration of mechanical ventilation was 23 and 29.5 days, respectively. An age ≥ 65 years was an independent risk factor for mechanical ventilation (OR 8.4 95%CI 1.3 - 55.6 p = 0.02). Conclusion: Our findings describe the first wave of Brazilian patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Age was the strongest predictor of respiratory insufficiency and the need for mechanical ventilation in our population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Length of Stay
10.
Medwave ; 20(10)18 nov. 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145803

ABSTRACT

Introducción Desde el comienzo de la pandemia de COVID-19, se han desarrollado diversas investigaciones sobre el pronóstico de pacientes con SARS-CoV-2 asociado a factores como edad, condiciones biodemográficas, comorbilidades, factores sociales, parámetros clínicos, hematológicos, marcadores inflamatorios, de coagulación, bioquímicos y gasométricos, entre otros. Hasta ahora, existen escasos estudios que hayan abordado el tema en América Latina, por lo que es de interés conocer el comportamiento de la enfermedad en la región. Objetivo Evaluar el curso del COVID-19 en pacientes ingresados en un centro terciario en Chile y analizar factores predictores, medidos en el período cercano a la admisión, que se asocien al pronóstico vital y al uso de ventilación mecánica invasiva. Métodos Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo realizado en Clínica Indisa de Santiago, Chile. Participaron todos los pacientes de 15 años o más hospitalizados entre el 11 de marzo y el 25 de julio de 2020. Se analizó la letalidad hospitalaria, la complejidad de los casos y se aplicaron modelos de regresión logística para identificar predictores de las variables de resultado definidas. Resultados La muestra estuvo constituida por 785 sujetos. La edad media fue 59 años, 59% fueron hombres y 61,3% tenía comorbilidades. El 45% requirió cuidados intensivos y 24% ventilación mecánica invasiva. La letalidad hospitalaria global fue de 18,7%. En pacientes de unidad de cuidados intensivos fue 32,1% y en quienes recibieron ventilación mecánica invasiva 59,4%. Los factores de riesgo independientes de morir incluyeron la edad (Odds ratio 1,09; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,07 a 1,12), diabetes (1,68; 1,06 a 2,67), enfermedad pulmonar crónica (2,80; 1,48 a 5,28) y mayores niveles de proteína C reactiva, creatinina y ferritina. No se demostró asociación con el sexo, pertenencia al seguro público de salud, antecedente de cardiopatía, obesidad, ni dímero D. Similares factores fueron predictores de ventilación mecánica invasiva. Conclusiones El pronóstico y factores predictores en esta cohorte de pacientes hospitalizados en Chile por COVID-19 fueron comparables en su mayoría a los reportados en estudios similares de países de mayores ingresos. El sexo masculino no fue un factor de mal pronóstico en este grupo de pacientes.


Introduction Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, extensive research has been done on the prognosis of patients with SARS-CoV-2 associated with age, biodemographic conditions, comorbidities, social factors, clinical parameters, inflammatory blood markers, coagulation, biochemical and blood gas parameters, among others. Few studies have addressed this problem in Latin America, so it is of interest to know how the disease plays out in this region. Objective The purpose of our study is to evaluate the course of COVID-19 in patients admitted to a tertiary center in Chile and to assess factors measured close to hospital admission that may be associated with death and the need for invasive mechanical ventilation. Methods We did a retrospective cohort study at Indisa Clinic in Santiago, Chile. We included all patients aged 15 years and older hospitalized between March 11 and July 25, 2020. Hospital mortality and severity of the cases were analyzed, and logistic regression models were applied to identify predictors of outcome variables. Results The sample included 785 subjects. The mean age was 59 years, 59% were men, and 61.3% had comorbidities. Forty five per cent required intensive care, and 24% invasive mechanical ventilation. The overall hospital fatality rate was 18.7%. In intensive care patients, the case fatality was 32.1%, and in those who received invasive mechanical ventilation, it was 59.4%. Independent risk factors for death included age (odds ratio 1.09; 95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 1.12), diabetes (1.68; 1.06 to 2.67), chronic lung disease (2.80; 1.48 to 5.28), increased C-reactive protein, creatinine, and ferritin. No association with sex, public health insurance, history of heart disease, oxygen saturation upon admission, or D-dimer was found. Similar factors were predictors of invasive mechanical ventilation. Discussion The prognosis and predictive factors in this cohort of patients hospitalized in Chile for COVID-19 were comparable to those reported in similar studies from higher-income countries. Male sex was not associated with a poor prognosis in this group of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Chile , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Tertiary Care Centers
11.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(4): 335-339, Jul.-Aug. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249921

