Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.325
Filter
1.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(4): 366-373, jul.-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1351934

ABSTRACT

Resumen La COVID-19 es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por el coronavirus del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo 2 (SARS-CoV-2) que tiene importantes manifestaciones sobre el sistema cardiovascular y respiratorio. Esta enfermedad, descrita en los primeros días de diciembre de 2019 en la ciudad de Wuhan, capital de la provincia de Hubei, en China, tuvo una rápida expansión mundial y fue declarada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud como pandemia el 11 de marzo de 2020. Tiene diferentes presentaciones clínicas, como neumonía, hipoxemia, falla renal, falla multisistémica, compromiso endotelial que lleva a lesiones trombóticas venosas y arteriales, y problemas cardiacos como insuficiencia cardiaca, miocarditis, arritmias e infarto de miocardio de los tipos 1 y 2. La mayoría de las personas presentan una enfermedad leve o no complicada (80%), y otras (20%) pueden desarrollar un cuadro grave con neumonía, síndrome de dificultad respiratoria, choque cardiogénico, trombosis y tormenta de citocinas (el 15% se manejan con oxigenoterapia y el 5% ameritan tratamiento en la unidad de cuidados intensivos). La mortalidad está relacionada con la edad y con la comorbilidad (hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus, enfermedades respiratorias, enfermedades cardiacas en general, enfermedades renales y obesidad). El objetivo de esta revisión narrativa es describir las alteraciones metabólicas y la relación de la diabetes mellitus, la obesidad, el síndrome metabólico y la dislipidemia con la morbilidad y la mortalidad vinculadas a la COVID-19.


Abstract COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and that has important manifestations on the cardiovascular system and respiratory. This disease described in the first days of December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, capital of the province of Hubei, China, with a rapid global expansion and declared by the World Health Organization as a pandemic on March 11, 2020, has different clinical presentations such as pneumonia, hypoxemia, kidney failure, multisystem failure, endothelial involvement leading to venous and arterial thrombotic lesions, and heart problems such as heart failure, myocarditis, arrhythmias, and type 1 and 2 myocardial infarction. Most people have a mild or uncomplicated disease (80%), and others (20%) may develop a severe case with pneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome, cardiogenic shock, thrombosis, and cytokine storm (15% are managed with oxygen therapy and 5% merit treatment in the intensive care unit). Mortality is related to age and comorbidity (high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, heart diseases in general, kidney diseases, and obesity). The objective of this narrative review is to describe the metabolic alterations and the relationship between diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia with the morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory System , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , COVID-19 , Disease , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyslipidemias , Obesity
2.
Fisioter. Bras ; 22(2): 261-271, Maio 25, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284175

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Uma doença altamente infecciosa do trato respiratório, a doença de coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19) pode causar disfunção respiratória, física e psicológica em pacientes. Portanto, a reabilitação pulmonar é crucial para pacientes admitidos e que recebem alta da COVID-19. As sequelas de longo prazo são desconhecidas, mas as evidências de surtos anteriores de CoV demonstram comprometimento da função pulmonar e física, redução da qualidade de vida e sofrimento emocional. Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática da literatura realizada através de busca digital em artigos publicados em revistas impressas e eletrônicas, ensaios clínicos, estudos randomizados, revisões sistemáticas, no período compreendido entre os anos de 2003 e 2020. Resultados: Muitos sobreviventes da COVID-19 que necessitam de cuidados críticos podem desenvolver comprometimentos psicológicos, físicos e cognitivos. Conclusão: Existe uma clara necessidade de orientação sobre a reabilitação dos sobreviventes da COVID-19. (AU)


Introduction: A highly infectious disease of the respiratory tract, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause respiratory, physical, and psychological dysfunction in patients. Therefore, pulmonary rehabilitation is crucial for patients admitted and discharged from COVID-19. The long-term sequelae of COVID-19 are unknown, but evidence of previous CoV outbreaks demonstrates impaired lung and physical function, reduced quality of life and emotional distress. Methods: This is a systematic review of the literature carried out through digital bibliographic search of scientific articles published in printed and electronic journals, clinical trials, randomized studies, systematic reviews, in the period between the years 2003 and 2020. Results: Many survivors of COVID-19 that require critical care can develop psychological, physical, and cognitive impairments. Conclusion: There is a clear need for guidance on the rehabilitation of COVID-19 survivors. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Rehabilitation , Respiratory System , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Critical Care , Lung
3.
Más Vita ; 3(1): 56-65, mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1253308

