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1.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(6): 473-481, 01-dic-2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354772

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en las grandes altitudes, el intercambio gaseoso suele estar deteriorado; en la altitud moderada de la Ciudad de México esto no está aún plenamente definido. Objetivo: caracterizar el intercambio gaseoso en la altitud moderada de la Ciudad de México. Material y métodos: mediante un estudio transversal analítico se estudiaron sujetos nacidos y habitantes de la Ciudad de México, de ambos géneros, con edades de 20 a 59 años sin enfermedad cardiopulmonar. Se registraron sus variables demográficas, espirometría simple y de gasometría arterial. Las diferencias en las variables se calcularon con ANOVA de una vía para grupos independientes y ajuste de Bonferroni. Una p < 0.05 se aceptó como significativa. Resultados: se estudiaron 335 sujetos, de los cuales 168 (50.15%) fueron hombres, la edad grupal fue de 45 ± 11 años, con índice de masa corporal 22.97 ± 1.54 Kg/m2. La relación volumen espiratorio forzado en el primer segundo/Capacidad vital forzada (VEF1/CVF) de 91.58 ± 12.86%. La presión arterial de oxígeno fue de 66 ± 5.02 mmHg, el bióxido de carbono: 32.07 ± 2.66 mmHg, la saturación arterial de oxígeno: 93.03 ± 1.80% y la hemoglobina: 14.07 ± 1.52 gr/dL. Conclusiones: la presión arterial de oxígeno y del bióxido de carbono están disminuidos a la altura de la Ciudad de México.


Background: At high altitude the gas exchange is impaired, in the moderate altitude of Mexico City they are not yet defined. Objective: To characterize the gas exchange in the moderate altitude of Mexico City. Material and methods: Through an analytical cross-sectional study, subjects born and inhabitants of Mexico City, both genders, aged 20 to 59 years without cardiopulmonary disease, were studied. Their demographic variables, simple spirometry and arterial blood gas were recorded. Differences in variables were calculated with one-way ANOVA for independent groups and Bonferroni adjustment. p < 0.05 was accepted as significant. Results: 335 subjects were studied, 168 (50.15%) men. Group age 45 ± 11 years old, body mass index 22.97 ± 1.54 Kg/m2. Forced expiratory volume ratio in the first second / Forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) 91.58 ± 12.86%. The arterial oxygen pressure was: 66 ± 5.02 mmHg, carbon dioxide: 32.07 ± 2.66 mmHg, arterial oxygen saturation: 93.0 3 ± 1.80%, and hemoglobin: 14.07 ± 1.52 gr/dL. Conclusions: The arterial oxygen pressure and carbon dioxide are lowered at the Mexico City altitude.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pulmonary Heart Disease , Blood Gas Analysis , Arterial Pressure , Respiratory Function Tests , Spirometry , Forced Expiratory Volume , Pulmonary Circulation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological Phenomena , Reference Parameters
2.
Fisioter. Bras ; v.22(4): 502-515, Nov 2, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353367

ABSTRACT

A dinapenia da musculatura ventilatória relaciona-se com as complicações respiratórias pós-operatórias e aos óbitos de idosos submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos de etiologia toracoabdominal. Objetivo: Verificar o efeito crônico do treinamento cardiorrespiratório sobre a força dos músculos ventilatórios de idosas. Métodos: Amostra (n = 24) randomizada nos grupos: controle (n = 8), treinamento ventilatório (n = 7) e treinamento cardiorrespiratório (n = 9). O desfecho primário (PImáx e PEmáx) foi medido por um manovacuômetro digital MDV®300 (MDI/Brasil). Rodou-se a estatística descritiva (média e desvio padrão), seguida de uma ANOVA 3x3 e o testes post-hoc de Bonferroni, todos com significância de (P ≤ 0,05). Resultados: O teste Post Hoc atestou diferença estatisticamente significativa do grupo treinamento cardiorrespiratório no reteste 1 e 2 quando comparados ao teste inicial (PImáx; P = 0,000001 e P = 0,0000001 respectivamente) e (PEmáx; P = 0,000000 em ambas as comparações). Conclusão: O treinamento cardiorrespiratório proposto foi capaz de aumentar significativamente a PImáx, PEmáx, resistência aeróbica e a força de membros inferiores das participantes deste ECR. (AU)


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Respiratory Function Tests , Muscle Strength , Respiratory Tract Infections , Biomechanical Phenomena , Respiratory Muscles , Aged , Exercise , Exercise Test
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 715-721, oct. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351042

ABSTRACT

Abstract There are few data regarding the repercussion in the pulmonary function of patients who had severe or critical COVID-19 pneumonia. The objective was to describe these patients´ pulmonary function and establish an association with the severity of the disease (patients with severe or critical pneumonia), the presence of comorbidities, the tomographic involvement and the persistence of dyspnoea. Fifty-five patients were included, 40 (73%) male, media of age 54.9 (11.6) years old and body mass index (BMI) 33.1 (6.09) kg/m2. Fifty (90%) had 1 comorbidity, obesity 67%, arterial hypertension 36%, and diabetes mellitus 35%. Twenty-five (45%) had critical pneumonia. Fifteen (27%) had a spirometric alteration that suggested restriction and 32 (58%) had gas exchange defect. The latter had forced volume capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO) values significantly lower. Ninety percent presented some degree of involvement in the chest CT scan, ground glass-opacities the most frequent finding. A moderate negative correlation was found between the severity of the tomographic involvement and the DLCO levels. Thirty patients (55%) referred some degree of dyspnoea. Patients with this symptom had DLCO and KCO values below those who did not have dyspnoea: 70.5 vs. 85.1 p = 0.02 and 88 vs. 104 p = 0.02. The presence of abnormal gas exchange is the main characteristic of patients with pulmonary sequelae due to COVID-19. Our study does not show either predictor of evolution towards pulmonary sequelae or an association with the severity of the disease.


