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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): S171-S197, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281039

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones respiratorias agudas bajas (IRAB) continúan representando una importante causa de morbimortalidad en nuestro medio. El manejo normatizado de casos constituye una valiosa herramienta para enfrentarlas.Además de los aspectos relacionados con el diagnóstico y tratamiento de estas enfermedades, el análisis de factores de riesgo (tanto biológicos como socioambientales), desde una perspectiva local y actual, permitie implementar medidas efectivas de control y/o prevención, así como identificar aquellos pacientes susceptibles de presentar formas graves o complicaciones.Desde 1996 la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría asumió el desafío de generar un documento que guíe el manejo integral de los pacientes con IRAB. En esta cuarta actualización se incluyen los últimos adelantos en el tema.


Acute lower respiratory infections (ARI) continue being an important cause of morbidity and mortality in our region. Standardized case management is a valuable tool to deal with them.In addition to aspects related to the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases, the analysis of risk factors (both biological and socio-environmental) from a local and current perspective, allows the implementation of effective control and/or prevention measures, as well as identifying those patients susceptible to presenting serious forms or complications.Since 1996, the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría asumed the challenge of generating a document that guides the comprehensive management of patients with ARI. This fourth update includes the latest advances on the subject.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/therapy , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Bronchiolitis/diagnosis , Bronchiolitis/therapy , Bronchiolitis/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Risk Factors
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(3): 202-207, Junio 2021. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1222985

ABSTRACT

Se presenta una serie de casos de inmunodeficiencias primarias y se describen las variables asociadas a supervivencia en pacientes ≤ 16 años. Los diagnósticos fueron acordes a los criterios de la Unión Internacional de las Sociedades de Inmunología. Se realizó un análisis de supervivencia mediante curvas de Kaplan-Meier.Entre los años 2004 y 2019, se diagnosticaron 40 pacientes con inmunodeficiencias primarias. Las más frecuentes fueron inmunodeficiencias que afectaban la inmunidad celular y humoral, el 32,5 %, y deficiencias predominantemente de anticuerpos, el 32,5 %. La mediana de edad al inicio de los síntomas y al momento del diagnóstico fue de 3,01 y 10,4 meses, respectivamente. Fallecieron el 35 % y el riesgo fue mayor en pacientes con inmunodeficiencias que afectaban la inmunidad celular y humoral y en quienes presentaron manifestaciones clínicas y tuvieron el diagnóstico en los primeros seis meses de vida.


A case series of primary immunodeficiencies is presented and outcome measures associated with survival among patients ≤ 16 years old are described. Diagnoses were made based on the criteria by the International Union of Immunological Societies. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves.Between 2004 and 2019, 40 patients were diagnosed with primary immunodeficiencies. The most common were immunodeficiencies affecting humoral and cell-mediated immunity (32.5 %) and predominantly antibody deficiencies (32.5 %). The median age at the onset of symptoms and at the time of diagnosis was 3.01 and 10.4 months, respectively. Thirty-five percent of patients died, and the risk was higher among those with immunodeficiencies affecting humoral and cell-mediated immunity and those who developed clinical manifestations and were diagnosed in the first 6 months of life


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/epidemiology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/epidemiology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/diagnosis , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/therapy , Hospitals, Public , Immune System , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/diagnosis , Infections/epidemiology , Mexico
3.
Medisan ; 25(2)mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1250344

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los virus constituyen las causas más frecuentes de infección respiratoria aguda, aunque el diagnóstico causal suele ser empírico dada la complejidad de su aislamiento. Objetivo: Caracterizar a pacientes menores de 5 años de edad con infecciones respiratorias agudas, según variables epidemiológicas, clínicas e imagenológicas. Métodos: Se efectuó una investigación descriptiva y transversal de 171 pacientes con infecciones respiratorias agudas y aislamiento viral mediante exudado nasofaríngeo profundo, egresados del Servicio de Neonatología del Hospital Docente Infantil Sur Antonio María Béguez César de Santiago de Cuba, desde el 2014 hasta el 2016, para lo cual se realizaron cálculos de frecuencias y porcentajes. Resultados: Predominaron los lactantes (57,9 %), el sexo masculino y los afectados con diagnósticos de neumonía (40,9 %) y bronquiolitis (28,0 %) por virus sincitial respiratorio y rinovirus. La supresión precoz de lactancia materna y tabaquismo fueron los factores de riesgo prevalentes. Tanto la fiebre como la tos y las secreciones nasales resultaron preponderantes, e infrecuentes las complicaciones. La consolidación alveolar prevaleció en pacientes con neumonía. Conclusiones: Se caracterizó epidemiológica y clínicamente a los pacientes con virus respiratorios y se evidenció discordancia con el predominio del patrón de infiltrado alveolar descrito en la bibliografía médica consultada.