ABSTRACT

Los Terapeutas respiratorios juegan un papel importante en la prevención de la neumonía asociada al ventilador, esta enfermedad es la infección hospitalaria más común en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) y la principal causa de muerte. Objetivo: Describir el rol del terapeuta respiratorio en la prevención de neumonía asociada al ventilador. Materiales y métodos: Este artículo fue realizado bajo los parámetros de la revisión documental, de nivel descriptivo, monográfico. La técnica aplicada fue el fichaje bibliográfico y el análisis sistemático de los documentos encontrados en la web. Resultados: Gracias a la revisión, análisis y síntesis de la bibliografía se obtuvo como resultado que la higiene de las manos, sumado a medidas específicas de prevención no farmacológicas, como elevación de la cabecera, manejo de presión del neumotaponamiento, aseo de la cavidad oral, aspiración y manejo de secreciones, así como estrategias para conservar la nutrición integral, son medidas simples y con buenos resultados en la prevención de la NAVM. Conclusiones: El rol del terapista respiratorio en la prevención de neumonía asociada al ventilador es cumplir con el tratamiento no farmacológico para el bienestar del paciente. Estas acciones van desde el acompañamiento hasta el lavado de manos adecuado antes y después de la atención(AU)


Respiratory therapists play an important role in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia, which is the most common hospital-acquired infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) and the leading cause of death. Objective: To describe the role of the respiratory therapist in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Materials and methods: This article was carried out under the parameters of a descriptive, monographic, documentary review. The technique applied was the bibliographic file and the systematic analysis of the documents found on the web. The results: According the review, analysis and synthesis of the literature, it was found that hand hygiene, together with specific non-pharmacological prevention measures, such as head elevation, pneumotapon pressure management, oral cavity cleaning, secretion aspiration and management, as well as strategies to maintain integral nutrition, are simple measures with good results in the prevention of VAP. Conclusions: The role of the respiratory therapist in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia is to comply with non-pharmacological treatment for the patient's well-being. These actions range from accompaniment to proper hand washing before and after care(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Respiratory Therapy , Cross Infection , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Intensive Care Units , Respiratory System , Nebulizers and Vaporizers
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 281-291, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878037

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Conventional pressure support ventilation (PSP) is triggered and cycled off by pneumatic signals such as flow. Patient-ventilator asynchrony is common during pressure support ventilation, thereby contributing to an increased inspiratory effort. Using diaphragm electrical activity, neurally controlled pressure support (PSN) could hypothetically eliminate the asynchrony and reduce inspiratory effort. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences between PSN and PSP in terms of patient-ventilator synchrony, inspiratory effort, and breathing pattern.@*METHODS@#Eight post-operative patients without respiratory system comorbidity, eight patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and obvious restrictive acute respiratory failure (ARF), and eight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and mixed restrictive and obstructive ARF were enrolled. Patient-ventilator interactions were analyzed with macro asynchronies (ineffective, double, and auto triggering), micro asynchronies (inspiratory trigger delay, premature, and late cycling), and the total asynchrony index (AI). Inspiratory efforts for triggering and total inspiration were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Total AI of PSN was consistently lower than that of PSP in COPD (3% vs. 93%, P = 0.012 for 100% support level; 8% vs. 104%, P = 0.012 for 150% support level), ARDS (8% vs. 29%, P = 0.012 for 100% support level; 16% vs. 41%, P = 0.017 for 150% support level), and post-operative patients (21% vs. 35%, P = 0.012 for 100% support level; 15% vs. 50%, P = 0.017 for 150% support level). Improved support levels from 100% to 150% statistically increased total AI during PSP but not during PSN in patients with COPD or ARDS. Patients' inspiratory efforts for triggering and total inspiration were significantly lower during PSN than during PSP in patients with COPD or ARDS under both support levels (P < 0.05). There was no difference in breathing patterns between PSN and PSP.@*CONCLUSIONS@#PSN improves patient-ventilator synchrony and generates a respiratory pattern similar to PSP independently of any level of support in patients with different respiratory system mechanical properties. PSN, which reduces the trigger and total patient's inspiratory effort in patients with COPD or ARDS, might be an alternative mode for PSP.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01979627; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT01979627.


Subject(s)
Cross-Over Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , Respiration , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory System , Ventilators, Mechanical
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(12): 1054-1062, Dec. 2020. graf, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1155044

ABSTRACT

Giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is a wild mammal distributed in Central and South America; nowadays, it is classified as an endangered species. Research about the macroscopic and histomorphological aspects of its respiratory tract is scarce, and, sometimes, it limits the treatment provided to sick animals and impairs species preservation. Thus, the present study aims to describe the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of its lower respiratory tract, including trachea and lungs. To do so, 12 adult giant anteaters from "Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres de Goiânia" (CETAS-GO), Goiás State, Brazil, were used in the research after natural death or euthanasia. Three of these animals were used for macroscopic assessments; they were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and dissected. Trachea and lung tissue samples were collected from nine animals right after death and fixed in 10% buffered formalin for histomorphological analysis; they were processed, embedded in paraffin, and inked with hematoxylin-eosin (HE), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), and Masson's trichrome. The macroscopic analysis showed that the trachea in this species is proportionally short and presents from 19 to 27 tracheal cartilages. The right lung presents four lobes and the left one, two. The microscopic analysis evidenced respiratory epithelium of the ciliated cylindrical pseudostratified type, without evident goblet cells in the mucosa layer of the trachea and bronchi. The pulmonary visceral pleura is thick, similar to other large domestic mammals - complete septa extend from the pulmonary visceral pleura. In conclusion, the macroscopy and histomorphology of giant anteater's lower respiratory tract, represented by trachea and lungs, are similar to that of other domestic and wild mammals. Pulmonary histomorphology is mainly similar to that of pigs and ruminants: it has thick visceral pleura that emits complete septa of conjunctive tissue, which enable lobular parenchymal architecture.(AU)


O tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) é um mamífero silvestre com distribuição na América Central e do Sul e, atualmente, encontra-se classificado como ameaçado de extinção. Pesquisas acerca dos aspectos macroscópicos e histomorfológicos do seu sistema respiratório são escassas, o que, por vezes, limita o tratamento e o manejo de eventuais animais doentes, bem como a preservação da espécie. Desse modo, o objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a morfologia macroscópica e microscópica do aparelho respiratório inferior do tamanduá-bandeira, incluindo traqueia e pulmões. Para tanto, foram utilizados 12 tamanduás-bandeiras adultos, provenientes do Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres de Goiânia (CETAS-GO), Goiás, Brasil, após morte natural ou eutanásia. Destes, três foram utilizados para o estudo macroscópico, sendo fixados em formalina tamponada a 10% e dissecados. Para a análise histomorfológica, amostras teciduais da traqueia e do pulmão foram colhidas de nove animais logo após o óbito, fixadas em formalina tamponada a 10%, processadas, incluídas em parafina e coradas com hematoxilina e eosina (HE), ácido periódico-Schiff (PAS) e tricrômico de Masson. À análise macroscópica notou-se que a traqueia é proporcionalmente curta, apresentando 19 a 27 cartilagens traqueais. O pulmão direito apresenta quatro lobos e o esquerdo dois. À análise microscópica foi constatado epitélio respiratório do tipo pseudoestratificado cilíndrico ciliado, sem células caliciformes evidentes na camada mucosa da traqueia e dos brônquios. A pleura visceral pulmonar é espessa, assim como nos grandes mamíferos domésticos, e, a partir desta, estendem-se septos completos. Conclui-se que a macroscopia e a histomorfologia do sistema respiratório inferior do tamanduá-bandeira, representado pela traqueia e pulmões, são semelhantes àquelas de outros mamíferos domésticos e silvestres. A histomorfologia pulmonar é especialmente semelhante à de suínos e ruminantes, com a pleura visceral espessa e emitindo septos completos de tecido conjuntivo, que conferem arquitetura parenquimal lobular.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Respiratory System , Trachea , Eutheria/anatomy & histology , Lung/anatomy & histology , Microscopy
6.
Infectio ; 24(4): 255-258, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114878

ABSTRACT

Resumen El Streptococcus pseudoporcinus es un germen de la clasificación Beta hemolítico, con similitud a Streptococcus agalactiae, con baja incidencia en producción de infección pero principalmente aislado en tracto genitourinario de mujeres embarazadas y relacionado con complicaciones materno-fetales. Reportes en la literatura como infección fuera de este sitio son inusuales, por lo cual presentamos un caso de un hombre de 48 años con infección de tracto respiratorio bajo, compatible con colección neumónica y un derrame paraneumonico complicado, con requerimiento de manejo antibiótico y drenaje por toracostomia. Al realizar el estudio microbiológico se reportó aislamiento de un Streptococcus pseudoporcinus. No hay reportes previos en la literatura como causa de infección en este sitio anatómico.


Abstract Streptococcus pseudoporcinus in a germ of the Beta hemolytic group, similar to Streptococcus agalactiae, with low incidence in the production of infection, and isolated in most of cases from the genitourinary tract of pregnant women and related to maternal and fetal complications; the reports in the literature as infection outside this site are unusual. We describe a case of one 48-year-old man with a low respiratory tract infection with a pneumonic collection and a complicated parapneumonic effusion, requiring antibiotic management and thoracostomy drainage. Isolation of a Streptococcus pseudoporcinus. There is no report in the literatura as a cause of infection in this anatomical site.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections , Streptococcus agalactiae , Respiratory System , Streptococcus , Pregnant Women , Infections
7.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(3): 289-308, 26 de noviembre 2020. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1130004

ABSTRACT

Se describe la situación global de las infecciones por SARS-CoV-2 y los cuadros clínicos de COVID-19. Se presentan datos epidemiológicos de Centro América y de Guatemala, para ejemplificar algunos factores de riesgo de infección y morbilidad. Se revisa la función y estructura del sistema respiratorio, sus mecanismos de defensa innata -captura y remoción de agentes extraños, reconocimiento e inactivación de agentes potencialmente nocivos, reparación del daño y prevención de futuras incursiones por agentes identificados-, los de defensa adaptativa en las vías respiratorias y el microbioma. Se describen los tejidos linfoides nasal y bronquio-alveolar y la contribución de citoquinas, células especializadas y anticuerpos del tipo IgA secretoria a la protección antiviral, a la respuesta inflamatoria asociada a la infección y a la reparación del daño tisular. Se discuten las interacciones de SARS-CoV-2 con los mecanismos de defensa. Se presentan consideraciones para las medidas preventivas de infecciones, incluyendo la aplicación de vacunas, y para evitar enfermedad severa.