Resumen Se conocen pocos datos acerca de la repercusión en la función pulmonar de pacientes que cursaron una neumonía grave o crítica por COVID-19. El objetivo fue describir la función pulmonar de estos pacientes y establecer si existe asociación con la gravedad (neumonía grave o crítica), comorbilidades, compromiso tomográfico y persistencia de disnea. Se incluyeron 55 pacientes, 40 (73%) varones, media de edad 54.9 (11.6) años e índice de masa corporal (IMC) 33.1 (6.09) kg/m2. Cincuenta (90%) tenían una comorbilidad, obesidad 67%, hipertensión arterial 36% y diabetes mellitus 35%. Veinticinco (45%) presentaron neumonía crítica. Se hallaron 15 (27%) con una alteración que sugiere restricción y 32 (58%) presentaron trastorno del intercambio gaseoso. Aquellos con trastorno del intercambio gaseoso, tenían valores de capacidad vital forzada (FVC), volumen espiratorio forzado en el primer segundo (FEV1) y difusión de monóxido de carbono (DLCO) significativamente menores. El 90% tenía algún grado de compromiso en TAC de tórax siendo vidrio esmerilado el hallazgo más frecuente. Se encontró moderada correlación negativa entre gravedad del compromiso tomográfico y nivel de DLCO. A la consulta, 30 (55%) referían algún grado de disnea. Los pacientes con disnea presentaban valores de DLCO y KCO inferiores respecto a los que no referían disnea 70.5 vs. 85.1 p = 0.02 y 88 vs. 104 p = 0.02. La presencia de intercambio anormal de gases es la característica principal de los pacientes con secuelas pulmonares por COVID-19. De nuestro trabajo no surgen predictores para evolución hacia secuela pulmonar ni pudimos asociarlo a la gravedad de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Middle Aged , COVID-19 , Respiratory Function Tests , Forced Expiratory Volume , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung
4.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(5): 504-508, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288621

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: When athletes are performing sports training, many movements are of high intensity, and that training is repetitive, resulting in wear and tear on some injured parts. Objective: Sports athletes can damage parts of the body in high - intensity exercise. During the processing, it is necessary to identify and analyze the damaged parts in the image. However, the current relevant methods have low accuracy and different problems of efficiency and quality. Methods: In this paper, a Fish Swarm Algorithm is proposed to identify high-intensity motion damage images. According to the combination of adaptive threshold and mathematical morphology, the contour of the damaged part of the image is extracted. Results: The above-mentioned method can improve the accuracy of identifying damaged parts of sports injury images, shorten the recognition time, and has certain feasibility in determining sports injury parts. Conclusions: This method can be widely used in high-intensity sports injuries. Level of evidence II; Therapeuticstudies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: Quando os atletas estão realizando treinamento esportivo, muitos movimentos são de alta intensidade, e esse treinamento é repetitivo, resultando em desgaste de algumas partes lesionadas. Objetivo: Os atletas podem danificar partes do corpo em exercícios de alta intensidade. Durante o processamento, é necessário identificar e analisar as partes danificadas da imagem. No entanto, os métodos atuais relevantes têm baixa precisão e problemas de eficiência e qualidade diferentes. Métodos: Neste artigo, um algoritmo Fish Swarm é proposto para identificar imagens danificadas por movimento de alta intensidade. Com base na combinação de limiar adaptativo e morfologia matemática, o contorno da parte danificada da imagem é extraído. Resultados: O método acima mencionado pode melhorar a precisão da identificação das partes danificadas das imagens de lesões esportivas, encurtar o tempo de reconhecimento e tem alguma viabilidade para determinar as partes das lesões esportivas. Conclusões: este método pode ser amplamente utilizado em lesões esportivas de alta intensidade. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos- investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: Cuando los deportistas realizan entrenamientos deportivos, muchos movimientos son de alta intensidad, y ese entrenamiento es repetitivo, lo que genera desgaste en algunas partes lesionadas. Objetivo: Los deportistas pueden dañar partes del cuerpo en el ejercicio de alta intensidad. Durante el procesamiento, es necesario identificar y analizar las partes dañadas en la imagen. Sin embargo, los métodos relevantes actuales tienen baja precisión y diferentes problemas de eficiencia y calidad. Métodos: En este artículo, se propone un algoritmo Fish Swarm para identificar imágenes de daño por movimiento de alta intensidad. Según la combinación de umbral adaptativo y morfología matemática, se extrae el contorno de la parte dañada de la imagen. Resultados: el método mencionado anteriormente puede mejorar la precisión de la identificación de las partes dañadas de las imágenes de lesiones deportivas, acortar el tiempo de reconocimiento y tiene cierta viabilidad para determinar las partes de las lesiones deportivas. Conclusiones: este método puede ser ampliamente utilizado en lesiones deportivas de alta intensidad. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos- investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Exercise/physiology , Simulation Technique/methods , Exercise Test/methods , Altitude , Heart Rate/physiology , Respiratory Function Tests , Models, Theoretical
5.
Coluna/Columna ; 20(2): 89-93, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249656

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a spinal deformity that can cause cardiorespiratory dysfunction, contributing to decreases in tolerance for aerobic exercise (TAE) and in functionality. The objective is to assess the TAE and lung capacity of patients who underwent corrective AIS surgery in the pre- (PRE) and postoperative (POST) periods. Methods: Sixty individuals, PRE (n=30, age: 18.5±2.4 years) and POST (n=30, age: 24.5±4.5 years), participated in the study. The forced vital capacity (FVC), the forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and the FEV1/FVC ratio, as well as the maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure were verified. The TAE was assessed by the distance travelled in the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), together with blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and peripheral oxygen saturation measured at the beginning and at the end of the test. Results: A mild restrictive pattern in lung function and reduced expiratory muscle strength were observed in both groups, but with no difference between the PRE and POST groups. No difference was found between the PRE (534±67.1 m) and POST (541± 69.5 m) groups for the distance travelled in the 6MWT, though both were below the predicted percentage (82.8±10.0% and 84.8±10.9%, respectively). Hemodynamic and respiratory changes caused by the 6MWT were observed, except for the peripheral oxygen saturation. Conclusion: The results suggest that even after surgical correction, patients with AIS continue to have low TAE. Level of evidence III; Therapeutics Study - Investigation of Treatment Results / Case-control study.


