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1.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(2): e25243, mar. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1368175

ABSTRACT

Introdução:As doenças do aparelho respiratório se configuram como o segundo principal motivo de internações hospitalares no Brasil entre 2013 e 2017. Objetivo:Analisar a morbimortalidade de doenças do aparelho respiratório da população brasileira, segundo faixa etária,no período compreendido entre os anos de 2015 a 2019. Metodologia:Trata-se de um estudo do tipo ecológico, retrospectivo, realizado sobre o território brasileiro. Os dados foram coletados a partir do Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, nas seções de Morbidade Hospitalar, de Mortalidade e População Residente. Foram analisados os dados entre 2015 a 2019 e de todas as faixas etárias. Resultados:Ao investigar a mortalidade por doenças do sistema respiratório entre os anos de 2015 e 2019, as cinco causas mais frequentes foram: influenza e pneumonia; doenças crônicas das vias aéreas inferiores; outras doenças do aparelho respiratório; outras doenças respiratórias que afetam principalmente interstício; doenças pulmonares devidas a agentes externos, nessa ordem. Enquanto as cinco causas de morbidades mais frequentes foram: pneumonia; outras doenças do aparelho respiratório; bronquite, enfisema e outras doenças pulmonares obstrutivas crônicas; asma; bronquite aguda e bronquiolite aguda. Conclusões:Verificou-se que a pneumonia, influenza, doenças respiratórias do trato inferior e outras doenças crônicas respiratórias foram as mais prevalentes entre a população respectivamente. Dentre o público mais acometido, foi possível constatar que o público infantil e a população idosa foram os mais atingidos tanto na mortalidade quanto na morbidade (AU).


Introduction:Introduction: Respiratory diseases are the second main reason for hospital admissions in Brazil between 2013 and 2017. Objective:To analyze the morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases of the Brazilian population, according to age group, in the period from 2015 to 2019. Methodology:This is an ecological, retrospective study conducted on the Brazilian territory. Data were collected from the Informatics Department of the Unified Health System, in the Sections of Hospital Morbidity, Mortality and Resident Population. Data were analyzed between 2015 and 2019 and all age groups. Results:When investigating mortality from respiratory system diseases between 2015 and 2019, the five most frequent causes were: influenza and pneumonia; chronic diseases of the lower airways; other diseases of the respiratory system; other respiratory diseases that mainly affect interstitium; diseases due to external agents, in that order. Conclusions:It was found that pneumonia, influenza, respiratory diseases of the lower tract and other chronic respiratory diseases were the most prevalent among the population, respectively. Among the most affected public, it was possible to observe that the child's public and the elderly population were the most affected in both mortality and morbidity (AU).


Introducción: Las enfermedades respiratorias son la segunda razón principal de los ingresos hospitalarios en Brasil entre 2013 y 2017. Objetivo: Analizar la morbilidad y mortalidad de las enfermedades respiratorias de la población brasileña, según el grupo de edad, en el período comprendido entre 2015 y 2019.Metodología: Se trata de un estudio ecológico y retrospectivo realizado en territorio brasileño. Los datos fueron recogidos del Departamento de Informática del Sistema Unificado de Salud, en las Secciones de Morbilidad Hospitalaria, Mortalidad y Población Residente. Los datos se analizaron entre 2015 y 2019 y todos los grupos de edad. Resultados: Al investigar la mortalidad por enfermedades del sistema respiratorio entre 2015 y 2019, las cinco causas más frecuentes fueron: gripe y neumonía; enfermedades crónicas de las vías respiratorias inferiores; otras enfermedades del sistema respiratorio; otras enfermedades respiratorias que afectan principalmente al intersticio; enfermedades debidas a agentes externos, en ese orden.Mientras que las cinco causas más frecuentes de morbilidad fueron: neumonía; otras enfermedades del sistema respiratorio; bronquitis, enfisema y otras enfermedades pulmonares obstructivas crónicas; asma; bronquiolitis aguda y bronquiolitis aguda. While the five most frequent causes of morbidities were: pneumonia; other diseases of the respiratory system; bronchitis, emphysema and other chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases; asthma; acute bronchitis and acute bronchiolitis. Conclusiones: Se encontróque la neumonía, la influenza, las enfermedades respiratorias de las vías inferiores y otras enfermedades respiratorias crónicas eran las más prevalentes entre la población, respectivamente. Entre el público más afectado, se pudo observar que el público del niño y la población de edad avanzada eran los más afectados tanto en la mortalidad como en la morbilidad (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Respiratory System/anatomy & histology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Ecological Studies , Age Groups
2.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135581

ABSTRACT

Abstract Covid-19 is a respiratory disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The high rate of contagion and the spread of the virus in the population make the early detection of the pathogen the means for the adequate targeting of infection control measures. WHO directs sample collection on upper respiratory specimens, including nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab or wash in ambulatory patients, as well as lower respiratory specimens: sputum and/or endotracheal aspirate or bronchoalveolar lavage, in addition to citing blood and feces. Among the various sample collection methods, saliva has been investigated and reported as a potential source for diagnosis. Thus, we propose to evaluate the current scenario, based on recent publications on the perspective of detecting SARS-CoV-2 in saliva as a diagnostic method for Covid-19. The detection of SARS-CoV-2 through saliva seems to be very promising, although obstacles such as the technique and the location of the collection and the sample size of the research carried out so far may present a limitation for its use. The current scenario presents saliva as a reliable method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, due to the ease of obtaining the samples, the possibility of self-collection, low cost because there is no need to use specific equipment, in addition to reducing the risk of transmission for health professionals.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Saliva/microbiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , SARS Virus , Diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Infection Control , Low Cost Technology , Betacoronavirus
3.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(4): e20180264, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019983