Introduction: Viruses constitute the most frequent causes in acute respiratory infection, although the causal diagnosis is usually empiric given the complexity of its isolation. Objective: To characterize patients under 5 years with acute respiratory infections, according to epidemiological, clinical and imaging variables. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional investigation of 171 patients with acute respiratory infections and viral isolation was carried out by means of deep nasopharyngeal swab. They were discharged from the Neonatology Service of Antonio María Béguez César Southern Children Teaching Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from 2014 to 2016, for which calculations of frequencies and percentages were carried out. Results: There was a prevalence of infants (57.9 %), the male sex and those affected patients with diagnosis of pneumonia (40.9 %) and bronchiolitis (28.0 %) due to respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus. The early suppression of breast feeding and nicotine addiction were the prevalent risk factors. Both fever and cough and the nasal secretions were preponderant, and the complications were infrequent. The alveolar consolidation prevailed in patients with pneumonia. Conclusions: Patients with respiratory virus were clinically and epidemiologically characterized and conflict with the pattern prevalence of alveolar infiltrates described in the consulted medical literature was evidenced.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency , Secondary Care , Child, Preschool
4.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(1): e1580, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156557

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El SARS-CoV-2 es un coronavirus nuevo poco conocido, su puerta de entrada es la respiratoria. La vulnerabilidad espacial establece grados de riesgos para contraer la enfermedad, esto permite aplicar intervenciones radicales y diferentes, necesarias para enfrentar la pandemia. Objetivo: Determinar la vulnerabilidad espacial de la Covid-19 en policlínicos de Arroyo Naranjo, La Habana. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal. Las siete áreas de salud del municipio Arroyo Naranjo. Con una población territorial. Se estudiaron adultos de 60 años y más, casos positivos y mortalidad por Covid-19, con infección respiratoria aguda, sintomatología y vulnerabilidad espacial. Los policlínicos se estratificaron en contextos vulnerables, medianamente vulnerables y menos vulnerables. La estratificación epidemiológica se realizó mediante el método de indicadores con ponderación fija, establecidos según criterios de expertos. Los datos se obtuvieron del departamento de estadística de los policlínicos y de la pesquisa diaria. Resultados: Los policlínicos estratificados como de contexto menos vulnerable fueron Capri, Managua y Eléctrico; mientras que como contexto medianamente vulnerable fueron Los Pinos, Mantilla y Grimau y de contexto vulnerable resultó el policlínico Párraga. Conclusiones: Existieron contextos vulnerables en el territorio, con una influencia negativa de los indicadores no bien controlados que favorecen la aparición de la Covid-19, lo que expresa el peligro de contraer la enfermedad o de un rebrote(AU)


Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is a little-known new coronavirus, its entry point is the respiratory way. The spatial vulnerability establishes degrees of risks to contract the disease, this allows the application of radical and different interventions, necessary to face the pandemic. Objective: To determine Covid-19 spatial vulnerability at polyclinics in Arroyo Naranjo, Havana. Method: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in the seven health areas at Arroyo Naranjo municipality, with territorial population. We studied adults aged 60 years and over, positive cases and mortality from Covid-19, with acute respiratory infection, symptoms and spatial vulnerability. The community clinics were stratified into vulnerable, moderately vulnerable and lesser vulnerable contexts. Epidemiological stratification was carried out using the method of indicators with fixed weights, established according to expert criteria. Data were obtained from the statistics department of the clinics and from the daily survey. Results: The community clinics stratified as having less vulnerable context were Capri, Managua and Eléctrico; while Los Pinos, Mantilla and Grimau were a moderately vulnerable context and Párraga clinic resulted as a vulnerable context. Conclusions: There were vulnerable contexts in the territory, with a negative influence of poorly controlled indicators that favor the appearance of Covid-19, which expresses the danger of contracting the disease or a regrowth(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Social Vulnerability Index , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879811