ABSTRACT

Abstract The disease caused by the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) spread rapidly from China to the entire world. Approximately one third of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients have neurological disorders, especially those classified as severe cases and that require mechanical ventilation. On the other hand, almost nine out of 10 patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit could not breathe spontaneously, thus requiring invasive and non-invasive ventilatory support. So far, whether early neurological disorders such as hyposmia or anosmia, dysgeusia or ageusia, headache and vertigo are significant in the progression to the severe form of the disease or whether they are related to entry to the central nervous system via peripheral nerves has not been determined. Considering the great similarity between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, and that the severity of the condition that leads to death cannot be explained solely by lung involvement, it is important to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 potential invasion to the central nervous system is partially responsible for the severe respiratory component observed in patients with COVID-19.


Resumen La enfermedad (COVID-19) producida por el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 se extendió rápidamente desde China a todo el mundo. Aproximadamente una tercera parte de los pacientes infectados de SARS-CoV-2 presenta alteraciones neurológicas, con mayor frecuencia los clasificados como graves que requirieron ventilación mecánica. Por otro lado, casi nueve de cada 10 pacientes admitidos en una unidad de cuidados intensivos no podían respirar espontáneamente, por lo que ameritaron apoyo ventilatorio invasivo y no invasivo. Hasta el momento no se ha determinado si las alteraciones neurológicas tempranas como la hiposmia o anosmia, disgeusia o ageusia, cefalea y vértigo son significativas en la progresión a la forma grave de la enfermedad y se relacionan con la entrada al sistema nervioso central a través de los nervios periféricos. Considerando la gran similitud entre SARS-CoV y SARS-CoV-2 y que la severidad del cuadro que conduce a la muerte no puede ser explicado únicamente por la afección pulmonar, es importante determinar si la invasión potencial del SARS-CoV-2 al sistema nervioso central es parcialmente responsable del componente respiratorio severo que presentan los pacientes con COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Viral Tropism , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Nervous System Diseases , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology
12.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(4): 302-306, Jul.-Aug. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249915

ABSTRACT

Abstract COVID-19, the causative agent of which is a new type of coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2, has caused the most severe pandemic in the last 100 years. The condition is mainly respiratory, and up to 5 % of patients develop critical illness, a situation that has put enormous pressure on the health systems of affected countries. A high demand for care has mainly been observed in intensive care units and critical care resources, which is why the need to redistribute resources in critical medicine emerged, with an emphasis on distributive justice, which establishes the provision of care to the largest number of people and saving the largest number of lives. One principle lies in allocating resources to patients with higher life expectancy. Mechanical ventilator has been assumed to be an indivisible asset; however, simultaneous mechanical ventilation to more than one patient with COVID-19 is technically possible. Ventilator sharing is not without risks, but the principles of beneficence, non-maleficence and justice prevail. According to distributive justice, being a divisible resource, mechanical ventilator can be shared; however, we should ask ourselves if this action is ethically correct.


Resumen COVID-19, cuyo agente causal es un nuevo tipo de coronavirus denominado SARS-CoV-2, ha provocado la pandemia más grave en los últimos 100 años. La afección es principalmente respiratoria y hasta 5 % de los pacientes desarrolla enfermedad crítica, lo cual ha producido una enorme presión sobre los sistemas de salud de los países afectados. Principalmente se ha observado alta demanda de atención en las unidades de cuidados intensivos y de recursos de atención vital. De ahí la necesidad de redistribuir los recursos en medicina crítica, con énfasis en la justicia distributiva, la cual establece atender al mayor número de personas y salvar el mayor número de vidas. Un principio estriba en asignar los recursos a pacientes con mayores expectativas de vida. Se ha dado por hecho que el ventilador mecánico es un bien indivisible; sin embargo, técnicamente es posible la ventilación mecánica simultánea a más de un paciente con COVID-19. La acción de compartir el ventilador no está exenta de riesgos, pero prevalecen los principios de beneficencia, no maleficencia y justicia. Conforme la justicia distributiva, al ser un bien divisible, el ventilador mecánico puede ser compartido, sin embargo, cabe preguntarse si esta acción es éticamente correcta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units
13.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(4): 290-293, Jul.-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249913