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine whether airway narrowing during obstructive events occurs predominantly at the retropalatal level and results from dynamic changes in the lateral pharyngeal walls and in tongue position. Methods: We evaluated 11 patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and 7 healthy controls without OSA during wakefulness and during natural sleep (documented by full polysomnography). Using fast multidetector CT, we obtained images of the upper airway in the waking and sleep states. Results: Upper airway narrowing during sleep was significantly greater at the retropalatal level than at the retroglossal level in the OSA group (p < 0.001) and in the control group (p < 0.05). The retropalatal airway volume was smaller in the OSA group than in the control group during wakefulness (p < 0.05) and decreased significantly from wakefulness to sleep only among the OSA group subjects. Retropalatal pharyngeal narrowing was attributed to reductions in the anteroposterior diameter (p = 0.001) and lateral diameter (p = 0.006), which correlated with an increase in lateral pharyngeal wall volume (p = 0.001) and posterior displacement of the tongue (p = 0.001), respectively. Retroglossal pharyngeal narrowing during sleep did not occur in the OSA group subjects. Conclusions: In patients with OSA, upper airway narrowing during sleep occurs predominantly at the retropalatal level, affecting the anteroposterior and lateral dimensions, being associated with lateral pharyngeal wall enlargement and posterior tongue displacement.


Resumo Objetivo: Determinar se o estreitamento das vias aéreas durante eventos obstrutivos ocorre predominantemente na região retropalatal e resulta de alterações dinâmicas nas paredes laterais da faringe e na posição da língua. Métodos: Avaliamos 11 pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) grave (grupo AOS) e 7 indivíduos saudáveis sem AOS (grupo controle) durante a vigília e o sono natural (documentado por meio de polissonografia completa). Por meio de TC multidetectores rápida, obtivemos imagens das vias aéreas superiores no estado de vigília e de sono. Resultados: O estreitamento das vias aéreas superiores durante o sono foi significativamente maior na região retropalatal do que na região retrolingual no grupo AOS (p < 0,001) e no grupo controle (p < 0,05). O volume da via aérea retropalatal foi menor no grupo AOS do que no grupo controle durante a vigília (p < 0,05) e diminuiu significativamente da vigília ao sono apenas no grupo AOS. O estreitamento retropalatal da faringe foi atribuído à redução do diâmetro anteroposterior (p = 0,001) e lateral (p = 0,006), que se correlacionou com o aumento do volume das paredes laterais da faringe (p = 0,001) e o deslocamento posterior da língua (p = 0,001). Não ocorreu estreitamento retrolingual da faringe durante o sono no grupo AOS. Conclusões: Em pacientes com AOS, o estreitamento das vias aéreas superiores durante o sono ocorre predominantemente na região retropalatal e afeta as dimensões anteroposterior e lateral, além de estar relacionado com aumento das paredes laterais da faringe e deslocamento posterior da língua.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tongue/diagnostic imaging , Pharyngeal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnostic imaging , Multidetector Computed Tomography/methods , Palate/physiopathology , Palate/pathology , Palate/diagnostic imaging , Pharynx/physiopathology , Pharynx/pathology , Pharynx/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Respiratory Tract Diseases/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Tongue/physiopathology , Tongue/pathology , Wakefulness/physiology , Pharyngeal Diseases/physiopathology , Pharyngeal Diseases/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Polysomnography , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/pathology
4.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051594

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the most frequent pathology along human life, being the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years old. The aim of this study was to determine the circulation of HBoV in infants under 5 years old with symptoms of ARI from north Argentina (Chaco province). Were analyzed 882 nasopharyngeal aspirates obtained during the years 2014 and 2015. The samples were tested by real time PCR and the overal frequency of HBoV was 7.6%. The period with the major detection report was June-September with 77.6% of all positive cases. It is interesting that 98.5% of all cases were in infants aged 0 to 2 years of life. HBoV positive cases were given as single infection in 46.3% of patients and the remaining 53.7% as concomitant infections with other viruses. The evaluation of two full years calendar of molecular epidemiological study in northern Argentina of HBoV, reflects more accurately the current situation and could lead to re-formulate strategies for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this disease. We intend to highlight the importance of investigate this new virus capable of produce an acute respiratory disease by providing information about it to the community.