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the detection rate, epidemic pattern, and clinical features of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI).@*METHODS@#Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children with ALRI, aged < 2 years, who were hospitalized in Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from June 2013 to May 2018. Multiplex PCR was used to detect 16 common respiratory viruses. The epidemiological characteristics of RSV were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 2 066 hospitalized children with ALRI were enrolled. Among the children, 1 595 (77.20%) tested positive for virus and 826 (39.98%) tested positive for RSV [410(49.6%) positive for RSV-A, 414 (50.1%) positive for RSV-B, and 2 (0.2%) positive for both RSV-A and RSV-B]. RSV-B was the main subtype detected in 2013-2014 and 2016-2017, while RSV-A was the main subtype in 2014-2015 and 2017-2018, and these two subtypes were prevalent in 2015-2016. The highest detection rate of RSV was noted in winter. RSV + human rhinovirus was the most common combination of viruses and was detected in 123 children. These children were more likely to develop wheezing than those with single RSV detected (@*CONCLUSIONS@#In Chongqing in 2013-2018, RSV-A and RSV-B not only can predominate alternately, but also can co-circulate during a season. RSV is the major viral pathogen of hospitalized children with ALRI and can cause severe lower respiratory tract infection. There are no differences in clinical manifestations between children with RSV-A infection and those with RSV-B infection, but boys are more susceptible to RSV-A infection.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
6.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(4): 161-163, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362084

ABSTRACT

La contaminación ambiental afecta a más del 90% de la población mundial, y es considerado un factor de morbi-mortalidad respiratoria desde mediados de 1900. Sin embargo, al día de hoy las políticas públicas no han logrado mejorar en forma sustancial la calidad del aire. Siendo causante de más de 3.7 millones de muertes anuales según datos OMS. Los niños son los principales afectados debido a diferencias anatómicas, fisiológicas y de estilos de vida. Dentro de las complicaciones más frecuentes se encuentran las infecciones respiratorias, pero además puede verse afectado el desarrollo neurológico, patologías oncológicas, enfermedades crónicas (diabetes y asma), alteraciones cardiovasculares, malformaciones congénitas y salud mental entre otros. En el siguiente artículo se revisará la evidencia científica en relación a la contaminación ambiental, como afecta al sistema inmune y el microbioma, generando un aumento en las infecciones respiratorias de los niños.


Environmental pollution affects more than 90% of the world population, and is considered a factor of respiratory morbidity and mortality since the mid-1900s. However, to date public policies have not substantially improved air quality. Being the cause of more than 3.7 million deaths annually according to data from the World Health Organization (WHO), children are more susceptible due to anatomical, physiological and lifestyle differences with adults. Respiratory infections are among the most frequent complications, but neurological development, oncological pathologies, chronic diseases (diabetes and asthma), cardiovascular disorders, congenital malformations and mental health, can be attributed to pollution. The following article will review the scientific evidence of environmental pollution, how it affects the immune system and the microbiome, generating an increase in respiratory infections in children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology
7.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(4): 263-269, Jul.-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249909

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Acute respiratory infections are the second cause of mortality in children younger than five years, with 150.7 million episodes per year. Human orthopneumovirus (hOPV) and metapneumovirus (hMPV) are the first and second causes of bronchiolitis; type 2 human orthorubulavirus (hORUV) has been associated with pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Objective: To define hOPV, hMPV and hORUV geographical distribution and circulation patterns. Method: An observational, prospective cross-sectional pilot study was carried out. Two-hundred viral strains obtained from pediatric patients were genotyped by endpoint reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: One-hundred and eighty-six positive samples were typed: 84 hOPV, 43 hMPV, two hORUV and 57 co-infection specimens. Geographical distribution was plotted. hMPV, hOPV, and hORUV cumulative incidences were 0.215, 0.42, and 0.01, respectively. Cumulative incidence of hMPV-hORUV and hMPV-hOPV coinfection was 0.015 and 0.23; for hOPV-hMPV-hORUV, 0.035; and for hORUV-hOPV, 0.005. The largest number of positive cases of circulating or co-circulating viruses occurred between January and March. Conclusions: This study successfully identified circulation and geographical distribution patterns of the different viruses, as well as of viral co-infections.