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about a paradigm shift in healthcare. Objective: To evaluate the utility of a strategy to comprehensively address the pandemic in a health area that covers 42,000 people. Method: Between March 10 and May 15, 2020, the COVID Unit was created in the corresponding regional hospital, and an independent circuit was established for the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19; social health centers were monitored with PCR testing. Results: Eighteen COVID-19-positive patients (age 72.9 ± 13.2 years) were admitted, out of which 66% were males. All these patients had pneumonia and 67% had respiratory distress syndrome; no one required mechanical ventilation. Mean hospital stay was 9.4 ± 5.3 days, and mortality, 11%. PCR tests were applied to all hospital residents (n = 827) and workers (n = 519), 1,044 phone calls were made and 36 hospital admissions were avoided. Only 50 patients required close follow-up, out of which four (0.48%) were positive for COVID-19. Conclusion: Clinical monitoring at the hospital and social health centers showed that patient profile was like that documented in the literature and that the incidence of COVID-19 was low in social health centers.


Resumen Introducción: La pandemia de COVID-19 provocó un cambio de paradigma en la atención médica. Objetivo: Evaluar una estrategia para abordar integralmente la pandemia en un distrito de salud que comprende 42 000 personas. Método: Entre el 10 de marzo y 15 de mayo de 2020 se creó la Unidad COVID en un hospital regional correspondiente al distrito y se estableció un circuito independiente para el diagnóstico y manejo de pacientes con sospecha o confirmación de COVID-19; los centros de salud social fueron monitoreados mediante PCR. Resultados: Ingresaron 18 pacientes positivos a COVID-19 (edad de 72.9 ± 13.2 años), 66 % eran hombres; todos presentaron neumonía, 67 % desarrolló síndrome de dificultad respiratoria y ninguno requirió ventilación mecánica. La estancia hospitalaria fue de 9.4 ± 5.3 días y la mortalidad, de 11 %. Se realizaron pruebas de PCR a todos los residentes (n = 827) y trabajadores (n = 519) del hospital, se realizaron 1044 llamadas telefónicas y se evitaron 36 hospitalizaciones. Solo 50 pacientes necesitaron seguimiento cercano, cuatro (0.48 %) positivos a COVID-19. Conclusión: El monitoreo clínico en el hospital y centros de salud social mostró que el perfil de los pacientes fue similar al documentado en la literatura y que la incidencia de COVID-19 fue baja en los centros sociales de salud.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Hospitalization , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Spain , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Incidence , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data
14.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(2): 261-267, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138498