The global situation of SARS-CoV-2 infections and the clinical picture of COVID-19 are described. Epidemiological data from Central America and Guatemala are presented to exemplify some risk factors for infection and morbidity. The function and structure of the respiratory system and its innate defense mechanisms - capture and removal of foreign agents, recognition and inactivation of potentially harmful agents, repair of damage, and prevention of future incursions by identified agents ­ are reviewed, as are those of the adaptive defense in the airways and of the respiratory microbiome. The nasal and bronchioalveolar lymphoid tissues are described. The contributions of cytokines, of specialized cells and of secretory IgA-type antibodies to antiviral protection, to the inflammatory response associated with infection, and to the repair of tissue damage are explained. SARS-CoV-2 interactions with defense mechanisms are discussed. Considerations are presented for the preventive measures of infections, including the application of vaccines, and those designed to avoid severe disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory System , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antiviral Agents , Morbidity , Defense Mechanisms , Adenovirus Vaccines , Antibodies
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1223-1228, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134429

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that has become a risk factor for the development of respiratory problems, meaning it is necessary to generate models that assess lung function in obese patients for proper treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate a model for analyzing respiratory function according to body composition, by analyzing the structure and function of the airways by computed tomography (CT). Lung function and body fat percentage (BF%) were measured in three male subjects (25 ± 6 years), with different body mass index (BMI; normal, overweight, obese). A third-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the airways was performed using CT. Trachea, right and left main bronchi and anterior segmental bronchus of the right and left lung were measured. Three measurement points were established for each structure, and the average value of these three points was used for the analysis. An increase in the thickness of the airways wall of the left and right main bronchi and right segmental bronchus was observed as BMI and BF% increased. The same was observed for the percentage of airway wall area (%AWA) and airway resistance in the main and segmental bronchi. The proposed 3D reconstruction model and the three-point analysis simplified image assessment and allowed to observe the problems caused by obesity in lung function.


RESUMEN: La obesidad es una epidemia mundial, la que se ha transformado en un factor de riesgo en el desarrollo problemas respiratorios. Al respecto, generar modelos de evaluación de la función pulmonar en pacientes obesos es relevante para su adecuado tratamiento. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar un modelo de la estructura y función de las vías aéreas (VA) con tomografía computarizada (TC) que permita analizar su compor- tamiento de acuerdo a la composición corporal. A tres sujetos de sexo masculino (25±6 años), de distinto índice de masa corporal (IMC; normal, sobrepeso, obeso), se les midió función pulmonar y porcentaje de grasa corporal (% GC). A través de TC se realizó una reconstrucción en tercera dimensión (3D) de las VA. Se realizaron mediciones de las VA de la tráquea, bronquios principales derecho e izquierdo y bronquio segmentario anterior del pulmón derecho e izquierdo. Para cada estructura se establecieron tres puntos de medición, el valor utilizado para los análisis fue el promedio de estos tres puntos. En los tres participantes se observó un aumento del grosor de la pared de las vías aéreas de los bronquios principal derecho e izquierdo y bronquio segmentario derecho a medida que aumenta el IMC y el % GC. Por otra parte, el porcentaje de área de la pared de las vías aéreas (% APVA) se comportó de la misma manera para ambos bronquios principales y segmentarios. La resistencia de las vías aéreas (RVA), tanto general como específica, aumentó en paralelo con el % APVA en los bronquios principales y segmentarios. A través de un modelo de reconstrucción 3D de la estructura de la VA por TC, evaluando tres puntos, se pudo observar los problemas que trae la obesidad a la función pulmonar simplificando el análisis de imagen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Respiratory System/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Airway Resistance/physiology , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Respiratory System/anatomy & histology , Respiratory Physiological Phenomena , Body Composition , Body Mass Index , Pilot Projects , Anthropometry , Overweight , Lung/physiology , Obesity
9.
J. med. virol ; 92(10): 1-6, Aug. 2, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-RS | ID: biblio-1120884