Resumen Introducción: Las infecciones respiratorias agudas constituyen la segunda causa de mortalidad en los niños menores de cinco años, con 150.7 millones de episodios anuales. Entre los principales agentes etiológicos están Orthopneumovirus (hOPV) y metapneumovirus (hMPV) humanos como primera y segunda causa de bronquiolitis, respectivamente; Orthorubulavirus humano tipo 2 (hORUV) se ha asociado a neumonía en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Objetivo: Definir patrones de distribución geográfica y de circulación de hOPV, hMPV y hORUV. Método: Se llevó a cabo un estudio piloto transversal prospectivo observacional. Se genotipificaron 200 aislamientos virales de pacientes pediátricos mediante transcripción inversa seguida de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en punto final (RT-PCR). Resultados: Se tipificaron 186 muestras positivas: 84 de hOPV, 43 de hMPV, dos de hORUV y 57 de coinfecciones. Se trazó la distribución geográfica. Las incidencias acumuladas de hMPV, hOPV y hORUV fueron de 0.215, 0.42 y 0.01, respectivamente. Las incidencias acumuladas de la coinfección de hMPV-hORUV y hMPV-hOPV fueron de 0.015 y 0.23; de hOPV-hMPV-hORUV, de 0.035; y de hORUV-hOPV, de 0.005. El mayor número de casos positivos de virus circulantes o cocirculantes se presentó entre enero y marzo. Conclusiones: Fue posible identificar patrones de circulación y distribución geográfica de los diferentes virus, así como de las coinfecciones virales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Pneumovirus Infections/epidemiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Pilot Projects , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Pneumovirus Infections/virology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/virology , Rubulavirus Infections/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Genotype
8.
Medisan ; 24(3)mayo.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1125116

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La papilomatosis respiratoria recurrente es una enfermedad infrecuente de la vía aérea que afecta a niños y adultos, causada por el papilomavirus. Objetivo: Caracterizar niños con papilomatosis respiratoria recurrente desde los puntos de vista clínico, epidemiológico y terapéutico, así como evaluar su evolución a corto y mediano plazos. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación observacional, longitudinal y prospectiva de 40 niños con papilomatosis respiratoria recurrente, atendidos en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital Infantil Docente Sur Dr. Antonio María Béguez César de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero del 2010 hasta diciembre del 2016. Resultados: Los pacientes incluidos en el estudio representaron 3,2 % del total de los ingresos. Predominó el sexo masculino (60,0 %); el promedio de edad fue de 8,6 ± 4 años. Existió asociación estadística entre la localización anatómica de las lesiones y el sexo masculino; sin embargo, no hubo dicha asociación con la edad. Las localizaciones orofaríngea (50,0 %) y laríngea (42,5 %) fueron las de mayor observancia. El parto transvaginal se asoció con el mayor número de pacientes que presentaron la citada afección (85,0 %) y el tratamiento con exéresis e interferón se asoció a la evolución satisfactoria en 95,8 % de los afectados. Conclusiones: Las características clínicas y epidemiologias de los pacientes con papilomatosis respiratoria recurrente de esta casuística no difieren del contexto epidemiológico mundial, siendo una entidad de observación poco frecuente, pero no rara en los servicios de pediatría.


Introduction n The recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is an uncommon disease of the airways that affects children and adults, caused by the papillomavirus. Objective: To characterize children with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis from the clinical, epidemiologic and therapeutic points of view, as well as to evaluate their clinical course at short and mid terms. Methods: An observational, longitudinal and prospective investigation of 40 children with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis was carried out, they were assisted in the Otolaryngology Service of Dr. Antonio María Béguez Cesar Teaching Southern Children Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2010 to December, 2016. Results: The patients included in the study represented 3.2 % of the total of admissions. The male sex prevailed (60.0 %); the average age was 8.6 ± 4 years. Statistical association existed between the anatomical localization of the lesions and the male sex; however, there was no such association with the age. The oropharyngeal (50.0 %) and laryngeal (42.5 %) localizations were those of more observance. The transvaginal childbirth was associated with the higher number of patients that presented the mentioned disorder (85.0 %) and the treatment with exeresis and Interferon was associated with the satisfactory clinical course in 95.8 % of those affected. Conclusions: The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis of this case material don't differ from the world epidemiological context, being an unusual observation entity, but not strange in the pediatrics services.


