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1.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(1): 12-16, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357469

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing global health threat. However, currently, no standard therapy has been approved for the disease. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of convalescent plasma (CP) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study conducted at Kayseri City Education and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey. METHODS: The case group consisted of adult patients (> 18 years) with ARDS due to COVID-19 who received CP in combination with antiviral and supportive treatment. These patients were compared with others who only received antiviral and supportive treatment. RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 30 patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 were included. Eleven patients (36%) received CP in combination with antiviral and supportive treatment, whereas nineteen patients (64%) in the control group only received antiviral and supportive treatment. On admission, the median age, demographic and clinical data and initial laboratory test results were similar between the groups (P > 0.05). On the 14th day of treatment, the laboratory values remained similar between the groups (P > 0.05). The mortality rates were not significantly different between the groups. CONCLUSION: CP treatment did not affect mortality or lead to clinical improvement for COVID-19 patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , COVID-19/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(3): e1572, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347544

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La presentación clínica de la enfermedad provocada por el SARS-CoV-2 es heterogénea. Los pacientes pueden ser asintomáticos o tener una enfermedad leve de las vías respiratorias superiores o desarrollar una neumonía grave que puede progresar al síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda y provocar la muerte. La fisiopatología de las formas graves de la enfermedad se caracteriza por una marcada hiperinflamación. Las terapias que modulan la respuesta inmunitaria pueden ser cruciales para tratar y prevenir este estado. El péptido CIGB-258, marca comercial Jusvinza, es una opción terapéutica para este propósito, por sus propiedades inmunomoduladoras. Objetivo: Describir la evolución clínica de un paciente pediátrico con neumonía grave por SARS-CoV-2, tratado con el péptido CIGB-258 Presentación del caso: Adolescente de 12 años con epilepsia refractaria, parálisis cerebral infantil y antecedentes epidemiológicos de contacto con paciente positivo a test confirmatorio de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa para SARS-CoV-2 que ocho días después del contacto, muestra evidencias clínicas, radiográficas y de laboratorio de neumonía grave por COVID-19. Dentro del protocolo terapéutico, recibió tratamiento con el péptido inmunomodulador CIGB-258, con una evolución favorable y egreso hospitalario. Conclusiones: El uso del péptido CIGB-258 en el tratamiento de la neumonía grave por COVID-19 en pediatría, podría contribuir a evitar la progresión hacia las etapas críticas de la enfermedad(AU)


Introduction: The clinical presentation of the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is heterogeneous. Patients may be asymptomatic or have mild upper respiratory tract disease, or develop severe pneumonia that can progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome and lead to death. The pathophysiology of severe forms of the disease is characterized by a marked hyperinflammation. Therapies that modulate the immune response can be crucial in treating and preventing this state. The CIGB-258 peptide, brand name Jusvinza, is a therapeutic option for this purpose, due to its immunomodulatory properties. Objective: Describe the clinical evolution of a pediatric patient with severe pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2, and treated with the CIGB-258 peptide. Case Presentation: A 12-year-old adolescent with refractory epilepsy, infantile cerebral palsy, and an epidemiological history of contact with a patient positive to PCR confirmatory test for SARS-CoV-2 who, eight days after contact, shows clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evidence of severe pneumonia due to COVID-19. Within the therapeutic protocol, he received treatment with CIGB-258 immunomodulatory peptide, with a favorable evolution and hospital discharge. Conclusions: The use of CIGB-258 peptide in the treatment of severe pneumonia due to COVID-19 in pediatrics could contribute to prevent progression to the critical stages of the disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Evolution , Clinical Protocols
4.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 461-468, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347304