RESUMO Objetivo: A escoliose idiopática do adolescente (EIA) é uma deformidade da coluna que pode ocasionar disfunções cardiorrespiratórias, contribuindo para a diminuição da tolerância ao exercício aeróbio (TEA) e da funcionalidade. O objetivo é avaliar a TEA e a capacidade pulmonar em pacientes no pré (PRÉ) e pós-operatório (PÓS) de correção da EIA. Métodos: Participaram 60 indivíduos PRÉ (n = 30, idade: 18,5 ± 2,4 anos) e PÓS (n = 30, idade: 24,5 ± 4,5 anos). A capacidade vital forçada (CVF), o volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1) e a razão VEF1/CVF, assim como as pressões inspiratória e expiratória máximas, foram verificados. A TEA foi avaliada pela distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de 6 minutos (TC6), acompanhado de medidas de pressão arterial, frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória e saturação periférica de oxigênio no início e no final do teste. Resultados: Um padrão restritivo leve na função pulmonar e força da musculatura expiratória reduzida foram observados em ambos os grupos, mas sem diferença entre PRÉ e PÓS. Não foi encontrada diferença entre PRÉ (534 ± 67,1 m) e PÓS (541 ± 69,5 m) para a distância percorrida no TC6, abaixo do predito para ambos os grupos (82,8 ± 10,0% e 84,8 ± 10,9%, respectivamente). Foram observadas alterações hemodinâmicas e respiratórias provocadas pelo TC6, exceto para a saturação periférica de oxigênio. Conclusões: Os resultados sugerem que mesmo após a correção cirúrgica os pacientes com EIA continuam apresentando baixa TEA. Nível de evidência III; Estudos terapêuticos - Investigação dos Resultados do Tratamento / Estudo de caso-controle.


RESUMEN Objetivo: La escoliosis idiopática del adolescente (EIA) es una deformidad de la columna que puede causar disfunciones cardiorrespiratorias, contribuyendo para la disminución de la tolerancia al ejercicio aeróbico (TEA) y de la funcionalidad. El objetivo es evaluar la TEA y la capacidad pulmonar en pacientes en el pre (PRE) y postoperatorio (POS) de corrección de la EIA. Métodos: Participaron 60 individuos PRE (n=30, edad: 18,5±2,4 años) y POS (n=30, edad: 24,5±4,5 años). Fueron verificadas la capacidad vital forzada (CVF), el volumen espiratorio forzado en el primer segundo (VEF1) y la razón VEF1/CVF, así como las presiones inspiratoria y espiratoria máximas. La TEA fue evaluada por la distancia recorrida en el test de caminata de 6 minutos (TC6), acompañado de mediciones de presión arterial, frecuencia cardíaca, frecuencia respiratoria y saturación de oxígeno al inicio y al final del test. Resultados: Fueron observados un patrón restrictivo leve y fuerza muscular espiratoria reducida en ambos grupos, pero sin diferencia entre PRE y POS. No fue encontrada diferencia entre PRE (534 ± 67,1 m) y POS (541 ± 69,5 m) para la distancia recorrida en el TC6, por debajo de los predicho para ambos grupos (82,8 ± 10,0% y 84,8 ± 10,9%, respectivamente). Se observaron alteraciones hemodinámicas y respiratorias provocadas por el TC6, excepto para la saturación periférica de oxígeno. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que incluso después de la corrección quirúrgica, los pacientes con EIA continúan presentando baja TEA. Nivel de evidencia III; Estudios Terapéuticos - Investigación de los Resultados del Tratamiento / Estudio de caso-control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Function Tests , Scoliosis , Exercise Tolerance , Walk Test
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): 331-338, oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292091

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La obstrucción nasal (ON) es el síntoma más molesto de la rinitis crónica (RC). Los estudios que correlacionaron métodos subjetivos y objetivos de ON realizados en niños y adultos produjeron resultados contradictorios. Objetivos. Analizar la correlación entre escalas subjetivas de ON con determinaciones de pico flujo inspiratorio nasal (PFIN) y comparar la valoración subjetiva de la ON y el PFIN en niños según su edad. Población y métodos. Participaron pacientes con RC. Se estimó la correlación entre la evaluación subjetiva de la ON mediante una escala visual análoga (ON-EVA, por su sigla en inglés) y la Escala de evaluación de los síntomas de obstrucción nasal (NOSE, por su sigla en inglés) y medición del flujo aéreo nasal pre- y posvasoconstrictor, mediante PFIN. Se analizaron las diferencias entre los grupos de 8 a 11 años y los de 12 a 15 años para la valoración subjetiva de la ON y PFIN. Resultados. Se incluyeron 79 pacientes entre 8 y 15 años. No se comprobó correlación entre ON-EVA y PFIN antes y después del vasoconstrictor (r = -0,19; p = 0,11 y r = -0,18; p = 0,15 respectivamente) ni entre NOSE y PFIN basal (r = -0,23; p = 0,07). Hubo diferencias en el PFIN entre niños de 8-11 años y 12 a 15 años (p = <0,0001), pero no se demostraron diferencias en la percepción subjetiva por ON-EVA (p = 0,7591). Conclusión. No se demostró correlación entre puntajes subjetivos de ON y PFIN en niños y adolescentes con RC. Los niños mayores perciben menos la ON que los de menor edad. Las escalas subjetivas de ON no reemplazan su medición con PFIN en pacientes con rinitis.


