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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(3): 934-938, Sept. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828965

ABSTRACT

In this study we examined the effects histopathologic and immunohistochemical of xylene inhalation in rats by using light microscopy. Adult wistar albino rats were used in this study. Eight rats were in control group and 8 rats were in the experimental group. The experimental group was exposed to 300 ppm formaldehyde 3­5 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. The lining epithelium of respiratory mucosa showed a loss of ciliated cells with metaplasia of goblet cells, hyperplasia of squamous cells and edema, inflamation in sub epithelial area). In the group treated xylene. Disruption of cell-cell contact was observed. Weak expression of E-cadherin was observed between cells. The vascular endothelium of capillaries and venoles showed intense immunostaining for VEGF.


Se examinó el efecto histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico de la inhalación de xileno en ratas mediante el uso de microscopía de luz. Se utilizaron ratas albinas Wistar adultas. Ocho ratas formaron parte del grupo control y 8 del grupo experimental. El grupo experimental fue expuesto a 300 ppm de formaldehído, 3­5 min/día, 5 días/semana, durante 8 semanas. El epitelio de revestimiento de la mucosa respiratoria mostró una pérdida de células ciliadas con metaplasia de células caliciformes, hiperplasia de células escamosas y edema, con inflamación en la zona subepitelial. En el grupo tratado con xileno se observó una interrupción del contacto célula-célula. Se observó una débil expresión de E-cadherina entre las células. El endotelio vascular de los capilares y vénulas mostraron intensa inmunotinción de VEGF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Xylenes/administration & dosage , Cadherins/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Electron , Rats, Wistar , Respiratory Mucosa/ultrastructure , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/drug effects
2.
Gut and Liver ; : 424-429, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-142457

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a rare case of concurrent gastric and pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. A 65-year-old man who had been diagnosed with Helicobacter pylori-positive gastric MALT lymphoma received eradication therapy and achieved complete remission. During follow-up, he developed de novo pulmonary MALT lymphoma as a sequela of pulmonary tuberculosis, accompanied by recurrent gastric MALT lymphoma. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of the CDR3 region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene showed an overall polyclonal pattern with bands at 400 base pairs (bp) and 200 bp predominant in the pulmonary tissue, as well as two distinctive bands in the gastric tissue at 400 bp and 200 bp. This case suggests that multiorgan lymphomas are more likely to be independent from each other when they are far apart, involve different organ systems, and have independent precipitating factors.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Inflammation/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/etiology , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone/etiology , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/etiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications
3.
Gut and Liver ; : 424-429, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-142456

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a rare case of concurrent gastric and pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. A 65-year-old man who had been diagnosed with Helicobacter pylori-positive gastric MALT lymphoma received eradication therapy and achieved complete remission. During follow-up, he developed de novo pulmonary MALT lymphoma as a sequela of pulmonary tuberculosis, accompanied by recurrent gastric MALT lymphoma. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of the CDR3 region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene showed an overall polyclonal pattern with bands at 400 base pairs (bp) and 200 bp predominant in the pulmonary tissue, as well as two distinctive bands in the gastric tissue at 400 bp and 200 bp. This case suggests that multiorgan lymphomas are more likely to be independent from each other when they are far apart, involve different organ systems, and have independent precipitating factors.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Inflammation/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/etiology , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone/etiology , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/etiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 30(2): 521-523, jun. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-651823

ABSTRACT

Formaldehyde inhalation, are known to be nasal mucosa irritating feature. This study we are examined the effects histopathologic of formaldehyde inhalation on rats by using light microscopy. 16 adult wistar albino rats were used in this study. 8 rats were in control group and 8 rats were in experiment group. Experiment group was exposed to 10 ppm formaldhyde 8hours/day,5days/week for 8 week. Nasal mucosa was removed and placed in 10 percent formaline. Sections were stained with Hematoxylene-Eosine and observed under light microscopy. The lining epithelium of respiratory mucosa showed a loss of ciliated cells with metaplasia of goblet cells and hyperplasia of squamous cells.