A infecção respiratória aguda (IRA) é a mais frequente ao longo da vida de uma patologia individual e é a causa mais comum de mortalidade/morbidade em crianças com menos de 5 anos. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o movimento do Bocavírus Humano (HBoV) em crianças menores de 5 anos com um diagnóstico presuntivo de IRA numa capital estadual do norte da Argentina (Resistencia, Chaco). Foram analizados 882 aspirados nasofaríngeos, obtidos durante os anos 2014 e 2015. As pessoas foram testeadas por PCR em tempo real, onde se encontrou uma frequência de HBoV do 7,6% (67/882), dando a maior concentração de casos positivos no período de junho a setembro (77,6%). Curiosamente, 98,5% dos casos foram em crianças de 0 a 2 anos de vida. Os casos positívos de HBoV foram dados como única infecção em 46,3% dos pacientes e os restantes 53,7% como infecções concomitantes com outros vírus. A avaliação de dois anos, calendário completo de estudo de epidemiologia molecular HBoV no norte da Argentina, reflete com mais precisão a realidade, e pode reformular as estratégias para o diagnóstico, tratamento e prognóstico da patología. Temos a intenção de destacar a importância de se investigar o novo vírus capaz de gerar doença respiratória aguda, fornecendo informações dele para a comunidade


La infección respiratoria aguda (IRA) es la patología más frecuente a lo largo de la vida de una persona y es la causa más común de morbi-motalidad en niños menores de 5 años. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la circulación del Bocavirus Humano (HBoV) en niños menores de 5 años con diagnóstico presuntivo de IRA en una ciudad capital del norte argentino (Resistencia, Chaco). Ruiz Díaz, Natalia; y Col. Rev. Fac. Med. UNNE XXXVI: 3, 5-12, 2016 Se analizaron 882 aspirados nasofaríngeos obtenidos durante los años 2014 y 2015. Los mismos fueron testeados por PCR en tiempo real encontrándose una frecuencia de HBoV de 7.6% (67/882), dándose la mayor concentración de casos positivos en el período junio-septiembre (77,6%) y es interesante destacar que el 98,5% del total de casos se registraron en infantes entre 0 a 2 año de vida. Los casos positivos para HBoV se dieron como infección única en el 46.3% de los pacientes y el 53.7% restante como infecciones concomitantes con otros virus. La evaluación de dos años -calendarios completos- de estudio epidemiológico molecular de HBoV en el norte argentino, refleja de manera más fiel la realidad ya que permite reformular las estrategias en cuanto al diagnóstico, el tratamiento y el pronóstico de esta patología. Pretendemos destacar la importancia de investigar los nuevos virus capaces de generar patología respiratoria aguda brindando información sobre el mismo a la comunidad


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Child, Preschool , Parvoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Human bocavirus/pathogenicity
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 65(4): 1017-1023, Aug. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-684456

ABSTRACT

A 12-year-old male English Pointer was examined due to a soft-tissue swelling at the medial canthus of the right orbital region, which was causing facial deformity. The dog had epiphora, purulent nasal discharge, epistaxis, dyspnea, and progressive weight loss. An intraoral mass was observed near the right maxillary premolars. Neoplastic disease was diagnosed based on ancillary tests, which included blood work, skull and intraoral radiographs, ocular ultrasonography and computed tomography. Histopathology revealed transitional carcinoma involving the nasal and oral cavities, maxilla, bony orbit and retrobulbar space. Nasal tumors represent approximately 2% of all tumors diagnosed in this species. Transitional carcinoma is the second most common type of malignant epithelial tumor in the nasal sinuses. This case illustrates the extensive destruction of the soft and bony tissues of the face, including the bony orbit that this type of tumor can cause.


Um cão da raça Pointer Inglês, de 12 anos de idade, foi encaminhado para avaliação clínica por apresentar aumento de volume no canto temporal (medial) da órbita direita, o qual estava causando deformidade facial. O cão apresentava epífora, secreção nasal mucopurulenta, epistaxe, dispnésia e perda de peso progressiva. Uma massa foi observada na cavidade oral, próxima aos dentes pré-molares, do lado direito da face. Suspeitou-se de proliferação neoplásica baseando-se nos testes auxiliares, entre os quais: radiografia craniana e oral, ultrassonografia ocular e tomografia computadorizada. A análise histopatológica da massa revelou tratar-se de carcinoma transicional envolvendo as cavidades oral e nasal, os ossos da maxila e da órbita, além do espaço retrobulbar. Os tumores da cavidade nasal representam aproximadamente 2% de todos os tumores diagnosticados nessa espécie. O carcinoma transicional é o segundo tipo de neoplasia epitelial maligna mais comum nos seios nasais de cães. Este trabalho descreve a destruição extensiva dos tecidos moles e dos ossos da face e chama atenção para o fato de que esse tipo de neoplasia deve ser considerado nas doenças da órbita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carcinoma/pathology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Neoplasms , Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology , Dogs , Tomography
6.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 50(1): 68-70, 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-687656

ABSTRACT

The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a sensitive method to diagnose diseases of the distal portion of the lower respiratory tract and has been broadly used by numerous researchers. Cytocentrifugation is the choice cytological preparation technique, but demands specific and costly equipment. Therefore, the present paper intends to verify the applicability of the linear smear technique to evaluate BAL samples. For this, BAL samples of 30 equines were used and the cytological preparations were done by cytocentrifugation and linear smear techniques. All glass microscope slides were fixed and stained with Giemsa for the differential cell count. Regarding the effect of the preparation technique on differential counts, no significant difference in any cell type was found. The linear smear is a reliable alternative and can be recommended as a substitution to cytocentrifugation.