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a funcionalidade de pacientes pediátricos submetidos à correção cirúrgica de cardiopatia congênita após a alta da unidade de terapia intensiva e as possíveis correlações com variáveis clínicas e risco cirúrgico. Métodos: Estudo transversal, que incluiu crianças entre 1 mês e 18 anos incompletos, que realizaram cirurgia para correção de cardiopatia congênita, no período de outubro de 2017 até maio de 2018. A avaliação da funcionalidade foi realizada por meio da Functional Status Scale, a avaliação do risco cirúrgico se deu pelo Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery-1 (RACHS-1), e as variáveis clínicas foram obtidas do prontuário eletrônico. Resultados: A amostra foi composta de 57 crianças, com mediana de idade de 7 (2 - 17) meses, sendo 54,4% do sexo masculino. Dentre as crianças, 75,5% apresentaram alteração na funcionalidade, e 45,6% delas tiveram disfunção moderada. Cerca de 47% da amostra apresentou classificação RACHS-1 > 3, indicando maior risco cirúrgico. Maior déficit funcional foi associado a crianças mais novas, com maior duração da ventilação mecânica invasiva e do tempo de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva. Além disso, maior grau de disfunção foi observado entre aqueles classificados com RACHS-1 > 3. Conclusão: A prevalência de disfunção foi elevada em crianças e adolescentes com cardiopatia após cirurgia cardíaca. Maior risco cirúrgico, duração da ventilação mecânica invasiva, permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva e os mais jovens apresentaram associação com pior desempenho funcional.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the functional status of pediatric patients undergoing congenital heart surgery after discharge from the intensive care unit, and to evaluate the correlations among clinical variables, functional status and surgical risk. Methods: Cross-sectional study including patients aged 1 month to less than 18 years undergoing congenital heart surgery between October 2017 and May 2018. Functional outcome was assessed by the Functional Status Scale, surgical risk classification was determined using the Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery-1 (RACHS-1), and clinical variables were collected from electronic medical records. Results: The sample comprised 57 patients with a median age of 7 months (2 - 17); 54.4% were male, and 75.5% showed dysfunction, which was moderate in 45.6% of the cases. RACHS-1 category > 3 was observed in 47% of the sample, indicating higher surgical risk. There was a correlation between functional deficit and younger age, longer duration of invasive mechanical ventilation and longer intensive care unit stay. Moreover, greater functional deficit was observed among patients classified as RACHS-1 category > 3. Conclusion: The prevalence of functional deficit was high among children and adolescents with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery. Higher surgical risk, longer duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, longer intensive care unit stay and younger age were correlated with worse functional status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Intensive Care Units , Patient Discharge , Time Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Functional Status , Length of Stay
15.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(2): 229-234, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138493

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Mostrar o quadro clínico e os desfechos de uma coorte de pacientes críticos com câncer esofágico. Métodos: Conduzimos um estudo multicêntrico retrospectivo que incluiu pacientes com câncer esofágico admitidos a unidades de terapia intensiva em razão de doença aguda entre setembro de 2009 e dezembro de 2017. Colhemos os dados demográficos e as características clínicas de todos os pacientes incluídos, assim como as medidas de suporte a órgãos e os desfechos no hospital. Realizamos uma análise de regressão logística para identificar os fatores associados de forma independente com mortalidade hospitalar. Resultados: Dentre os 226 pacientes incluídos no estudo, 131 (58,0%) faleceram antes de receber alta hospitalar. O carcinoma espinocelular foi mais frequente do que o adenocarcinoma, e 124 (54,9%) pacientes tinham câncer metastático. As principais razões para admissão foram sepse/choque séptico e insuficiência respiratória aguda. Uso de ventilação mecânica (RC = 6,18; IC95% 2,86 - 13,35) e doença metastática (RC = 7,10; IC95% 3,35 - 15,05) tiveram associação independente com mortalidade hospitalar. Conclusão: Nesta coorte de pacientes com câncer esofágico admitidos à unidades de terapia intensiva em razão de doença aguda, a taxa de mortalidade hospitalar foi muito elevada. A necessidade de utilizar ventilação mecânica invasiva e a presença de doença metastática foram fatores independentes de prognóstico e devem ser levados em conta nas discussões a respeito dos desfechos destes pacientes em curto prazo.


ABSTRACT Objective: To depict the clinical presentation and outcomes of a cohort of critically ill patients with esophageal cancer. Methods: We carried out a multicenter retrospective study that included patients with esophageal cancer admitted to intensive care units with acute illness between September 2009 and December 2017. We collected the demographic and clinical characteristics of all included patients, as well as organ-support measures and hospital outcomes. We performed logistic regression analysis to identify independent factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Results: Of 226 patients included in the study, 131 (58.0%) patients died before hospital discharge. Squamous cell carcinoma was more frequent than adenocarcinoma, and 124 (54.9%) patients had metastatic cancer. The main reasons for admission were sepsis/septic shock and acute respiratory failure. Mechanical ventilation (OR = 6.18; 95%CI 2.86 - 13.35) and metastatic disease (OR = 7.10; 95%CI 3.35 - 15.05) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusion: In this cohort of patients with esophageal cancer admitted to intensive care units with acute illness, the in-hospital mortality rate was very high. The requirement for invasive mechanical ventilation and metastatic disease were independent prognostic factors and should be considered in discussions about the short-term outcomes of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Esophageal Neoplasms/therapy , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Shock, Septic/epidemiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/mortality , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Sepsis/epidemiology
16.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 27(1): 34-40, jan.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090406