Es conocido que la inhalación de formaldehído tiene caraterísticas irritantes para la mucosa nasal. En este estudio se examinaron los efectos histopatológicos de la inhalación de formaldehído en ratas mediante microscopía de luz. Se utilizaron en este estudio 16 ratas Wistar albinas adultas, ocho ratas como grupo control y ocho como grupo experimental. El grupo experimental fue expuesto a 10 ppm formaldehído 8 horas/día, 5 días/semana por 8 semanas. La mucosa nasal fue retirada y colocada en formalina al 10 por ciento. Las secciones obtenidas fueron teñidas con Hematoxilina-Eosina y observadas al microscopio óptico. El epitelio de revestimiento de la mucosa respiratoria mostró una pérdida de células ciliadas con metaplasia de las células caliciformes e hiperplasia de células escamosas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Formaldehyde/adverse effects , Respiratory Mucosa , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Administration, Inhalation , Disinfectants/adverse effects , Formaldehyde/administration & dosage , Microscopy , Respiratory Mucosa/ultrastructure , Rats, Wistar
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 26(5): 357-364, Sept.-Oct. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-599637

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To study morphological findings in the tracheal epithelium of dogs exposed to the inhalation of poorly conditioned gases under use of an endotracheal tube (ET) or laryngeal mask airway (LMA). METHODS: Twelve dogs randomly were allocated to two groups: ET group (n-6) and LMA group (n-6), anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated, without CO2 reabsorption. Haemodynamic and ventilatory parameters, tympanic temperature, temperature, relative and absolute humidity of the ambient and inhaled gases were analyzed during three hours. The animals were submitted to euthanasia and biopsies were carried out along the tracheal segment to morphological study. Three healthy dogs were used to morphological control. RESULTS: Inhaled gas temperature was maintained between 24ºC and 26ºC, relative humidity between 10 percent and 12 percent, and absolute humidity between 2 - 3 mg H2O.L-1 with no significant differences between groups. In both groups, histological analysis showed epithelial inflammation and congestion in the corion and scanning electron microscopy showed ciliary grouping and disorganization. Transmission electron microscopy showed higher alterations in ET group than LMA group as widening of cell junctions, ciliary disorientation, cytoplasmic vacuolization, nuclear abnormalities, picnosis and chromatin condensation. CONCLUSION: LMA determined less pronounced changes in the tracheal epithelium in dogs exposed to the inhalation of poorly conditioned gases.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações morfológicas no epitélio traqueal de cães expostos à inalação de gases pouco condicionados, sob ventilação com tubo traqueal (TT) ou máscara laríngea (ML). MÉTODOS: Doze cães adultos foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo TT (n-6) e grupo ML (n-6), submetidos à anestesia venosa e ventilação mecânica, em sistema sem reabsorção de CO2. Foram registrados parâmetros hemodinâmicos e ventilatórios, temperatura timpânica, temperatura, umidade relativa e absoluta do ar ambiente e dos gases inalados durante 3 horas. Ao término do experimento, os animais foram submetidos a eutanásia e realizadas biópsias ao longo do segmento traqueal para estudo morfológico. Três cães saudáveis foram utilizados para controle morfológico. RESULTADOS: A temperatura dos gases inalados manteve-se entre 24ºC e 26ºC, a umidade relativa entre 10 por cento e 12 por cento, e umidade absoluta entre 2 -3 mg H2O.L-1 sem diferença significativa entre os grupos. Em ambos os grupos a análise histológica evidenciou processo inflamatório epitelial e congestão no córion, e a microscopia eletrônica de varredura mostrou agrupamento e desorganização ciliar. A microscopia eletrônica de transmissão detectou maiores alterações no grupo TT do que no ML, como alargamento das junções intercelulares, desorientação ciliar, vacuolização citoplasmática, alterações nucleares como pcinose e condensação da cromatina. CONCLUSÃO: A máscara laríngea determinou alterações menos pronunciadas no epitélio traqueal de cães expostos à inalação de gases pouco condicionados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Male , Gases/adverse effects , Inhalation , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Trachea/pathology , Biopsy , Humidity/adverse effects , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Random Allocation , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Temperature , Time Factors
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(5): 460-468, May 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-586504