Subject(s)
Papilloma , Respiration Disorders , Child , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): 193-201, jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1104196

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La infección respiratoria aguda baja por adenovirus es una importante causa de morbimortalidad en niños. Objetivos: Describir el patrón clínico-epidemiológico y los factores asociados en niños hospitalizados.Métodos. Estudio transversal en niños ingresados por infección respiratoria aguda baja al Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez, Buenos Aires, en 2000-2018. El diagnóstico viral se realizó mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta en secreciones nasofaríngeas. Se compararon características clínico-epidemiológicas de infección por adenovirus con otros virus respiratorios (virus sincicial respiratorio, influenza y parainfluenza). Se utilizó regresión logística múltiple para identificar predictores independientes de infección.Resultados. De 16018 pacientes con infección respiratoria aguda baja, 13545 fueron testeados para virus respiratorios y 6047 (el 45 %) fueron positivos. Adenovirus fue el agente menos frecuente [el 4,4 % (265) de los casos]; presentó una tendencia en descenso durante todo el período estudiado (pico en 2003) y circuló durante todo el año (pico en julio). El 63,8 % eran varones; mediana de edad: 11 meses (rango intercuartílico: 6-20). La presentación clínica más frecuente fue neumonía (el 63 %). El 50 % tenía internaciones previas por causa respiratoria; el 15,6 % eran reingresos; el 58,3 % tenía comorbilidades. El 19,2 % requirió asistencia ventilatoria; el 44 %registró complicaciones. La letalidad fue del 7,7 %. La infección por adenovirus se asoció a edad ≥ 12 meses, sexo masculino, presentación clínica de neumonía, internaciones previas por causas respiratorias y reinternaciones.Conclusiones. Los adenovirus fueron detectados con menor frecuencia que los otros virus respiratorios, aunque presentaron un importante perfil de morbimortalidad


Introduction. Acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) caused by adenovirus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children.Objectives. To describe the clinical and epidemiological pattern and associated factors in hospitalized children.Methods. Cross-sectional study in children admitted due to ALRTI to Hospital de Niños "Ricardo Gutiérrez," in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, between 2000 and 2018. Viral diagnosis was done by indirect immunofluorescence in nasopharyngeal secretions. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of adenovirus infection were compared to other respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, and parainfluenza). A multiple logistic regression was done to identify independent predictors of infection.Results. Out of 16 018 patients with ALRTI, 13 545 were tested for respiratory viruses; 6047 (45 %) had a positive result. Adenovirus was the least common agent (4.4 % [265] of cases); it tended towards a reduction over the study period (peak in 2003) and circulated throughout the year (peak in July). In total, 63.8 % of patients were males; median age: 11 months (interquartile range: 6-20). The most common clinical presentation was pneumonia (63 %). Prior admissions due to respiratory conditions were seen in 50 %; 15.6 %were readmissions; 58.3 % had comorbidities. Ventilatory support was required by 19.2 %and complications were recorded in 44 %. The fatality rate was 7.7 %. Adenovirus infection was associated with age ≥ 12 months, male sex, clinical presentation of pneumonia, prior admissions due to respiratory conditions, and readmissions.Conclusions. Adenoviruses were less common than other respiratory viruses, although their morbidity and mortality were important


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adenoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Epidemiologic Studies , Child, Hospitalized , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adenoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
10.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 73-80, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089322

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Influenza is an important cause of morbimortality worldwide. Although people at the extremes of age have a greater risk of complications, influenza has been more frequently investigated in the elderly than in children, and inpatients than outpatients. Yearly vaccination with trivalent or quadrivalent vaccines is the main strategy to control influenza. Objectives Determine the clinical and molecular characteristics of influenza A and B infections in children and adolescents with influenza-like illness (ILI). Methods: A cohort of outpatient children and adolescents with ILI was followed for 20 months. Influenza was diagnosed with commercial multiplex PCR platforms. Results: 179 patients had 277 episodes of ILI, being 79 episodes of influenza A and 20 episodes of influenza B. Influenza A and B cases were mild and had similar presentation. Phylogenetic tree of influenza B viruses showed that 91.6% belonged to the B/Yamagata lineage, which is not included in trivalent vaccines. Conclusions: Influenza A and B are often detected in children and adolescents with ILI episodes, with similar and mild presentation in outpatients. The mismatch between the circulating influenza viruses and the trivalent vaccine offered in Brazil may have contributed to the high frequency of influenza A and B in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Young Adult , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/genetics , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/virology , Phylogeny , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Seasons , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(1): 69-75, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092724

