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1.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(4): 263-278, Diciembre 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1518685

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades respiratorias crónicas avanzadas son prevalentes y producen deterioro de la calidad de vida, en particular la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC), las enfermedades pulmonares intersticiales difusas (EPID) y las enfermedades neuromusculares progresivas con compromiso diafragmático (ENM). Quienes las padecen presentan síntomas persistentes que no son siempre adecuada-mente controlados por los tratamientos recomendados por las guías clínicas de mane-jo. El tratamiento paliativo de los síntomas persistentes es un punto relevante y suelen presentarse barreras para su implementación.Este artículo ofrece una revisión narrativa sobre una perspectiva latinoamericana acerca del rol de los cuidados paliativos en enfermedades respiratorias avanzadas.


Advanced chronic respiratory diseases are prevalent and cause deterioration in qual-ity of life, particularly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diffuse intersti-tial lung diseases (ILD) and progressive neuromuscular diseases with diaphragmatic involvement (NMD). Those who suffer from them usually present persistent symptoms that are not always adequately controlled by the treatments recommended by the clinical management guidelines. Palliative treatment of persistent symptoms is a relevant point, but the pal-liative approach usually presents barriers to its implementation.This article offers a narrative review over Latin American perspective on the role of pal-liative care in advanced respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Palliative Care , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Neuromuscular Diseases/therapy , Prevalence , Caregivers , Drug Therapy , Pain Management
2.
Archiv. med. fam. gen. (En línea) ; 20(3): 48-52, nov. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1524387

ABSTRACT

El eucalipto se ha empleado popularmente para tratar afecciones respiratorias. Muchas veces en nuestras consultas como médicos de familia, los pacientes con problemas respiratorios nos preguntan sobre esta práctica y sus efectos en la salud. Por esto, decidimos hacer una búsqueda de la evidencia disponible. Luego de realizar una búsqueda bibliográfica y seleccionar la evidencia más reciente y de mejor calidad, podemos decir, que el eucalipto tuvo un efecto estadísticamente significativo en comparación con el placebo en cuanto a los síntomas relacionados con la tos como así también en su frecuencia. Igualmente, concluimos que estos efectos del eucalipto sobre la tos en procesos respiratorios agudos, deberían tomarse con precaución, siempre informando a nuestros pacientes sobre la evidencia actual limitada disponible, sin olvidar las creencias de cada persona para la toma de decisiones (AU)


Eucalyptus has been popularly used to treat respiratory conditions. Many times in our consultations as family doctors, patients with respiratory problems ask us about this practice and its effects on health. For this reason, we decided to do a search of the available evidence. After conducting a literature search and selecting the most recent and best-quality evidence, we can say that eucalyptus had a statistically significant effect compared to placebo in terms of cough-related symptoms as well as their frequency . Likewise, we conclude that these effects of eucalyptus on coughing in acute respiratory processes should be taken with caution, always informing our patients about the limited current evidence available, without forgetting each person's beliefs for decision-making (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Cough/drug therapy , Eucalyptus/drug effects , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Pharmacodynamics of Homeopathic Remedy
4.
Buenos Aires; s.n; jun. 2023. 30 p. graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1531543

ABSTRACT

Informe sobre el objetivo del abordaje de estas patologías, desde el Ministerio de Salud de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires: Medidas de prevención; Priorización de diagnóstico; Estrategia integrada de vigilancia de la Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas de posible origen viral; Vigilancia Universal; Vigilancia epidemiológica de coqueluche (tos convulsa); y Recomendaciones sobre el uso de antivirales para influenza; (AU)


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring
5.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22(1): 862, 30 Junio 2023. ilus, tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451458

ABSTRACT

de la deglución, los cuales representan todas las alteraciones del proceso fisiológico encargado de llevar el alimento desde la boca al esófago y después al estómago, salvaguardando siempre la protección de las vías respiratorias. OBJETIVO. Definir el manejo óptimo, de la disfagia en pacientes con antecedente de infección severa por COVID-19. METODOLOGÍA. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura científica en las bases de datos PubMed y Elsevier que relacionan el manejo de la disfagia y pacientes con antecedente de infección severa por SARS-CoV-2. Se obtuvo un universo de 134 artículos que cumplieron los criterios de búsqueda. Se seleccionaron 24 documentos, para ser considerados en este estudio. RESULTADOS. La incidencia de disfagia posterior a infección severa por SARS-CoV-2 fue del 23,14%, siendo la disfagia leve la más frecuente 48,0%. Los tratamientos clínicos más empleados en el manejo de la disfagia fueron rehabilitación oral y cambio de textura en la dieta en el 77,23% de los casos, mientras que el único tratamiento quirúrgico empleado fue la traqueotomía 37,31%. Un 12,68% de pacientes recuperó su función deglutoria sin un tratamiento específico. La eficacia de los tratamientos clínicos y quirúrgicos en los pacientes sobrevivientes de la infección severa por SARS-CoV-2 fue del 80,68%, con una media en el tiempo de resolución de 58 días. CONCLUSIÓN. La anamnesis es clave para el diagnóstico de disfagia post COVID-19. El tratamiento puede variar, desde un manejo conservador como cambios en la textura de la dieta hasta tratamientos más invasivos como traqueotomía para mejorar la función deglutoria.