O lavado broncoalveolar (LBA) é um método sensível para diagnosticar doenças do trato respiratório posterior e vem sendo utilizado por diversos pesquisadores. A citocentrifugação, técnica de escolha para processar amostras citológicas de LBA, exige equipamentos específicos e caros. Por isso, este trabalho verificou a aplicabilidade da técnica de esfregaço linear para avaliação citológica do LBA. Foram utilizadas amostras de LBA de 30 equinos adultos. As preparações citológicas foram realizadas tanto por citocentrifugação quanto por esfregaço linear. Todas as lâminas foram fixadas e coradas com Giemsa para realização da contagem celular diferencial. Não foram encontradas alterações morfológicas significativas e nem diferenças estatísticas entre nenhum dos tipos celulares processados pelos dois métodos, o que permite afirmar que o método de esfregaço linear é uma alternativa segura para avaliação morfológica celular do LBA de equinos, podendo ser utilizado no lugar da citocentrifugação quando esta não estiver disponível.


Subject(s)
Animals , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Respiratory System/anatomy & histology , Cell Biology/trends , Horses , Bronchoalveolar Lavage
9.
RBM rev. bras. med ; 67(supl.7)set. 2010.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-564317

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Distúrbios respiratórios obstrutivos (DRO) são frequentes em crianças e têm como sua principal causa a hipertrofia das tonsilas. A enurese noturna tem sido associada aos DRO, causando assim importante impacto psicossocial. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre enurese e DRO em crianças e sua possível melhora após adenoidectomia e/ou tonsilectomia. Métodos: Foram estudadas 138 crianças do Ambulatório de Distúrbios do Sono, com idade entre 5 e 12 anos, com indicação de adeno e/ou tonsilectomia por DRO. Foram analisadas variáveis como: sexo, idade e presença de enurese. As crianças foram reavaliadas três a seis meses após o tratamento cirúrgico. Resultado: Dentre as 138 crianças, 31 (22,5%) apresentavam enurese noturna. Houve predomínio na faixa etária de cinco a sete anos, com distribuição igual entre os gêneros. Houve melhora da enurese em 21 (67,7%) dos pacientes após o procedimento cirúrgico, em sete (70%) das dez crianças nas quais persistiu a enurese, também houve persistência dos roncos. Conclusão: A enurese noturna é frequente em crianças com DRO e pode ter melhora após tratamento da causa da obstrução respiratória, sugerindo interação entre SAOS e enurese noturna.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Respiratory Tract Diseases/surgery , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Nocturnal Enuresis/etiology , Tonsillectomy
10.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 1(3): 6-10, jun. 2010. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-674980

ABSTRACT

A partir de la transmisión sostenida del virus de Gripe A(H1N1) en distintos países, la Organización Mundial de la Salud declaró el comienzo de la primera pandemia de influenza del siglo XXI el 11de junio de 2009. En Argentina, la región sanitaria V de la provincia de Buenos Aires fue una de las primeras afectadas en todo el país. OBJETIVO:realizar un análisis descriptivo de las notificaciones registradas de los casos de Gripe A (H1N1) en dicha región hasta el 20 de septiembre de 2009. MÉTODO: se trabajó con fuentes secundarias. La confirmación de casos (PCR en tiempo real) fue realizada en instituciones autorizadas. Variables consideradas: casos sospechosos, confirmados y fallecidos, sexo, edad, municipios, antecedentes epidemiológicos, embarazadas, fecha de inicio de síntomas y circulación viral por semana epidemiológica. RESULTADOS: se registraron 1.332 notificaciones de casos sospechosos y 949 confirmados. El mayor número de confirmados se registró en los municipios de Gral. San Martín (94), San Isidro (90), Pilar (85) y Vicente López (80). Las semanas epidemiológicas 23, 24 y 25 registraron la mayor cantidad de casos confirmados. Los grupos de edad que más confirmados aportaron fueron: de 5 a 9 años (121), 1 a 4 (89) y 10 a 14 (75) (cuya mediana de edad fue de 30 años). Se registraron 64 casos confirmados fallecidos. La tasa más alta de mortalidad específica por grupo de edad correspondió a menores de un año. Se registraron 9 casos confirmados en embarazadas y una puérpera, 5 de ellas fallecieron. CONCLUSIÓN: todos los municipios presentaron casos confirmados y 11 reportaron fallecidos. El pico de la epidemia se adelantó en una semana al registrado a nivel nacional y la mediana de edad en fallecidos fue más baja que la de todo el país. El análisis de mortalidad mostró un mayor riesgo para varones, embarazadas y menores de un año.


From the sustained transmission of influenza virus A (H1N1) in different countries, the World Health Organization declared the beginning of the first influenza pandemic of the twenty first century on June 11, 2009. In Argentina, the Health Region V of the Province of Buenos Aires was one of the first affected across the country. OBJECTIVE: to conduct a descriptive analysis of notifications of cases of Influenza A (H1N1) in that region until September 20, 2009. METHODS: we worked with secondary sources. The confirmation of cases (real-time PCR) was carried out in authorized institutions. Variables considered: suspected cases, confirmed and diseased, sex, age, municipalities, epidemiological history, pregnant, date of on set of symptoms and viral movement by epidemiological week. RESULTS: there were 1.332 notifications of suspected cases and 949 confirmed. The highest number of confirmed cases was in the municipalities of Gral. San Martin (94), San Isidro (90),Pilar (85) and Vicente López (80). The epidemiological weeks 23,24 and 25 showed the highest number of confirmed cases. Giventhe age group, which contributed more confirmed cases was that of 5-9 years (121), followed by 1-4 (89) and 10-14 (75). The median age was 30 years. There were 64 confirmed cases dead. The high estrate of cause-specific mortality by age group accounted for less than one year. There were nine conf irmed cases in pregnant and puerperal women, five of them died. CONCLUSION: all municipalities had confirmed cases and 11 confirmed deaths reported. The peak of the epidemic one week a head of the national and the medianage was lower than the registered for the rest of the country. The analysis of mortality showed a higher risk for men, pregnant women and children under one year.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Occupations/education , Respiratory Tract Diseases/complications , Respiratory Tract Diseases/mortality , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Mortality/statistics & numerical data , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Epidemiological Monitoring/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiology, Descriptive
11.
Gac. méd. Caracas ; 117(4): 274-313, dic. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-630584