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA) causadas por virus son una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en el mundo, afectando principalmente a niños y adultos mayores. Se asocian a un alto número de consultas y hospitalizaciones, a una significativa sobrecarga del sistema de salud y a un alto costo económico. La vigilancia de virus respiratorios tiene el potencial de ayudar a optimizar la respuesta sanitaria, garantizar la disponibilidad de recursos humanos, racionalizar los recursos y disminuir los costos asociados a la atención en salud. Con el objetivo de optimizar la recolección y visualización de los datos de nuestro actual sistema de vigilancia de virus respiratorios, se diseñó una plataforma basada en R y sus paquetes Shiny, que permite la creación de una interfase web interactiva y amigable para la recolección, análisis y publicación de los datos. Se ingresaron a esta plataforma los datos de la red de vigilancia metropolitana de virus respiratorios disponibles desde 2006. En esta plataforma, el investigador demora menos de un minuto en registrar los datos. El análisis y publicación es inmediato, llegando a cualquier usuario con un dispositivo conectado a Internet, quien puede elegir las variables a consultar. Con un costo muy bajo, en poco tiempo y utilizando el lenguaje de programación R, se logró crear un sistema simple e interactivo, disminuyendo el tiempo de carga y análisis de datos de forma considerable, posiblemente aumentando el impacto y la disponibilidad de esta vigilancia.


Abstract Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, affecting mainly children and the elderly. They are associated with a high economic burden, increased number of medical visits and hospitalizations. The surveillance of the circulation of respiratory viruses can reduce the health care associated costs, and to optimize the health response. A platform based on R and its package Shiny was designed, to create an interactive and friendly web interface for gathering, analysis and publication of the data. The data from the Chilean metropolitan respiratory viruses surveillance network, available since 2006, was uploaded into the platform. Using this platform, the researcher spends less than 1 minute to upload the data, and the analysis and publication is immediate, available to be seen by any user with a device connected to Internet, who can choose the variables to be displayed. With a very low cost, in a short time, and using the R programming language, it was possible to create a simple, and interactive platform, considerably decreasing the upload and analysis time, and increasing the impact and availability of this surveillance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Aged , Respiratory Tract Infections/economics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Software/economics , Software/standards , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Health Care Costs , Models, Theoretical , Viruses , Chile/epidemiology , Internet
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(9): 3365-3376, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133166

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar a eficácia das máscaras faciais padrão tecido não tecido (TNT) para a prevenção de doenças respiratórias (MERS CoV, SARS-CoV e SARS-CoV-2) na população. Foi realizada busca nas bases de dados Medline, Embase, Cinahl, The Cochrane Library, Trip. Também busca complementar no Google Acadêmico, Rayyan e medRxiv. Não foram aplicados filtros relacionados a data, idioma ou status de publicação. Títulos e resumos foram rastreados e, posteriormente, textos completos foram avaliados. Foram incluídos três estudos: um ensaio clínico randomizado tipo cluster e duas revisões sistemáticas. O ensaio clínico indica benefício potencial de máscaras médicas para controle da fonte de infecção, para a doença respiratória clínica. Em uma das revisões sistemáticas, não foi possível estabelecer relação conclusiva entre uso da máscara e proteção contra infecção respiratória. Por fim, outra revisão sistemática demonstrou que máscaras são eficazes na prevenção da propagação de vírus respiratórios. As evidências apontam para benefício potencial das máscaras faciais padrão TNT. Para o cenário atual de pandemia por COVID 19, recomenda-se educação sobre uso adequado de máscaras, associado a medidas individuais de proteção.