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) pediátrica, a falha de extubação pode aumentar o risco de mortalidade. Este estudo objetivou: (1) verificar a taxa de falha de extubação na UTI pediátrica de um hospital público do município de Bauru (São Paulo, Brasil); (2) identificar a principal causa atribuída à falha de extubação; (3) avaliar se características como a idade e o tempo de ventilação mecânica invasiva (VMI) estão associadas à falha de extubação; (4) avaliar se o tempo de permanência na UTI e hospital é maior entre os pacientes que apresentaram falha de extubação. Foi realizado estudo de coorte retrospectivo com 89 pacientes internados de maio de 2017 até julho de 2018. Os resultados mostraram taxa de falha de extubação correspondente a 16%. A principal causa atribuída à falha de extubação foi o estridor laríngeo, totalizando 57% dos casos. A comparação intergrupos (sucesso vs. falha de extubação) não mostrou diferenças em relação à idade (p=0,294) e ao tempo de VMI (p=0,228). No entanto, observamos que o grupo falha de extubação apresentou maior tempo de UTI (p=0,000) e hospital (p=0,010). Desta forma, concluímos que a taxa de extubação está de acordo com a observada em outros estudos. O estridor laríngeo foi responsável por mais da metade dos casos de falha de extubação. Embora a idade e o tempo de VMI não tenham sido características associadas à falha de extubação, esta contribuiu para o maior período de permanência na UTI e no hospital.


RESUMEN En la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) pediátrica, el fracaso de la extubación puede aumentar el riesgo de mortalidad. Este estudio tuvo el objetivo de: (1) verificar el índice de fracaso de la extubación en la UCI pediátrica de un hospital público en el municipio de Bauru (São Paulo, Brasil); (2) identificar la causa principal atribuida al fracaso de la extubación; (3) evaluar si las características edad y tiempo de ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI) están asociadas al fracaso de la extubación; (4) evaluar si la duración en la UCI y el hospital es mayor entre los pacientes que experimentaron este fracaso. Se realizó un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo con 89 pacientes hospitalizados desde mayo de 2017 hasta julio de 2018. Los índices del fracaso de la extubación fueron del 16%. El estridor laríngeo fue la causa principal atribuida al fracaso de la extubación, lo que totaliza el 57% de los casos. La comparación intergrupal (éxito versus fracaso de la extubación) no presentó diferencias en relación con la edad (p=0,294) y el tiempo VMI (p=0,228). Se observó que el grupo fracaso de la extubación estuvo más tiempo en la UCI (p=0,000) y el hospital (p=0,010). Se concluye que el índice de extubación está en consonancia con lo observado en otros estudios. El estridor laríngeo fue el responsable de más de la mitad de los casos de fracaso de la extubación. Las características edad y el tiempo de VMI no estuvieron asociadas al fracaso de la extubación, pero esta contribuyó a un período más prolongado en la UCI y en el hospital.


ABSTRACT In the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU), extubation failure may increase mortality risk. This study aimed: (1) to verify the rate of extubation failure in the pediatric ICU of a public hospital located in the city of Bauru (São Paulo, Brazil); (2) to identify the main cause attributed to extubation failure; (3) to evaluate whether age and time of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) are characteristics associated to extubation failure; (4) to evaluate whether the length of stay in the ICU/hospital is longer among patients who presented extubation failure. A retrospective study was performed with 89 hospitalized patients from May 2017 to July 2018. Results showed an extubation failure rate corresponding to 16%. The main cause attributed to extubation failure was laryngeal stridor, totaling 57% of the cases. Intergroup comparison (success vs. failure of extubation) showed no differences in relation to age (p=0.294) and IMV time (p=0.228). However, we observed that the extubation failure group had longer ICU (p=0.000) and hospital time (p=0.010). In this way, we conclude that the rate of extubation failure is in agreement with other studies. Laryngeal stridor was responsible for more than half of cases of extubation failure. Although IMV time and age were not associated with the extubation failure, they contributed to a longer stay in the ICU and in the hospital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Airway Extubation/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Respiratory Sounds/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Treatment Failure , Electronic Health Records , Airway Extubation/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay
17.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(6): e20180053, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134921