ABSTRACT

La prevalencia y severidad de las enfermedades alérgicas está aumentando de manera alarmante a nivel mundial. Las principales enfermedades emergentes son las que se expresan a nivel del tracto respiratorio, por inhalación de contaminantes locales y regionales a causa de las alteraciones climáticas que se observan y registran en nuestro planeta. Numerosos artículos sobre el cambio climático y sus efectos en la reacción alérgica han aparecido en la literatura reciente, específicamente en relación con la exposición alergénica, incluyendo tipo, frecuencia, ubicación geográfica, cantidad y cualidad, en particular granos de polen debido a cambios del tiempo y duración de la estación floral de las plantas alergénicas. Las alteraciones en la vegetación son indicadores muy sensibles del cambio climático. El aumento de CO2incrementa a su vez la biomasa vegetal, la distribución de las plantas, la producción de polen y en un mayor grado, su capacidad alergénica. Otros efectos importantes se observan en la respuesta inflamatoria de la población a riesgo hacia proteínas alimentarias, alergenos de insectos y reactividad cruzada entre antígenos. Agentes como el ozono, el material particulado, el dióxido de azufre y las partículas diesel se conocen que forman especies reactivas de oxígeno, tales como el anión superóxido, el peróxido de hidrógeno y los radicales hidroxilos. Las especies reactivas de oxígeno pueden dañar proteínas, lípidos y directamente el ADN. Los contaminantes producen un efecto reversible en la función pulmonar, en el mecanismo inflamatorio de las vías aéreas, hiper-reactividad bronquial, comprometen la función inmunológica, aumentan la incidencia y exacerbación de enfermedades pulmonares como el asma y su tasa de mortalidad.


Estos agentes estimulan además, el aumento de la permeabilidad a nivel de las mucosas aéreas, lo que facilita el pase rápido de los antígenos sensibilizantes hacia capas de tejido más profundas y por consecuencia, facilitan una mayor interacción con las células del sistema inmune. Se ha propuesto un sin ergismo entre las partículas diesel y los aereo alergenos a nivel de la mucosa respiratoria alta de humanos, estimulando la producción de IgE específica por la producción de citoquinas Th2. Esto se explica por las propiedades adyuvantes de estas partículas asociadas a un aumento en la prevalencia de asma a nivel mundial, hecho relacionado al uso más frecuente de diesel en el parque automotor. Publicaciones aisladas sobre contaminantes aéreos en Venezuela, estimula la estructuración de un proyecto multidisciplinario por fases (I, II y III) de investigación, con el fin de determinar la posible influencia de los mismos, en la aparición y exacerbación de enfermedades alérgicas a nivel del tracto respiratorio, en especial los pacientes que sufren de asma en el área metropolitana de Caracas...


The prevalence and severity of allergic diseases is increasing at alarming rate worldwide. The principal emerging diseases are located in therespiratory tractdue to inhalation of localand regional pollutants as aconsequence observed and registered climate changes in our planet. Numerous articles about climate change and its effect on the allergic reaction have appeared in recent literature, specifically in relation to the allergen exposure including: type, frequency, geographical location, quantity and quality, in particular pollen grains due to changes in the weather and duration of the flowering season of allergenic plants, Changes in the vegetation are very sensitive indicators of climate change. The increase in CO2 increases the plant biomass, plant distribution, pollen production and in great degree its allergenic capacity. Other important effects are observed in the inflammatory response to proteins, insect allergens and crossed reactivity between allergens of the population at risk. Agents such as the ozone, material particles, sulphur dioxide and diesel particles are known as reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. The reactive oxygen species can damage proteins, lipids an DNA directly. The pollutants produce a reversible effect on pulmonary function, the inflammatorymechanismoftheairways,producebronquial hyperreactivity, compromise the immunological function, increase the incidence and exacerbation of pulmonary diseases such as asthma and its mortality rate.


These agents also stimulate the increase in permeability of the mucosa airway, which facilitates the rapid pass and entry of antigens to the deeper layers and as a result facilitate the interaction with immune system cells. A synergism between diesel particles and air allergens in the upper human mucosa respiratory tract has been proposed and it is thought that Th2 citokines stimulate the production of specific IgE. This can be explained by the properties of these particles and their association with an increase in the asthma prevalence worldwide and the fact that there has been a more frequent use of diesel in vehicles. Publications about air pollutants in Venezuela promote that instauration of an interdisciplinary project of investigation phases (I, II, III), in order to determine their possible influence in the development and exacerbation of allergic diseases in the respiratory tract, especially in asthma patients from the metropolitan Caracas area....