ABSTRACT

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with inflammatory cell reactions, tissue destruction and lung remodeling. Many signaling pathways for these phenomena are still to be identified. We developed a mouse model of COPD to evaluate some pathophysiological mechanisms acting during the initial stage of the disease. Forty-seven 6- to 8-week-old female C57/BL6 mice (approximately 22 g) were exposed for 2 months to cigarette smoke and/or residual oil fly ash (ROFA), a concentrate of air pollution. We measured lung mechanics, airspace enlargement, airway wall thickness, epithelial cell profile, elastic and collagen fiber deposition, and by immunohistochemistry transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), macrophage elastase (MMP12), neutrophils and macrophages. We observed regional airspace enlargements near terminal bronchioles associated with the exposure to smoke or ROFA. There were also increases in airway resistance and thickening of airway walls in animals exposed to smoke. In the epithelium, we noted a decrease in the ciliated cell area of animals exposed to smoke and an increase in the total cell area associated with exposure to both smoke and ROFA. There was also an increase in the expression of TGF-β1 both in the airways and parenchyma of animals exposed to smoke. However, we could not detect inflammatory cell recruitment, increases in MMP12 or elastic and collagen fiber deposition. After 2 months of exposure to cigarette smoke and/or ROFA, mice developed regional airspace enlargements and airway epithelium remodeling, although no inflammation or increases in fiber deposition were detected. Some of these phenomena may have been mediated by TGF-β1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Airway Remodeling/physiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Respiratory Mucosa/physiopathology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Arterioles/pathology , Collagen/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Immunohistochemistry , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Time Factors , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
8.
Clinics ; 65(12): 1229-1237, 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578559

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cases of H1N1 and other pulmonary infections evolve to acute respiratory failure and death when co-infections or lung injury predominate over the immune response, thus requiring early diagnosis to improve treatment. OBJECTIVE: To perform a detailed histopathological analysis of the open lung biopsy specimens from five patients with ARDS with confirmed H1N1. METHODS: Lung specimens underwent microbiologic analysis, and examination by optical and electron microscopy. Immunophenotyping was used to characterize macrophages, natural killer, T and B cells, and expression of cytokines and iNOS. RESULTS: The pathological features observed were necrotizing bronchiolitis, diffuse alveolar damage, alveolar hemorrhage and abnormal immune response. Ultrastructural analysis showed viral-like particles in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: Viral-like particles can be successfully demonstrated in lung tissue by ultrastructural examination, without confirmation of the virus by RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal aspirates. Bronchioles and epithelium, rather than endothelium, are probably the primary target of infection, and diffuse alveolar damage the consequence of the effect of airways obliteration and dysfunction on innate immunity, suggesting that treatment should be focused on epithelial repair.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/pathology , Lung/ultrastructure , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , Biopsy/methods , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchi/ultrastructure , Lung/pathology , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Respiratory Mucosa/ultrastructure
9.
J. bras. patol. med. lab ; 45(2): 139-145, abr. 2009. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-522587

ABSTRACT

Neste relato, aproveitamos um caso pouco usual de adenocarcinoma em mucosa sinonasal para ilustrar o processo de decisão diagnóstica em imuno-histoquímica. Trata-se de paciente do sexo masculino, de 86 anos, apresentando massa intranasal. No estudo imuno-histoquímico, notou-se expressão de antígeno prostático específico (PSA) e do CDX-2, indicando possibilidades diagnósticas divergentes, de metástase de adenocarcinoma prostático ou de adenocarcinoma sinonasal do tipo intestinal (ITAC). A partir desse dilema diagnóstico, buscou-se estabelecer como esses marcadores poderiam ser confrontados em uma decisão diagnóstica, definindo-se as qualidades que um bom marcador imuno-histoquímico deve ter, e como os marcadores utilizados no painel se comparam em relação a essas qualidades e às hipóteses diagnósticas levantadas. Nesse exercício, são desvendados aspectos importantes do processo diagnóstico em patologia.