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viral infection can cause severe disease and hospitalization, especially among children, the elderly, and patients with comorbidities. In Brazil, the official surveillance system of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) investigates influenza A (IAV) and B (IBV) viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus (HAdV), and parainfluenza viruses (hPIV 1­3). In Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, many fatalities associated with SARI between 2013 and 2017 occurred among patients without underlying diseases and for whom the causative agent had not been identified using official protocols. This cross­sectional study analyzed the presence of coronaviruses (HCoV), bocavirus (HBoV), metapneumovirus (hMPV), and rhinovirus in patients who died of SARI despite not having comorbidities, and that were negative for IAV, IBV, RSV, HAdV, and hPIV. Nasopharyngeal aspirates/swabs from patients were used for nucleic acid extraction. The presence of HCoVs OC43, HKU1, NL63, and 229E; HBoV; hMPV; and rhinovirus was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription­polymerase chain reaction. Clinical data were also analyzed. Between 2013 and 2017, 16 225 cases of SARI were reported in RS; 9.8% of the patients died; 20% of all fatal cases were patients without comorbidities and for whom no pathogen was detected using standard protocols. Analysis of 271 of these cases identified HCoV in nine cases; HBoV, hMPV, and rhinovirus were detected in 3, 3, and 10 cases, respectively. Of note, patients infected with HCoV were adults. Results reinforce the importance of including coronaviruses in diagnostic panels used by official surveillance systems because besides their pandemic potential, endemic HCoVs are associated to severe disease in healthy adults.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Respiratory System , Coronavirus , Epidemiological Monitoring , Infections , Patients , Rhinovirus , Viruses , Virus Diseases , Adenoviridae , Disease , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Influenza, Human , Bocavirus
10.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(8): 637-646, Aug. 2020. ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1135664

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of several diseases in chelonians is a challenge in the veterinary clinic, because a detailed physical examination with auscultation and palpation is difficult due the presence of carapace and plastron. Imaging analysis such as radiography and computed tomography (CT) have been shown to be beneficial for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment in numerous animal species. Thus, this study aimed to identify and describe the structures of the lower respiratory tract in red-foot tortoises, by computed tomography, radiography and gross anatomy in twelve red-foot tortoises (Chelonoidis carbonaria), adults and of both sexes. The lower respiratory tract in these animals comprised the larynx, trachea, bronchi and the lungs. The presence of epiglottic cartilage was not observed in the animals studied. CT allowed the observation of the intrapulmonary part of the bronchi, which was accompanied by large intrapulmonary blood vessels. The lungs presented a reticulated parenchyma, without lobulations. Each lung had a small chamber located near the cranial and caudal poles. These structures were identified in CT and 3D CT reconstructions and these could suggest that these chambers could be non-respiratory structures, and could be comparable to the air sacs of birds. This study establishes normal CT anatomy of the lower respiratory tract of the red-foot tortoise; and may be used as a reference in the assessment of respiratory disorders in this tortoise.(AU)


O diagnóstico de diversas afecções em quelônios é um desafio para a clínica veterinária, já que um exame físico detalhado com auscultação e palpação é difícil devido à presença da carapaça e do plastrão. A radiografia e a tomografia computadorizada (TC) tem se mostrado benéficas para o diagnóstico, prognóstico e tratamento em muitas espécies animais. Assim, este estudo teve por objetivo identificar e descrever as estruturas do trato respiratório inferior no jabuti-piranga por meio da tomografia computadorizada, radiografia e anatomia em 12 jabutis-piranga (Chelonoidis carbonara), adultos e de ambos os sexos. Nos animais estudados, o trato respiratório inferior consistiu da laringe, traqueia, brônquios e os pulmões. A cartilagem epiglote não foi observada. A TC permitiu a observação da parte intrapulmonar dos brônquios, a qual estava acompanhada dos vasos sanguíneos intrapulmonares. Os pulmões possuíam um parênquima reticulado, sem lobações. Cada pulmão tinha uma pequena câmara localizada junto aos pólos cranial e caudal. Estas estruturas foram identificadas na TC e na reconstrução 3D a partir da TC e poderiam ser estruturas não-respiratórias, podendo ser comparadas aos sacos aéreos das aves. Este estudo identificou a anatomia normal por meio da TC do trato respiratório inferior do jabuti-piranga, o que pode ser usado como referência para diagnóstico de desordens respiratórias nesta espécie.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Trachea/diagnostic imaging , Turtles/anatomy & histology , Bronchi/diagnostic imaging , Larynx/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory System/anatomy & histology , Radiography/veterinary , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/veterinary
11.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 20(2): 40-44, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1253486

ABSTRACT

A traqueostomia é um procedimento cirúrgico que objetiva permitir desobstrução das vias aéreas superiores do paciente com intuito de garantir a vida. O procedimento é realizado em situações de comprometimento do trato respiratório superior por tumores, cirurgias, traumas faciais graves ou infecções. A traqueostomia também é realizada para prevenir lesões laríngeas ou nas vias aéreas superiores causadas por intubação traqueal prolongada. O objetivo desse trabalho é apresentar técnicas e condutas corretas... (AU)


Tracheostomy is a surgical procedure that aims to allow unblocking of the patient's upper airways in order to ensure life. The procedure is performed in situations of involvement of the upper respiratory tract by tumors, surgery, severe facial trauma or infections. Tracheostomy is also performed to prevent laryngeal or upper airway injuries caused by prolonged tracheal intubation. The objective of this work is to present a techniques and correct conduct... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Tracheostomy , Emergencies , Intubation , Respiratory System , Wounds and Injuries , Infections
12.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 27(2): 123-129, ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251646