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Allergic Agents/immunology , Environmental Pollutants/immunology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal/etiology , Air Pollution , Climate Change
12.
Invest. clín ; 50(3): 359-368, sept. 2009. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-564792

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA) son patologías que afectan el tracto respiratorio desde la faringe proximal hasta los pulmones, con una evolución de menos de 15 días y constituyen la causa más frecuente de morbimortalidad en el mundo. Con la finalidad de identificar los agentes virales asociados a este tipo de infecciones en pacientes del estado Zulia, Venezuela, entre febrero 2005 y julio de 2006, se estudiaron un total de 102 muestras provenientes del tracto respiratorio (hisopado nasal, faríngeo y/o nasofaríngeo, esputo y lavado broncoalveolar) de pacientes con clínica de IRA. El aislamiento viral se realizó a través del cultivo celular y la identificación del agente patógeno por la técnica de inmunofluorescencia directa. Se obtuvieron 46 muestras positivas (45%), la incidencia estuvo homogéneamente distribuida en todos los grupos de estudio aun cuando se observó predominio en el grupo de 41 a 64 años, seguido de los lactantes. No hubo diferencias significativas en cuanto al sexo. Dentro de los patógenos virales aislados el Virus Sincicial Respiratorio (VSR) fue el agente con mayor frecuencia (32,6%) (p<0,05), seguido de Adenovirus (28,2%), Parainfluenza (23,9%) e Influenza (15,2%). Las infecciones respiratorias del tracto inferior fueron las más frecuentes (67,4%). Se demuestra una alta incidencia de agentes virales asociados a IRA en el estado Zulia. Se destaca la alta frecuencia en pacientes adultos y la mayor positividad para VSR.


Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are pathologies that affect the respiratory tract from the proximal pharynx to the lungs, with an evolution of less than 15 days. They constitute the most frequent cause of morbimortality in the world. With the purpose of identifying the viral agents associated to this type of infections in patients of Zulia State, Venezuela, between February 2005 and July 2006, a total of 102 samples of the respiratory tract (oropharyngeal swab, nasopharyngeal swab, nasopharyngeal washing, spit and bronchoalveolar lavage) were studied. Viral isolation was made through a cellular culture and the identification of the pathogenic agents by the technique of direct immunofluorescence. Forty six positive samples were obtained (45%). The greater incidence was found in the groups of 41 to 64 years old patients, followed by lactanting babies (1 to 23 months). There were no significant differences between sexes. Within the isolated viral pathogens, Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) was the agent most frequently found (32.6% p<0.05), followed by Adenovirus (28.2%), Parainfluenza (23.9%) and Influenza (15.2%). The respiratory infections of the low respiratory tract were the most frequent (67.4%). A high incidence of associated viral agents to ARI in Zulia State is demonstrated. A high incidence in adult patients and the greatest positivity was found for RSV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct/methods , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Virus Diseases/etiology
13.
Av. cardiol ; 28(2): 119-124, jun. 2008. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-607854

ABSTRACT

El Arguille es una pipa de agua principalmente utilizada en oriente medio, donde su uso social se extendió junto con el de los cafés públicos y el tabaco. Hay estudios en países árabes (Líbano) que reportan 14.6 por ciento de los adultos como fumadores de Arguille. Otro dato alarmante es que 25 por ciento de las embarazadas también la usan y 32 por ciento de los estudiantes universitarios en su mayoría varones fuman notablemente. La reducida concentración de nicotina al usar Arguille conduce a inhalar mayores cantidades de humo durante mayor cantidad de tiempo, exponiendo a la persona a sustancias tóxicas, colocando a los fumadores de Arguille y a los fumadores pasivos de éste, al mismo tipo y riesgo de enfermedades que pueden ser vistas en fumadores de cigarrillos. Actualmente en ciudades tales como Las Vegas, Los Ángeles, Nueva York y Miami entre otros, tienen establecimientos específicos para fumar Arguille denominados “Hookah Lounge”, y sin ir muy lejos, en nuestro país (Venezuela), ya se ve dicha modalidad. Centros nocturnos de la capital y de las principales ciudades del país pone a disposición del público esta forma exótica de tabaco.


Arguille is a water pipe used mostly in the Middle East, where its social use is associated with public cafes and with tobacco use. Studies report that 14,6% of adults in Lebanon are Arguille smokers. Alarming data show that 25% of pregnant women and 32% of university students, mainly males, smoke Arguille. The reduced nicotine concentration contained in the water pipe results in the inhalation of greater amounts of smoke over longer periods of time, thus exposing people to toxic substances. Both active and passive Arguille smokers are at the same risk level and for the same types of diseases as cigarette smokers. In cities such as Las Vegas, Los Angeles, New York,and Miami, there are specific establishments to smoke Arguille, called Hookah Lounges. Likewise in our country (Venezuela) one can see such locales. Some night clubs and restaurants in the capital and in principal cities offer their customers this exotic form of tobacco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Consumption of Tobacco-Derived Products , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Smoking Areas , Tobacco Use Disorder , Venezuela
14.
Arch. venez. pueric. pediatr ; 70(4): 126-129, oct.-dic. 2007. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-589301