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a eficácia da ventilação mecânica não invasiva (VNI) em prevenir a intubação orotraqueal em uma população heterogênea de pacientes pediátricos e identificar os fatores preditivos associados à sua falha em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica (UTIP). Métodos Estudo clínico, prospectivo não randomizado, com pacientes de 0 a 10 anos de idade internados em UTIP com indicação de VNI, que apresentaram insuficiência respiratória aguda ou crônica agudizada. Foram avaliados parâmetros demográficos, clínicos e cardiorrespiratórios, e os pacientes que não evoluíram para tubo orotraqueal (TOT) por 48 horas após retirada da VNI foram classificados como "grupo sucesso". O "grupo falha" necessitou de TOT. Para identificar os fatores preditores para falha na prevenção de TOT, foi realizada a regressão logística multivariada. Resultados Foram incluídos 52 pacientes, sendo 27 (51,9%) meninos, com idade mediana de 6 (1-120) meses. Ao avaliar a eficácia da VNI, 36 (69,2%) pacientes apresentaram sucesso, sem necessidade de TOT. Após análise dos fatores preditivos para pertencer ao "grupo falha", os pacientes com taquipneia após 2 horas da colocação da VNI apresentaram 4,8 vezes mais chances de necessitar de TOT em 48 horas. Independentemente do desfecho, foram observados diminuição da frequência cardíaca (p < 0,001) e da frequência respiratória (p < 0,001) e aumento da saturação periférica de oxigênio (p < 0,001) 2 horas após a colocação da VNI. Conclusão A utilização da VNI foi eficaz na população estudada, com melhora significativa nos parâmetros cardiorrespiratórios 2 horas após a colocação da VNI, sendo a presença de taquipneia um fator preditivo para falha na prevenção de TOT.


ABSTRACT Objective Evaluate the efficacy of Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation (NIV) in preventing Endotracheal Intubation (ETI) in a heterogeneous pediatric population and identify predictive factors associated with NIV failure in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Methods Prospective non-randomized clinical trial conducted with patients aged 0-10 years, hospitalized in a PICU with NIV indication, who presented acute or chronic respiratory failure. Demographic data and clinical and cardiorespiratory parameters were evaluated, and patients who did not progress to ETI in 48 h after withdrawal of NIV were classified as "success group", whereas those who progressed to ETI were included in the "failure group". Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the predictive factors of failure to prevent ETI. Results Fifty-two patients, 27 (51.9%) males, with median age of 6 (1-120) months were included in the study. When evaluating the effectiveness of NIV, 36 (69.2%) patients were successful, with no need for ETI. After analyzing the predictive factors associated with failure, patients with tachypnea after 2 h of NIV were 4.8 times more likely to require ETI in 48 h. Regardless of outcome, heart (p<0.001) and respiratory (p<0.001) rates decreased and oxygen saturation (p<0.001) increased after 2 h of NIV. Conclusion We concluded that use of NIV was effective in the studied population, with significant improvement in cardiorespiratory parameters after 2 h of NIV, and that tachypnea was a predictive factor of failure to prevent ETI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
18.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(4): e20190005, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090817