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La granulomatosis con poliangeítis (Wegener) es considerada como una enfermedad granulomatosa sistémica, no infecciosa, caracterizada histológicamente por una vasculitis necrosante de pequeño vaso. El tracto respiratorio superior e inferior son los más frecuentemente afectados, en asociación a manifestaciones renales. Sin embargo, también se describe el compromiso aislado de un solo órgano, como es el caso del globo ocular y la órbita. Presentamos el caso de una mujer cuya principal manifestación consistió en un proceso inflamatorio de tejido periorbitario y proptosis del globo ocular izquierdo. La paciente fue valorada en manejo conjunto con el servicio de plástica ocular, otorrinolaringología y finalmente se derivó a reumatología para inicio de terapia inmunosupresora. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura, en búsqueda de reportes de caso y series de caso que permitieran comparar las presentaciones clínicas y desenlaces más frecuentes.


A B S T R A C T Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener) is considered as a systemic, non-infectious granulomatous disease, histologically noted for its small vessel necrotising vasculitis. The upper and lower respiratory tracts are the most frequently affected, in association with renal manifestations. However, the isolated involvement of a single organ, such as the eyeball and the orbit is also described. The case is presented of a woman whose main manifestation was an inflammatory process of periorbital tissue and proptosis of the left eyeball. The patient was evaluated jointly with eye plastic surgery, and the ear, nose and throat, and rheumatology departments. A literature review was carried out, looking for case reports and case series that allowed comparisons to made between the clinical manifestations and the most frequent outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis , Exophthalmos , Otolaryngology , Respiratory System , Vasculitis , Eye
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 423-426, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056457

ABSTRACT

The aim of this investigation was to define the volume and area of the airway in subjects with Class II and Class III skeletal deformity. A cross-sectional study was designed including subjects with facial deformity defined by Steiner's analysis in subjects with indication of orthognathic surgery who presented diagnosis by cone beam computerised tomography. We determined the measurements of maximum area, minimum area and volume of the airway. The data were compared using Spearman's test, with statistical significance defined as p<0.05. 115 subjects were included: 61.7 % Class II and 38.3 % Class III, mean age 27.8 years (± 11.6). A significant difference was observed in the area and volume measurements in the groups studied, with significantly smaller measurements found in Class II (p=0.034). The minimum area was 10.4 mm2 smaller in Class II patients than in Class III, while the general volume of the airway was 4.1 mm3 smaller in Class II than in Class III. We may conclude that Class II subjects present a smaller airway volume than Class III subjects.


El objetivo de esta investigación de definir el volumen y área de vía aérea en sujetos con deformidad esqueletal clase II y III. Se diseñó un estudio de corte transversal incluyendo sujetos con deformidad facial definida según análisis de Stainer en sujetos con indicación de cirugía ortognática que presentaran una tomografía computadorizada de haz cónico como elemento diagnóstico; en este examen se determinaron medidas de área mayor, menor de vía aérea y volumen presente; los datos fueron comparados utilizando pruebas estadísticas con el test de spearman considerando el valor de p<0,05 para definir significancia estadística. 115 sujetos fueron incluidos, siendo 61,7 % de tipo clase II y 38,3 % de sujetos clase III, con una edad promedio de 27,8 años (± 11,6). Se observó una diferencia significativa en mediciones de area y volumen en los grupos estudiados, siendo el grupo de clase II significativamente menor (p=0,034). El área de menor tamaño fue 10,4 mm2 en pacientes clase II que en pacientes clase III, mientras que el volumen general de la vía área fue 4,1 menor en los clase II que en los clase III. Es posible concluir que los sujetos de clase II presentan menor volumen de vía área que los sujetos clase III.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Respiratory System/diagnostic imaging , Craniofacial Abnormalities/diagnostic imaging , Pharynx/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory System/anatomy & histology , Nose/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional
14.
Más Vita ; 2(1): 29-37, mar 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1283722

ABSTRACT

Resaltar aspectos estratégicos del abordaje respiratorio radica en la prevención de factores de riesgo que eviten a gran escala secuelas crónicas ligadas a co-morbi mortalidad siendo este una problemática de Salud Pública en el Ecuador. Objetivos: Determinar los principales factores frecuente que inciden en el riesgo de las áreas de recuperación post quirúrgica. Métodos: La presente investigación de rasgo cuali-cuantitativo, no experimental, espectro transversal, y característica descriptiva, exploratoria con recolección de datos del historial clínico de hospital de referencia público nacional (MSP-HFIB), en instrumento diseñado y evaluado por expertos para posterior procesamiento estadístico, de población y muestra en 133 pacientes intervenidos. Resultados: el procesamiento con pruebas de Chi cuadrado de sus variables con identificación estadística de factores relevantes, como el predominio de casos del género masculino con 70 pacientes conformando el 52,6%, sobre 63 pacientes femeninos que constituye un 47,4%, otra notable relación fue: edad, días de ventilación mecánica/vía aérea artificial, observación al estado de alta médica. Identificó que, en menores edades con diagnóstico e intervención ejecutadas, con soportes y procedimientos críticos durante menor tiempo (Transquirúrgico - 16 horas o menos), aumentó la tendencia que aleja la predisposición de adquirir otras patologías. Conclusiones: Se observó beneficios y proporcionalidad de la aplicación de estrategias continuas y actualizadas en su abordaje, destacando conservar la protección del aspecto neurológico-respiratorio mitigando efectos colaterales modificables, que restringe la proyección de su autonomía y calidad de vida de los pacientes intervenidos(AU)