Introduction. Nasal obstruction (NO) is the most irritating symptom of chronic rhinitis (CR). The results of studies that correlated subjective and objective methods of NO in children and adults were contradictory. Objectives. To analyze the correlation between subjective NO scales and peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) measurements and compare the subjective NO assessment and PNIF in children by age. Population and methods. Participants were patients with CR. The correlation between the subjective NO assessment using a visual analog scale (NO-VAS) and the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) and nasal airflow measurement pre- and post-vasoconstrictor administration using the PNIF was estimated. The differences in the subjective NO assessment and PNIF between children aged 8-11 years and 12-15 years were analyzed. Results. A total of 79 patients aged 8-15 years were included. No correlation was established between the NO-VAS and the PNIF before and after vasoconstrictor administration (r = -0.19; p = 0.11 and r = -0.18; p = 0.15 respectively) or between the NOSE and the baseline PNIF (r = -0.23; p = 0.07). Differences were observed in the PNIF between children aged 8-11 years and 12-15 years (p = < 0.0001), but there were no differences in the subjective perception assessed with the NO-VAS (p = 0.7591). Conclusion. No correlation was demonstrated between the subjective NO score and the PNIF in children and adolescents with CR. Older children have a lower perception of NO than younger ones. Subjective NO scales cannot replace the PNIF measurement in patients with rhinitis


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Nasal Obstruction/diagnosis , Nasal Obstruction/etiology , Respiratory Function Tests , Rhinitis/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Visual Analog Scale
7.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(1): 67-76, 20210000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178627

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Enfermedades Neuromusculares se caracterizan por la pérdida progresiva de la fuerza muscular, la morbi-mortalidad aumenta con la exageración de la debilidad muscular determinando mayor riesgo de complicaciones respiratorias. Es de suma importancia evaluar e interpretar adecuadamente la función pulmonar y ventilatoria para poder realizar intervenciones que pueda prevenir dichas complicaciones. Objetivos: El objetivo del estudio fue reportar el estado funcional respiratorio de un grupo de pacientes con ENM en control ambulatorio y relacionar estos hallazgos con umbrales clínicamente relevantes de complicaciones respiratorias, reforzando intervenciones basadas en opiniones de expertos. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio Descriptivo-Observacional de corte transversal, donde fueron evaluados en forma ambulatoria, de marzo del 2017 a agosto del 2018, 30 niños y adolescentes con enfermedades neuromusculares. Resultados: El 46% del total de pacientes presenta capacidad tusígena no funcional con alto riesgo de complicaciones. No obstante, sólo el 10% del total de pacientes fueron aptos para realizar adecuadamente estudios de espirometría. Durante las pruebas espirométricas, sólo el 50% de los pacientes logró mantener 6 segundos la espiración. Conclusión: Si bien la espirometría es la principal prueba de función pulmonar y una alta proporción de pacientes presentó alteraciones en su morfología, su realización en estados avanzados de enfermedad fue poco factible. Para detectar umbrales de complicaciones respiratorias graves, la medición del flujo generado durante la tos resultó mejor. Conclusión: Si bien la espirometría es la principal prueba de función pulmonar y una alta proporción de pacientes presentó alteraciones en su morfología, su realización en estados avanzados de enfermedad fue poco factible. Para detectar umbrales de complicaciones respiratorias graves, la medición del flujo generado durante la tos resultó mejor.


Introduction: Neuromuscular Diseases are characterized by the progressive loss of muscle mass, morbidity and mortality increases with the progress of muscle weakness due to the increased risk of respiratory complications, so it is very important to properly evaluate and interpret the measurements of lung functions and ventilation to be able to carry out a specific treatment that can reduce respiratory complications. Objectives: The purpose of this work is to present the results of the measurements of flows, volumes, respiratory capacities and spirometric patterns in outpatients with neuromuscular diseases and to verify their usefulness to detect vital risks. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional Descriptive-Observational study was carried out, where 30 children and adolescents with neuromuscular diseases were evaluated on an outpatient basis, from March 2017 to August 2018. Results: 46% of all patients presented a non-functional cough with a high risk of complications and only 10% of all patients were eligible for spirometry studies. During the spirometric tests, 50% of the patients managed to maintain expiration for 6 seconds. In 70% of the patients, abnormalities in the Flow-Volume curve could be detected. Conclusion: Although spirometry is the main pulmonary function test, its usefulness and efficacy in neuromuscular diseases depends on the findings of specific alterations in the morphology of the flow-volume curve, which in many cases are not possible to distinguish.


Subject(s)
Spirometry , Cough , Lung , Neuromuscular Diseases , Respiratory Function Tests , Measurements, Methods and Theories , Control
8.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349118

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: avaliar a frequência de alterações espirométricas e pletismográficas em crianças e adolescentes com asma grave resistente à terapia (AGRT). Além disso, testaram-se possíveis associações entre esses desfechos. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo, no qual foram incluídas crianças e adolescentes (6-18 anos), com diagnóstico de AGRT, e que se encontravam em acompanhamento ambulatorial regular. Todos deveriam possuir informações antropométricas (peso, altura, índice de massa corporal), demográficas (idade, etnia e sexo), clínicas (teste cutâneo, teste de controle da asma, tabagismo familiar e medicações em uso) e de função pulmonar (espirometria e pletismografia corporal) registradas no banco de dados do serviço. Os testes de função pulmonar seguiram as recomendações das diretrizes nacionais e internacionais. Para fins estatísticos, utilizou-se análise descritiva e o teste de qui-quadrado de Pearson. Resultados: de um total de 15 pacientes com AGRT, 12 deles foram incluídos na amostra. A média de idade foi de 12,2 anos, com predomínio do sexo feminino (66,7%). Destes, 50,0% apresentaram a doença controlada, 83,3% foram considerados atópicos e 50,0% tinham histórico de tabagismo familiar. Em relação aos testes de função pulmonar (% do previsto), as médias dos parâmetros espirométricos e de plestismografia corporal encontraram-se dentro dos limites inferiores da normalidade. Apenas 16,7% da amostra apresentou espirometria alterada (130,0%) e 16,7% hiperinsuflação pulmonar (capacidade pulmonar total>120,0%). Houve frequência estatisticamente maior (p=0,045) de aprisionamento aéreo nos participantes com espirometria alterada, em comparação à espirometria normal. Contudo, não se observou diferença (p=0,341) em relação à hiperinsuflação pulmonar. Conclusões: os achados demonstraram pouco comprometimento espirométrico e dos volumes e das capacidades pulmonares em crianças e adolescentes com AGRT. Além disso, aqueles participantes com espirometria alterada obtiveram frequência maior de aprisionamento aéreo no exame de pletismografia corporal


Aims: to assess the frequency of spirometric and plethysmographic changes in children and adolescents with severe therapy-resistant asthma (SRTA). In addition, possible associations between these outcome were tested. Methods: this is a retrospective study. Children and adolescents (6-18 years old), diagnosed with SRTA and who were in regular outpatient follow-up were included. Everyone should have anthropometric (weight, height, body mass index), demographic (age, ethnicity and gender), clinical (skin test, asthma control test, family smoking and medications in use) and pulmonary function (spirometry and body plethysmography) recorded in the service's database. Pulmonary function tests followed the recommendations of national and international guidelines. For statistical purposes, descriptive analysis and Pearson's chi-square test were used. Results: from a total of 15 patients with SRTA, 12 of them were included in the sample. The average age was 12.2 years, with a predominance of females (66.7%). Of these, 50.0% had the disease under control, 83.3% were considered atopic, and 50.0% had a family history of smoking. Regarding the pulmonary function tests (% of predicted), the means of spirometric parameters and body plestismography were within the lower limits of normality. Only 16.7% of the sample had altered spirometry (<5th percentile), 25.0% air trapping (residual volume>130.0%) and 16.7% pulmonary hyperinflation (total lung capacity>120.0%). There was a statistically higher frequency (p=0.045) of air trapping in participants with altered spirometry, compared to normal spirometry. However, there was no difference (p=0.341) in relation to pulmonary hyperinflation. Conclusions: the findings demonstrated little impairment of spirometry and lung volumes and capacities in children and adolescents with AGRT. In addition, those participants with altered spirometry had a higher frequency of air trapping in the body plethysmography exam.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Asthma , Plethysmography , Respiratory Function Tests , Spirometry , Lung Volume Measurements
9.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(1): e20200406, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154685

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Chronic unexplained dyspnea and exercise intolerance represent common, distressing symptoms in outpatients. Clinical history taking and physical examination are the mainstays for diagnostic evaluation. However, the cause of dyspnea may remain elusive even after comprehensive diagnostic evaluation-basic laboratory analyses; chest imaging; pulmonary function testing; and cardiac testing. At that point (and frequently before), patients are usually referred to a pulmonologist, who is expected to be the main physician to solve this conundrum. In this context, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), to assess physiological and sensory responses from rest to peak exercise, provides a unique opportunity to unmask the mechanisms of the underlying dyspnea and their interactions with a broad spectrum of disorders. However, CPET is underused in clinical practice, possibly due to operational issues (equipment costs, limited availability, and poor remuneration) and limited medical education regarding the method. To counter the latter shortcoming, we aspire to provide a pragmatic strategy for interpreting CPET results. Clustering findings of exercise response allows the characterization of patterns that permit the clinician to narrow the list of possible diagnoses rather than pinpointing a specific etiology. We present a proposal for a diagnostic workup and some illustrative cases assessed by CPET. Given that airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary vascular disorders, which are within the purview of pulmonology, are common causes of chronic unexplained dyspnea, we also aim to describe the role of bronchial challenge tests and the diagnostic reasoning for investigating the pulmonary circulation in this context.


RESUMO A dispneia crônica inexplicada e a intolerância ao exercício representam sintomas comuns e angustiantes em pacientes ambulatoriais. O histórico clínico e o exame físico são as bases da avaliação diagnóstica. No entanto, a causa da dispneia pode permanecer inexplicada mesmo após uma avaliação diagnóstica abrangente - análises laboratoriais básicas, exames de imagem do tórax, testes de função pulmonar e testes cardíacos. Nesse momento (e frequentemente antes), os pacientes geralmente são encaminhados a um pneumologista, o qual se espera que seja o principal médico para a resolução desse enigma. Nesse contexto, o teste de exercício cardiopulmonar (TECP), para avaliação de respostas fisiológicas e sensoriais do repouso ao pico do exercício, proporciona uma oportunidade única de desvendar os mecanismos subjacentes à dispneia e as interações desses mecanismos com um amplo espectro de distúrbios. No entanto, o TECP é subutilizado na prática clínica, possivelmente por questões operacionais (custos dos equipamentos, disponibilidade limitada e baixa remuneração) e limitação da formação médica em relação ao método. Para enfrentar esta última deficiência, almejamos fornecer uma estratégia pragmática para a interpretação dos resultados do TECP. O agrupamento dos achados da resposta ao exercício permite a caracterização de padrões que possibilitam ao clínico restringir a lista de possíveis diagnósticos, em vez de apontar uma etiologia específica. Apresentamos uma proposta de avaliação diagnóstica e alguns casos ilustrativos avaliados por TECP. Como a hiper-responsividade das vias aéreas e os distúrbios vasculares pulmonares, que são da competência da pneumologia, são causas comuns de dispneia crônica inexplicada, também objetivamos descrever o papel dos testes de broncoprovocação e o raciocínio diagnóstico para a investigação da circulação pulmonar nesse contexto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Medicine , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Respiratory Function Tests , Exercise Tolerance , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Exercise Test
11.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(1): 5-10, 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284148

ABSTRACT

Asthma is considered the most prevalent chronic disease in children. The pulmonary function measurements are important in the evaluation of the disease, being able to confirm the diagnosis by demonstrating the reversibility of the obstruction as well as detecting risks of poor prognosis in the control of asthma. However, the most common methods for analyzing pulmonary function in this age group have restrictions on its applicability, especially due to the need for cooperation on the part of patients. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is considered a modern tool capable of estimating measures of respiratory mechanics related to the lungs. This method is easily applicable due to the low need for patient cooperation, an important element in the assessment of children. The aim of this study is to review the clinical utility of the Forced Oscillation Technique in the pulmonary assessment of asthmatic children. The bibliographic search covered the years between 1950 and 2019, in the databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) and Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS). It was used as a search strategy the combination of the following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms: "asthma", "oscillometry" and "child" crossed through the AND and OR Boolean connectors. In asthmatic children, FOT showed greater accuracy in the evaluation of smaller caliber peripheral airways, which can be applied as a complementary method to spirometry to strengthen the diagnosis, enabling a better understanding of the disease and its progression.