In this report, we explore an unusual case of adenocarcinoma detected in the sinonasal mucous membrane in order to illustrate the diagnostic decision process in the immunohistochemical diagnosis. The patient is a 86-year-old man with an intranasal mass. In the immunohistochemical study, it was found expression for both PSA and CDX-2, raising the divergent diagnostic possibilities of a prostatic adenocarcinoma metastasis or an intestinal type sinonasal adenocarcinoma. In search for a solution for this diagnostic dilemma, we tried to establish how these immunohistochemical markers could be confronted in a diagnostic decision by defining the qualities that good immunohistochemical markers consist of and how the panel markers may be compared as to these qualities and the diagnostic hypotheses. In this exercise, important aspects of the diagnostic process in pathology are revealed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms/diagnosis , Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms/pathology , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Diagnosis, Differential , Immunohistochemistry , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Homeodomain Proteins , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Rev. bras. otorrinolaringol ; 75(1): 151-156, jan.-fev. 2009. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-514848

ABSTRACT

Remodelamento pode ser definido como modelar novamente ou de forma diferente, reconstruir. Trata-se de um aspecto crítico do processo de reparação de lesões em todos os órgãos, representando um evento dinâmico de produção e degradação de matriz, em reação a inflamação, levando à reconstrução normal do tecido ou à formação de um tecido patológico. OBJETIVO E MÉTODO: Comparar os dados existentes em literatura entre o remodelamento de vias aéreas inferiores e superiores. RESULTADO: Asma é uma doença inflamatória crônica associada a remodelamento de vias aéreas. Na rinite alérgica, outra doença inflamatória crônica, o remodelamento é ainda pouco entendido. Apesar de a inflamação ser similar na rinite alérgica e asma, a extensão patológica do remodelamento nasal, assim como sua repercussão clínica, pode ser diferente dos brônquios. CONCLUSÃO: O remodelamento nas vias aéreas superiores ocorre em menor intensidade que nas vias inferiores, mas é aparente que a estrutura da mucosa nasal de pacientes com rinite não é normal.


Remodeling is defined as modeling again or differently, as reconstructing. Remodeling is a critical aspect of wound repair in all organs; it represents a dynamic process that associates the production and degradation of matrix in reaction to inflammation. This leads to normal reconstruction or a pathologic process. AIM AND METHODS: To compare data in the current literature on upper and lower airways. RESULTS: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with abnormal airways remodeling. In allergic rhinitis, another chronic inflammatory disease, remodeling is still poorly understood. Even though inflammation is similar in allergic rhinitis and asthma, the pathologic extent of nasal remodeling, as well as its clinical consequences, might be different from those in bronchi. CONCLUSION: Remodeling occurs less in upper airways compared to lower airways; it is apparent, however, that the structure of the rhinitic nose is not normal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma/physiopathology , Respiratory Mucosa/physiopathology , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial/physiopathology , Sinusitis/physiopathology , Asthma/pathology , Chronic Disease , Extracellular Matrix/pathology , Inflammation Mediators/physiology , Neovascularization, Pathologic/physiopathology , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial/pathology , Sinusitis/pathology
11.
Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci ; 2008 Jan-Mar; 50(1): 33-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-29819

ABSTRACT

Infection of the respiratory tract, particularly indolent and chronic disease can be a diagnostic dilemma. Infections associated with immunosuppressive states often require an accurate early diagnosis because it impacts outcome. A wide variety of specimens, such as, sputum, bronchoalveolar lavarge (BAL), transthoracic or transbronchial fine needle aspiration (FNA) can be employed. Cytopathology is diagnostic when the causative organism can be identified failing which, direction can be given to further investigation by examination of the tissue reaction patterns. Three types of reactions seen in lung infections act as clues to the diagnosis: (a) necrosis, (b) inflammatory reactions, and (c) epithelial changes with little inflammation. Identification of tissue reaction types limits the diagnostic possibilities and facilitates the diagnostic process.


Subject(s)
Cytodiagnosis , Humans , Necrosis , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology
12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 390-396, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69854