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to describe practices for weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV), in terms of the use of protocols, methods, and criteria, in pediatric ICUs (PICUs), neonatal ICUs (NICUs), and mixed neonatal/pediatric ICUs (NPICUs) in Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey carried out by sending an electronic questionnaire to a total of 298 NICUs, PICUs, and NPICUs throughout Brazil. Results: Completed questionnaires were assessed for 146 hospitals, NICUs accounting for 49.3% of the questionnaires received, whereas PICUs and NPICUs accounted for 35.6% and 15.1%, respectively. Weaning protocols were applied in 57.5% of the units. In the NICUs and NPICUs that used weaning protocols, the method of MV weaning most commonly employed (in 60.5% and 50.0%, respectively) was standardized gradual withdrawal from ventilatory support, whereas that employed in most (53.0%) of the PICUs was spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). During the SBTs, the most common ventilation mode, in all ICUs, was pressure-support ventilation (10.03 ± 3.15 cmH2O) with positive end-expiratory pressure. The mean SBT duration was 35.76 ± 29.03 min in the NICUs, compared with 76.42 ± 41.09 min in the PICUs. The SBT parameters, weaning ventilation modes, and time frame considered for extubation failure were not found to be dependent on the age profile of the ICU population. The findings of the clinical evaluation and arterial blood gas analysis are frequently used as criteria to assess readiness for extubation, regardless of the age group served by the ICU. Conclusions: In Brazil, the clinical practices for weaning from MV and extubation appear to vary depending on the age group served by the ICU. It seems that weaning protocols and SBTs are used mainly in PICUs, whereas gradual withdrawal from ventilatory support is more widely used in NICUs and NPICUs.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever as práticas de desmame da ventilação mecânica (VM), quanto ao uso de protocolos, métodos e critérios, em UTIs pediátricas (UTIPs), neonatais (UTINs) e mistas - neonatais e pediátricas (UTINPs) - no Brasil. Métodos: Estudo transversal, tipo inquérito, realizado por meio do envio de questionário eletrônico a 298 UTINs, UTIPs e UTINPs de todo o país. Resultados: Foram avaliados 146 questionários respondidos (49,3% recebidos de UTINs, 35,6%, de UTIPs e 15,1%, de UTINPs). Das unidades pesquisadas, 57,5% aplicavam protocolos de desmame. Nas UTINs e UTINPs que utilizavam esses protocolos, o método de desmame da VM mais empregado (em 60,5% e 50,0%, respectivamente) foi a redução gradual padronizada do suporte ventilatório, enquanto o empregado na maioria (53,0%) das UTIPs foi o teste de respiração espontânea (TRE). Durante o TRE, o modo ventilatório predominante em todas as UTIs foi a ventilação com pressão de suporte (10,03 ± 3,15 cmH2O) com pressão expiratória final positiva. A duração média do TRE foi de 35,76 ± 29,03 min nas UTINs, contra 76,42 ± 41,09 min nas UTIPs. Os parâmetros do TRE, modos ventilatórios de desmame e tempo considerado para falha de extubação não se mostraram dependentes do perfil etário da população das UTIs. Os resultados da avaliação clínica e da gasometria arterial são frequentemente utilizados como critérios para avaliar a prontidão para extubação, independentemente da faixa etária atendida pela UTI. Conclusões: No Brasil, a prática clínica na condução do desmame da VM e extubação varia de acordo com a faixa etária atendida pela UTI. Protocolos de desmame e o TRE são utilizados principalmente nas UTIPs, enquanto a redução gradual do suporte ventilatório é mais utilizada nas UTINs e UTINPs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Child , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/standards , Ventilator Weaning/methods , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Care Surveys
19.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5168, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056039

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To understand the use of tools, protocols and comfort measures related to sedation/analgesia, and to screen the occurrence of delirium in pediatric intensive care units. Methods A survey with 14 questions was distributed by e-mail to Brazilian critical care pediatricians. Eight questions addressed physician and hospital demographics, and six inquired practices to assess sedation, analgesia, and delirium in pediatric intensive care units. Results Of 373 questionnaires sent, 61 were answered (16.3%). The majority of physicians were practicing in the Southeast region (57.2%). Of these, 46.5% worked at public hospitals, 28.6% of which under direct state administration. Of respondents, 57.1% used formal protocols for sedation and analgesia, and the Ramsay scale was the most frequently employed (52.5%). Delirium screening scores were not used by 48.2% of physicians. The Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium was the score most often used (23.2%). The majority (85.7%) of physicians did not practice daily sedation interruption, and only 23.2% used non-pharmacological measures for patient comfort frequently, with varied participation of parents in the process. Conclusion This study highlights the heterogeneity of practices for assessment of sedation/analgesia and lack of detection of delirium among critical care pediatricians in Brazil.