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A respiração espontânea pode ser prejudicial para pacientes com pulmões previamente lesados, especialmente na vigência de síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Mais ainda, a incapacidade de assumir a respiração totalmente espontânea durante a ventilação mecânica e a necessidade de voltar à ventilação mecânica controlada se associam com mortalidade mais alta. Existe uma lacuna no conhecimento em relação aos parâmetros que poderiam ser úteis para predizer o risco de lesão pulmonar autoinflingida pelo paciente e detecção da incapacidade de assumir a respiração espontânea. Relata-se o caso de um paciente com lesão pulmonar autoinflingida e as correspondentes variáveis, básicas e avançadas, de monitoramento da mecânica do sistema respiratório, além dos resultados fisiológicos e clínicos relacionados à respiração espontânea durante ventilação mecânica. O paciente era um homem caucasiano com 33 anos de idade e história clínica de AIDS, que apresentou síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo e necessitou ser submetido à ventilação mecânica invasiva após falha do suporte ventilatório não invasivo. Durante os períodos de ventilação controlada, adotou-se estratégia de ventilação protetora, e o paciente mostrou evidente melhora, tanto do ponto de vista clínico quanto radiográfico. Contudo, durante cada período de respiração espontânea sob ventilação com pressão de suporte, apesar dos parâmetros iniciais adequados, das regulagens rigorosamente estabelecidas e do estrito monitoramento, o paciente desenvolveu hipoxemia progressiva e piora da mecânica do sistema respiratório, com deterioração radiográfica claramente correlacionada (lesão pulmonar autoinflingida pelo paciente). Após falha de três tentativas de respiração espontânea, o paciente faleceu por hipoxemia refratária no 29° dia. Neste caso, as variáveis básicas e avançadas convencionais não foram suficientes para identificar a aptidão para respirar espontaneamente ou predizer o risco de desenvolver lesão pulmonar autoinflingida pelo paciente durante a ventilação de suporte parcial.


ABSTRACT Spontaneous breathing can be deleterious in patients with previously injured lungs, especially in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Moreover, the failure to assume spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilation and the need to switch back to controlled mechanical ventilation are associated with higher mortality. There is a gap of knowledge regarding which parameters might be useful to predict the risk of patient self-inflicted lung injury and to detect the inability to assume spontaneous breathing. We report a case of patient self-inflicted lung injury, the corresponding basic and advanced monitoring of the respiratory system mechanics and physiological and clinical results related to spontaneous breathing. The patient was a 33-year-old Caucasian man with a medical history of AIDS who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and needed invasive mechanical ventilation after noninvasive ventilatory support failure. During the controlled ventilation periods, a protective ventilation strategy was adopted, and the patient showed clear clinical and radiographic improvement. However, during each spontaneous breathing period under pressure support ventilation, despite adequate initial parameters and a strictly adjusted ventilatory setting and monitoring, the patient developed progressive hypoxemia and worsening of respiratory system mechanics with a clearly correlated radiographic deterioration (patient self-inflicted lung injury). After failing three spontaneous breathing assumption trials, he died on day 29 due to refractory hypoxemia. Conventional basic and advanced monitoring variables in this case were not sufficient to identify the aptitude to breathe spontaneously or to predict the risk and development of patient self-inflicted lung injury during partial support ventilation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Lung Injury , Respiration , Respiration, Artificial , Lung
5.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 457-460, jul.-set. 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347299

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Uma mulher com 63 anos de idade compareceu ao pronto-socorro com história aguda de febre, prostração e dispneia. Recebeu diagnóstico de quadro grave da COVID-19 e síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Apesar de suporte clínico intensivo, cumpriu os critérios para ser submetida à oxigenação venovenosa por membrana extracorpórea. No dia 34, após 7 dias de desmame da sedação com evolução positiva de seu quadro neurológico, apresentou uma crise tônico-clônica generalizada limitada, não relacionada com desequilíbrio hidroeletrolítico ou metabólico, que levou à necessidade de investigação diagnóstica. Seus exames de imagem cerebral revelaram síndrome da encefalopatia posterior reversível. Este caso enfatiza a questão das complicações neurológicas em pacientes com COVID-19 grave e a importância do diagnóstico e suporte precoces.


ABSTRACT A 63-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with an acute history of fever, prostration and dyspnea. She was diagnosed with severe COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome and, despite optimized critical care support, met the indications for veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. On day 34, after 7 days of wean sedation with a positive evolution of neurologic status, she presented a limited generalized tonic-clonic seizure not related to hydroelectrolytic or metabolic imbalance, which led to a diagnostic investigation; her brain imaging tests showed a posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. This case emphasizes the issue of neurological complications in patients with severe COVID-19 infection and the importance of early diagnosis and support.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnosis , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/etiology , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): e531-e535, oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292781

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad por coronavirus de 2019 (COVID-19), causada por el coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2), se convirtió en la primera pandemia del siglo XXI. La infección por SARS-CoV-2 se transmite principalmente a través de las gotículas. Si bien se han informado algunos casos de transmisión perinatal, no es claro si estas infecciones fueron resultado de la vía de contagio transplacentario o transcervical o de la exposición ambiental. En este artículo, presentamos el caso de un recién nacido que falleció por síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda neonatal con compromiso pulmonar grave. El bebé nació por cesárea de una madre con una PCR positiva para COVID-19 y se detectó que tenía una PCR positiva para COVID-19 mediante un hisopado nasofaríngeo en el transcurso de las 24 horas posteriores al parto debido a una sospecha de transmisión transplacentaria del SARS-CoV-2 de la madre al feto.


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is the first pandemic of the 21st century. SARS-CoV-2 infection is mainly transmitted via droplets. Although some cases of peri-natal transmission have been reported, it is unclear whether these infections occurred via transplacental or transcervical routes or via environmental exposure. Herein, we present the case of a newborn who died with neo-natal acute respiratory distress syndrome exhibiting severe pulmonary involvement. The baby was born to a COVID-19 PCR (+) mother by C-section and was found to be COVID-19 PCR (+) from a nasopharyngeal swab sample tested within 24 hours of birth due to the suspected transplacental transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from the mother to the fetus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , COVID-19 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879841

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the association of different stages of histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) with the incidence rate and severity of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants.@*METHODS@#Related data were collected from the infants and their mothers who were treated in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Qingdao Women and Children's Hospital, Qingdao University, from January 2018 to June 2020. According to the presence or absence of HCA and its stage, the infants were divided into four groups: control (@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control and late-stage HCA groups, the early-stage HCA group had a significantly lower incidence rate of placental abruption and a significantly higher rate of prenatal use of antibiotics (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Early-, middle-, and late-stage HCA can reduce the incidence rate of RDS in preterm infants. HCA stage may not be correlated with RDS severity in preterm infants, which needs to be verified by further research.


Subject(s)
Birth Weight , Child , Chorioamnionitis/epidemiology , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Pregnancy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2017-2024, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887659

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the most common severe diseases seen in the clinical setting. With the continuous exploration of ARDS in recent decades, the understanding of ARDS has improved. ARDS is not a simple lung disease but a clinical syndrome with various etiologies and pathophysiological changes. However, in the intensive care unit, ARDS often occurs a few days after primary lung injury or after a few days of treatment for other severe extrapulmonary diseases. Under such conditions, ARDS often progresses rapidly to severe ARDS and is difficult to treat. The occurrence and development of ARDS in these circumstances are thus not related to primary lung injury; the real cause of ARDS may be the "second hit" caused by inappropriate treatment. In view of the limited effective treatments for ARDS, the strategic focus has shifted to identifying potential or high-risk ARDS patients during the early stages of the disease and implementing treatment strategies aimed at reducing ARDS and related organ failure. Future research should focus on the prevention of ARDS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Treatment Outcome
9.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(1): e20200360, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154677

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the association that protective mechanical ventilation (MV), based on VT and maximum distending pressure (MDP), has with mortality in patients at risk for ARDS. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study conducted in an ICU and including 116 patients on MV who had at least one risk factor for the development of ARDS. Ventilatory parameters were collected twice a day for seven days, and patients were divided into two groups (protective MV and nonprotective MV) based on the MDP (difference between maximum airway pressure and PEEP) or VT. The outcome measures were 28-day mortality, ICU mortality, and in-hospital mortality. The risk factors associated with the adoption of nonprotective MV were also assessed. Results: Nonprotective MV based on VT and MDP was applied in 49 (42.2%) and 38 (32.8%) of the patients, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression showed that protective MV based on MDP was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.19-0.73) and lower ICU mortality (hazard ratio = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.19-0.85), after adjustment for age, Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3, and vasopressor use, as well as the baseline values for PaO2/FiO2 ratio, PEEP, pH, and PaCO2. These associations were not observed when nonprotective MV was based on the VT. Conclusions: The MDP seems to be a useful tool, better than VT, for adjusting MV in patients at risk for ARDS.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a associação da ventilação mecânica (VM) protetora, com base no VT e na pressão de distensão máxima (PDM), com a mortalidade em pacientes com fator de risco para SDRA. Métodos: Este estudo de coorte prospectivo foi conduzido em uma UTI e incluiu 116 pacientes em VM que apresentavam pelo menos um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de SDRA. Os parâmetros ventilatórios foram coletados duas vezes ao dia durante sete dias, e os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos (VM protetora e VM não protetora) com base na PDM (diferença entre pressão máxima de vias aéreas e PEEP) ou no VT. Os desfechos foram mortalidade em 28 dias, mortalidade na UTI e mortalidade hospitalar. Os fatores de risco associados com a adoção da VM não protetora também foram avaliados. Resultados: A VM não protetora com base no VT e na PDM ocorreu em 49 (42,2%) e em 38 (32,8%) dos pacientes, respectivamente. A regressão multivariada de Cox mostrou que a VM protetora com base na PDM associou-se a menor mortalidade hospitalar (hazard ratio = 0,37; IC95%: 0,19-0,73) e em UTI (hazard ratio = 0,40; IC95%, 0,19-0,85), após ajuste para idade, Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3, uso de vasopressor e valores basais de PaO2/FiO2, PEEP, pH e PaCO2. Essas associações não foram observadas quando a VM não protetora foi baseada no VT. Conclusões: A PDM parece ser uma ferramenta útil, melhor do que o VT, para o ajuste da VM em pacientes sob risco para SDRA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Positive-Pressure Respiration
12.
Autops. Case Rep ; 8(2): e2018022, Apr.-May 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-905523

ABSTRACT

Congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) is a developmental malformation of the lower respiratory tract. We report the case of a male newborn diagnosed with cystic lung disease during prenatal ultrasound. A cesarean section was performed at the 32nd gestational week because of premature rupture of the membranes, and soon after the delivery the newborn developed respiratory failure and died. The aim of this study is to report an autopsy case because of its rarity, and to briefly discuss the CPAM subtypes and differential diagnosis of cystic lung diseases of childhood.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of Lung, Congenital/diagnosis , Prenatal Diagnosis/statistics & numerical data , Abortion , Autopsy , Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of Lung, Congenital/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Fatal Outcome , Infant, Premature , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology
14.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 87(6): 500-503, Dec. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844572

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El déficit congénito de surfactante es una entidad de diagnóstico inhabitual en recién nacidos. Se reporta un caso clínico de déficit de proteína B del surfactante, se revisa el estudio, tratamiento y diagnóstico diferencial de los déficit de proteínas del surfactante y enfermedad crónica intersticial de la infancia. Caso clínico: Recién nacido de término que cursa dificultad respiratoria, con velamiento pulmonar recurrente y respuesta transitoria a administración de surfactante. El estudio inmunohistoquímico y genético confirmaron diagnóstico de déficit de proteína B de surfactante. Conclusiones: La enfermedad pulmonar congénita requiere un alto índice de sospecha. El déficit de proteína B de surfactante genera un cuadro clínico progresivo y mortal en la mayoría de los casos, al igual que el déficit de transportador ATP binding cassette, sub-family A member 3 (ABCA3). El déficit de proteína C es insidioso y puede presentarse con un patrón radiológico pulmonar intersticial. Debido a la similitud en el patrón histológico, el estudio genético permite una mayor certeza en el pronóstico y la posibilidad de entregar un adecuado consejo genético.


Introduction: Congenital surfactant deficiency is a condition infrequently diagnosed in newborns. A clinical case is presented of surfactant protein B deficiency. A review is performed on the study, treatment and differential diagnosis of surfactant protein deficiencies and infant chronic interstitial lung disease. Case report: The case is presented of a term newborn that developed respiratory distress, recurrent pulmonary opacification, and a transient response to the administration of surfactant. Immunohistochemical and genetic studies confirmed the diagnosis of surfactant protein B deficiency. Conclusions: Pulmonary congenital anomalies require a high index of suspicion. Surfactant protein B deficiency is clinically progressive and fatal in the majority of the cases, similar to that of ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 3 (ABCA3) deficiency. Protein C deficiency is insidious and may present with a radiological pulmonary interstitial pattern. Due to the similarity in the histological pattern, genetic studies help to achieve greater certainty in the prognosis and the possibility of providing adequate genetic counselling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/congenital , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Pulmonary Surfactants/administration & dosage , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein B/deficiency , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/complications , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/genetics , Diagnosis, Differential
15.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(4): 235-241, Aug. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841583

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo (SDRA) es una insuficiencia respiratoria aguda secundaria a edema pulmonar inflamatorio, con aumento de permeabilidad capilar, inundación alveolar e hipoxemia profunda subsiguiente. El trastorno subyacente es la presencia de shunt intrapulmonar, característicamente refractario a las FIO2 elevadas. El SDRA se manifiesta dentro de la semana de la exposición a un factor de riesgo, habitualmente neumonía, shock, sepsis, aspiración de contenido gástrico, trauma, y otros. En la tomografía axial computarizada (TAC) la enfermedad frecuentemente aparece como no homogénea, con infiltrados gravitacionales coexistiendo con áreas normalmente aireadas y otras hiperinsufladas. La mortalidad es elevada (30-60%), especialmente en el SDRA secundario a shock séptico e injuria cerebral aguda. El tratamiento es el del factor de riesgo, junto con la ventilación mecánica que, inapropiadamente utilizada, puede también inducir injuria. El uso de un volumen corriente ≤ 6 ml/kg de peso corporal ideal como para mantener una presión de fin de inspiración (plateau) ≤ 30 cm H2O ("ventilación protectora") se asocia a una disminución de la mortalidad. Niveles de presión positiva de fin de espiración (PEEP) moderados-altos son frecuentemente necesarios para tratar la hipoxemia, pero no existe un único valor predeterminado o un método específico de titular PEEP para disminuir la mortalidad. Recientemente, la utilización precoz del decúbito prono en pacientes con PaO2/FIO2 ≤150 se asoció a un aumento de supervivencia. En la hipoxemia grave, pueden utilizarse adyuvantes de la ventilación mecánica como maniobras de reclutamiento, bloqueantes neuromusculares y oxigenación por membrana extracorpórea. La restricción en los fluidos resulta beneficiosa.


Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute respiratory failure produced by an inflammatory edema secondary to increased lung capillary permeability. This causes alveolar flooding and subsequently deep hypoxemia, with intrapulmonary shunt as its most important underlying mechanism. Characteristically, this alteration is unresponsive to high FIO2 and only reverses with end-expiratory positive pressure (PEEP). Pulmonary infiltrates on CXR and CT are the hallmark, together with decreased lung compliance. ARDS always occurs within a week of exposition to a precipitating factor; most frequently pneumonia, shock, aspiration of gastric contents, sepsis, and trauma. In CT scan, the disease is frequently inhomogeneous, with gravitational infiltrates coexisting with normal-density areas and also with hyperaerated parenchyma. Mortality is high (30-60%) especially in ARDS associated with septic shock and neurocritical diseases. The cornerstone of therapy lies in the treatment of the underlying cause and in the use mechanical ventilation which, if inappropriately administered, can lead to ventilator-induced lung injury. Tidal volume ≤ 6 ml/kg of ideal body weight to maintain an end-inspiratory (plateau) pressure ≤ 30 cm H2O ("protective ventilation") is the only variable consistently associated with decreased mortality. Moderate-to-high PEEP levels are frequently required to treat hypoxemia, yet no specific level or titration strategy has improved outcomes. Recently, the use of early prone positioning in patients with PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 150 was associated with increased survival. In severely hypoxemic patients, it may be necessary to use adjuvants of mechanical ventilation as recruitment maneuvers, pressure-controlled modes, neuromuscular blocking agents, and extracorporeal-membrane oxygenation. Fluid restriction appears beneficial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/diagnostic imaging , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Risk Factors , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Prone Position , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Patient Positioning/methods , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents/therapeutic use
16.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 84(2): 121-127, abr.-jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-732001

ABSTRACT

La oxigenación de membrana extracorpórea se considera una terapia de rescate y soporte vital compleja, con beneficios en enfermedades cardiorrespiratorias durante el periodo neonatal, que cumple con las características de ser reversible en recién nacidos mayores de 34 semanas. El criterio de selección de los pacientes y el momento oportuno en que se indica son críticos para el resultado final, si bien las nuevas alternativas de manejo en falla respiratoria hipoxémica en recién nacidos a término y casi a término han generado una disminución de su uso, excepto en la hernia diafragmática, que continúa siendo una enfermedad compleja donde podría tener alguna aplicabilidad. Si bien nuestra experiencia está iniciándose, el entrenamiento constante hará de la oxigenación de membrana extracorpórea una opción para pacientes complejos en quienes la terapia máxima fracasa. Se hace un informe de los primeros casos neonatales por falla respiratoria hipoxémica manejados en la Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia.


Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is considered a rescue therapy and complex vital support with benefits in cardiorespiratory diseases during neonatal period that fulfil the characteristics of being reversible in neonates older than 34 weeks. The criteria for patient selection and its prompt use are critical for the final result. Even though new alternatives for management of hypoxemic respiratory failure in full term and almost full term neonates have decreased its use, congenital diaphragmatic hernia continues being a complex disease where it can have some applicability. Even though our experience is beginning, constant training will make of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation an option for complex patients in whom maximum therapy fails. This is a report of the first neonatal cases of hypoxemic respiratory failure managed at Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital/complications , Meconium Aspiration Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Colombia , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Fatal Outcome , Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital , Patient Selection , Program Evaluation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology
17.
Rev. méd. Costa Rica Centroam ; 69(604): 571-574, oct.-dic. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-762544

ABSTRACT

El Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratrio Agudo (SDRA) es una patología pulmonar aguda, rápidamente progresiva, provocada por múltiples causas y con una alta morbimortalidad. Se caracteriza por una inflamación del conjunto alveolo-capilar resultando en una alteración de su permeabilidad y acumulación del material proteico de tipo exudativo dentro del alveolo por lo cual la capacidad de intercambio gaseoso entre el aire inspirado y la circulación sanguínea se ve comprometida. A pesar de constantes esfuerzos en afán de mejorar el tratamiento farmacológico, hasta la fecha no se ha logrado un resultado satisfactorio y el goal-standard del tratamiento sigue focalizado en el mantenimiento de un óptimo balance hídrico conjuntamente a una ventilación mecánica caracterizada por bajos volúmenes Tidales o Corrientes, una alta frecuencia respiratoria, baja presión Plateau, alto nivel de Presión Positiva Teleespiratoria PEEP (Positive End Expiratory Pressure) y todo esto para mantener valores adecuados de intercambio gaseoso sin provocar un baro y/o volutrauma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiration , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 58(5): 587-593, set.-out. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-653772

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between Apgar scores of less than seven at five minutes (AS5min < 7) and antenatal factors and postnatal outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort and case-control study of 27,252 consecutive term newborns in a low risk obstetrical population between January 2003 and December 2010. Maternal and infant databases were reviewed from all cases with AS5min < 7 (n = 121; 0.4%) and 363 cases with AS5min > 7 at 5 minutes who were randomly selected by a computer program. The main outcomes were neonatal death, newborn respiratory distress, need for orotracheal intubation and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy. RESULTS: After multiple regression analysis, repeated late decelerations on cardiotocography (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4-4.1) and prolonged second stage of labor (OR: 3.3; 95% CI: 1.3-8.3) were associated with AS5min < 7, as well as neonatal respiratory distress (OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.3-6.9), orotracheal intubation (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2-4.8), need for NICU (OR: 9.5; 95% CI: 6.7-16.8), and hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy (OR: 14.1; 95% CI: 3.6-54.7). No other antenatal factors were associated with AS5min < 7 (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Repeated late decelerations and prolonged second stage of labor in the low-risk population are predictors of AS5min < 7, a situation associated with increased risk of neonatal respiratory distress, need for mechanical ventilatory support and NICU, and hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre índice de Apgar menor que sete no 5º minuto, os fatores pré-natais e resultados pós-natais. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo retrospectivo com 27.252 recém-nascidos em maternidade escola com população de baixo risco obstétrico, de janeiro de 2003 a dezembro de 2010. Prontuários de todos os casos com índice de Apgar < 7 no 5º minuto (n = 121; - 0,4%) e de 363 casos com Apgar > 7 no 5º minuto, escolhidos ao acaso, foram revisados. Os principais desfechos estudados foram: óbito neonatal, insuficiência respiratória neonatal, necessidade de intubação orotraqueal e de unidade terapia intensiva (UTI) neonatal e encefalopatia hipóxico-isquêmica. RESULTADOS: Após análise de regressão múltipla, desacelerações tardias (DIP II) (OR: 2,4; IC95%: 1,4-4,1) e período expulsivo prolongado (OR: 3,3; IC 95%: 1,3-8,3) se associaram com Apgar < 7 no 5º minuto; assim como com insuficiência respiratória ao nascimento (OR: 3,0; IC 95%: 1,3-6,9), intubação traqueal (OR: 2,5; IC 95%: 1,2-4,8), necessidade de UTI neonatal (OR: 9,5; IC 95%: 6,7-16,8) e encefalopatia hipóxico-isquêmica (OR: 14,1; IC 95%: 3,6-54,7). Nenhuma outra variável prénatal se associou com Apgar < 7 no 5º minuto (p < 0,05). CONCLUSÃO: DIP II e período expulsivo prolongado estão associados com Apgar < 7 no 5º minuto em população obstétrica de baixo risco; situação essa relacionada com maior risco de insuficiência respiratória no parto, necessidade de suporte ventilatório e encefalopatia hipóxico-isquêmica.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Apgar Score , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Cerebral Palsy/diagnosis , Cerebral Palsy/etiology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/etiology , Infant Mortality , Labor Stage, Second , Maternal Age , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Term Birth/physiology
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 96(6): e116-e118, jun. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-593827

ABSTRACT

Relatamos caso de lactente jovem com desconforto respiratório precoce e hipertensão pulmonar, diagnosticado como variante de pulmão em ferradura, e revisamos literatura a cerca desta rara malformação pulmonar e suas repercussões cardíacas e hemodinâmicas.


This is the case report of a young infant with early respiratory distress and pulmonary hypertension, diagnosed as a variant of horseshoe lung and we have reviewed the literature to seek information about this rare pulmonary malformation and its cardiac and hemodynamic repercussions.


Se presenta un caso de una lactante joven con dificultad respiratoria precoz y la hipertensión pulmonar, diagnosticada como una variante de pulmón en herradura y revisamos literatura acerca de esta rara malformación pulmonar y sus repercusiones cardiacas y hemodinámicas.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Lung/abnormalities , Fatal Outcome , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology
20.
Journal of Guilan University of Medical Sciences. 2011; 19 (76): 83-87
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-110053

ABSTRACT

Laryngomalacia is the most common cause of stridor between airways malacia in neonates.It can be accompanied by gastroesophageal reflux. Few cases of swallowing dysfunction were reported in neonates with no underlying disorders some of them had laryngomalacia and reflux too. All three causes can lead to neonatal or infantile FTT or recurrent hospitalization. Timely treatment decreased complications of diseases; we reported a case of a newborn that contracted severe laryngomalacia, swallowing dysfunction and gastroesophageal reflux which needed surgery, in order to attract physicians' attention to the aspect and clinical process of these complications, from birth to discharge. Patient was a full term baby boy who was born by normal vaginal delivery without special problem in his fetal status. His parents were not relative. His birth weight was 3100gr and he had appropriate apgar scores, he contracted mild respiratory stridor, subcostal and upper sternal retraction after birth at the delivery room and was referred to NICU. After intubation his signs eliminated, he was intubated several times during the first 2.5 months after birth. He got pneumonia repeatedly and his lung condition improved with reflux treatment. Because of disability in swallowing, milk was gavage for him. But in spite of enough intake calories, he contracted FTT. His respiratory condition improved with tracheostomy in 2.5 months, and gastrostomy was done in 3 months old. He released with a good condition in 100 days old. He was 10 months and his weight was 9kg. Although, it is impossible that laryngomalacia have got signs at birth but it should be concerned as probable cause of respiratory distress in labor room. A report of respiratory distress at birth in company with stridor, disability in milk ingestion, recurrent pneumonia and FTT [without co-existing disease] should get physiscians suspicious of coincident swallowing dysfunction and laryngomalacia. Both two disturbances can be accompanied by gasteroesophageal reflux too. If there was no response to expected medical management, surgical interventions should be necessary


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Gastroesophageal Reflux/etiology , Tracheostomy , Respiratory Sounds , Infant, Newborn
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