Highlighting strategic aspects of the respiratory approach lies in the prevention of risk factors that avoid chronic sequelae linked to co-morbi mortality on a large scale, this being a Public Health problem in Ecuador. Objective: To determine the main frequent factors that affect the risk of post-surgical recovery areas. Methods: The present investigation is a qualitative-quantitative, non-experimental, transversal spectrum, and descriptive characteristic exploratory. With a data collection of the national public reference hospital (MSP-HFIB). An instrument designed and evaluated by experts for later Statistical, population and sample processing in 133 operated patients. Results: The processing with Chi-square tests of its variables with statistical identification of relevant factors, such as the prevalence of male cases with 70 patients, making up 52.6%, over 63 female patients, which constitutes 47.4%. Another Remarkable relationship was: age, days of mechanical ventilation / artificial airway, observation of medical discharge status, identifying that in younger ages with diagnosis and intervention performed, with supports and critical procedures for a shorter time (Transsurgical - 16 hours or less ), increased the tendency that moves away the predisposition to acquire morbid mortality. Conclusions: Benefits and proportionality of the application of continuous and updated strategies in its approach were observed, highlighting the protection of the neurological-respiratory aspect. Application and monitoring that mitigates modifiable side effects, which restricts the projection of their autonomy and quality of life of the operated patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Respiratory System , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Respiration, Artificial , Intubation, Intratracheal
15.
Biociencias ; 15(2)2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247683

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: la inseguridad alimentaria es una de las problemáticas a las que induce la actual pandemia COVID 19, ya sea por razones económicas o debido a la modificación en la rutina de los individuos, especialmente en los jóvenes, acostumbrados a la dinámica escolar y social activa. Materiales y métodos:estudio de tipo descriptivo-transversal en el cual se indagó sobre el estado nutricional de escolares de la ciudad de Puerto Colombia (Atlántico), a través de la aplicación del cuestionario Krece Plus, describiendo los aspectos sociodemográficos, el estado nutricional general y la caracterización de los hábitos alimentarios. Esto se aplicó a una muestra de 145 escolares en edad de 13 y 14 años. Resultados: los estudiantes indagados se encontraban cursando educación secundaria y, el 68% se encontró en nivel socioeconómico bajo. Se evidenció una prevalencia del estado nutricional muy bajo (73,1%), lo que indica la prevalencia de riesgo o tendencia a la inseguridad alimentaria, que se asocia con la falta de desayuno, bajo consumo de frutas, verduras, lácteos, legumbres. Asimismo, se aprecia un alto consumo de comidas rápidas y dulces. Discusión y conclusión:los resultados discrepan de las recomendaciones dadas por las organizaciones mundiales, especialmente en materia del consumo de frutas y verduras y el consumo de alimentos 3 veces al día. Por lo anterior, es preciso que se induzca a los estudiantes a llevar estilos de vida saludable en tiempos de pandemia COVID 19, que impliquen la sana alimentación y la práctica de actividad física que induzca hacia una salud integral


Background: food insecurity is one of the problems that the current pandemic COVID 19 induces, either for economic reasons or due to the modification in the routine of individuals, especially young people, accustomed to active school and social dynamics. Materials and methods:descriptive-cross-sectional study in which the nutritional status of schoolchildren in the city of Puerto Colombia (Atlántico) was investigated, through the application of the Krece Plus questionnaire, describing the sociodemographic aspects, the general nutritional status and the characterization of eating habits. This was applied to a sample of 145 schoolchildren aged 13 and 14 years. Results: the investigated students were in secondary education and 68% were in low socioeconomic level. A very low prevalence of nutritional status (73.1%) was evidenced, indicating the prevalence of risk or tendency to food insecurity, which is associated with the lack of breakfast, low consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and legumes. Also, a high consumption of fast and sweet foods is appreciated. Discussion and conclusion:the results disagree with the recommendations given by world organizations, especially regarding the consumption of fruits and vegetables and the consumption of food 3 times a day. Therefore, students must be encouraged to lead healthy lifestyles in times of the COVID 19 pandemic, involving healthy eating and physical activity that induces towards comprehensive health.