ABSTRACT

The bronchial pathology of asymptomatic airway hyperreponsiveness (AHR) subjects is not well understood, and the role of atopy in the development of airway remodeling is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether atopy is associated with airway remodeling in asymptomatic AHR subjects. Five groups, i.e., atopic or non-atopic subjects with asymptomatic AHR, atopic or non-atopic healthy controls, and subjects with mild atopic asthma, were evaluated by bronchoscopic biopsy. By electron microscopy, mean reticular basement membrane (RBM) thicknesses were 4.3+/-1.7 micrometer, 3.4+/-1.8 micrometer, 2.5+/-1.5 micrometer, 2.6+/-1.1 micrometer, and 2.3+/-1.2 micrometer in the mild atopic asthma, atopic and non-atopic asymptomatic AHR, atopic and nonatopic control groups, respectively (p=0.002). RBM thicknesses were significantly higher in the mild atopic asthma group and in the atopic asymptomatic AHR group than in the other three groups (p=0.048). No significant difference in RBM thickness was observed between the atopic asymptomatic AHR group and the mild atopic asthma group (p>0.05), nor between non-atopic asymptomatic AHR group and the two control groups (p>0.05). By light microscopy, subepithelial layer thicknesses between the groups showed the same results. These findings suggest that RBM thickening occurs in subjects with atopic asymptomatic AHR, and that atopy plays an important role in airway remodeling.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Asthma/epidemiology , Basement Membrane/pathology , Biopsy , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchial Hyperreactivity/epidemiology , Bronchoscopy , Fibrosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/epidemiology , Microscopy, Electron , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Risk Factors
13.
São Paulo; s.n; 2006. [113] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-587119

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Em pacientes sob intubação endotraqueal os mecanismos fisiológicos de climatização do ar inspirado são anulados. Durante anestesia geral, quando os gases inspiratórios são ofertados secos e frios, a manutenção da umidade das vias aéreas é condição importante para prevenção de lesões da mucosa respiratória e ressecamento das secreções. Os sistemas de anestesia possuem propriedades de umidicação inerentes, decorrentes do sistema respiratório circular e a presença do absorvedor de CO2. Entretanto, os níveis de umidificação, durante a anestesia, dependem de vários fatores incluindo o tipo de ventilador anestésico, montagem do sistema respiratório e o fluxo de gás fresco utilizado. Porém não há dados na literatura que tenham investigado o efeito nos níveis de umidade do gás inspirado nas propriedades físicas e de transportabilidade do muco respiratório. Objetivo: Avaliar os níveis de Temperatura (T), umidade absoluta (UA) e umidade relativa (UR) do ar inspirado durante anestesia geral oferecidos pelo sistema circular valvular com absorção de CO2 e com a adição do HME em dois tipos de ventiladores (Drãger e Takaoka). Avaliar os efeitos do HME sobre os níveis de Temperatura e Umidade dos gases inspirados ofertados pelos dois equipamentos. Avaliar o impacto da umidade sobre as propriedades físicas e de transportabilidade do muco respiratório. Método: Foram selecionados 44 pacientes da Clínica Cirúrgica II do Departamento de Gastroenterologia do HCFMUSP com indicação de cirurgia abdominal eletiva e anestesia geral com duração superior a 4 horas. Os pacientes foram alocados em 4 grupos conforme o tipo do ventilador utilizado (Drãger ou Takaoka) e a presença ou ausência do HME. O muco respiratório e os dados de temperatura, UR e UA do gás ofertado foram coletados logo após a intubação endotraqueal, e a cada duas horas até o final da cirurgia. A análise do muco respiratório foi realizada através dos seguintes métodos: Transportabilidade mucociliar (MCT)...


Background: In patients who are intubated, the natural mechanism of gas climatization by the nose and the upper airway is bypassed. During anesthesia, when the inspiratory gases are cold and dry, humidification of gases is recommended to prevent drying of the mucosal epithelium and respiratory secretions. The anesthesia systems have inherent humidifying properties as a result of the valvular rebreathing of some of the expired humidity and of the production of water in the CO2 absorber. However, the level of moisture in anesthetic ventilation is critically dependent on several factors that include the equipment, the arrangement of the circle breathing system and the fresh gas flow. To date the effect of humidity on respiratory mucus properties and transportability was not investigated. Objectives: The objective of this study was to measure the humidity and temperature of the inspired gas from a circle absorber system in two different ventilators (Drãger and Takaoka) and the effect of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) on the inspired gas. Furthermore, we also evaluated the impact of humidity on in vitro mucus transportability and physical properties. Methods: We studied 44 patients with no pulmonary disease scheduled for elective surgery that were randomly allocated in four groups according to the anesthetic equipment (Drãger or Takaoka) and the absence or presence of HME. Respiratory mucus was collected and Temperature (T), absolute humidity (AH), relative humidity (RH) of inspired gases were recorded immediately after intubation (T0) and every 2 hours. In vitro respiratory mucus was studied by mucociliary transportability (MCT) by the frog palate method; cough clearance (CC) by the cough equipment, and contact angle (CA) by direct observation. Results: Drãger equipment delivered significantly higher levels of RH and AH when compared to Takaoka. The addition of HME increased AH and T in both equipments. RH was improved only in the Takaoka equipment...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Anesthesia, General , Anesthetics, Inhalation , Equipment and Supplies , Mucociliary Clearance , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Respiration, Artificial , Humidity/adverse effects
14.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 109-118, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15701