RESUMO Objetivo Compreender o uso de ferramentas, protocolos e medidas de conforto relacionadas à sedação/analgesia, além de rastrear a presença de delirium em unidades de terapia intensiva pediátricas. Métodos Um inquérito com 14 questões foi distribuído, por meio de correio eletrônico, para médicos pediatras intensivistas brasileiros. Oito questões eram sobre os dados demográficos dos médicos e dos hospitais, e seis questões eram sobre as práticas na avaliação da sedação, analgesia e delirium em unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica. Resultados Responderam ao inquérito 61 médicos dos 373 e-mails enviados (taxa de resposta de 16,3%). A maioria dos médicos era da Região Sudeste (57,2%) e 46,5% trabalhavam em hospitais públicos, sendo 28,6% sob administração direta do Estado. Dos respondedores, 57,1% utilizavam protocolos formais de sedação e analgesia, sendo a escala de Ramsay a mais utilizada (52,5%). Não utilizavam escores de rastreamento de delirium 48,2% dos médicos, e o Cornell Asssessment of Pediatric Delirium (23,2%) foi o mais utilizado. A maioria (85,7%) dos médicos não utilizou a prática da interrupção diária da sedação, e apenas 23,2% utilizavam medidas não farmacológicas para o conforto do paciente com frequência, com a participação heterogênea dos pais nesse processo. Conclusão Este estudo destaca a heterogeneidade nas práticas de avaliação da sedação/analgesia e insuficiência de rastreamento de delirium entre os intensivistas pediátricos brasileiros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Delirium/diagnosis , Deep Sedation/methods , Pediatricians/statistics & numerical data , Analgesia/methods , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Delirium/etiology , Deep Sedation/adverse effects , Deep Sedation/statistics & numerical data , Analgesia/adverse effects , Analgesia/statistics & numerical data
20.
Rev. chil. med. intensiv ; 35(3)2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292498

ABSTRACT

RELEVANCIA: La pandemia por COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-2019) se origina en diciembre de 2019. En Chile, a la fecha se han reportado 13.037 fallecidos con un enorme costo y esfuerzo asistencial, siendo limitada aun la evidencia en Chile acerca de esta enfermedad. OBJETIVOS: Describir el perfil clínico y ventilatorio de los pacientes con COVID-19 que requirieron manejo en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos en un Hospital Terciario de la Región Metropolitana. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo, observacional y retrospectivo. Se extrajeron los datos de 64 pacientes ingresados entre el 24 de Marzo y el 15 de Mayo de 2020 en la UCI del Hospital Ramón Barros Luco Trudeau en el Sector Sur de la Región Metropolitana. Los resultados primarios en el estudio fueron Mortalidad en UCI, Mortalidad Intrahospitalaria y Mortalidad a 28 días. RESULTADOS: La mortalidad en UCI fue del 20%, existiendo una asociación entre Hipertensión Arterial y Enfermedad más Grave. La obesidad se asoció con mayores días UCI. En cuanto al soporte ventilatorio, 75% de los pacientes requirió apoyo con VMI al ingreso. Existe un perfil de mejor Compliance pulmonar y bajo potencial de reclutamiento durante la primera semana. Sin embargo, entre el 7mo. y 14vo día de enfermedad existe una rápida progresión hacia menor compliance pulmonar en cierto grupo de pacientes. CONCLUSIONES: Los casos más graves de COVID-19 se dan en pacientes de avanzada edad, hipertensos y obesos, con un aumento significativo en mortalidad cuando asociaron enfermedad renal crónica sobre todo en hemodiálisis. La progresión hacia deterioros severos de la elastancia pulmonar probablemente constituyen el signo ominoso de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Oxygenation , Retrospective Studies , Age Distribution , APACHE , Organ Dysfunction Scores , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality
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