Subject(s)
Respiratory System , Population Characteristics , Delivery of Health Care
16.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(supl.1): e1254, 2020. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156608

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las infecciones agudas del aparato respiratorio constituyen un importante problema de salud a nivel mundial y en el contexto cubano. Objetivo: Examinar el efecto de las medidas preventivas asociadas a la COVID-19 en la frecuencia de egresos hospitalarios por infección respiratoria aguda. Método: Estudio descriptivo realizado en el servicio de afecciones respiratorias del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario "Paquito González Cueto" de Cienfuegos, en los años 2019-2020. La morbilidad por infección respiratoria aguda se expresó a través de la frecuencia de los egresos hospitalarios. Se examinó el número de egresos por esta afección en los seis primeros meses de los años citados. La información se obtuvo del Departamento de Estadísticas de la institución hospitalaria. Resultados: Se observó franco descenso del número de egresos por infección respiratoria aguda en los meses de abril, mayo y junio del año 2020 (en junio, el 75 por ciento de reducción de los egresos ocurridos en enero), lo cual contrasta con lo observado en este periodo del año precedente, con discreta variación numérica en el número de egresos. Estos resultados son independientes de la edad y el sexo. Conclusiones: Las medidas de carácter poblacional para la prevención y control de la COVID-19 aplicadas en Cuba, a partir del diagnóstico de los primeros casos de la enfermedad parecen haber incidido en la disminución de la morbilidad por infección respiratoria aguda en el servicio de afecciones respiratorias del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario de Cienfuegos(AU)


Introduction: Acute respiratory infections are an important health problem globally and in the Cuban context. Objective: Study the effect of preventive measures related to COVID-19 in the frequency of hospital discharges by acute respiratory infection. Method: Descriptive study carried out in the service of respiratory conditions of ´´Paquito González Cueto´´ Pediatric University Hospital in Cienfuegos province, during the years 2019-2020. Morbidity by acute respiratory infections was expressed through the frequency of hospital discharges. It was studied the number of discharges by this infection in the six first months of the above mentioned years. The information was collected in the Statistics Department of the Hospital. Results: It was observed a marked drop in the number of discharges after acute respiratory infections in the months of April, May and June of 2020 ( in June, there was 75 percent less that the discharges occurred in January), which contrasts with what happened in this period of the previous year, with a discreet numerical variation in the number of discharges. These results are independent from the age and sex. Conclusions: The population measures taken to prevent and control COVID-19 that were implemented in Cuba after the first cases of the disease were diagnosed seem to have influenced in the decrease of morbidity by acute respiratory infections in the service of respiratory conditions of the Pediatric University Hospital of Cienfuegos province(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Infections , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Hospitals
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 605-616, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878206

ABSTRACT

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the development and pathogenesis of respiratory system. Epithelial cells are characterized by well-developed, intercellular contacts, whereas EMT triggers the sequential destabilization of cell-cell adhesive junctions. The dynamic remodeling of the epithelial cell adhesion molecules is important for maintaining the integrity and normal function of epithelium. This paper reviews the research progress of EMT in lung development, lung injury repair and chronic lung diseases, and summarizes the effect of cell junctions and cell adhesion molecules on EMT molecular events.


Subject(s)
Cell Adhesion , Cell Adhesion Molecules , Epithelial Cells , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Respiratory System
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 1781-1790, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1055113

ABSTRACT

As afecções do sistema respiratório são a segunda causa de queda de desempenho e afastamento dos equinos do esporte ou trabalho, as quais estão atrás somente das desordens musculoesqueléticas. A estabulação e a alimentação à base de fenos predispõem os equinos à inalação de grande número de agentes irritantes às vias aéreas. No intuito de avaliar a influência dos tipos de cama utilizados em baias, estudaram-se três grupos de cinco equinos cada, durante 45 dias. Dois grupos foram mantidos em cocheiras com forrações diferentes à base de madeira (maravalha de pínus autoclavada-MA e serragem-SE) e o terceiro grupo permaneceu no pasto. Foram realizadas avaliações quinzenais, que incluíram exame físico, hemograma, hemogasometria e lavado broncoalveolar. Ao exame físico, notou-se a presença de tosse e espirros em animais do grupo SE. No lavado broncoalveolar, a contagem de células nucleadas totais apresentou maiores valores nos animais a pasto, seguido do grupo SE e, por último, o MA. Concluiu-se que as duas camas testadas neste estudo não apresentaram diferença com relação à capacidade irritativa das vias aéreas superiores no período analisado.(AU)


Respiratory system affections in horses are the second cause of decrease in performance and removal from the sport or farm work, which are behind only the musculoskeletal disorders. Stabling and hay feeding predisposes horses' airways to inhalation of large numbers of irritating agents. To evaluate the influence of bed types used in bays, 3 groups of 5 horses each were studied for 45 days. Two groups were kept in stables with different wood beds - based rafters (autoclaved pine - MA and sawdust - SE) and the third group remained in the pasture. Biweekly evaluations with physical examination, hemogram, hemogasometry and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed. On physical examination, the presence of cough and sneezing was observed in animals of the SE group. In the bronchoalveolar lavage, the total nucleated cell count presented higher values in the animals in the pasture, followed by the SE group and finally the MA. It was concluded that the different beds used presented no difference with respect to the irritative capacity of the upper airways.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Respiratory System/pathology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/veterinary , Horses/physiology , Hypersensitivity/veterinary , Housing, Animal
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL