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1.
Ciudad de México; s.n; 20221201. 109 p.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1401224

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los cuidados domiciliarios para los niños con enfermedades neoplásicas, representan costos sociales y económicos, además de posibles riesgos de infección. Por lo que, la importancia del cuidado de los menores ante las infecciones respiratorias virales durante la infancia radica en asegurar las correctas medidas de prevención del contagio. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la relación existente entre la competencia para el cuidado domiciliario y la presencia de infecciones respiratorias en los niños con tratamiento oncológico. Método: Estudio de enfoque cuantitativo, diseño correlacional, de corte transversal y descriptivo. La muestra se compone de 75 díadas. La competencia del cuidado domiciliario se midió con el instrumento CUIDAR. El análisis estadístico se realizó con el programa estadístico SPSS versión 25, utilizando estadística descriptiva y estadística inferencial no paramétrica. Resultados: La prevalencia de infecciones respiratorias fue del 4% para los menores con cuidadores con un nivel alto de competencia para el cuidado domiciliario, 12% para el nivel medio y 21.3%para el nivel bajo, mostrando dependencia entre las variables de estudio(X2=14.4, gl= 2, p=0.001). Además, se determinó una asociación (r=-.439, p<.001)entre las mismas. Discusión: La competencia con un nivel alto en los cuidados domiciliarios, supone un adecuado desempeño del rol como cuidador familiar con efecto en calidad de vida de la díada cuidador familiar-persona con cáncer. Conclusiones: A mayor competencia para el cuidado, menor la prevalencia de infecciones respiratorias; existiendo una relación entre la competencia para el cuidado domiciliario y la presencia de infecciones respiratorias en los niños con tratamiento oncológico.


Introduction: Home care for children with neoplastic diseases represents social and economic costs, as well as possible risks of infection. Therefore, the importance of caring for minors in the face of viral respiratory infections during childhood lies in ensuring the correct measures to prevent contagion. The objectiveof this study was to determine the relationship between competence for home care and the presence of respiratory infections in children undergoing cancer treatment. Method: Study of quantitative approach, correlational, cross-sectional and descriptive design. The sample consists of 75 dyads. Home care competence was measured with the CARE instrument. Statistical analysis was performed with the statistical program SPSS version 25.0, using descriptive statistics and non-parametric inferential statistics. Results: The prevalence of respiratory infections was 4% for children with caregivers with a high level of home care competence, 12% for the medium level and 21.3% for the low level, showing dependence between the study variables (X2=14.4, gl= 2, p=0.001). In addition, an association (r=-.439, p<.001) was determined between them. Discussion: The competence with a high level in home care supposes an adequate performance of the role as family caregiver with effect on quality of life of the family caregiver-person with a cancer dyad. Conclusions:The higher the caregiving competence, the lower the prevalence of respiratory infections; there is a relationship between home caregiving competence and the presence of respiratory infections in children undergoing cancer treatment.


Introdução: Os cuidados domiciliares para as crianças com doenças neoplásicas representam custos sociais e econômicos, além dos possíveis riscos de infecção. Por isso, a importância de tomar conta delas no que diz respeito às infecções respiratórias virais durante sua meninice radica em segurar as medidas adequadas para prevenir o contágio. O objetivo deste estúdio foi determinar a relação entre as infecções respiratórias nas crianças sob tratamento contra o cancro e a habilitação para lhes fornecer os cuidados em casa. Método: Estúdio da abordagem quantitativa, desenho correlacional, de corte transversal e descritivo. A amostra se compõe de 75 díades. A habilitação dos cuidados em casa foi medida com o instrumento TOMAR CONTA. A análise estatística se realizou com o programa estatístico SPSS, versão 25. Foi utilizada a estatística descritiva e a estatística inferencial não paramétrica. Resultados: A prevalência de infecções respiratórias foi de 4% para as crianças que receberam os cuidados em casa com um alto nível de efetividade; 12%, quando a efetividade dos cuidados foi intermediária; e para a baixa chegou até 21,3%. Isto demonstra a correlação entre as variáveis de estudo (X2= 14,4; gl= 2; p= 0,001). Além disso, se determinou uma associação (r= -,439; p<,001) entre elas. Discussão:A aptidão adequada para fornecer os cuidados em casa aponta que o responsável pela família desempenhou bem seu papel, o que fez com que houvesse repercussões positivas na qualidade de vida da díade "cuidador familiar-pessoa com câncer". Conclusões: Quanto maior é a proficiência para dar os cuidados, menor é o impacto das infecções respiratórias. Existe uma relação entre a habilitação para os cuidados em casa e a presença de infecções respiratórias nas crianças que recebem tratamentos oncológicos


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Home Nursing , Pediatrics , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , Mexico
2.
San Salvador; MINSAL; oct. 06, 2022. 22 p. ilus.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1402323

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones respiratorias agudas son una condición prevalente en la población de todas las edades, y es una causa frecuente de ausentismo laboral, estas infecciones pueden ser originadas por virus tales como el SARS-CoV-2, virus de la Influenza, parainfluenza, Virus Sincitial Respiratorio, entre otros, que se encuentran propagados alrededor del mundo, afectando todos los aspectos de la vida diaria, incluyendo viajes, comercio formal e informal, turismo, suministros de alimentos, mercados financieros, actividades sociales, culturales, religiosas etc. En general deben brindarse las condiciones necesarias de seguridad a los empleados, que permitan generar la confianza necesaria para desarrollar las actividades propias de cada organización. Los presentes lineamientos desarrollan las intervenciones que pueden aplicarse en las instituciones tanto del sector público como del sector privado para la adopción de medidas sanitarias, las cuales tienen como objetivo prevenir especialmente las infecciones respiratorias agudas de diseminación frecuente


Acute respiratory infections are a prevalent condition in the population of all ages, and is a frequent cause of work absenteeism, these infections can be caused by viruses such as SARS-CoV-2, influenza virus, parainfluenza, syncytial virus Respiratory, among others, that are spread around the world, affecting all aspects of daily life, including travel, formal and informal commerce, tourism, food supplies, financial markets, social, cultural, and religious activities, etc. In general, the necessary security conditions must be provided to employees, which allow them to generate the necessary confidence to develop the activities of each organization. These guidelines develop the interventions that can be applied in institutions, both in the public and private sectors, for the adoption of sanitary measures, whose objective is to prevent, in particular, frequently disseminated acute respiratory infections


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Public Sector , Private Sector , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , El Salvador , Infections
3.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(supl.2): 73-77, oct. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403614

ABSTRACT

Introduction: More than 90% of children infected with COVID-19 worldwide developed mild to moderate disease. In Colombia, during 2020, COVID-19 infections in children stayed below 9.2% of the total cases, with no trends for age group or sex. Objective: To estimate the incidence of acute respiratory symptoms and COVID-19 in children from public schools in Bogotá, Colombia during the second semester of 2020. Material and methods: A telephone survey was conducted in over 5,000 scholar children. Antecedents and use of health services were informed. Descriptive statistics were used. Results: A total of 151.470 persons per day accounting for an IR of 157,8 per 100,000 people; almost three times the rate reported by the official surveillance system in the city. Conclusion: A lack of diagnosis and consultation in children was found compared to the general population. Further research is needed to elucidate the true burden of the disease in children.


Introducción. Más del 90% de los niños infectados con COVID-19 en el mundo, desarrollaron enfermedad leve a moderada. En Colombia, durante el 2020, la infección del COVID-19 en niños se mantuvo por debajo de 9,2 % del total de los casos sin tendencias por grupo de edad o sexo. Objetivo. Estimar la incidencia de síntomas respiratorios agudos y COVID19 en niños de escuelas públicas en Bogotá (Colombia) durante el segundo semestre de 2020. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo una encuesta telefónica en más de 5.000 escolares. Se recolectó información de antecedentes médicos y uso de servicios de salud. La información obtenida se describió mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados. Se contabilizó un total de 151.470 personas al día para una tasa de incidencia de 157,8 en 100.000 personas, casi tres veces la tasa reportada por el sistema de vigilancia oficial de la ciudad. Conclusión. Se encontraron deficiencias en el diagnóstico y consulta de los niños, al compararlos con la población general. Se necesita más investigación para dilucidar la verdadera carga de la enfermedad en la población infantil.


Subject(s)
Child , Adolescent , Coronavirus Infections , Respiratory Tract Infections , Epidemiology , Communicable Diseases , Surveillance in Disasters
4.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 13(n.esp1): 1-10, set. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1396811

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar fatores que influenciam no cuidado às crianças com agravos respiratórios na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Métodos: Revisão integrativa realizada mediante pesquisa à Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, nas bases de dados LILACS, MEDLINE e IBECS, utilizando-se os descritores Infecções Respiratórias, Pneumonia, Asma, Atenção Primária à Saúde e Enfermagem, no período de 2014 a 2018. Foram identificadas 165 publicações, sendo selecionados 34 artigos na língua portuguesa. Os dados foram analisados por meio da análise de conteúdo temática. Resultados: Os resultados foram agrupados nas categorias: determinantes de saúde, resolutividade da atenção primária à saúde e prática de enfermagem. Constatou-se que as condições de nascimento, socioeconômicas e ambientais são os principais aspectos que determinam a manifestação ou complicação dos agravos respiratórios em crianças. Desse modo, também influenciam nas taxas de Internações por Condições Sensíveis à Atenção Primária. Para a redução dessas taxas evidencia-se a necessidade de ampliar a resolutividade da atenção primária à saúde por meio de ações de enfermagem. Conclusão: As ações de enfermagem para o manejo do cuidado dessas crianças na Atenção Primária à Saúde permitem reduzir o número de crianças com necessidade de atendimento de urgência/emergência ou hospitalização, promovendo o controle dos quadros respiratórios agudos e crônicos na atenção básica. (AU)


Objective: Identify factors that influence the care of children with respiratory diseases in Primary Health Care. Methods: Integrative review carried out through research to the Virtual Health Library, in the LILACS, MEDLINE and IBECS databases, using the descriptors Respiratory Infections, Pneumonia, Asthma, Primary Health Care and Nursing, from 2014 to 2018. 165 publications were identified, with 34 articles selected in Portuguese. The data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results: The results were grouped into the categories: health determinants, resolvability of Primary Health Care and nursing practice. It was found that birth, socioeconomic and environmental conditions are the main aspects that determine the manifestation or complication of respiratory disorders in children. Thus, they also influence the rates of Hospitalizations for Conditions Sensitive to Primary Care. To reduce these rates, the need to expand the resolution of Primary Health Care through nursing actions is evident. Conclusion: It is concluded that the nursing actions for managing the care of these children in Primary Health Care allow reducing the number of children in need of urgent / emergency care or hospitalization, promoting the control of acute and chronic respiratory conditions in care basic. (AU)


Objetivo: Identificar los factores que influyen en la atención de los niños con enfermedades respiratorias en la Atención Primaria de Salud. Metodos: Revisión integradora realizada por la investigación en la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, en las bases de datos LILACS, MEDLINE e IBECS, utilizando descriptores Infecciones Respiratorias, Neumonía, Asma, Atención Primaria de Salud y Enfermería, de 2014 a 2018. Se identificaron 165 publicaciones, con 34 artículos seleccionados en portugués. Los datos se analizaron mediante análisis de contenido temático. Resultados: Los resultados se agruparon en las categorías: determinantes de salud, resolubilidad de la Atención Primaria de Salud y práctica de enfermería. Las condiciones de nacimiento, socioeconómicas y ambientales que determinan la manifestación o complicación de los trastornos respiratorios en los niños. Por lo tanto, también influyen en las tasas de Hospitalizaciones por Afecciones Sensibles a la Atención Primaria. Para reducir estas tasas, es evidente la necesidad de ampliar la resolución de la Atención Primaria de Salud por acciones de enfermería. Conclusión: Se concluye que las acciones de enfermería para el manejo de la atención de estos niños en Atención Primaria de Salud permiten reducir el número de niños que necesitan atención de urgência/emergencia o hospitalización, promoviendo el control de las afecciones respiratorias agudas y crónicas en la atención básica. (AU)


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Pneumonia , Primary Health Care , Asthma , Nursing
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): 264-268, Agosto 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1372367

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Durante el 2020, la circulación de otros virus respiratorios fue inferior a lo acostumbrado. Es probable que, almodificarse las medidas de mitigación para la infección por el coronavirus 2019, dicha prevalencia haya aumentado en 2021. Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de virus respiratorioshabituales en pacientes de 0 a 5 años asistidos en Departamento de Urgencias de un hospital pediátrico de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Métodos. Estudio transversal con 348 pacientes que consultaronpor sospecha de enfermedad por el coronavirus 2019(COVID-19), en quienes se descartó dicha enfermedad y se realizó la pesquisa sistemática de virus respiratorios habitualesResultados. En el 40 % de los pacientes se identificó el virus sincicial respiratorio (VSR), un virus respiratorio habitual. La edad menor de 2 años se mostró como predictor independiente de VSR (razón de momios [OR]: 4,15; intervalos de confianza del 95 % [IC95 %]: 2,46-6,99). Conclusión. En la población estudiada, 40 % de los pacientes con sospecha de COVID-19 en quienes se descartó infección por SARS-CoV-2 presentaban infección por VSR.


Introduction. During 2020, circulation of other respiratory viruses was lower than usual. Most likely, as mitigation measures for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were modified, their prevalence in 2021 may have increased. Objective. To estimate the prevalence of common respiratory viruses among patients aged 0­5 years seen at the Emergency Department of a children's hospital in the City of Buenos Aires. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 348 patients consulting for suspected COVID-19 in whom SARS-CoV-2 infection was ruled out and routine screening for common respiratory viruses was performed. Results. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a common respiratory virus, was identified in 40% of patients. Age younger than 2 years was an independent predictor of RSV (odds ratio [OR]: 4.15; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.46­6.99). Conclusion. In the study population, 40% of patients suspected of COVID-19 in whom SARS-CoV-2 infection was ruled out had RSV infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Viruses , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Outpatients , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(2): 139-145, jul. 22, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1380070

ABSTRACT

Actualmente se estudia la importancia de los estilos de vida sobre el sistema inmunológico. Las infecciones virales respiratorias son una causa de morbimortalidad en el adulto y pueden ocasionar cuadros graves. Una dieta balanceada, el consumo de micronutrientes y el ejercicio, presentan posibles beneficios en la evolución de estas infecciones. Se realizó una revisión narrativa utilizando revisiones bibliográficas y artículos originales obtenidos por PubMed, SciELO, HINARI y Elsevier. Los estudios describen que el consumo de suplementos vitamínicos modula la susceptibilidad a agentes patógenos debido a su actividad antioxidante y permiten el funcionamiento adecuado de la inmunidad innata y adaptativa. Acompañados a ello, los lípidos y los carbohidratos de la dieta son elementos básicos de las células del sistema inmune que, acompañado de 45 minutos de ejercicio moderado, mejoran la respuesta inmune y reducen el riesgo de infecciones virales respiratorias. El consumo de micronutrientes, el ejercicio aeróbico de moderada intensidad y la dieta balanceada son factores que disminuyen la duración de los síntomas por infecciones virales respiratorias agudas en el adulto. Sin embargo, aún se desconoce exactamente el mecanismo de acción del ejercicio en el sistema inmune


The role of lifestyles on the immune system is currently being studied. Respiratory viral infections are a cause of morbidity and mortality in adults, and can cause serious conditions. A balanced diet, consumption of micronutrients and exercise have possible benefits in the evolution of these infections. A narrative review was carried out using bibliographic reviews and original articles obtained in PubMed, SciELO, HINARI and Elsevier. Studies describe that the consumption of vitamin supplements modulates the susceptibility to pathogens due to their antioxidant activity and allows the proper functioning of innate and adaptive immunity. Along with this, lipids and carbohydrates in the diet are basic elements of the immune system cells and, accompanied with 45 minutes of moderate exercise, improve the immune response and reduce the risk of respiratory viral infections. The consumption of micronutrients, moderate intensity aerobic exercise and a balanced diet, are factors that decrease the duration of symptoms due to acute respiratory viral infections in adults. However, the exact mechanism of action of exercise on the immune system is still unknown


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , Immunologic Factors , Life Style , Exercise , Morbidity , Life , Diet , El Salvador
8.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(1): e201, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1383630

ABSTRACT

Introducción: se describe a nivel mundial un aumento en la prescripción de macrólidos en niños y adolescentes, generando el riesgo de emergencia de cepas resistentes. Objetivo: caracterizar el uso de macrólidos en niños de 1 mes a 14 años hospitalizados en cuidados moderados e intensivos del Hospital Pediátrico del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell (HP-CHPR). Metodología: estudio descriptivo transversal de niños hospitalizados tratados con macrólidos en el HP-CHPR en 2018. Variables: tipo de macrólido, duración del tratamiento, estudios y hallazgos microbiológicos y diagnóstico al egreso. Resultados: recibieron macrólidos 334 niños, mediana de edad 13 meses, 58,4% varones. 71,0% en Unidad de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Predominó la prescripción de claritromicina (72,8%), durante los dos últimos cuatrimestres del año (77,5%) y por patología respiratoria (94%): bronquiolitis (23,3%), infección aguda no especificada de las vías respiratorias inferiores (21,9%) y crisis asmática (19,1%). Mediana de tratamiento con azitromicina y claritromicina 5 y 8 días respectivamente. Se realizaron estudios microbiológicos en 96,1% sin determinarse microorganismo en 58,3%. Conclusiones: se destaca el uso de macrólidos principalmente en la UTI y por patología respiratoria. La prescripción por fuera de las recomendaciones nacionales vigentes y la baja confirmación microbiológica que apoye el uso fueron los mayores problemas detectados, por lo que parece fundamental establecer estrategias tendientes a promover un uso racional de estos antibióticos.


Introduction: literature has described a global increase in the prescription of macrolides to children and adolescents , which has increased the risk of emergence of resistant strains. Objective: to characterize the use of macrolides in children from 1 month to 14 years of age hospitalized at the moderate and intensive care units of the Pereira Rossell Pediatric Hospital Center (HP-CHPR). Methodology: descriptive cross-sectional study of hospitalized children treated with macrolides at the HP-CHPR in 2018. Variables: macrolide type, treatment duration, microbiological studies and findings, and diagnosis at discharge. Results: 334 children received macrolides, median age 13 months, 58.4% males. 71.0% hospitalized atnan Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Clarithromycin was mainly prescribed in 72.8% of the cases, during the last two quarters of the year (77.5%), due to respiratory disease (94%): bronchiolitis (23.3%), lower respiratory tract unspecified acute infection (21.9%) and asthma crisis (19.1%). Median treatment included Azithromycin and Clarithromycin for 5 and 8 days respectively. Microbiological studies were carried out in 96.1% of the cases and 58.3% did not show the presence of microorganisms. Conclusions: the use of macrolides stands out, mainly at ICUs and due to respiratory pathologies. The main problems identified were prescriptions made outside the framework of the present national recommendations and the low microbiological confirmation for their use, which suggests it is essential to set strategies to promote a more rational use of these antibiotics.


Introdução: a literatura descreve um aumento a nível global na prescrição de macrolídeos para crianças e adolescentes, o que tem aumentado o risco de surgimento de cepas resistentes. Objetivo: caracterizar o uso de macrolídeos em crianças de 1 mês a 14 anos de idade internadas nas unidades de terapia moderada e intensiva do Centro Hospitalar Pediátrico Pereira Rossell (HP-CHPR). Metodologia: estudo transversal descritivo de crianças hospitalizadas tratadas com macrolídeos no HP-CHPR em 2018. Variáveis: tipo de macrolídeo, duração do tratamento, estudos e achados microbiológicos e diagnóstico no momento da alta. Resultados: 334 crianças receberam macrolídeos, idade mediana de 13 meses, 58,4% do sexo masculino. 71,0% internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). A Claritromicina foi prescrita principalmente em 72,8% dos casos, nos últimos dois trimestres do ano (77,5%), devido a doença respiratória (94%): bronquiolite (23,3%), infecção aguda não especificada do trato respiratório inferior (21,9%) e crise de asma (19,1%). O tratamento médio incluiu Azitromicina e Claritromicina por 5 e 8 dias, respectivamente. Estudos microbiológicos foram realizados em 96,1% dos casos e 58,3% não evidenciaram a presença de microrganismos. Conclusões: destaca-se o uso de macrolídeos, principalmente em UTIs, e devido a patologias respiratórias. Os principais problemas identificados foram as prescrições feitas fora das atuais recomendações nacionais e a baixa confirmação microbiológica para sua utilização, o que sugere que é essencial definir estratégias para promover uma utilização mais racional destes antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Macrolides/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Uruguay/epidemiology , Child, Hospitalized , Cross-Sectional Studies , Clarithromycin/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage
9.
Más Vita ; 4(2): 227-243, jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1392265

ABSTRACT

La neumonía es una infección respiratoria que afecta a los pulmones y puede llevar a la muerte. Los niños menores de 5 años pueden adquirir la enfermedad a través de bacterias, virus y hongos, lo cual puede generarse por ciertos factores ambientales no propicios. Objetivos: Validar el instrumento para medir los factores ambientales asociados a neumonía en niños menores de 5 años que acuden a consulta externa del hospital Martin Icaza del Cantón Babahoyo, julio - diciembre 2020; determinar la confiabilidad del instrumento para medir los factores ambientales asociados a neumonía en niños menores de 5 años. Materiales y métodos: Se utiliza un diseño no experimental, con enfoque mixto, método deductivo, de tipo transversal, de campo, prospectivo. Se aplicó un plan piloto con el fin de identificar la validez, coherencia y pertinencia del instrumento, y a su vez determinar la confiabilidad del mismo con base al criterio de expertos. El componente cuantitativo constó de un plan piloto a 16 padres, donde 8 niños padecían neumonía, mientras los 8 restantes no; en tanto que la entrevista se realizó a dos representantes de niños con neumonía. Resultados: La validación de los instrumentos vino dada por tres profesionales que fueron seleccionados por su experiencia y prestigio, estos calificaron la validez, pertinencia y coherencia donde se obtuvo la ponderación de muy confiable. Los resultados mostraron que la enfermedad se transmite por contacto con personas que padecen estas enfermedades (62.5%), los principales síntomas son la tos, fiebre y dolor de garganta (50.0%), las personas viven con 4 o 5 personas en la misma casa (56.3%) y poseen animales (75.0%). Se identificó efectos emocionales negativos, tales como desesperación, ansiedad, tristeza, depresión e impotencia. Conclusión: El instrumento analizado es válido, coherente y pertinente, siendo muy confiable para su aplicación(AU)


Pneumonia is a respiratory infection that affects the lungs and can lead to death. Children under 5 years of age can acquire the disease through bacteria, viruses and fungi, which can be generated by certain unfavorable environmental factors. Objectives: To validate the instrument to measure the environmental factors associated with pneumonia in children under 5 years of age who attend the outpatient clinic of the Martin Icaza hospital in Babahoyo Canton, July - December 2020; determine the reliability of the instrument to measure the environmental factors associated with pneumonia in children under 5 years of age. Materials and methods: A non-experimental design is used, with a mixed approach, deductive method, cross-sectional, field, prospective. A pilot plan was applied in order to identify the validity, coherence and relevance of the instrument, and in turn determine its reliability based on expert criteria. The quantitative component consisted of a pilot plan for 16 parents, where 8 children suffered from pneumonia, while the remaining 8 did not; while the interview was conducted with two representatives of children with pneumonia. Results: The validation of the instruments was given by three professionals who were selected for their experience and prestige, they qualified the validity, relevance and coherence where the weighting of very reliable was obtained. The results showed that the disease is transmitted by contact with people suffering from these diseases (62.5%), the main symptoms are cough, fever and sore throat (50.0%), people live with 4 or 5 people in the same house (56.3%) and own animals (75.0%). Negative emotional effects were identified, such as despair, anxiety, sadness, depression and helplessness. Conclusion: The analyzed instrument is valid, coherent and pertinent, being very reliable for its application(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Pneumonia/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child Health , Validation Study , Bacteria , Viruses , Environment , Fungi
10.
Univ. salud ; 24(1): 76-84, ene.-abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1361188

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La COVID-19 es una enfermedad que desencadena infecciones respiratorias graves como el síndrome respiratorio agudo severo, que puede requerir atención prolongada intra y extrahospitalaria. Objetivo: Brindar recomendaciones y pautas para una correcta evaluación y tratamiento del paciente con COVID-19 mediante la rehabilitación pulmonar. Materiales y métodos: Revisión de la literatura en las bases de datos MEDLINE, PEDRO, Scielo y en Google Scholar, a partir de las palabras clave: COVID-19, Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto, Enfermedades pulmonares, Rehabilitación, pruebas de función respiratoria, Unidad de cuidado intensivo; seleccionando, aquellos artículos que presentaran información sobre rehabilitación en pacientes con COVID-19 y otras alteraciones con compromiso similar como el Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo y las Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales Difusas. Resultados: Para realizar una intervención en paciente con COVID-19 u otra alteración respiratoria como Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto y Enfermedad Pulmonar Intersticial Difusa, es necesario realizar un adecuado diagnóstico de la enfermedad, una minuciosa evaluación integral y una intervención basada en las necesidades de cada individuo. Conclusiones: El paciente intrahospitalario puede recibir intervención enfocada a evitar el deterioro funcional y una vez son dados de alta la rehabilitación pulmonar extrahospitalaria podría ser una alternativa eficaz en el tratamiento para los pacientes.


Introduction: COVID-19 is a disease that triggers serious respiratory infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, which requires treatment on an inpatient and outpatient basis. Objective: To provide recommendations and guidelines for the appropriate assessment and treatment of COVID-19 patients through pulmonary rehabilitation. Materials and methods: A literature review using MEDLINE, PEDRO, Scielo and Google Scholar databases and the keywords: COVID-19, Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Pulmonary diseases, Rehabilitation, Respiratory function tests, Intensive Care Unit. Articles that described information regarding rehabilitation in COVID-19 patients and other similar dysfunctions such as Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Diffuse Interstitial Lung Diseases. Results: It is necessary to carry out an appropriate disease diagnosis, a detailed integral assessment, and an intervention based on the needs of each patient in order to intervene with either COVID-19 patients or cases with other respiratory dysfunctions such as Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Diffuse Interstitial Lung Disease. Conclusions: Inpatients can be subjected to an intervention focused on avoiding functional failure. Once they are discharged, outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation could be an effective treatment alternative for these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rehabilitation , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiratory Tract Infections , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Critical Care , Lung Diseases
13.
Rio de Janeiro; SES-RJ; 26/02/2022. 23 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-RJ | ID: biblio-1391063

ABSTRACT

Esta edição do boletim apresenta a análise do total de casos confirmados de COVID-19 de residentes no estado do Rio de Janeiro e suas nove regiões de saúde, incluindo os casos de Síndrome Gripal (SG) ou casos leves, as internações ou casos de Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave (SRAG) e os óbitos, ocorridos desde o início da pandemia em 2020 até 26 de fevereiro de 2022 (8ª Semana Epidemiológica).


Subject(s)
Public Health/standards , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Specimen Handling/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Research/classification
14.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Dirección General de Intervenciones Estratégicas en Salud Pública. Dirección de Prevención y Control de Tuberculosis. Dirección de Promoción de la Salud; 1 ed; Feb. 2022. 128 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1357755

ABSTRACT

La publicación, cuyos contenidos se agrupan en cinco sesiones: sesión 1, "Prácticas y entornos para mantener la salud respiratoria"; sesión 2, "Conociendo la tuberculosis"; sesión 3, "Prevenimos la tuberculosis"; sesión 4, "Importancia de la adherencia al tratamiento de la tuberculosis"; sesión 5 "¡Nos preparamos para nuestras visitas domiciliarias!" en el caso de la modalidad presencial y "¡Nos preparamos para acompañar a la Persona Afectada por Tuberculosis - PAT y su familia!" en la modalidad virtual. Asimismo, se plantea desde el enfoque del aprendizaje de adultos, elaborado para la modalidad presencial y modalidad virtual, a partir de una metodología activa participativa. Las sesiones consideran diversas dinámicas, cuya aplicación es flexible por lo que pueden adaptarse de acuerdo a las características de cada grupo


Subject(s)
Patient Escort Service , Respiration Disorders , Respiratory Tract Infections , Tuberculosis , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Community Health Workers , Patient-Centered Care , Health Promotion
15.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Dirección General de Intervenciones Estratégicas en Salud Pública. Dirección de Prevención y Control de Tuberculosis. Dirección de Promoción de la Salud; 1 ed; Feb. 2022. 44 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1357751

ABSTRACT

La cartilla, a través de fichas pedagógicas, te brinda información sobre los conceptos básicos de la salud respiratoria y todo lo que necesitas saber como agente comunitario para que realices la promoción de la salud a las personas afectadas con tuberculosis, a sus familias y la comunidad de su entorno inmediato


Subject(s)
Patient Escort Service , Respiration Disorders , Respiratory Tract Infections , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Community Health Workers , Patient-Centered Care , Disease Prevention , Health Promotion
16.
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 50(3): 220-231, 20220000. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1400914

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los errores innatos de la inmunidad, previamente conocidos como inmunodeficiencias primarias, son un grupo heterogéneo de patologías cuya presentación clínica incluye infecciones recurrentes, persistentes o refractarias al tratamiento en el campo de la otorrinolaringología. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura a partir de la búsqueda de documentos en PUBMED y EMBASE. Discusión y conclusiones: Los pacientes con sospecha de error innato de la inmunidad requieren un diagnóstico temprano con el fin de disminuir las complicaciones a largo plazo, por lo que la valoración y el abordaje inicial desempeñan un papel fundamental en el reconocimiento de estas enfermedades.


Introduction: Inborn errors of immunity, previously known as primary immunodeficiencies, are a heterogeneous group of pathologies whose clinical presentation includes recurrent, persistent and/or refractory infections to treatment in otorhinolaryngology. Materials and methods: Narrative review of the literature was carried out from the search for articles in PUBMED and EMBASE. Discussion and conclusions: Patients with suspected inborn error of immunity require an early diagnosis to reduce long-term complications; the initial assessment and approach play a fundamental role in the recognition of these diseases


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/diagnosis , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/diagnosis , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology
17.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(3): 518-525, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1397152

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones del tracto respiratorio (ITR) son una de las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad en todo el mundo, y representan el 4,4 % de las muertes en todas las edades. A nivel mundial, se han observado disminuciones en la mortalidad causada por las ITR después de la introducción de las vacunas conjugadas contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b, tos ferina y neumocócica. Sin embargo, las ITR siguen siendo una de las principales causas de mortalidad entre los niños pequeños y los ancianos en los países de ingresos bajos y medios. Se planteó un estudio donde se aplicó un sistema de seguimiento que sirvan para monitorear la vigilancia de las infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA) en servicios de salud, por laboratorio y en unidades centinela en Perú. Participaron 67 médicos generales o cirujanos de 8 servicios de pediatría. 1453 casos de las IRA fueron de etiología viral, identificando al virus sincitial respiratorio (63,94%), Influenza AH1N1 (16,59%); en el caso de las neumonías bacterianas se aislaron Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae y Streptococcus beta hemolyticus. Durante la última década de reforma del sistema de salud, Perú ha hecho de la construcción de su sistema de APS una prioridad. Sin embargo, el sistema se enfrenta actualmente a desafíos para proporcionar atención de alta calidad y valor a la población debido a deficiencias en varias dimensiones. El sistema de APS ayudará a responder a la transición epidemiológica actual y futura epidemia brotes de manera más eficaz(AU)


Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, accounting for 4.4% of deaths in all ages. Globally, declines in mortality from RTIs have been observed after the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b, pertussis, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. However, RTIs remain a leading cause of mortality among young children and the elderly in low- and middle-income countries. A study was proposed where a monitoring system was applied to monitor the surveillance of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in health services, by laboratory and in sentinel units in Peru. A total of 67 general practitioners or surgeons from 8 pediatric services participated. 1453 cases of ARI were of viral aetiology, identifying the respiratory syncytial virus (63.94%), Influenza AH1N1 (16.59%); in the case of bacterial pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus beta hemolyticus were isolated. During the last decade of health system reform, Peru has made building its PHC system a priority. However, the system currently faces challenges in providing high quality and value care to the population due to deficiencies in several dimensions. The PHC system will help respond to current epidemiological transition and future epidemic outbreaks more effectively(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Respiratory Tract Infections , Health Systems , Environmental Monitoring , Vaccines, Conjugate , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Whooping Cough , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Haemophilus influenzae type b , SARS Virus , Influenza, Human
18.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1398811

ABSTRACT

El material particulado (PM) es uno de los contaminantes más importantes presentes en el aire, representando un riesgo medioambiental para la salud. Las partículas con un diámetro de 10 micrones o menos (PM10), al ser inhalables, pueden penetrar y alojarse profundamente en los pulmones, contribuyendo al riesgo de desarrollar enfermedades cardiovasculares y respiratorias, así como cáncer de pulmón, enfermedades mentales, dermatitis, daño ocular e incluso al aumento en las tasas de mortalidad. Se estableció como objetivo determinar la calidad del aire interior asociada a la inmisión de material particulado (PM10) en la zona este 2, un sector industrial ubicado en los distritos san juan de Lurigancho y Lurigancho-Chosica, Perú. Para tal fin, se propone el uso de indicadores duales: ecológicos y sociales. De acuerdo a los indicadores ecológicos explorados, la concentración media de PM10 en el aire exterior (CME) superó el límite de 100 µg/m3 establecido por MINAM. Aunque la mediana de CME (93,7µg/m3; IC 95%=89,07-98,33) estuvo por debajo de este límite, el cuartil superior lo superó, entendido por elevaciones puntuales de hasta 131 µg/m3 (Figura 2), potencialmente dañinos para la salud humana. El coeficiente de correlación de Spearman de 0,921, obtenido del análisis bivariado entre los valores de concentración media diaria de PM10 exterior e interior, previo a la instalación de filtros en los sistemas de ventilación, es sugerente del efecto que puede tener la inmisión de aire ambiental con material particulado como vector de la contaminación del aire interior. al considerar los valores de la concentración media diaria, obtenidos en los 15 días posteriores a la instalación de los filtros (CMIFI), se observa que la concentración media de PM10 en el interior disminuyó en relación a la quincena anterior. El coeficiente de correlación de Spearman de 0,869 entre los indicadores CMIFI y CME, permite proponer que, en esta segunda fase, la calidad del aire interior fue influenciada en menor proporción por la contaminación de material particulado del aire ambiental, es decir que se presentó menos inmisión de PM10, gracias al proceso de filtrado, lo que disminuye el riesgo para la salud de los trabajadores(AU)


Particulate matter (PM) is one of the most important pollutants present in the air, representing an environmental risk to health. Particles with a diameter of 10 microns or less (PM10), being inhalable, can penetrate and lodge deep in the lungs, contributing to the risk of developing cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, as well as lung cancer, mental illness, dermatitis, eye damage and even increased mortality rates. The objective was to determine the indoor air quality associated with the immission of particulate matter (PM10) in East Zone 2, an industrial sector located in the districts of San Juan de Lurigancho and Lurigancho-Chosica, Peru. To this end, the use of dual indicators is proposed: ecological and social. According to the ecological indicators explored, the average concentration of PM10 in outdoor air (CME) exceeded the limit of 100 µg/m3 established by MINAM. Although the CME median (93.7µg/m3; 95% CI=89.07-98.33) was below this limit, the upper quartile exceeded it, understood as point elevations of up to 131µg/m3 (Figure 2 ), potentially harmful to human health. Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.921, obtained from the bivariate analysis between the daily average concentration values of outdoor and indoor PM10, prior to the installation of filters in the ventilation systems, is suggestive of the effect that the immission of ambient air can have with particulate matter as a vector of indoor air pollution. When considering the values of the average daily concentration, obtained in the 15 days after the installation of the filters (CMIFI), it is observed that the average concentration of PM10 in the interior decreased in relation to the previous fortnight. Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.869 between the CMIFI and CME indicators allows us to propose that, in this second phase, indoor air quality was influenced to a lesser extent by particulate matter contamination in the ambient air, that is, there was less PM10 immission, thanks to the filtering process, which reduces the risk to the health of workers(AU)


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Occupational Health , Air Pollution, Indoor , Environmental Hazards , Environmental Pollutants , Sodium , Sulfates , Cardiovascular Diseases , Filters , Chlorides , Ammonia , Nitrates
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the effectiveness of Jiuwei Zhuhuang Powder (JWZH), a Tibetan patent medicine in treating upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) associated cough in children.@*METHODS@#The study was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled trial. A total of 142 children aged 2 to 14 years old, with URTI-associated cough within 48 h of onset, were randomly assigned to two groups at a 1:1 ratio by computer-generated randomization sequence. Children were treated with JWZH (1 to 1.5 g, twice to thrice daily) in the treatment group or conventional treatment (Pediatric Paracetamol, Artificial Cow-bezoar and Chlorphenamine Maleate Granules, 0.25 to 1 g, thrice daily) in the control group for 5 days. The primary endpoints were the time to cough resolution and 4-day cough resolution rate. The secondary endpoints were the daily improvement in symptom scores and cough resolution rate during the study period.@*RESULTS@#A total of 138 children were included in the intention-to-treat analysis, with 71 cases in the treatment group and 67 cases in the control group. Compared with the conventional treatment, the children receiving JWZH had a shorter time to cough resolution [hazard ratio, 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29-3.40; P=0.003]. The median time to cough resolution for children receiving JWZH was shorter than that of the conventional treatment (2 days vs. 3 days; P<0.001). The 4-day cough resolution rate in the JWZH group was higher than that of the control group (94.4% vs. 74.6%; risk difference: 19.8%, 95% CI: 8.1%-31.5%; relative risk: 1.265, 95% CI: 1.088-1.470; P=0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in the improvement of other symptoms caused by URTI (P>0.05). Adverse events was reported in 5.6% (4/71) and 4.5% (3/67) in participants of JWZH and PPACCM groups (P>0.05), respectively, which were all mild and resolved without treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#JWZH seemed to be a safe and effective therapy for URTI-associated cough in children. (Trial registration No. ChiCTR2000039421).


Subject(s)
Child , Cough/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Nonprescription Drugs , Powders , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939661

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the clinical features and gene mutation sites of children with cystic fibrosis (CF), in order to improve the understanding of CF to reduce misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical records of 8 children with CF who were diagnosed in Hebei Children's Hospital from 2018 to 2021.@*RESULTS@#Among the 8 children with CF, there were 5 boys and 3 girls, with an age of 3-48 months (median 8 months) at diagnosis, and the age of onset ranged from 0 to 24 months (median 2.5 months). Clinical manifestations included recurrent respiratory infection in 7 children, sinusitis in 3 children, bronchiectasis in 4 children, diarrhea in 8 children, fatty diarrhea in 3 children, suspected pancreatic insufficiency in 6 children, pancreatic cystic fibrosis in 1 child, malnutrition in 5 children, and pseudo-Bartter syndrome in 4 children. The most common respiratory pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4 children). A total of 16 mutation sites were identified by high-throughput sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and Sanger sequencing, including 5 frameshift mutations, 4 nonsense mutations, 4 missense mutations, 2 exon deletions, and 1 splice mutation. CFTR mutations were found in all 8 children. p.G970D was the most common mutation (3 children), and F508del mutation was observed in one child. Four novel mutations were noted: deletion exon15, c.3796_3797dupGA(p.I1267Kfs*12), c.2328dupA(p.V777Sfs*2), and c.2950G>A(p.D984N).@*CONCLUSIONS@#p.G970D is the most common mutation type in children with CF. CF should be considered for children who have recurrent respiratory infection or test positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with or without digestive manifestations or pseudo-Bartter syndrome.


Subject(s)
Bartter Syndrome , Child, Preschool , Cystic Fibrosis/genetics , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/genetics , Diarrhea , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mutation , Respiratory Tract Infections , Retrospective Studies
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