ABSTRACT

El PRISM es una escala de predicción del riesgo de mortalidad pediátrica, basada en la inestabilidad fisiológica, la cual refleja directamente el riesgo de mortalidad. Determinar si esta escala es un buen predictor de mortalidad en los pacientes ingresados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos del Hospital Dr. Miguel Pérez Carreño. En el período de un año fueron recogidas las variables fisiológicas al ingreso. Se aplicó el PRISM, obteniéndose el puntaje y el porcentaje de riesgo de mortalidad. Se utilizó estadística básica descriptiva, la prueba de diferencia de medias t de Student y la de contraste chi cuadrado. Fueron ingresados 119 pacientes de ambos sexos con edades compredidas entre 1 y 144 meses. La mortalidad observada fue de 18.5 por ciento. La media del PRISM fue de 14.92. Se encontró asociación entre la mortalidad observada y la esperada. El PRISM es una buena escala de predicción de mortalidad en nuestra población pediátrica.


PRISM is a pediatric mortality risk prediction scale based on the fact that physiologic instability directly reflects the risk of mortality. We used PRISM in all the patients admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit in order to determine if this scale is applicable to our pediatric population. All physiologic parameters were recorded on admission for a period of one year. PRISM was used to determine the number of points in the scale as well as the mortality risk percentage. Basic descriptive statistics was used to calculate the means, t Student and chi square. 119 patients with ages between 1 and 144 months and of both genders were admitted. Observed mortality was 18,5%. PRISM mean was 14,92. There was a association between the observed and predicted mortality. PRISM is a good mortality risk prediction scale in our pediatric population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Glasgow Coma Scale , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/mortality , Sepsis/pathology , Sepsis/therapy , Critical Care , Poisoning/complications , Infant Mortality , Pediatrics
15.
Rev. Soc. Boliv. Pediatr ; 46(2): 131-137, 2007. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-499154

ABSTRACT

El pico de flujo espiratorio (PFE) es una medida de la función pulmonar que se utiliza para el control y seguimiento de pacientes con patología respiratoria. Se estudiaron 1.394 niños procedentes de 9 escuelas de capital e interior del país, seleccionadas por conveniencia, de diferentes estratos sociales y demográficos, del ámbito público y privado a los cuales los autores tuvieron acceso y cuyos padres autorizaron la realización del estudio mediante consentimiento escrito.


Subject(s)
Child , Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology
16.
Col. med. estado Táchira ; 15(2): 19-28, abr.-jun. 2006.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-531247

ABSTRACT

En Venezuela gran parte de la población infantil menor de 6 años son dejadas al cuidado de Madres Cuidadoras en Hogares y Multihogares de Cuidado Diario, cuya cobertura para el 2003 alcanzó 300 mil infantes inscritos. Con el objetivo de evaluar las conductas que siguen las madres cuidadoras ante afecciones clínicas presentadas en los niños a su cargo, se diseño una investigación transversal, descriptivo y observacional, basada en un modelo de serie clínica prospectivo mediante la aplicación de encuestas, realizada en Multihogares y Hogares de Cuidados Diario del Municipio Rivas Dávila (Tovar, Estado Mérida), evaluando sus procedimientos ante la fiebre, conocimiento sobre signos o síntomas de alarma ante cuadro febril, actuación en caso de Enfermedad Respiratoria Aguda y Enfermedad Diarreica Aguda, finalmente, su actuación frente a caídas y golpes en la cabeza. En cuanto a fiebre, el 64,1 por ciento demostró tener una conducta inadecuada; en relación a conocimientos sobre signos de alarma, el 82 por ciento demostró tener información correcta acerca de esta situación; frente a la identificación y manejo de la infección respiratoria aguda y de diarrea, el 66,6 por ciento realizarían un manejo inadecuado en ambas patología; por último, en casos de caídas y golpes en la cabeza, el 58,9 por ciento actuaría de manera inadecuada. Se impone re-evaluar las técnicas de enseñanza empleada para la capacitación de este personal pues se evidenciaron graves deficiencias en los conocimientos exhibidos por las Madres Cuidadoras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Diarrhea, Infantile/pathology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Nurseries, Infant , Behavior , Schools, Nursery , Socioeconomic Factors , Training Courses
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 237-242, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51473

ABSTRACT

The upper chest wall does not grow properly in children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) with paradoxical breathing. This suggests that long-term inability to take a deep breath in developing children may result in underdevelopment of the upper chest wall. In addition, a rapid and paradoxical breathing pattern is frequently observed in children with severe cerebral palsy (CP), which often corresponds to the underdevelopment of the upper chest wall. The present study is designed to evaluate the ratio of the upper to lower chest wall in children with severe spastic quadriplegic CP, compared with normal children. We compared normal children with children that had spastic quadriplegic CP who did not have kyphosis or scoliosis. Test subjects were matched in terms of age, height, and weight. The diameters of upper chest (D(apex)) and of lower chest (D(base)) were measured on the anteroposterior (AP) view of a chest X-ray and the D(apex) to D(base) ratio was calculated. In selected cases the forced vital capacity (FVC) was measured using a Wright Respirometer. The D(apex) to D(base) ratio was significantly lower in the CP group than in the control group (p < 0.001). The ratio increased linearly with age (p < 0.001) in both CP (R = 0.372) and control groups (R = 0.477). The FVC/preFVC showed significant correlation with the D(apex) to D(base) ratio (R = 0.542, p < 0.01). The results of this study suggest a deviation of optimal chest wall structure in children with spastic quadriplegic CP.