INTRODUCTION. The difficulty to swallow or dysphagia is included within the problems of swallowing, which represent all the alterations of the physiological process in charge of carrying the food from the mouth to the esophagus, and then to the stomach, always taking into account the protection of the airways. OBJECTIVE. To define the optimal management, both clinical and surgical, for the adequate treatment of dysphagia produced as a consequence of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODOLOGY. A review of the scientific literature was carried out using both PubMed and Elsevier databases, which relate the management of dysphagia and patients with a history of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS. The incidence of dysphagia following severe SARS-CoV-2 infection was of 23,14%, with mild dysphagia being the most frequent 48,00%. The most frequently used clinical treatments for dysphagia management were oral rehabilitation and change in dietary texture in 77,23% of cases, while tracheotomy was the only surgical treatment used 37,31%. A total of 12,68% of patients recovered their swallowing function without specific treatment. The efficacy of clinical and surgical treatments in survivors of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection was 80,68%, with a mean resolution time of 58 days. CONCLUSION. An adequate medical history is key to the diagnosis of post-COVID-19 dysphagia. Treatment can range from conservative management such as changes in diet texture to more invasive treatments such as tracheotomy to improve swallowing function.


Subject(s)
Rehabilitation , Respiration, Artificial , Tracheotomy , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Deglutition/physiology , COVID-19 , Otolaryngology , Rehabilitation of Speech and Language Disorders , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Speech , Tertiary Healthcare , Pulmonary Medicine , Deglutition Disorders , Respiratory Mechanics , Enteral Nutrition , Aerophagy , Dysgeusia , Ecuador , Exercise Therapy , Pathologists , Gastroenterology , Anosmia , Glossopharyngeal Nerve , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal
6.
Curitiba; s.n; 20230411. 78 p. tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1438135

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Introdução: O Coronavírus SARS-CoV-2, causador da covid-19, identificado em dezembro de 2019 e declarado em março de 2020 como uma pandemia, espalhou-se rapidamente, e desde então despertou olhares a respeito das populações vulneráveis, como gestantes e puérperas, consideradas suscetíveis quando se analisa o histórico de acometimento de doenças respiratórias nesta população. Objetivo: Analisar os desfechos obstétricos adversos em gestantes com covid-19 em um serviço de referência. Método: Estudo quantitativo transversal retrospectivo descritivo de série de casos entre gestantes internadas no serviço de ginecologia e obstetrícia em um Hospital Universitário localizado na região sudeste do Brasil, no período de 2020 a 2021. Resultados: Foram identificadas 26 gestantes com resultado positivo para o vírus, os desfechos encontrados foram admissão em UTI, uso de suporte ventilatório, parto prematuro, cesariana de emergência, necessidade de hemotransfusão e óbito. Sendo mais prevalente a necessidade de internação em UTI, seguida do parto prematuro que tiveram a datação corrigida em semanas para visualização de dias de vida perdidos, para maior precisão da investigação do encurtamento da gestação, o qual cálculo demonstrou que estes prematuros tiveram em média 38,6 dias potenciais de gravidez perdidos dos 280 dias ideais de gestação. Conclusão: O estudo proporcionou evidenciar a necessidade de vigilância e atenção às gestantes em futuras epidemias virais respiratórias com atenção focada nos principais desfechos adversos, assim podendo intervir em tempo oportuno e diminuir adversidades. Possibilitando como implicações para a prática fomentar protocolos de atendimento nas futuras epidemias para que não haja atrasos na tomada de decisão e intervenções ocorram em tempo oportuno.


Abstract: Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus, which causes covid-19, identified in December 2019 and declared a pandemic in March 2020, spread rapidly and has since awakened the attention of vulnerable populations, such as pregnant women and puerperal women, considered susceptible, when analyzing the history of respiratory diseases in this population. Objective: Analyze adverse obstetric outcomes in pregnant women with Covid-19 in a reference service. Method: Quantitative cross-sectional retrospective descriptive study of a case series among pregnant women admitted to the gynecology and obstetrics service at a University Hospital located in the southeastern region of Brazil, from 2020 to 2021. Results: Were identified 26 pregnant women with positive results for the virus, the outcomes found were admission to the ICU, use of ventilatory support, premature birth, emergency cesarean section, need for blood transfusion and death. Being more prevalent the need for hospitalization in the ICU, followed by premature birth that the dating in weeks was corrected to visualize the days of life lost, for greater precision in the investigation of the shortening of the pregnancy, which calculation showed that these premature infants had, on average, 38.6 potential days of pregnancy lost out of the ideal 280 days of pregnancy. Conclusion: The study provided evidence of the need for surveillance and care for pregnant women in future respiratory viral epidemics with attention focused on the main adverse outcomes, thus being able to intervene in a timely manner and reduce adversities. Implications for practice: Characterizing and knowing adverse outcomes makes it possible to promote care protocols in future epidemics and pandemics so that there are no delays in decision-making and interventions occur in a timely manner.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Medical Records , Death , Pregnant Women , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units
7.
Rev. méd. hered ; 34(2): 75-82, abr. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515440

ABSTRACT

Objetivos : Determinar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de niños con hipoplasia del timo y enfermedad respiratoria en Cuba. Material y Métodos : Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo en niños con edades comprendidas entre 1 y 6 años, de ambos sexos, atendidos en la consulta de Inmunología Pediátrica del Programa de Proyección Comunitaria del Municipio Arroyo Naranjo de La Habana o en la consulta de Inmunología Pediátrica del Hospital Materno Infantil Ángel Arturo Aballí Arellano del Municipio Arroyo Naranjo La Habana, entre los meses de septiembre 2019 y agosto 2022. Se incluyeron los niños con hipoplasia tímica y con antecedentes personales de enfermedad respiratoria infecciosa o no infecciosa diagnosticadas durante el período de estudio. Resultados : No se encontró relación entre la hipoplasia tímica y la edad o el sexo; se encontró mayor frecuencia de la hipoplasia tímica leve y moderada en niños con desarrollo de enfermedad respiratoria grave. Los factores con mayor frecuencia descritos en la enfermedad respiratoria complicada fueron la lactancia materna inefectiva, los antecedentes patológicos personales de atopia, el embarazo de riesgo, la prematuridad, el humo de tabaco en el ambiente y la asistencia a círculo infantil o a casa de cuidado infantil. Conclusiones : El desarrollo de hipoplasia tímica no mostró relación con la edad y el sexo. Se describieron varias condiciones con mayor frecuencia en niños con hipoplasia tímica y con enfermedad respiratoria complicada. La frecuencia de la hipoplasia tímica leve y moderada fue mayor en los pacientes con enfermedad respiratoria grave.


SUMMARY Objective : To determine the clinical and epidemiologic features of children with thymic hypoplasia and respiratory illnesses in Cuba. Methods : A retrospective study was conducted among children of 1-6 years of age of both sexes attended at a Pediatric Immunology Program of Hospital Materno Infantil Ángel Arturo Aballí Arellano in Habana, Cuba from September 2019 to August 2022. Children with thymic hypoplasia with and without a history of a respiratory illness either infectious or non-infectious were included. Results : No association between age and sex with thymic hypoplasia but an association was found with children with a severe respiratory illness. Factors associated with a severe respiratory illness were ineffective breastfeeding, history of an atopic condition, pregnancy of high risk, prematurity and exposure to tobacco smoke. Conclusions : Thymic hypoplasia was not associated with age or sex. An association with mild-moderate thymic hypoplasia was found with a severe respiratory illness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Pediatrics , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Thymus Gland , Ultrasonography , Allergy and Immunology , Cuba
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(1): e202202588, feb. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1412864

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El material particulado (PM) es uno de los contaminantes del aire que mayor implicación tienen en la aparición o exacerbación de cuadros respiratorios en niños. Objetivo. Describir las características de las consultas por enfermedades respiratorias agudas en menores de 15 años, los niveles de PM en el aire, y analizar la asociación existente entre ellos en un sector de Bahía Blanca entre abril de 2019 y marzo de 2020. Población y métodos. Estudio ecológico de series temporales y grupos múltiples. Análisis descriptivo de consultas totales, por área, diagnóstico, y del PM. Modelo de correlación y regresión lineal generalizado para determinar la relación entre las variables. Se utilizó el programa SPSS®. Resultados. Se recopilaron 4787 consultas. Un 38,6 % (1846) correspondieron a rinitis y un 21,1 % (1011) a broncoespasmo. El PM de 10 nm (PM10) superó su valor límite el 31 % (115) de los días de estudio y el de 2,5 nm (PM2,5) un 3 % (8). Un aumento del 10 % del PM2,5 demostró incrementos de 1,3 % en las consultas totales; el incremento llegó al 2,1 % en el área más cercana al sector industrial (p <0,05). En esta última, el aumento del 10 % de los valores de PM10 se asoció al aumento del 1,8 % de las consultas (p <0,05). Conclusión. Se demostró asociación positiva entre las consultas por enfermedad respiratoria aguda y los niveles de PM del aire, sobre todo con el PM2,5 y en el área más cercana al sector industrial.


Introduction. Particulate matter (PM) is one of the air pollutants most involved in the onset or exacerbation of respiratory conditions in children. Objective. To describe the characteristics of consultations for acute respiratory diseases in children younger than 15 years and the levels of PM in the air and to analyze their association in a sector of Bahía Blanca between April 2019 and March 2020. Population and methods. Ecological, time-series study with multiple groups. Descriptive analysis of total number of consultations, by area, diagnosis, and PM. Generalized linear correlation and regression model to determine the relationship among variables. The SPSS® software was used. Results. Data from 4787 consultations were collected. Of these, 38.6% (1846) were related to rhinitis and 21.1% (1011), to bronchospasm. PM of 10 nm (PM10) exceeded its limit value on 31% (115) of the study days, and PM of 2.5 nm (PM2.5), on 3% (8). A 10% increase in PM2.5 showed increases of 1.3% in total consultations; the increase reached 2.1% in the area closest to the industrial sector (p < 0.05). In the latter, a 10% increase in PM10 was associated with an increase of 1.8% in consultations (p < 0.05). Conclusion. A positive association was evidenced between consultations for acute respiratory diseases and PM levels in the air, especially with PM2.5 and in the area closest to the industrial sector.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Argentina , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis
9.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 18(45): 3482, 20230212.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1510608

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O tabagismo é definido como a dependência física e psicológica de tabaco, e o fumo passivo consiste na inalação da fumaça de derivados do tabaco por não fumantes. As crianças são especialmente vulneráveis à exposição à fumaça do tabaco. Objetivo: Identificar a associação entre fumo passivo domiciliar e morbidade respiratória em pré-escolares de seis a dez anos, por meio de coleta de dados na Atenção Primária à Saúde em Araguaína/TO. Métodos: Estudo de perfil descritivo, com corte transversal de caráter quantitativo, conduzido em três unidades básicas de saúde. Foi determinada uma amostra de 72 entrevistados, selecionados de forma aleatória em meio às unidades básicas. Os resultados foram colhidos de questionários respondidos por familiares ou responsáveis das crianças. Resultados: O teste de Odds Ratio (OR) obteve o resultado de 3,06, com intervalo de confiança de 95% ­ IC95% 1,16 ­ 8,11 e p<0,05, revelando assim a existência de correlação entre o desenvolvimento de doenças respiratórias e o fumo passivo domiciliar em crianças de seis a dez anos. A prevalência do tabagismo passivo domiciliar foi de 44,4%, expondo à fumaça do cigarro as crianças, que manifestam sintomas como tosse seca, chiado no peito, respiração rápida, dor e secreção no ouvido. Conclusões: Foi comprovada a associação entre tabagismo passivo domiciliar e morbidade respiratória entre crianças de seis a dez anos. Não se obteve a conexão entre o tabagismo passivo e o aumento do número de internações por causa respiratória.


Introduction: smoking is defined as the physical and psychological dependence of tobacco, passive smoke consists of inhaling the smoke and tobacco derivatives by non-smokers. Children are especially vulnerable to exposure to tobacco smoke. Objective: identify the association between passive smoking at home and respiratory tract morbidity in pre-school children from the age of 6 to 10 years old, utilizing data gathering in Primary Healthcare units from Araguaína ­ TO. Methods: cross-sectional descriptive research with quantitative character conducted within three Basic Healthcare Units. A sample comprised of 72 interviewed subjects was determined, selected in random fashion at the healthcare units. Results: The Odds Ratio test obtained the result of OR 3.06, with 95%CI 1.16­8.11 and p<0.05, thus evidencing the existence of a correlation between the development of respiratory diseases and the secondhand smoke in children aged 6 to 10 years. The prevalence of passive smoking at home was 44,4%, exposing, this way, the children to cigarette smoke, leading to the manifestation of symptoms such as dry cough, wheezing, fast breathing, pain, and auricular secretions. Conclusions: the association between passive smoking at home and respiratory tract morbidity in children from the age of 6 to 10 years old was proved. No connection between passive smoking and the increase of respiratory tract-related hospitalizations was obtained.


Introducción: El tabaquismo se define como la dependencia física y psicológica al tabaco, el humo de segunda mano consiste en la inhalación del humo del tabaco por parte de los no fumadores. Los niños son especialmente vulnerables a la exposición al humo del tabaco. Objetivo: Identificar la asociación entre el humo de segunda mano en el hogar y la morbilidad respiratoria en niños preescolares de 6 a 10 años, a través de la recolección de datos en la Atención Primaria de Salud en Araguaína-TO. Métodos: estudio descriptivo de perfil, de corte transversal cuantitativo, realizado en tres unidades básicas de salud. Se determinó una muestra de 72 entrevistados, seleccionados aleatoriamente entre las unidades básicas. Resultados: la prueba de Odds Ratio obtuvo el resultado de OR 3.06, con IC95% 1,16­8,11 y p<0,05, evidenciando así la existencia de una correlación entre el desarrollo de enfermedades respiratorias y el humo de segunda mano en niños de 6 a 10 años. La prevalencia de tabaquismo pasivo en el hogar fue del 44,4%, exponiendo así a los niños al humo del cigarrillo, manifestando síntomas como tos seca, sibilancias, respiración acelerada, dolor y secreción en el oído. Conclusiones: se comprobó la asociación entre el tabaquismo pasivo en el hogar y la morbilidad respiratoria en niños de 6 a 10 años. No hubo relación entre el tabaquismo pasivo y el aumento del número de hospitalizaciones por causas respiratorias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Child
10.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 26(1cont): 226-238, jan.-jun. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1443234

ABSTRACT

As doenças respiratórias são um problema significativo na produção suína e podem levar à condenação de carcaças no abate. Entre os agentes causadores dessas doenças destacam-se o Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae e a Pasteurella multocida. O Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae é um patógeno altamente contagioso, que ocasiona hemorragia, pleuropneumonia purulenta e fibrosa. A Pleuropneumonia é amplamente distribuída e gera graves prejuízos para a suinocultura. O Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae ocasionador da pneumonia por micoplasma, doença respiratória crônica. As infecções originadas podem regular negativamente o sistema imunológico do hospedeiro e aumentar a infecção e assim a replicação de outros patógenos. A Pasteurella multocida é o agente causador de uma ampla gama de infecções levando a alto impacto econômico. Patógeno comensal e oportunista da boca, nasofaringe e trato respiratório superior. A identificação precoce e o manejo adequado desses agentes causadores de doenças respiratórias são fundamentais para minimizar a incidência de carcaças suínas. A adoção de medidas preventivas, como a vacinação e práticas de manejo adequadas, pode ajudar a prevenir a propagação dessas doenças e garantir a produção de carne suína segura e de alta qualidade para o consumo humano.(AU)


Respiratory diseases are a significant problem in pork production and can lead to condemnation of carcasses at slaughter. Among the causative agents of these diseases are Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a highly contagious pathogen that causes hemorrhage, purulent and fibrous pleuropneumonia. Pleuropneumonia is widely distributed and causes serious damage to pig farming. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes mycoplasma pneumonia, a chronic respiratory disease. Originating infections can down-regulate the host's immune system and increase infection and thus replication of other pathogens. Pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of a wide range of infections leading to high economic impact. Commensal and opportunistic pathogen of the mouth, nasopharynx and upper respiratory tract. Early identification and proper management of these agents that cause respiratory diseases are essential to minimize the incidence of swine carcasses. Adopting preventive measures, such as vaccination and proper management practices, can help prevent the spread of these diseases and ensure the production of safe, high-quality pork for human consumption.(AU)


Las enfermedades respiratorias son un problema importante en la producción porcina y pueden provocar el decomiso de las canales en el matadero. Entre los agentes causantes de estas enfermedades se encuentran Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae y Pasteurella multocida. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae es un patógeno altamente contagioso que causa hemorragia, pleuroneumonía purulenta y fibrosa. La pleuroneumonía está ampliamente distribuida y causa graves daños a la cría de cerdos. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causa neumonía por micoplasma, una enfermedad respiratoria crónica. Las infecciones que se originan pueden regular a la baja el sistema inmunitario del huésped y aumentar la infección y, por lo tanto, la replicación de otros patógenos. Pasteurella multocida es el agente causal de una amplia gama de infecciones que tienen un alto impacto económico. Patógeno comensal y oportunista de la boca, nasofaringe y tracto respiratorio superior. La identificación temprana y el manejo adecuado de estos agentes causantes de enfermedades respiratorias son fundamentales para minimizar la incidencia de las canales porcinas. La adopción de medidas preventivas, como la vacunación y prácticas de manejo adecuadas, puede ayudar a prevenir la propagación de estas enfermedades y garantizar la producción de carne de cerdo segura y de alta calidad para el consumo humano.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Pasteurella Infections/diagnosis , Swine/physiology , Actinobacillus Infections/diagnosis , Animal Culling/methods , Pork Meat/analysis , Mycoplasma Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Pasteurella multocida/pathogenicity , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae/pathogenicity , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/pathogenicity
11.
San Salvador; MINSAL; ene. 06, 2023. 117 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1412600

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades respiratorias crónicas golpean los sistemas de salud por los altos costos que se derivan por la atención de pacientes en los diferentes estadios de estas enfermedades, en particular aquellas etapas en las que las personas se encuentran con múltiples afecciones provocadas o sumadas por el desarrollo de las enfermedades respiratorias crónicas. Con el fin de mejorar la atención de los pacientes con enfermedades respiratorias crónicas priorizadas; y brindar al personal de salud una herramienta técnico-científica para estandarizar la identificación, diagnóstico y tratamiento de las personas mayores de 12 años, la Unidad de Prevención y Control de la Tuberculosis y Enfermedades Respiratorias, ha elaborado el presente documento, el cual será de mucha utilidad en los diferentes niveles de atención, para brindar una atención de calidad a los pacientes con enfermedades respiratorias crónicas. En su contenido se integran instrucciones para la atención del asma y la Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica (EPOC), con un abordaje clínico terapéutico más actualizado, para que puedan darse las atenciones en los establecimientos del Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud (SNIS), así como las actividades educativas que permitan incidir en la prevención de estas enfermedades


Chronic respiratory diseases hit health systems due to the high costs derived from the care of patients in the different stages of these diseases, particularly those stages in which people have multiple conditions caused or added by the development of chronic respiratory diseases. In order to improve the care of patients with prioritized chronic respiratory diseases; and provide health personnel with a technical-scientific tool to standardize the identification, diagnosis and treatment of people over 12 years of age, the Unit for the Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases has prepared this document, which will be of very useful at different levels of care, to provide quality care to patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Its content includes instructions for the care of asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), with a more up-to-date clinical-therapeutic approach, so that care can be given in the establishments of the National Integrated Health System (SNIS), as well as educational activities that make it possible to influence the prevention of these diseases


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Diseases , Asthma , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Health Systems , El Salvador
12.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 11(1): 1-10, Jan. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1525744

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever os registros de óbitos e hospitalizações por zoonoses respiratórias em residentes de Minas Gerais, de 2000 a 2020. Métodos: utilizou-se abordagem quantitativa descritiva com dados secundários não nominais da Secretaria Estadual de Saúde do estado. Os dados referem-se a 2000 a 2020 e foram retirados do SIM e SIH, sendo analisados sob a estatística descritiva. Resultados: registraram-se 46.178 hospitalizações e 13.317 óbitos, sendo os vírus os principais agentes nas taxas de internação e mortalidade, com pico em 2020. Entre 2000 e 2019, as internações foram predominantes em homens, faixa etária 0-17 anos (42,8%) e raça branca (13,6%), com maior mortalidade na faixa 45-59 anos (34,7%) e raça branca (54,0%). Em 2020, ambas predominaram em homens, acima de 60 anos e nas raças branca e parda. Conclusão: os achados contribuem para conhecer a ocorrência das zoonoses na população mineira e subsidiar futuras ações de vigilância e controle dessas doenças.


Objective: to describe the records of deaths and hospitalizations due to respiratory zoonoses in residents of Minas Gerais from 2000 to 2020. Methods: a descriptive quantitative approach was used with non-nominal secondary data from the State Department of Health. Data refers to the years between 2000-2020 and were taken from SIM and SIH, being analyzed under descriptive statistics. Results: there were 46,178 hospitalizations and 13,317 deaths, with viruses being the main agents in hospitalization and mortality rates, with a peak in 2020. Between 2000 and 2019, hospitalizations were predominant in men aged 0-17 years (42.8%) and white race (13.6%), with higher mortality in the 45-59 age group (34.7%) and white race (54.0%). In 2020, both predominated in men over 60 years old, both in white and Hispanic races. Conclusion: the findings explain the occurrence of zoonoses in the population of Minas Gerais and support future surveillance and control actions for these diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Respiratory Tract Diseases
13.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 275-284, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971395

ABSTRACT

Mucociliary clearance system is the primary innate defense mechanism of the lung. It plays a vital role in protecting airways from microbes and irritants infection. Mucociliary clearance system, which is mediated by the actions of airway and submucosal gland epithelial cells, plays a critical role in a multilayered defense system via secreting fluids, electrolytes, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory proteins, and mucus onto airway surfaces. Changes in environment, drugs or diseases can lead to mucus overproduction and cilia dysfunction, which in turn decrease the rate of mucociliary clearance and enhance mucus gathering. The dysfunction of mucociliary clearance system often occurs in several respiratory diseases, such as primary ciliary dysfunction, cystic fibrosis, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which are characterized by goblet cell metaplasia, submucosal gland cell hypertrophy, mucus hypersecretion, cilia adhesion, lodging and loss, and airway obstruction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mucociliary Clearance , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , Mucus/metabolism , Lung , Respiratory System
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 287-294, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970049

ABSTRACT

In China, the level of ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution far exceeds the air quality standards recommended by the World Health Organization. Moreover, the health effects of PM 2.5 exposure have become a major public health issue. More than half of PM 2.5 -related excess deaths are caused by cardiopulmonary disease, which has become a major health risk associated with PM 2.5 pollution. In this review, we discussed the latest epidemiological advances relating to the health effects of PM 2.5 on cardiopulmonary diseases in China, including studies relating to the effects of PM 2.5 on mortality, morbidity, and risk factors for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. These data provided important evidence to highlight the cardiopulmonary risk associated with PM 2.5 across the world. In the future, further studies need to be carried out to investigate the specific relationship between the constituents and sources of PM 2.5 and cardiopulmonary disease. These studies provided scientific evidence for precise reduction measurement of pollution sources and public health risks. It is also necessary to identify effective biomarkers and elucidate the biological mechanisms and pathways involved; this may help us to take steps to reduce PM 2.5 pollution and reduce the incidence of cardiopulmonary disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Respiratory Tract Diseases , China/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects
15.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 699-704, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985550

ABSTRACT

Health damage including chronic disease caused by air pollution have attracted increasing attention. With the acceleration of industrialization and urbanization, the emission of air pollutants has increased, and its association with chronic diseases has become a research trending topic. Cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory disease are the major chronic diseases, causing about 86.6% of the total deaths in China. The prevention and control of chronic diseases, especially the etiologic prevention, is a major public health issue related to national health. This article summarizes the recent progress in research of association of indoor and outdoor air pollution with all-cause mortality, the deaths and disease burden of four major chronic diseases, i.e. cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory disease, and puts forward suggestions for the reduction of the burden caused by chronic diseases due to air pollution to provide a theoretical foundation to revise air quality standards in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases , Air Pollution , China , Cost of Illness , Chronic Disease , Respiratory Tract Diseases
16.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 552-557, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981898

ABSTRACT

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are the "mirror cells" of Th2 cells. Although the total cell number of ILC2s is far less than that of CD4+ Th2 cells in the body, the activated ILC2s have a more powerful biological activity than CD4+ Th2 cells and can rapidly enhanced Th2-cell inflammatory reaction. It plays an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic respiratory diseases. The transmitters that activate ILC2s include inflammatory cytokines (IL-33, IL-25, TSLP, IL-4, IL-9), lipid transmitters (prostaglandins, leukotrienes), and other activating transmitters (ICOS, Complement C3a, neuropeptide receptor, vasoactive intestinal peptide and calcitonin gene-related peptide, etc). Activated ILC2s produce large amounts of IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and amphiregulin and other inflammatory mediators, and induce airway hyperresponsiveness, mucus secretion and airway remodeling and other respiratory allergic reactions. Therefore, respiratory allergic diseases, especially steroid-dependent asthma, could be treated potentially by inhibiting the activation of ILC2s. Hereby, we summarized the immunobiology of ILC2s, the initiation of ILC2s in allergic inflammation, the relationship between ILC2s and respiratory allergic diseases, and the recent advances in biological agents targeted by ILC2s.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-9 , Lymphocytes , Hypersensitivity , Cytokines , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Inflammation
18.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1517930

ABSTRACT

Análise de perfil epidemiológico e a tendência da mortalidade de professores da educação básica e do ensino superior no Estado de Goiás, no período de 2008 a 2017. Método: série temporal, com dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade. Para a análise da tendência da mortalidade utilizou-se modelos de regressão linear e considerou-se p<0,05. Resultados: foram levantados 2.439 óbitos, maior frequência de óbitos no sexo feminino, em indivíduos de cor branca e com idade entre 50 e 69 anos. Entre as mulheres, as neoplasias malignas foram as principais causas de óbito, enquanto entre os homens destacaram-se as doenças do aparelho circulatório. Identificou-se tendência temporal de aumento dos óbitos (0,134 para as neoplasias malignas, 0,132 para as doenças do aparelho circulatório, 0,252 para as causas externas e 0,212 para as doenças do aparelho respiratório). Considerando todas as causas de óbito o incremento foi de 0,040 (p<0,000). Conclusão: há aumento de mortalidade de professores por causas evitáveis


Objective: to analyze the epidemiologic profile and the trends in mortality of teachers from basic education and higher education professors in the state of Goiás, in the period from 2008 to 2017. Method: time series, with data from the Mortality Information System. In order to analyze the trend in mortality, a linear regression model was used, considering p<0.05. Results: 2,439 deaths were recorded, with higher frequency of deaths within female sex, white and aged from 50 to 69 years. Among the women, malignant neoplasms were the main causes of death, whilst among men, circulatory system diseases stood out. It was identified a temporal trend of increase in deaths (0.134 for malignant neoplasms, 0.132 for circulatory system diseases, 0.252 for external causes and 0.212 for respiratory system diseases). Considering all the causes of death, the increase was 0.040 (p<0.000). Conclusion: there is an increase in mortality of teachers and professors due to avoidable causes


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health Profile , Mortality , Respiratory Tract Diseases/mortality , Time Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Neoplasms/mortality
19.
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 40: e0244, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1521754

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Brasil é um país marcado por forte desigualdade socioeconômica entre as regiões, que, por sua vez, se traduz em diferenciais regionais de mortalidade. Para um bom monitoramento desses diferenciais, é importante uma análise não apenas dos níveis médios de mortalidade, mas também da variação da idade à morte na população. Esse artigo analisa a contribuição das causas de óbito sobre as mudanças na esperança de vida e na dispersão da idade à morte no Brasil e grandes regiões entre 2008 e 2018. Os resultados sugerem aumento dos diferenciais regionais na esperança de vida ao longo da década analisada. No entanto, as diferenças regionais na dispersão da idade à morte se mantiveram praticamente constantes. As mudanças na mortalidade por causa impactam de maneiras diferentes a dispersão da idade à morte em cada região: a redução da mortalidade por causas externas contribui substantivamente para diminuir a variação da idade à morte nas regiões Sul e Sudeste, enquanto a contribuição das mortes por afecções originadas no período perinatal foi substantiva apenas na região Nordeste. Por fim, reafirmamos a importância dos indicadores de dispersão da idade à morte para se ter uma visão mais ampla dos diferenciais regionais de mortalidade no Brasil.


Abstract Brazil is a country marked by substantial socioeconomic inequality among regions, which translates into regional differentials in mortality. For better monitoring these differentials, it is important to analyze not only population average mortality levels, but also the age at death variation. This article analyzes cause-of-death contributions to changes in life expectancy and age-at-death variation in Brazil and its regions between 2008 and 2018. Our results suggest an increase in regional inequalities in life expectancy over the decade. However, regional differences in age-at-death variation remained nearly constant. Changes in mortality by cause impact the age-at-death variation differently in each region: the reduction in mortality from external causes substantially contributed to decreasing the variation in age at death in the South and Southeast regions, whereas the contribution of deaths from conditions originating in the perinatal period was substantive only in the Northeast region. Finally, we reaffirm the importance of age-at-death dispersion indicators to have a broader view of Brazil's regional differentials in mortality.


Resumen Brasil es un país marcado por fuertes desigualdades socioeconómicas entre sus regiones, lo que traduce a su vez se en diferencias regionales en la mortalidad. Para un buen seguimiento de estos diferenciales es importante analizar no solo los niveles medios de mortalidad, sino también la variación de la edad de la muerte en la población. Este artículo analiza la contribución de los grupos de causas de defunción sobre los cambios en la esperanza de vida al nacer y la dispersión de la edad al morir en Brasil y las grandes regiones entre 2008 y 2018. Nuestros resultados sugieren un aumento de las diferencias regionales en la esperanza de vida a lo largo de la década. Sin embargo, las diferencias regionales en la dispersión de la edad al morir se mantuvieron prácticamente constantes. Los cambios en la mortalidad por causas repercuten de forma diferente en la dispersión de la edad al fallecer en cada región: la reducción de la mortalidad por causas externas contribuyó de forma sustantiva a disminuir la variación de la edad al morir en las regiones Sur y Sureste, mientras que la contribución de las muertes por afecciones originadas en el período perinatal fue sustantiva en la región Noreste. Por último, reafirmamos la importancia de los indicadores de dispersión de la edad al morir para tener una visión más general de los diferenciales regionales de mortalidad en Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mortality , Cause of Death , Health Transition , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases , Chronic Disease , Communicable Diseases , Endocrine System Diseases
20.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 81 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437408

ABSTRACT

Com base nas perturbações fosfoproteômicas de moléculas associadas ao ciclo celular em células infectadas pelo coronavírus causador da síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARSCoV)-2, a hipótese de inibidores do ciclo celular como uma terapia potencial para a doença de coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19) foi proposta. No entanto, o cenário das alterações do ciclo celular em COVID-19 permanece inexplorado. Aqui, realizamos uma análise integrativa de sistemas imunológicos de proteoma publicamente disponível (espectrometria de massa) e dados de transcriptoma (sequenciamento de RNA em massa e de célula única [scRNAseq]), com o objetivo de caracterizar mudanças globais na assinatura do ciclo celular de pacientes com COVID-19. Além de módulos de co-expressão de genes significativos enriquecidos associados ao ciclo celular, encontramos uma rede interconectada de proteínas diferencialmente expressas associadas ao ciclo celular (DEPs) e genes (DEGs) integrando dados moleculares de 1.480 indivíduos (974 pacientes infectados por SARS-CoV-2 e 506 controles [controles saudáveis ou indivíduos com outras doenças respiratórias]). Entre esses DEPs e DEGs estão várias ciclinas (CCNs), ciclo de divisão celular (CDCs), quinases dependentes de ciclinas (CDKs) e proteínas de manutenção de minicromossomos (MCMs). Embora os pacientes com COVID-19 compartilhem parcialmente o padrão de expressão de algumas moléculas associadas ao ciclo celular com outras doenças respiratórias, eles exibiram uma expressão significativamente maior de moléculas associadas ao ciclo celular relacionadas à gravidade da doença. Notavelmente, a assinatura do ciclo celular predominou nos leucócitos do sangue dos pacientes, mas não nas vias aéreas superiores. Os dados de scRNAseq de 229 indivíduos (159 pacientes com COVID- 19 e 70 controles) revelaram que as alterações das assinaturas do ciclo celular predominam nas células B, T e NK. Esses resultados fornecem uma compreensão global única das alterações nas moléculas associadas ao ciclo celular em pacientes com COVID-19, sugerindo novas vias putativas para intervenção terapêutica


Based on phosphoproteomics perturbations of cell cycle-associated molecules in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2-infected cells, the hypothesis of cell cycle inhibitors as a potential therapy for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been proposed. However, the landscape of cell cycle alterations in COVID-19 remains mostly unexplored. Here, we performed an integrative systems immunology analysis of publicly available proteome (mass spectrometry) and transcriptome data (bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing [scRNAseq]), aiming to characterize global changes in the cell cycle signature of COVID-19 patients. Beyond significant enriched cell cycle-associated gene co-expression modules, we found an interconnected network of cell cycle-associated differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) and genes (DEGs) by integrating molecular data of 1,480 individuals (974 SARS-CoV- 2 infected patients and 506 controls [either healthy controls or individuals with other respiratory illness]). Among these DEPs and DEGs are several cyclins (CCNs), cell division cycle (CDCs), cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCMs). Although COVID-19 patients partially shared the expression pattern of some cell cycleassociated molecules with other respiratory illnesses, they exhibited a significantly higher expression of cell cycle-associated molecules associated with disease severity. Notably, the cell cycle signature predominated in the patients blood leukocytes but not in the upper airways. The scRNAseq data from 229 individuals (159 COVID-19 patients and 70 controls) revealed that the alterations of cell cycle signatures predominate in B, T, and NK cells. These results provide a unique global comprehension of the alterations in cell cycle-associated molecules in COVID-19 patients, suggesting new putative pathways for therapeutic intervention


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patients/classification , Cell Cycle/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Killer Cells, Natural/classification , Chromosomes/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, RNA/instrumentation , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Proteome/analysis , Transcriptome/immunology
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