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Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1101-1106, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009854


OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of volume-guaranteed high frequency oscillation ventilation (HFOV-VG) versus conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory failure.@*METHODS@#A prospective study was conducted on 112 preterm infants with respiratory failure (a gestational age of 28-34 weeks) who were admitted to the Department of Neonatology, Jiangyin Hospital Affiliated to Medical School of Southeast University, from October 2018 to December 2022. The infants were randomly divided into an HFOV-VG group (44 infants) and a CMV group (68 infants) using the coin tossing method based on the mode of mechanical ventilation. The therapeutic efficacy was compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#After 24 hours of treatment, both the HFOV-VG and CMV groups showed significant improvements in arterial blood pH, partial pressure of oxygen, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and partial pressure of oxygen/fractional concentration of inspired oxygen ratio (P<0.05), and the HFOV-VG group had better improvements than the CMV group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the incidence rate of complications, 28-day mortality rate, and length of hospital stay (P>0.05), but the HFOV-VG group had a significantly shorter duration of invasive mechanical ventilation than the CMV group (P<0.05). The follow-up at the corrected age of 6 months showed that there were no significant differences between the two groups in the scores of developmental quotient, gross motor function, fine motor function, adaptive ability, language, and social behavior in the Pediatric Neuropsychological Development Scale (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with CMV mode, HFOV-VG mode improves partial pressure of oxygen and promotes carbon dioxide elimination, thereby enhancing oxygenation and shortening the duration of mechanical ventilation in preterm infants with respiratory failure, while it has no significant impact on short-term neurobehavioral development in these infants.

Infant , Child , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Infant, Premature , Prospective Studies , Gestational Age , Carbon Dioxide , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , High-Frequency Ventilation/methods , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Oxygen , Cytomegalovirus Infections
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 779-784, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009820


With the deepening of clinical research, the management of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) needs to be optimized and improved. This article aims to introduce the 2022 European guideline on the management of neonatal RDS, focusing on its key updates. The guide has optimized the management of risk prediction for preterm birth, maternal referral, application of prenatal corticosteroids, application of lung protective ventilation strategies, and general care for infants with RDS. The guideline is mainly applicable to the management of RDS in neonates with gestational age greater than 24 weeks.

Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Family , Gestational Age , Premature Birth , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 216-221, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970270


Objective: To identify the risk factors in mortality of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods: Second analysis of the data collected in the "efficacy of pulmonary surfactant (PS) in the treatment of children with moderate to severe PARDS" program. Retrospective case summary of the risk factors of mortality of children with moderate to severe PARDS who admitted in 14 participating tertiary PICU between December 2016 to December 2021. Differences in general condition, underlying diseases, oxygenation index, and mechanical ventilation were compared after the group was divided by survival at PICU discharge. When comparing between groups, the Mann-Whitney U test was used for measurement data, and the chi-square test was used for counting data. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the accuracy of oxygen index (OI) in predicting mortality. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for mortality. Results: Among 101 children with moderate to severe PARDS, 63 (62.4%) were males, 38 (37.6%) were females, aged (12±8) months. There were 23 cases in the non-survival group and 78 cases in the survival group. The combined rates of underlying diseases (52.2% (12/23) vs. 29.5% (23/78), χ2=4.04, P=0.045) and immune deficiency (30.4% (7/23) vs. 11.5% (9/78), χ2=4.76, P=0.029) in non-survival patients were significantly higher than those in survival patients, while the use of pulmonary surfactant (PS) was significantly lower (8.7% (2/23) vs. 41.0% (32/78), χ2=8.31, P=0.004). No significant differences existed in age, sex, pediatric critical illness score, etiology of PARDS, mechanical ventilation mode and fluid balance within 72 h (all P>0.05). OI on the first day (11.9(8.3, 17.1) vs.15.5(11.7, 23.0)), the second day (10.1(7.6, 16.6) vs.14.8(9.3, 26.2)) and the third day (9.2(6.6, 16.6) vs. 16.7(11.2, 31.4)) after PARDS identified were all higher in non-survival group compared to survival group (Z=-2.70, -2.52, -3.79 respectively, all P<0.05), and the improvement of OI in non-survival group was worse (0.03(-0.32, 0.31) vs. 0.32(-0.02, 0.56), Z=-2.49, P=0.013). ROC curve analysis showed that the OI on the thind day was more appropriate in predicting in-hospital mortality (area under the curve= 0.76, standard error 0.05,95%CI 0.65-0.87,P<0.001). When OI was set at 11.1, the sensitivity was 78.3% (95%CI 58.1%-90.3%), and the specificity was 60.3% (95%CI 49.2%-70.4%). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for age, sex, pediatric critical illness score and fluid load within 72 h, no use of PS (OR=11.26, 95%CI 2.19-57.95, P=0.004), OI value on the third day (OR=7.93, 95%CI 1.51-41.69, P=0.014), and companied with immunodeficiency (OR=4.72, 95%CI 1.17-19.02, P=0.029) were independent risk factors for mortality in children with PARDS. Conclusions: The mortality of patients with moderate to severe PARDS is high, and immunodeficiency, no use of PS and OI on the third day after PARDS identified are the independent risk factors related to mortality. The OI on the third day after PARDS identified could be used to predict mortality.

Female , Male , Humans , Child, Preschool , Infant , Child , Critical Illness , Pulmonary Surfactants/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 295-301, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971076


OBJECTIVES@#To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of noninvasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (NHFOV) versus nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) as post-extubation respiratory support in preterm infants.@*METHODS@#China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, Chinese Journal Full-text Database, China Biology Medicine disc, PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles on NHFOV and NIPPV as post-extubation respiratory support in preterm infants published up to August 31, 2022. RevMan 5.4 software and Stata 17.0 software were used for a Meta analysis to compare related indices between the NHFOV and NIPPV groups, including reintubation rate within 72 hours after extubation, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) at 6-24 hours after switch to noninvasive assisted ventilation, and the incidence rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), air leak, nasal damage, periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).@*RESULTS@#A total of 9 randomized controlled trials were included. The Meta analysis showed that compared with the NIPPV group, the NHFOV group had significantly lower reintubation rate within 72 hours after extubation (RR=0.67, 95%CI: 0.52-0.88, P=0.003) and PCO2 at 6-24 hours after switch to noninvasive assisted ventilation (MD=-4.12, 95%CI: -6.12 to -2.13, P<0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence rates of complications such as BPD, air leak, nasal damage, PVL, IVH, and ROP (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with NIPPV, NHFOV can effectively remove CO2 and reduce the risk of reintubation, without increasing the incidence of complications such as BPD, air leak, nasal damage, PVL, and IVH, and therefore, it can be used as a sequential respiratory support mode for preterm infants after extubation.

Infant , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Infant, Premature , Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation , Airway Extubation , Noninvasive Ventilation , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia , High-Frequency Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1233-1240, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010932


Phosgene is not only a dangerous asphyxiating chemical warfare agent, but also an important chemical raw material, which is widely used in chemical production. According to statistics, there are more than 1 000 phosgene production enterprises in China, with an annual production volume of more than 3 million tons and hundreds of thousands of employees. Therefore, once the leakage accident occurs during production, storage and transportation, it often causes a large number of casualties. In the past 20 years, phosgene poisoning accidents in China have occurred from time to time, and due to the weak irritation, high density, and high concentration of phosgene at the scene of the accident, it often results in acute high-concentration inhalation of the exposed, triggering acute lung injury (ALI), and is very likely to progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), with a mortality rate up to 40%-50%. In view of the characteristics of sudden, mass, concealed, rapid and highly fatal phosgene, and the mechanism of its toxicity and pathogenicity is still not clear, there is no effective treatment and standardized guidance for the sudden group phosgene poisoning. In order to improve the efficiency of clinical treatment and reduce the mortality, this paper has summarized the pathophysiological mechanism of phosgene poisoning, clinical manifestations, on-site treatment, research progress, and innovative clinical therapies by combining the extensive basic research on phosgene over the years with the abundant experience in the on-site treatment of sudden mass phosgene poisoning. This consensus aims to provide guidance for the clinical rescue and treatment of patients with sudden mass phosgene poisoning, and to improve the level of treatment.

Humans , Phosgene , Chemical Warfare Agents , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 991-994, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010897


The need for mechanical ventilation due to severe hypoxemia and acute respiratory distress syndrome has increased dramatically in the global pandemic of severe respiratory infectious diseases. In clinical scenarios, it is sometimes necessary to briefly disconnect the ventilator pipeline from the artificial airway. Still, this operation can lead to a sharp drop in airway pressure, which is contrary to the protective lung ventilation strategy and increases the risk of environmental exposure to bioaerosol, posing a serious threat to patients and medical workers. At present, there is yet to be a practical solution. A new artificial airway device was designed by the medical staff from the department of critical care medicine of Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, based on many years of research experience in respiratory support therapy, and recently obtained the National Utility Model Patent of China (ZL 2019 2 0379605.4). The device comprises two connecting pipes, the sealing device body, and the globe valve represented by the iridescent optical ring. It has a simple structure, convenient operation, and low production cost. The device is installed between the artificial airway and the ventilator pipeline and realizes the instantaneous sealing of the artificial airway by adjusting the shut-off valve. Using this device to treat mechanically ventilated patients can minimize the ventilator-induced lung injury caused by the repeated disconnection of pipelines, avoid iatrogenic transmission of bioaerosols, and realize dual protection for patients and medical workers. It has extensive clinical application prospects and high health and economic value.

Humans , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Ventilators, Mechanical/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/prevention & control , Hypoxia/complications
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 939-944, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010888


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of lateral prone position ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).@*METHODS@#A prospective control study was conducted. A total of 75 patients with moderate to severe ARDS admitted to the department of critical care medicine of Jingxian Hospital in Anhui province from January 2020 to December 2022 were selected as the research objects. According to the envelope method, the patients were divided into the lateral prone position ventilation group (38 cases) and the traditional prone position ventilation (PPV) group (37 cases), using lateral prone position ventilation and traditional PPV, respectively. The mechanical ventilation parameters were set according to the ARDS treatment guidelines and lung protective ventilation requirements in both groups, and the time of prone position for the first 3 times was not less than 16 hours per day. General data of patients were recorded, including heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), airway resistance and lung static compliance (Cst) before prone position (T0), 1 hour (T1), 4 hours (T2), 8 hours (T3), and before the end of prone position (T4), oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) before the first prone position (t0) and 12 hours (t1), 24 hours (t2), 48 hours (t3), and 72 hours (t4) after the intensive care unit (ICU) admission, as well as the incidence of pressure injury (PI) and vomiting, tracheal intubation time, and mechanical ventilation time. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare the effects of different prone positions on patients before and after the prone position.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences in age, gender, body mass index (BMI), acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II), underlying diseases, HR, MAP, pH value, PaO2/FiO2, blood lactic acid (Lac), arterial blood pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and other general information between the two groups. The HR (intergroup effect: F = 0.845, P = 0.361; time effect: F = 1.373, P = 0.247; interaction: F = 0.245, P = 0.894), MAP (intergroup effect: F = 1.519, P = 0.222; time effect: F = 0.169, P = 0.954; interaction: F = 0.449, P = 0.773) and airway resistance (intergroup effect: F = 0.252, P = 0.617; time effect: F = 0.578, P = 0.679; interaction: F = 1.467, P = 0.212) of T0-T4 between two groups showed no significant difference. The Cst of T0-T4 between the two groups showed no significant difference in the intergroup effect (F = 0.311, P = 0.579) and the interaction (F = 0.364, P = 0.834), while the difference in the time effect was statistically significant (F = 120.546, P < 0.001). The PaO2/FiO2 of t0-t4 between the two groups showed no significant difference in the intergroup effect (F = 0.104, P = 0.748) and the interaction (F = 0.147, P = 0.964), while the difference in the time effect was statistically significant (F = 17.638, P < 0.001). The group factors and time factors were tested separately, and there were no significant differences in the HR, MAP, airway resistance, Cst, PaO2/FiO2 between the two groups at different time points (all P > 0.05). The Cst at T1-T4 and PaO2/FiO2 at t1-t4 in the two groups were significantly higher than those at T0/t0 (all P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the tracheal intubation time [days: 6.75 (5.78, 8.33) vs. 7.00 (6.30, 8.45)] and mechanical ventilation time [days: 8.30 (6.70, 9.20) vs. 7.40 (6.80, 8.75)] between the lateral prone position ventilation group and the traditional PPV group (both P > 0.05). However, the incidences of PI [7.9% (3/38) vs. 27.0% (10/37)] and vomiting [10.5% (4/38) vs. 29.7% (11/37)] in the lateral prone position ventilation group were significantly lower than those in the traditional PPV group (both P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Both lateral prone position ventilation and traditional PPV can improve Cst and oxygenation in patients with moderate to severe ARDS. The two types of prone position have little influence on HR, MAP and airway resistance of patients, and there is no difference in the influence on tracheal intubation time and mechanical ventilation time of patients. However, the lateral prone position ventilation mode can reduce the incidence of PI and vomiting, and is worthy of clinical promotion and application.

Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Prone Position , Prospective Studies , Lung , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Respiration , Vomiting
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 919-926, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010886


Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) continues to be one of the most life-threatening conditions for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). The 2023 European Society of Intensive Care Medicine guidelines on ARDS: definition, phenotyping and respiratory support strategies (2023 Guideline) update the 2017 An Official American Thoracic Society/European Society of Intensive Care Medicine/Society of Critical Care Medicine clinical practice guideline: mechanical ventilation in adult patients with ARDS (2017 Guideline), including 7 aspects of 3 topics of definitions, phenotyping, and respiratory support strategies [including high flow nasal cannula oxygen (HFNO), non-invasive ventilation (NIV), neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA), extracorporeal life support (ECLS), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) with recruitment maneuvers (RM), tidal volume (VT), and prone positioning]. 2023 Guideline review and summarize the literature since the publication of the 2017 Guideline, covering ARDS and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, as well as ARDS caused by novel coronavirus infection. Based on the most recent medical evidence, the 2023 Guideline provide clinicians with new ideas and approaches for nonpharmacologic respiratory support strategies for adults with ARDS. This article provides interpretation of the new concepts, the new approaches, the new recommended grading and new levels of evidence for ARDS in the 2023 Guideline.

Adult , Humans , COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation
São Paulo med. j ; 140(1): 12-16, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357469


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing global health threat. However, currently, no standard therapy has been approved for the disease. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of convalescent plasma (CP) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study conducted at Kayseri City Education and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey. METHODS: The case group consisted of adult patients (> 18 years) with ARDS due to COVID-19 who received CP in combination with antiviral and supportive treatment. These patients were compared with others who only received antiviral and supportive treatment. RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 30 patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 were included. Eleven patients (36%) received CP in combination with antiviral and supportive treatment, whereas nineteen patients (64%) in the control group only received antiviral and supportive treatment. On admission, the median age, demographic and clinical data and initial laboratory test results were similar between the groups (P > 0.05). On the 14th day of treatment, the laboratory values remained similar between the groups (P > 0.05). The mortality rates were not significantly different between the groups. CONCLUSION: CP treatment did not affect mortality or lead to clinical improvement for COVID-19 patients with ARDS.

Humans , Adult , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , COVID-19/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 78-84, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928570


OBJECTIVES@#To study the efficacy and safety of early intratracheal administration of budesonide combined with pulmonary surfactant (PS) in preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).@*METHODS@#A prospective randomized controlled trial was designed. A total of 122 infants with a high risk of BPD who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January to July 2021 were enrolled. The infants were randomly divided into a conventional treatment group with 62 infants (treated with PS alone at an initial dose of 200 mg/kg, followed by a dose of 100 mg/kg according to the condition of the infant) and an observation group with 60 infants (treated with PS at the same dose as the conventional treatment group, with the addition of budesonide 0.25 mg/kg for intratracheal instillation at each time of PS application). The two groups were compared in terms of the times of PS use, ventilator parameters at different time points, oxygen inhalation, incidence rate and severity of BPD, incidence rate of complications, and tidal breathing pulmonary function at the corrected gestational age of 40 weeks.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the conventional treatment group, the observation group had a significantly lower proportion of infants using PS for two or three times (P<0.05). Compared with the conventional treatment group, the observation group had a significantly lower fraction of inspired oxygen at 24 and 48 hours and 3, 7, and 21 days after administration, significantly shorter durations of invasive ventilation, noninvasive ventilation, ventilator application, and oxygen therapy, a significantly lower incidence rate of BPD, and a significantly lower severity of BPD (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence rate of glucocorticoid-related complications between the two groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with PS use alone in preterm infants with a high risk of BPD, budesonide combined with PS can reduce repeated use of PS, lower ventilator parameters, shorten the duration of respiratory support, and reduce the incidence rate and severity of BPD, without increasing the incidence rate of glucocorticoid-related complications.

Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/prevention & control , Budesonide , Infant, Premature , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Surfactants/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(2): 74-79, 30 Diciembre 2021. ilus, tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368362


INTRODUCCIÓN. El posicionamiento prono es una de las estrategias ventilatorias más estudiadas y difundidas de la medicina intensiva, forma parte del manejo de ventilación protectiva con impacto en disminución de la mortalidad en pacientes con síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda. OBJETIVO. Revisar la evidencia disponible acerca de ventilación en posición prona en pacientes con síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda, enfocada en el análisis fisiopatológico y clínico. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en la base de datos de buscadores académicos como PubMed, Google Scholar y Elsevier, en los idiomas español e inglés, en el período comprendido entre los años 1970-2020; se seleccionaron 16 publicaciones en texto completo: 3 metaanálisis, 10 estudios randomizado, 3 revisiones sistemáticas. CONCLUSIÓN. En base a la evidencia y percepción recopilada de la experiencia de los autores, la ventilación en posición prona es una estrategia de manejo de primera línea, fiable, que no requiere para su empleo equipamiento costoso ni complejo y ha demostrado mejoría en desenlaces relevantes en el tratamiento del paciente crítico respiratorio como disminución en la mortalidad y optimización de los parámetros ventilatorios y de oxigenación.

INTRODUCTION. Prone positioning is one of the most studied and widespread ventilatory strategies in intensive medicine, it is part of protective ventilation management with an impact on mortality reduction in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. OBJECTIVE. To review the available evidence about ventilation in the prone position in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, focused on the pathophysiological and clinical analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A bibliographic review was carried out in the databases of academic search engines such as PubMed, Google Scholar and Elsevier, in the Spanish and English languages, in the period between the years 1970-2020, 16 full text publications were selected: 3 meta-analyses, 10 randomized studies, 3 systematic reviews. CONCLUSION. Based on the evidence and perception gathered from the authors' experience, prone ventilation is a reliable first-line management strategy that does not require costly or complex equipment for its use and has demonstrated improvements in relevant outcomes in the treatment of the critically ill respiratory patient, such as decreased mortality and optimization of ventilatory and oxygenation parameters.

Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Ventilators, Mechanical , Prone Position , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/mortality , Critical Care , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(4): 537-543, out.-dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357190


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar o comportamento dos índices de troca gasosa conforme o uso de alvos de oxigenação liberais em comparação a conservadores em pacientes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo moderada a grave secundária à COVID-19 e em uso de ventilação mecânica; avaliar a influência da FiO2 elevada na mecânica do sistema respiratório. Métodos: Foram incluídos prospectivamente pacientes consecutivos com idades acima de 18 anos, diagnóstico de COVID-19 e síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo moderada e grave. Para cada paciente, aplicou-se aleatoriamente dois protocolos de FiO2 para obter SpO2 de 88% a 92% ou 96%. Avaliaram-se os índices de oxigenação e a mecânica do sistema respiratório. Resultados: Foram incluídos 15 pacientes. Todos seus índices foram significantemente afetados pela estratégia de FiO2 (p < 0,05). A proporção PaO2/FiO2 deteriorou, o PA-aO2 aumentou e o Pa/AO2 diminuiu significantemente com a utilização de FiO2 para obter SpO2 96%. Opostamente, a fração de shunt funcional foi reduzida. A mecânica respiratória não foi afetada pela estratégia de FiO2. Conclusão: Uma estratégia com alvos liberais de oxigenação deteriorou significantemente os índices de troca gasosa, com exceção do shunt funcional, em pacientes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo relacionada à COVID-19. A mecânica do sistema respiratório não foi alterada pela estratégia de FiO2. Registro Clinical Trials: NCT04486729.

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare gas exchange indices behavior by using liberal versus conservative oxygenation targets in patients with moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to COVID-19 under invasive mechanical ventilation. We also assessed the influence of high FiO2 on respiratory system mechanics. Methods: We prospectively included consecutive patients aged over 18 years old with a diagnosis of COVID-19 and moderate-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. For each patient, we randomly applied two FiO2 protocols to achieve SpO2 88% - 92% or 96%. We assessed oxygenation indices and respiratory system mechanics. Results: We enrolled 15 patients. All the oxygenation indices were significantly affected by the FiO2 strategy (p < 0.05) selected. The PaO2/FiO2 deteriorated, PA-aO2 increased and Pa/AO2 decreased significantly when using FiO2 to achieve SpO2 96%. Conversely, the functional shunt fraction was reduced. Respiratory mechanics were not affected by the FiO2 strategy. Conclusion: A strategy aimed at liberal oxygenation targets significantly deteriorated gas exchange indices, except for functional shunt, in COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome. The respiratory system mechanics were not altered by the FiO2 strategy. Clinical Trials Register: NCT04486729.

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Blood Gas Analysis , SARS-CoV-2
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 457-460, jul.-set. 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347299


RESUMO Uma mulher com 63 anos de idade compareceu ao pronto-socorro com história aguda de febre, prostração e dispneia. Recebeu diagnóstico de quadro grave da COVID-19 e síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Apesar de suporte clínico intensivo, cumpriu os critérios para ser submetida à oxigenação venovenosa por membrana extracorpórea. No dia 34, após 7 dias de desmame da sedação com evolução positiva de seu quadro neurológico, apresentou uma crise tônico-clônica generalizada limitada, não relacionada com desequilíbrio hidroeletrolítico ou metabólico, que levou à necessidade de investigação diagnóstica. Seus exames de imagem cerebral revelaram síndrome da encefalopatia posterior reversível. Este caso enfatiza a questão das complicações neurológicas em pacientes com COVID-19 grave e a importância do diagnóstico e suporte precoces.

ABSTRACT A 63-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with an acute history of fever, prostration and dyspnea. She was diagnosed with severe COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome and, despite optimized critical care support, met the indications for veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. On day 34, after 7 days of wean sedation with a positive evolution of neurologic status, she presented a limited generalized tonic-clonic seizure not related to hydroelectrolytic or metabolic imbalance, which led to a diagnostic investigation; her brain imaging tests showed a posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. This case emphasizes the issue of neurological complications in patients with severe COVID-19 infection and the importance of early diagnosis and support.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnosis , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/etiology , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 461-468, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347304


RESUMO A respiração espontânea pode ser prejudicial para pacientes com pulmões previamente lesados, especialmente na vigência de síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Mais ainda, a incapacidade de assumir a respiração totalmente espontânea durante a ventilação mecânica e a necessidade de voltar à ventilação mecânica controlada se associam com mortalidade mais alta. Existe uma lacuna no conhecimento em relação aos parâmetros que poderiam ser úteis para predizer o risco de lesão pulmonar autoinflingida pelo paciente e detecção da incapacidade de assumir a respiração espontânea. Relata-se o caso de um paciente com lesão pulmonar autoinflingida e as correspondentes variáveis, básicas e avançadas, de monitoramento da mecânica do sistema respiratório, além dos resultados fisiológicos e clínicos relacionados à respiração espontânea durante ventilação mecânica. O paciente era um homem caucasiano com 33 anos de idade e história clínica de AIDS, que apresentou síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo e necessitou ser submetido à ventilação mecânica invasiva após falha do suporte ventilatório não invasivo. Durante os períodos de ventilação controlada, adotou-se estratégia de ventilação protetora, e o paciente mostrou evidente melhora, tanto do ponto de vista clínico quanto radiográfico. Contudo, durante cada período de respiração espontânea sob ventilação com pressão de suporte, apesar dos parâmetros iniciais adequados, das regulagens rigorosamente estabelecidas e do estrito monitoramento, o paciente desenvolveu hipoxemia progressiva e piora da mecânica do sistema respiratório, com deterioração radiográfica claramente correlacionada (lesão pulmonar autoinflingida pelo paciente). Após falha de três tentativas de respiração espontânea, o paciente faleceu por hipoxemia refratária no 29° dia. Neste caso, as variáveis básicas e avançadas convencionais não foram suficientes para identificar a aptidão para respirar espontaneamente ou predizer o risco de desenvolver lesão pulmonar autoinflingida pelo paciente durante a ventilação de suporte parcial.

ABSTRACT Spontaneous breathing can be deleterious in patients with previously injured lungs, especially in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Moreover, the failure to assume spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilation and the need to switch back to controlled mechanical ventilation are associated with higher mortality. There is a gap of knowledge regarding which parameters might be useful to predict the risk of patient self-inflicted lung injury and to detect the inability to assume spontaneous breathing. We report a case of patient self-inflicted lung injury, the corresponding basic and advanced monitoring of the respiratory system mechanics and physiological and clinical results related to spontaneous breathing. The patient was a 33-year-old Caucasian man with a medical history of AIDS who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and needed invasive mechanical ventilation after noninvasive ventilatory support failure. During the controlled ventilation periods, a protective ventilation strategy was adopted, and the patient showed clear clinical and radiographic improvement. However, during each spontaneous breathing period under pressure support ventilation, despite adequate initial parameters and a strictly adjusted ventilatory setting and monitoring, the patient developed progressive hypoxemia and worsening of respiratory system mechanics with a clearly correlated radiographic deterioration (patient self-inflicted lung injury). After failing three spontaneous breathing assumption trials, he died on day 29 due to refractory hypoxemia. Conventional basic and advanced monitoring variables in this case were not sufficient to identify the aptitude to breathe spontaneously or to predict the risk and development of patient self-inflicted lung injury during partial support ventilation.

Humans , Male , Adult , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Lung Injury , Respiration , Respiration, Artificial , Lung
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(4): 409-413, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287037


Abstract Objective This study aimed to identify the predictors and threshold of failure in neonatal acute respiratory distress syndrome. Methods Newborns with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome aged 0-28 days and gestational age ≥36 weeks were included in the study if their cases were managed with non-extra corporal membrane oxygenation treatments. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they died before discharge. Predictors of non-extra corporal membrane oxygenation treatment failure were sought, and the threshold of predictors was calculated. Results A total of 103 patients were included in the study. A total of 77 (74.8%) survived hospitalization and were discharged, whereas 26 (25.2%) died. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of oxygen index, pH, base excess, and combinations of these indicators demonstrated the advantage of the combination of oxygen index and base excess over the others variables regarding their predictive ability. The area under the curve for the combination of oxygen index and base excess was 0.865. When the cut-off values of oxygen index and base excess were 30.0 and −7.4, respectively, the sensitivity and specificity for predicting death were 77.0% and 84.0%, respectively. The model with base excess added a net reclassification improvement of 0.090 to the model without base excess. Conclusion The combination of oxygen index and base excess can be used as a predictor of outcomes in neonates receiving non-extra corporal membrane oxygenation treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome. In neonates with acute respiratory distress syndrome, if oxygen index >30 and base excess <−7.4, non-extra corporal membrane oxygenation therapy is likely to lead to death.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Respiratory Insufficiency , Oxygen , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(3): 315-318, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250096


Abstract Mechanical ventilation in prone position is an alternative strategy for patients with acute respiratory discomfort syndrome (ARDS) to improve oxygenation in situations when traditional ventilation modalities have failed. However, due to the significant increase in ARDS cases during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the experimental therapeutic use of potentially arrhythmogenic drugs, cardiopulmonary resuscitation in this unusual position could be needed. Therefore, we will review the available scientific evidence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in prone position.

Humans , Prone Position , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Electric Countershock/methods , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/instrumentation
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(1): 48-67, jan.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289052


RESUMEN Objetivo: Proponer estrategias agile para este abordaje integral de la analgesia, sedación, delirium, implementación de movilidad temprana e inclusión familiar del paciente con síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda por COVID-19, considerando el alto riesgo de infección que existe entre los trabajadores de salud, el tratamiento humanitario que debemos brindar al paciente y su familia, en un contexto de falta estrategias terapéuticas específicas contra el virus globalmente disponibles a la fecha y una potencial falta de recursos sanitarios. Metodos: Se llevó a cabo una revision no sistemática de la evidencia científica en las principales bases de datos bibliográficos, sumada a la experiencia y juicio clínico nacional e internacional. Finalmente, se realizó un consenso de recomendaciones entre los integrantes del Comité de Analgesia, Sedación y Delirium de la Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva. Resultados: Se acordaron recomendaciones y se desarrollaron herramientas para asegurar un abordaje integral de analgesia, sedación, delirium, implementación de movilidad temprana e inclusión familiar del paciente adulto con síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda por COVID-19. Discusión: Ante el nuevo orden generado en las terapias intensivas por la progresión de la pandemia de COVID-19, proponemos no dejar atrás las buenas prácticas habituales, sino adaptarlas al contexto particular generado. Nuestro consenso está respaldado en la evidencia científica, la experiencia nacional e internacional, y será una herramienta de consulta atractiva en las terapias intensivas.

ABSTRACT Objective: To propose agile strategies for a comprehensive approach to analgesia, sedation, delirium, early mobility and family engagement for patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome, considering the high risk of infection among health workers, the humanitarian treatment that we must provide to patients and the inclusion of patients' families, in a context lacking specific therapeutic strategies against the virus globally available to date and a potential lack of health resources. Methods: A nonsystematic review of the scientific evidence in the main bibliographic databases was carried out, together with national and international clinical experience and judgment. Finally, a consensus of recommendations was made among the members of the Committee for Analgesia, Sedation and Delirium of the Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva. Results: Recommendations were agreed upon, and tools were developed to ensure a comprehensive approach to analgesia, sedation, delirium, early mobility and family engagement for adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to COVID-19. Discussion: Given the new order generated in intensive therapies due to the advancing COVID-19 pandemic, we propose to not leave aside the usual good practices but to adapt them to the particular context generated. Our consensus is supported by scientific evidence and national and international experience and will be an attractive consultation tool in intensive therapies.

Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Delirium/therapy , Consensus , Pain Management/standards , COVID-19/complications , Analgesia/standards , Psychomotor Agitation/therapy , Neuromuscular Blockade/methods , Delirium/diagnosis , Early Ambulation , Checklist , Pain Management/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Analgesia/methods , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; : 686-694, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887558


INTRODUCTION@#Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 is associated with a high mortality rate, though outcomes of the different lung compliance phenotypes are unclear. We aimed to measure lung compliance and examine other factors associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients with ARDS.@*METHODS@#Adult patients with COVID-19 ARDS who required invasive mechanical ventilation at 8 hospitals in Singapore were prospectively enrolled. Factors associated with both mortality and differences between high (<40mL/cm H@*RESULTS@#A total of 102 patients with COVID-19 who required invasive mechanical ventilation were analysed; 15 (14.7%) did not survive. Non-survivors were older (median 70 years, interquartile range [IQR] 67-75 versus median 61 years, IQR 52-66; @*CONCLUSION@#COVID-19 ARDS patients with higher compliance on the day of intubation and a longitudinal decrease over time had a higher risk of death.

Humans , COVID-19 , Lung Compliance , Phenotype , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 39: e2019275, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155475


ABSTRACT Objective: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can be a devastating condition in children with cancer and alveolar recruitment maneuvers (ARMs) can theoretically improve oxygenation and survival. The study aimed to assess the feasibility of ARMs in critically ill children with cancer and ARDS. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 31 maneuvers in a series of 12 patients (median age of 8.9 years) with solid tumors (n=4), lymphomas (n=2), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=2), and acute myeloid leukemia (n=4). Patients received positive end-expiratory pressure from 25 up to 40 cmH20, with a delta pressure of 15 cmH2O for 60 seconds. We assessed blood gases pre- and post-maneuvers, as well as ventilation parameters, vital signs, hemoglobin, clinical signs of pulmonary bleeding, and radiological signs of barotrauma. Pre- and post-values were compared by the Wilcoxon test. Results: Median platelet count was 53,200/mm3. Post-maneuvers, mean arterial pressure decreased more than 20% in two patients, and four needed an increase in vasoactive drugs. Hemoglobin levels remained stable 24 hours after ARMs, and signs of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, or subcutaneous emphysema were absent. Fraction of inspired oxygen decreased significantly after ARMs (FiO2; p=0.003). Oxygen partial pressure (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio increased significantly (p=0.0002), and the oxygenation index was reduced (p=0.01), but all these improvements were transient. Recruited patients' 28-day mortality was 58%. Conclusions: ARMs, although feasible in the context of thrombocytopenia, lead only to transient improvements, and can cause significant hemodynamic instability.

RESUMO Objetivo: A síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo (SDRA) pode ser uma condição devastadora em crianças com câncer e as manobras de recrutamento alveolar (MRA) podem melhorar a oxigenação e a sobrevida. O objetivo foi avaliar a viabilidade das MRA em crianças gravemente doentes com câncer e SDRA. Métodos: Analisamos retrospectivamente 31 manobras em 12 pacientes (idade mediana de 8,9 anos), com tumores sólidos (n=4), linfomas (n=2) e leucemias linfoide (n=2) e mieloide agudas (n=4). Os pacientes receberam pressão expiratória final positiva de 25 a 40 cmH20, com delta de pressão de 15 cmH2O por 60 segundos. Gasometrias foram analisadas pré e pós-manobras, bem como os parâmetros de ventilação, sinais vitais, hemoglobina, sinais clínicos de sangramento pulmonar e sinais radiológicos de barotrauma. Valores foram comparados com o teste de Wilcoxon. Resultados: A contagem mediana de plaquetas era de 53.200/mm3. Após as manobras, em dois pacientes, a pressão arterial média declinou mais de 20%, e quatro necessitaram de aumento de drogas vasoativas. A hemoglobina permaneceu estável 24 horas após a MRA, sem sinais de pneumotórax, pneumomediastino ou enfisema subcutâneo. Houve diminuição significativa nas frações inspiradas de oxigênio (FiO2; p=0,003). A relação pressão arterial de oxigênio (PaO2)/FiO2 aumentou (p=0,002), e o índice de oxigenação caiu (p=0,01), mas essas melhoras foram transitórias. A mortalidade em 28 dias foi de 58%. Conclusões: As MRA, embora viáveis no contexto da trombocitopenia, levam apenas a melhorias transitórias e podem causar instabilidade hemodinâmica significativa.

Humans , Child , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Neoplasms/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Blood Gas Analysis , Feasibility Studies , Retrospective Studies , Positive-Pressure Respiration/adverse effects , Health Services Accessibility