Subject(s)
X-Rays , Vital Capacity , Time Factors , Thoracic Wall , Thoracic Cavity , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Respiration , Quadriplegia/pathology , Muscle Spasticity/pathology , Male , Lung/pathology , Humans , Forced Expiratory Volume , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Cerebral Palsy/pathology , Case-Control Studies
18.
Pediatria (Säo Paulo) ; 28(2): 135-140, 2006. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-450875

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: mostrar duas possibilidades diversas para a fisioterapia de recém-nascidos com aspiração meconial. Relato de casos: dois recém-nascidos de termo com aspiração meconial de uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal foram tratados de forma diversa quanto às manobras fisioterápicas para remoção de secreções...


Objective: to show two different possibilities for pshysiotherapy with meconial breathing. Cases report: two term newborns with meconial aspiration admited to a neonatal intensive care unit were treated in a differenty way...


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Physical Therapy Modalities , Risk Factors
19.
Rev. invest. clín ; 57(4): 540-546, jul.-ago. 2005. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-632427

ABSTRACT

Objective. 1) To develop and validate an instrument to evaluate the clinical pathology correlation aptitude in pneumopathology (CPCAP). 2) Compare two groups of students: those who had already taken the respiratory pathology course and students that hadn 't. Methods. An instrument with real anatomopathology respiratory cases was developed. The measurement instrument was validated through expert rounds. It included 116 items of the "true", "false", or "don't know" type, with an agreement of 80 % or more in the answerers between the judges. The internal consistency was determined with Spearman Brown proficiency, reaching a value of 0.78. The sample studied was all the groups of each hospital of an organic pathology undergraduate universitary course. Two sampled were taken, students who had already been through respiratory pathology (Group A), and students who hadn't (Group B) Results.The sample studied was of 485 applicants, from 64 different universitary groups. These were divided in two groups, with 245 (A) and 240 (B) students each. Its global medians were 51 and 36 for groups A and B respectively (p < 0.001). In the 55 % of the subgroups when compared individually taking into account each one of the hospital where they study the test results were significantly better in group A. Discussion.In a general way, students in group A show a major development into CPCAP than students in B. However, development is not enough to reach the expected by the educative program. The results suggest that the teachers put greater effort in the correlation between anatomopathological changes and the clinical and paraclinical manifestations of the patients.


Objetivos. 1) Construir y validar un instrumento de medición de la aptitud para la correlación anatomoclínica en neumopatología (ACACN). 2) Comparar la ACACN de alumnos que ya tomaron el curso de patología y quiénes no. Métodos. Se elaboró un cuestionario con base en nueve casos anatomopatológicos con sus correspondientes estudios clínicos. Se estimó su validez conceptual por un grupo de expertos y la confiabilidad mediante correlación de mitades equivalentes. El instrumento quedó conformado por 116 ítems, que obtuvieron un porcentaje de acuerdo con 80 o mayor en las respuestas de los jueces y un coeficiente de .78 de confiabilidad (Spearman-Brown). Se aplicó un diseño ex post facto y las unidades de análisis fueron los grupos de cada hospital sede de un curso universitario de patología orgánica. Mediante un muestreo por cuota se seleccionaron dos muestras de alumnos de pregrado de la carrera de medicina para realizar las mediciones: quienes ya habían cursado la asignatura de patología (A) y quienes no (B). Resultados. Se incluyeron 485 alumnos, 245 de la muestra A y 240 de la muestra B, correspondientes a 64 grupos universitarios. Las medianas globales de ambas muestras fueron 51 y 36, respectivamente (p < 0.001). En la comparación entre muestras de una misma sede hubo diferencia significativa a favor de A en 39% de los grupos. Discusión. Los resultados muestran que la ACACN fue mayor en los alumnos que ya habían cursado la materia, en comparación con los que aún no lo habían hecho, sin embargo, el grado de desarrollo de la misma está lejos de las expectativas del programa educativo y refleja la necesidad de implementar modificaciones en la manera de cómo se imparte la materia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Educational Measurement , Pathology, Clinical/education , Pulmonary Medicine/education , Students, Medical/psychology , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/standards , Mexico , Pathology, Clinical/standards , Pulmonary Medicine/standards , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/physiopathology , Schools, Medical
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-46703

ABSTRACT

Thirty-three patients were subjected to transbronchial needle aspiration during the routine diagnostic bronchoscopy. Of the 17 patients with submucosal diseases, Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) had a yield of 88.2% as against 81.2% for bronchial biopsies, 54.5% for bronchial brush smears and 41.1% for bronchial aspirates. TBNA also had a good yield in endobronchially visible growths. Nine patients had mediastinal or hilar lymph nodes as evident in contrast enhanced CT scans. TBNA was attempted from eight lymph node sites in six patients with bronchogenic carcinoma and was positive for malignant cells from four of these sites, while normal lymphoid cells were obtained from the other four sites. TBNA could also diagnose the disease from the left hilar lymph node in one patient with sarcoidosis, an extra tracheal bronchogenic carcinoma in another patient and an extra bronchial metastasis in yet another patient where conventional bronchoscopic techniques failed. TBNA was found to be a safe, cost effective and valuable diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biopsy, Needle/methods , Bronchoscopy , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Retrospective Studies
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