ABSTRACT

Airway structural changes that occur in patients with asthma in response to persistent inflammation are termed airway remodeling. The cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTC4, D4 and E4) are known to play important roles in the pathobiology of asthma. To evaluate the effect of low dose montelukast (MK) on the development of airway remodeling using a chronic murine model of allergic airway inflammation with subepithelial fibrosis, BALB/c mice, after intraperitoneal ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization on days 0 and 14, received intranasal OVA periodically on days 14-75. MK treated mice received montelukast sodium intraperitoneally on days 26-75. The OVA sensitized/challenged mice developed an extensive eosinophil cell inflammatory response, goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus occlusion, and smooth muscle hypertrophy of the airways. In addition, in OVA sensitized/challenged mice, dense collagen deposition/fibrosis was seen throughout the lung interstitium surrounding the airways, blood vessels, and alveolar septae. The cysteinyl leukotriene 1 (CysLT1) receptor antagonist, MK significantly reduced the airway eosinophil infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus occlusion, and lung fibrosis except airway smooth muscle hypertrophy in the OVA sensitized/challenged mice. The OVA sensitized/challenged mice had significantly increased epithelial desquamation compared with control mice. MK markedly reduced epithelial desquamation of airways in OVA/MK treated animals compared with OVA sensitized/challenged mice. MK treatment did not affect the levels of CysLT in lung tissue. Our results show that the important role of cysteinyl leukotrienes in the pathogenesis of asthma. Lower dose of CysLT1 receptor antagonism has a significant anti-inflammatory effect on allergen-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis but not airway smooth muscle hypertrophy in an animal model of asthma.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Receptors, Leukotriene/metabolism , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Muscle, Smooth/pathology , Mucus/metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Lung/pathology , Leukotrienes/biosynthesis , Leukotriene Antagonists/therapeutic use , Hypertrophy , Hyperplasia , Goblet Cells/pathology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Disease Models, Animal , Cysteine/biosynthesis , Collagen/metabolism , Asthma/drug therapy , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Airway Obstruction/drug therapy , Acetates/therapeutic use
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 38(7)July 2005. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-403862

ABSTRACT

An effective preservation method and decreased rejection are essential for tracheal transplantation in the reconstruction of large airway defects. Our objective in the present study was to evaluate the antigenic properties of glycerin-preserved tracheal segments. Sixty-one tracheal segments (2.4 to 3.1 cm) were divided into three groups: autograft (N = 21), fresh allograft (N = 18) and glycerin-preserved allograft (N = 22). Two segments from different groups were implanted into the greater omentum of dogs (N = 31). After 28 days, the segments were harvested and analyzed for mononuclear infiltration score and for the presence of respiratory epithelium. The fresh allograft group presented the highest score for mononuclear infiltration (1.78 ± 0.43, P <= 0.001) when compared to the autograft and glycerin-preserved allograft groups. In contrast to the regenerated epithelium observed in autograft segments, all fresh allografts and glycerin-preserved allografts had desquamation of the respiratory mucosa. The low antigenicity observed in glycerin segments was probably the result of denudation of the respiratory epithelium and perhaps due to the decrease of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Cryoprotective Agents , Glycerol , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , Trachea/transplantation , Transplantation, Heterotopic/immunology , Cryopreservation/methods , Graft Rejection/immunology , Graft Rejection/pathology , Omentum/surgery , Organ Preservation/methods , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Trachea/immunology , Trachea/pathology , Transplantation, Heterotopic/pathology
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 23(4): 293-300, 2005. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-626798