A asma é considerada a doença crônica de maior incidência em crianças. As medidas de função pulmonar são importantes na avaliação da doença, podendo confirmar o diagnóstico pela demonstração de reversibilidade da obstrução assim como detectar riscos de mau prognóstico no controle da asma. Entretanto, os métodos mais usuais para análise da função pulmonar nesta faixa etária apresentam restrições em sua aplicabilidade, especialmente pela necessidade de cooperação por parte dos pacientes. A técnica de oscilações forçadas (FOT) é considerada uma ferramenta moderna capaz de estimar medidas da mecânica respiratória relativas aos pulmões. Este método apresenta fácil aplicabilidade pela baixa necessidade de cooperação do paciente, elemento importante na avaliação de crianças. O objetivo deste estudo é revisar a utilidade clínica da Técnica de Oscilações Forçadas na avaliação pulmonar de crianças asmáticas. A busca bibliográfica contemplou os anos entre 1950 e 2019, nas bases de dados: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) e Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS). Foi utilizada como estratégia de busca a combinação dos seguintes Medical Subject Headings(MeSH) terms: "asthma", "oscillometry" e "child" cruzados por meio dos conectores booleanos AND e OR. Em crianças asmáticas, a FOT mostrou maior acurácia na avaliação de vias aéreas periféricas de menor calibre, podendo ser aplicada como método complementar a espirometria para encorpar o diagnóstico, possibilitando compreender melhor a doença e sua progressão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Oscillometry/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/physiopathology , Spirometry , Respiratory Mechanics
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(5): e10040, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153551

ABSTRACT

Although pulmonary involvement is the most common extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), traditional pulmonary function tests (PFTs) do not show a good correlation with the field tests usually performed in these patients. In recent decades, measurement of ventilation distribution heterogeneity through the nitrogen single-breath washout (N2SBW) test and evaluation of functional capacity during exercise using the Glittre activities of daily living test (GA-T) have been increasingly used. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate predictors of GA-T outcomes in women with RA considering demographic, anthropometric, clinical, functional variables, and chest computed tomography (CT) findings. Forty-three women with RA underwent the GA-T, the N2SBW test, spirometry, measurement of the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), measurement of respiratory muscle strength, and evaluation of physical function of the lower and upper limbs through the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI). Chest CT scans were analyzed retrospectively. The GA-T time showed significant correlations with the DLco (rs=-0.397, P=0.008), forced vital capacity/DLco (rs=0.307, P=0.044), phase III slope of the N2SBW test (SIIIN2, rs=0.644, P<0.0001), and the HAQ-DI (rs=0.482, P=0.001). Disease extent as assessed by chest CT was associated with the GA-T time. On multiple regression analysis, the SIIIN2 and HAQ-DI were the only predictors of the GA-T time, explaining 40% of its variability. Thus, ventilation distribution heterogeneity and worse physical function substantially explain the variability in GA-T time in women with RA and varying extents of disease on chest CT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diagnostic imaging , Activities of Daily Living , Respiratory Function Tests , Vital Capacity , Retrospective Studies
13.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(3): 110-113, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344094

ABSTRACT

La escoliosis es una enfermedad frecuente, de evolución variable según su etiología y edad de presentación. El diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno permiten evitar el compromiso respiratorio, que es su principal complicación. La mayoría de los casos corresponden a escoliosis leves e idiopáticas, pero los casos severos, no idiopáticos o aquellos que presentan síntomas respiratorios, requieren de una evaluación oportuna por el equipo de enfermedades respiratorias. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las alteraciones de la función pulmonar que se encuentran en niños con escoliosis y dar una orientación acerca de la evaluación y derivación de estos pacientes al neumólogo infantil. Con una evaluación oportuna se pueden iniciar planes de rehabilitación u otras intervenciones que permitan disminuir la morbimortalidad asociada a esta patología.


Scoliosis is a common disease with a variable evolution depending on its etiology and age of presentation. Timely diagnosis and treatment make it possible to avoid respiratory compromise, which is its main complication. Most cases correspond to mild and idiopathic scoliosis, but severe, non-idiopathic cases or those with respiratory symptoms require timely evaluation by the respiratory team. The objective of this work is to describe the pulmonary function alterations found in children with scoliosis and to provide guidance on the evaluation and referral of these patients to the pediatric pulmonologist. With a timely evaluation, rehabilitation plans or other interventions can be initiated to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with this pathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/physiopathology , Scoliosis/complications , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Spirometry
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921546

ABSTRACT

Bronchial asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease,and its diagnosis is mainly based on symptoms,signs,and pulmonary function test.Wheezing is a major symptom of asthma attack,which shows no obvious sign in the early stage while appears after the disease has progressed.Therefore,bronchial asthma is difficult to be detected in early stages,which often leads to worsening of the disease conditions.Pulmonary function test can effectively monitor upper and lower airway abnormalities and is currently the main means for monitoring asthma.However,its accuracy is highly dependent on patient's motivation and cooperation,which obviously limits the scope of application,especially for preschoolers and infants.Hence,there is an urgent need for a new technology with the function of long-term breath sound monitoring and automatic breathing detection to overcome the existing clinical deficiencies.Breath sound analysis emerges in the era of medical artificial intelligence,which can digitally process and convert the collected respiratory sounds by using a variety of different methods to form characteristic signal parameters and model the relationship between parameters and diseases.As we know,breath sounds are closely related to airway changes,and thus the detection and analysis of the sounds can provide reliable clinical information for the progress and control evaluation of asthma.This review mainly summaries the research progress of respiratory sound analysis in recent years,hoping to provide reference for further research.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Asthma/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Respiration , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiratory Sounds/diagnosis
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887497

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the regulatory effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on small airway function and exercise tolerance in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).@*METHODS@#A total of 62 patients with stable COPD were randomized into an observation group (31 cases, 1 case dropped off) and a control group (31 cases, 5 cases dropped off). On the base of routine medication and aerobic exercise, the patients of the two groups all received EA at Danzhong (CV 17), Rugen (ST 18), Guanyuan (CV 4), Zhongwan (CV 12), Tianshu (ST 25) and Yingchuang (ST 16). In the observation group, filiform needles were used and inserted perpendicularly, 3 mm in depth. In the control group, the placebo needling method was performed, in which the needle was not inserted through skin at each point. In both groups, electric stimulation with low-frequency electronic pulse instrument was exerted, with continuous wave, 2 Hz in frequency, lasting 30 min each time in the two groups. The treatment was given once every other day, 3 times a week, for 14 treatments totally. Before and after treatment, the following indexes were compared in patients between the two groups, i.e. the lung function indexes (forced expiratory volume in first second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], the ratio of FEV1 to FVC [FEV1/FVC], maximal voluntary ventilation [MVV], the percentage of maximal expiratory flow [MEF] at 25% of FVC exhaled [MEF25], MEF50 and MEF75 in predicted value), cardiopulmonary exercise test indexs (metabolic equivalent [METS], oxygen uptake per kg body weight [VO@*RESULTS@#After treatment, FVC%, MVV%, MEF75%, MEF50%, VO@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture can improve the respiratory function and exercise tolerance in COPD patients through removing small airway obstruction and increasing ventilation.


Subject(s)
Electroacupuncture , Exercise Tolerance , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Respiratory Function Tests
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879907

ABSTRACT

Peak expiratory flow (PEF) is a portable, reliable, and inexpensive method for lung function assessment. PEF can reflect expiratory airflow limitation and its variability can document reversibility, which provides an objective basis for the diagnosis of asthma in children. Short-term PEF monitoring can be an important aid in the management of acute asthma exacerbations, identification of possible triggers, and assessment of response to treatment. Long-term PEF monitoring can assist in the assessment of asthma control and warning of acute exacerbations, and this is useful for children with severe asthma. This article reviews the measurements, influencing factors, interpretation, and application of PEF, and its role in the diagnosis and management of asthma in children, to provide references for the clinical application of PEF in children.


Subject(s)
Asthma/therapy , Child , Humans , Peak Expiratory Flow Rate , Respiratory Function Tests
17.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(4): e579, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156517

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La espirometría, también conocida como prueba funcional ventilatoria, es una de las pruebas no invasivas que con más frecuencia se realiza en todo el mundo, para el estudio del aparato respiratorio, es de gran utilidad clínica, permite establecer la existencia de alteraciones funcionales incipientes del sistema respiratorio. Objetivo: Realizar una actualización del estado del conocimiento acerca de la importancia de contar con valores de referencia, en cada país, para el estudio de la función pulmonar. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión, con información actualizada del comportamiento de los valores de referencia de las pruebas funcionales ventilatorias en el mundo y en Cuba. Conclusión: Se concluye enfatizando en la necesidad de aplicar ecuaciones de predicción y valores de referencia de la función ventilatoria a partir de la propia población que se estudie, con lo que se obtienen resultados más cercanos a lo real. Además, lograr contar con tablas de normalidad cubanas de la función pulmonar para un mejor diagnóstico y conducta posterior(AU)


Introduction: Spirometry, also known as a ventilatory functional test, is one of the non-invasive tests that is most frequently performed worldwide, for the study of the respiratory system, it is of great clinical utility, it allows establishing the existence of functional alterations incipients of the respiratory system. Objective: To update the state of knowledge about the importance of having reference values, in each country, for the study of lung function. Methods: A review was carried out, with updated information on the behavior of the reference values ​​of the ventilatory functional tests in the world and in Cuba. Conclusion: It is concluded by emphasizing the need to apply prediction equations and reference values ​​of the ventilatory function from the population under study, which results closer to the real. In addition, to have Cuban normality tables of lung function for a better diagnosis and subsequent behavior(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Reference Values , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Spirometry/methods , Cuba
18.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 20(4): 1009-1016, Oct-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155293

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to evaluate static and dynamic respiratory muscle strength in children and adolescents with asthma. Methods: cross-sectional study, involving 80 children and adolescents, 40 with asthma and 40 healthy controls. Biological and clinical characteristics were analyzed. The analysis of the dynamic inspiratory muscle strength was obtained using the KH5 device of the POWERbreathe® line, while the static evaluation was performed using an analog manova-cuometer. Results: the mean obtained from the S-Index was higher in the control group compared to asthmatics (p = 0.026). There was no statistical difference between MIP values for asthmatics and predicted values (p = 0.056). The MEP results showed a significant difference between the mean of the cases and the predicted values (p = 0.000). There was a positive correlation between height and S-Index (p = 0.002 and r = 0.438). Conclusion: the present study demonstrated that the static inspiratory muscle strength (PImáx) of children and adolescents with asthma in comparison with the values predicted in the literature does not differ, however, when submitted to dynamic assessment (S-Index), it presents higher values in healthy controls. In addition, the S-Index showed a positive correlation with the child's height.


Resumo Objetivos: avaliar a força muscular respiratória estática e dinâmica em crianças e adolescentes com asma. Métodos: estudo transversal, envolvendo 80 crianças e adolescentes, sendo 40 com asma e 40 controles saudáveis. Analisadas características biológicas e clínicas.A análise da força muscular inspiratória dinâmica foi obtida através do dispositivo KH5 da linha POWERbreathe®, enquanto a avaliação estática, foirealizadapor meio de um manova-cuômetro analógico. Resultados: a média obtida do S-Index foi maior no grupo controle comparado aos asmáticos (p= 0.026). Não houve diferença estatísticaentre os valores de PImáx dos asmáticos e os valores preditos (p = 0.056). Os resultados da PEmáx demonstraram uma diferença significante entre a média dos casos com os valores preditos (p = 0.000). Houve correlação positiva entre a altura e S-Index (p = 0,002 e r = 0,438). Conclusão: o presente estudo demonstrou que a força muscular inspiratória estática (PImáx) de crianças e adolescentes asmáticos em comparação com os valores preditos na literatura não difere, porém, quando submetidos à avaliação dinâmica (S-Index), esta apresenta valores superiores em controles saudáveis. Além disso, o S-Index demonstrou uma correlação positiva com a altura da criança.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Respiratory Function Tests , Asthma/diagnosis , Respiratory Muscles/physiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1223-1228, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134429

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that has become a risk factor for the development of respiratory problems, meaning it is necessary to generate models that assess lung function in obese patients for proper treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate a model for analyzing respiratory function according to body composition, by analyzing the structure and function of the airways by computed tomography (CT). Lung function and body fat percentage (BF%) were measured in three male subjects (25 ± 6 years), with different body mass index (BMI; normal, overweight, obese). A third-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the airways was performed using CT. Trachea, right and left main bronchi and anterior segmental bronchus of the right and left lung were measured. Three measurement points were established for each structure, and the average value of these three points was used for the analysis. An increase in the thickness of the airways wall of the left and right main bronchi and right segmental bronchus was observed as BMI and BF% increased. The same was observed for the percentage of airway wall area (%AWA) and airway resistance in the main and segmental bronchi. The proposed 3D reconstruction model and the three-point analysis simplified image assessment and allowed to observe the problems caused by obesity in lung function.


RESUMEN: La obesidad es una epidemia mundial, la que se ha transformado en un factor de riesgo en el desarrollo problemas respiratorios. Al respecto, generar modelos de evaluación de la función pulmonar en pacientes obesos es relevante para su adecuado tratamiento. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar un modelo de la estructura y función de las vías aéreas (VA) con tomografía computarizada (TC) que permita analizar su compor- tamiento de acuerdo a la composición corporal. A tres sujetos de sexo masculino (25±6 años), de distinto índice de masa corporal (IMC; normal, sobrepeso, obeso), se les midió función pulmonar y porcentaje de grasa corporal (% GC). A través de TC se realizó una reconstrucción en tercera dimensión (3D) de las VA. Se realizaron mediciones de las VA de la tráquea, bronquios principales derecho e izquierdo y bronquio segmentario anterior del pulmón derecho e izquierdo. Para cada estructura se establecieron tres puntos de medición, el valor utilizado para los análisis fue el promedio de estos tres puntos. En los tres participantes se observó un aumento del grosor de la pared de las vías aéreas de los bronquios principal derecho e izquierdo y bronquio segmentario derecho a medida que aumenta el IMC y el % GC. Por otra parte, el porcentaje de área de la pared de las vías aéreas (% APVA) se comportó de la misma manera para ambos bronquios principales y segmentarios. La resistencia de las vías aéreas (RVA), tanto general como específica, aumentó en paralelo con el % APVA en los bronquios principales y segmentarios. A través de un modelo de reconstrucción 3D de la estructura de la VA por TC, evaluando tres puntos, se pudo observar los problemas que trae la obesidad a la función pulmonar simplificando el análisis de imagen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Respiratory System/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Airway Resistance/physiology , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Respiratory System/anatomy & histology , Respiratory Physiological Phenomena , Body Composition , Body Mass Index , Pilot Projects , Anthropometry , Overweight , Lung/physiology , Obesity
20.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(3): 176-201, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138552

ABSTRACT

El asma bronquial es la enfermedad crónica más frecuente en la infancia. Sin embargo, en Chile existe un importante subdiagnóstico. Es fundamental estar atentos a los síntomas y signos que nos hacen sospechar el diagnóstico para iniciar un tratamiento oportuno, que asegure un buen control de la enfermedad. Debemos sospechar asma en todo escolar que presente cuadros repetidos de obstrucción bronquial. El diagnóstico debe confirmarse con pruebas de función pulmonar que demuestren obstrucción variable al flujo aéreo y respuesta broncodilatadora positiva. El tratamiento se basa en dos pilares fundamentales: la educación y el tratamiento farmacológico. Las actividades educativas deben incluir contenidos acerca de la enfermedad y su tratamiento, se debe monitorizar constantemente la adherencia al tratamiento de mantención, enseñar la técnica inhalatoria correcta y revisar en cada control, entregar un plan de acción escrito personalizado frente al inicio de una crisis y realizar controles médicos periódicos. Con respecto al tratamiento farmacológico, el estándar de oro es el uso de corticoides inhalados permanentes, en la mínima dosis posible que logre el control de la enfermedad. El objetivo del tratamiento es la supresión de los síntomas diarios y de las crisis. El tratamiento se irá incrementando en la medida que no haya una respuesta adecuada, pero antes de aquello se debe evaluar la adherencia al tratamiento de mantención, la técnica inhalatoria, presencia de comorbilidades asociadas y exposición ambiental. En el paciente leve, que esté sin tratamiento permanente, el rescate debe realizarse con broncodilatadores asociados siempre a un corticoide inhalado. Este consenso es una guía de apoyo para mejorar el diagnóstico oportuno, tratamiento y control del asma en el escolar.


Bronchial asthma is the most prevalent chronic condition among children, however, in Chile, it is underdiagnosed. This may be due to medical professionals failing to recognize the disease. It is essential to be aware of the symptoms and signs that are suggestive of the disease in order to begin an appropriate treatment to achieve disease control. Asthma must be suspected in school age children who present repeated episodes of bronchial obstruction. The diagnosis should be confirmed with lung function tests that demonstrate variable airflow obstruction with a positive bronchodilator response. Treatment is based on two fundamental pillars: education and pharmacological treatment. Educational activities must include: information about the disease and its treatment, regular monitoring of treatment adherence, teaching and reviewing the correct inhalation technique at every checkup, developing a personalized written action plan and scheduling regular follow-up appointments. The gold standard for treatment is maintenance inhaled corticosteroids, in the lowest possible dose that enables disease control. The goal of the treatment is to eliminate daily symptoms and asthma crisis. Therapy should be increased if control is not achieved, but before starting it, adherence to maintenance treatment, inhalation technique, presence of associated comorbidities and environmental exposure should be evaluated. In the mild patient, who is not receiving maintenance therapy, rescue treatment should be done with bronchodilators, always associated with inhaled corticosteroids. This consensus is a guide to improve the diagnosis, treatment and control of asthma in schoolchildren


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Function Tests , Asthma/classification , Asthma/drug therapy , Vitamin D/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Radiography, Thoracic , Precipitating Factors , Chile , Consensus , Diagnosis, Differential
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