ABSTRACT

El consumo materno de etanol durante la lactancia altera la composición de la leche, provoca la aparición de etanol y acetaldehído en la leche y agrava los efectos del etanol en las crías de ratas. De este modo, fueron estudiados los efectos del etanol, administrado a las ratas madres durante la lactancia, sobre el epitelio respiratorio y en las glándulas septales anterior y posterior de las crías lactantes con 21 días de vida postnatal. Las ratas recibieron etanol al 20% en el bebedero, ad libitum durante los 21 días que amamantaron. Los controles recibieron un volumen similar de agua sin alcohol. Las crías fueron sacrificadas en el 21 día. Las cabezas fueran cortadas frontalmente. Los cortes seriados de 6 µm de grosor fueron teñidos con hematoxilina y eosina. Fueron determinados los parámetros nucleares de los epitelios respiratorio y glandular, así como los volúmenes citoplasmático y celular, relación núcleo-citoplasma, densidades numérica y superficial y espesor del epitelio. El peso corporal medio de las crías control fue 34,9 g y en las tratadas 20,2 g. Histologicamente, el epitelio respiratorio se mostró adelgazado en el grupo tratado, constituido por células abundantes y menores, con núcleos menores. La glándula septal posterior presentó ácinos menores. En este trabajo, el etanol indujo un cuadro de hipotrofia epitelial (respiratorio y glandular), indicando una acción directa sobre las células de la mucosa nasal, además de retardar el desarrollo de las crías intoxicadas.


Maternal ingestion of ethanol during lactation alters the chemical composition of milk, results in the appearance of ethanol and acetaldehyde in milk, and exacerbates the effects of ethanol on the rat pups. So that, the effect on respiratory epithelium and anterior and posterior septal glands in 21-day-old suckling pups of ethanol treated mothers was studied. Female rats received dinking water ad libitum containing ethanol (20%) throughout the whole lactation. Control animals received a similar volume of water without ethanol. Lactent rats (21 day-old) were killed by lethal dose of anesthetic. The heads were serially sectioned (6µm thick) in a frontal plain, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Cell nuclear parameters were estimated, as well as cytoplasm and cell volume, nucleus-cytoplasm ratio, number and surface densities, and epithelial thickness. Mean body weight of the pups was 34.9 g for the controls and 20.2 g for the treated group. Histologically, the respiratory epithelium was thinner, with more numerous and smaller cells and small nuclei. The posterior septal glands showed smaller acini. In this paper, ethanol induced epithelial (respiratory and glandular) hypotrophy, indicating a direct action in nasal mucous cells, besides retarded development in pups.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Lactation , Nose/drug effects , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Ethanol/toxicity , Nose/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Maternal Exposure , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Alcoholism , Karyometry , Animals, Newborn , Nasal Septum/drug effects , Nasal Septum/pathology
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 435-442, 2004.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14516

ABSTRACT

Retinoic acid receptor- (RAR-beta) is induced by and mediates the growth-inhibitory and apoptotic effects of retinoic acid (RA), suggesting that loss of RAR-betaexpression may be one of the critical events involved in the carcinogenesis/ progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and in the responsiveness to retinoid chemotherapy. However, recent contradictory reports that the expression of RAR-beta is associated with poor clinical outcome, and the fact that treatment of serum-deprived type 2 alveolar cells with RA leads to a stimulation of cell proliferation, require the verification of RAR-beta as a biomarker of chemoprevention or prognosis. The expression status of RAR-beta in cancer cells and adjacent normal appearing bronchial epithelium from 39 patients, diagnosed as stage I NSCLC and undergone a curative lung resection, was analyzed in paraffin-embedded tissue sections by IHC staining. The normal appearing bronchial epithelium of 14 out of 33 (42.4%) specimens expressed RAR-beta, whereas 22 out of the 39 (56.4%) stage I NSCLC specimens expressed RAR-beta. RAR-beta was more frequently expressed in the adenocarcinoma (72.7%) than in the squamous cell carcinoma (31.3%) (p=0.026). Neither the expression status in normal appearing adjacent tissue nor that in the tumor tissue had prognostic implications. The higher expression of RAR-beta in cancer tissue, the focal and uneven distribution in normal appearing adjacent bronchial epithelium, and inconsistency with the corresponding tumor tissue, suggest that the expression status of RAR-beta as a biomarker for chemoprevention/early diagnosis or the prognosis of NSCLC requires further consideration.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bronchi/metabolism , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , Down-Regulation , Immunohistochemistry , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasm Staging , Receptors, Retinoic Acid/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism
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