Abstract Objectives: to evaluate the effectiveness of non-woven face masks for the prevention of respiratory infections (MERS CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2) in the population. Methods: search in Medline, Embase, Cinahl, The Cochrane Library, Trip databases. Google Scholar, Rayyan and medRxiv were also consulted for complementary results. No filters related to date, language or publication status were applied. Titles and abstracts were screened, and later, full texts were evaluated. Results: three studies were included: a randomized cluster clinical trial and two systematic reviews. The clinical trial indicates a potential benefit of medical masks to control the source of clinical respiratory disease infection. In one of the systematic reviews, it was not possible to establish a conclusive relationship between the use of the mask and protection against respiratory infection. Finally, another systematic review indicated that masks are effective in preventing the spread of respiratory viruses. Conclusion: Evidence points to the potential benefit of standard non-woven face masks. For the current pandemic scenario of COVID-19, education on the appropriate use of masks associated with individual protection measures is recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Masks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification
13.
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 17(2): 28-38, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140048

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones respiratorias agudas y la nutrición tienen un doble vínculo, porque ante una mala alimentación y desnutrición el niño tiene más probabilidades de contraer dichas infecciones respiratorias. Si no se presta la adecuada atención a la alimentación de los niños, las infecciones respiratorias producen déficit en el crecimiento y desarrollo del niño, pérdida de peso y desnutrición en un niño originalmente bien nutrido. Por tal motivo, se realizó una investigación para estudiar la relación entre el tipo de lactancia y la incidencia de infecciones respiratorias en niños menores de 2 años en la unidad de emergencia Pediátrica del Hospital Ruiz y Páez en los meses de febrero a abril del año 2020, fue un estudio de campo, analítico, de corte transversal, comparativo de casos y controles no experimentales, conformada por el 30% de los niños menores de 2 años con diagnóstico de infección respiratoria atendidos en dicha institución. Las Infecciones respiratorias entre los niños que consumen lactancia exclusiva y lactancia artificial, se registraron 16 casos de laringotraqueobronquitis donde 5 correspondían a pacientes con lactancia exclusiva y 11 a lactancia artificial, seguido de 15 casos de neumonía donde 7 casos pertenecían al grupo de lactancia exclusiva y 8 a lactancia artificial, por otro lado se diagnosticaron 14 casos de bronquiolitis donde 5 casos pertenecían al grupo de lactancia materna y 9 casos a lactancia artificial, por último se registraron 2 casos de tuberculosis en los pacientes con lactancia artificial.


Acute respiratory infections and nutrition have a double link, because in the face of poor diet and malnutrition the child is more likely to contract these respiratory infections. If proper attention is not paid to children's nutrition, respiratory infections lead to deficits in the child's growth and development, weight loss, and malnutrition in an originally well-nourished child. For this reason, an investigation was carried out to study the relationship between the type of lactation and the incidence of respiratory infections in children under 2 years of age in the Pediatric emergency unit of the Ruiz y Páez Hospital in the months of February to April of the year 2020. , was a cross-sectional, analytical, cross-sectional, comparative study of cases and non-experimental controls, made up of 30% of children under 2 years of age with a diagnosis of respiratory infection treated at said institution. Respiratory infections among children consuming exclusive breastfeeding and artificial breastfeeding, 16 cases of laryngotracheobronchitis were registered where 5 corresponded to patients with exclusive breastfeeding and 11 to artificial lactation, followed by 15 cases of pneumonia where 7 cases belonged to the exclusive breastfeeding group and 8 to artificial lactation, on the other hand, 14 cases of bronchiolitis were diagnosed where 5 cases belonged to the breastfeeding group and 9 cases to artificial lactation, lastly, 2 cases of tuberculosis were registered in patients with artificial lactation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adult , Young Adult , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Breast Feeding/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20170498, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057294

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We report the results of the active surveillance of influenza infections in hospitalized patients and the evaluation of the seasonality and correlation with temperature and rainfall data. METHODS: During the 2-year study period, 775 patients were tested for 15 respiratory viruses (RVs). RESULTS: Most of the 57% of (n=444) virus-positive samples were human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus. However, 10.4% (n=46) were influenza virus (80% FluA; 20% FluB). Age and SARI were significantly associated with influenza. FluB circulation was higher is 2013. CONCLUSIONS: In the post-epidemic period, influenza remains an important cause of hospitalization in SARI patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Seasons , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Sentinel Surveillance , Hospitalization , Middle Aged
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 427-434, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089313

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT To investigate the genetic variation and molecular epidemiology characteristics of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HRSV) in Guizhou Province, nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) in Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, from December 2017 to March 2018, and inoculated to Hep-2 cells to isolate HRSV. Cells that showed cytopathic effect (CPE) were then confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and reverse transcription. The sequence of the PCR products was determined for HRSV isolates, and the genetic variation was analyzed. Out of 196 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples, HRSV were isolated in 39. The second hypervariable region at the 3' terminal of glycoprotein gene (HVR2) sequence analysis showed that subgroup A was dominant. Seventy-nine percent of the isolates belonged to subgroup A, ON1 genotype, and 21 % belonged to subgroup B, BA9 genotype, which indicates that the dominant HRSV circulating in Guizhou Province was subgroup A, genotype ON1, co-circulating with a less prevalent subgroup B, genotype BA9.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Phylogeny , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Molecular Epidemiology , Genotype , Nasal Cavity/virology
16.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(6): 798-808, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252168

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Estimar y comparar las prevalencias de infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA) y enfermedades diarreicas agudas (EDA) en menores de cinco años, residentes en localidades con menos de 100 000 habitantes, mediante análisis de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (Ensanut) 2012 y la Ensanut 100k (2018). En la Ensanut 100k se evaluaron los factores asociados con IRA y EDA. Material y métodos: Análisis de ambas encuestas e información meteorológica de la Comisión Nacional del Agua. Resultados: La prevalencia global estimada de IRA fue de 45.1% en 2012 vs. 32.9% en 2018. La disminución fue significativa en hogares de medianas y mayores capacidades económicas (CE). No se observaron cambios significativos para las EDA. En hogares con menores CE, las IRA se asociaron con material del techo y temperatura y las EDA con privación de agua entubada. Conclusiones: Entre 2012 y 2018, la prevalencia de IRA disminuyó en hogares de medianas y mayores CE. Algunas condiciones de vivienda y meteorológicas se asocian con IRA y EDA.


Abstract: Objective: To compare the prevalence of acute respiratory infections (ARI) and acute diarrheal disease (ADD) among children younger than five years of age living in localities with less than 100 000 inhabitants in Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (Ensanut) 2012 and Ensanut 100k (2018). In Ensanut 100k, we evaluate the associated factors. Materials and methods: Analysis of both surveys and of the Mexican Meteorological System. Results: The estimated prevalence of ARI was 45.1% in 2012 vs. 32.9% in 2018. The decrease was significant among medium and high-income households. There were no changes in trends for ADD. Among households with lower EC, ARI was associated with roofing material, temperature, and rainy precipitation while ADD was associated with lack of piped water. Conclusions: The estimated prevalence of ARI has decreased in medium and high income households. Some households and weather conditions are associated with ARI and ADD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys , Acute Disease , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Population Density , Mexico/epidemiology
17.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(6): 657-666, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056655

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the occurrence of infectious morbidities according to day care attendance during the first year of life. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the 12-month follow-up of a medium-sized city birth cohort from children born in 2015, in the Southern Brazil. Main exposure variables were day care attendance from 0 to 11 months of age, type of day care center (public or private), and age at entering day care. Health outcomes were classified as follows: "non-specific respiratory symptoms," "upper respiratory tract infection," "lower respiratory tract infection," "flu/cold," "diarrhea," or "no health problem," considering the two weeks prior to the interview administered at 12 months of life. Associations were assessed using Poisson regression adjusted by demographic, behavioral, and socioeconomic variables. Results: The sample included 4018 children. Day care attendance was associated with all classifications of health outcomes mentioned above, except for flu/cold. These were stronger among children who entered day care at an age closer to the outcome time-point. An example are the results for lower respiratory tract infection and diarrhea, with adjusted prevalence ratios of 2.79 (95% CI: 1.67-4.64) and 2.04 (95% CI: 1.48-2.82), respectively, for those who entered day care after 8 months of age when compared with those who never attended day care. Conclusions: The present study consistently demonstrated the association between day care attendance and higher occurrence of infectious morbidities and symptoms at 12 months of life. Hence, measures to prevent infectious diseases should give special attention to children attending day care centers.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a ocorrência de morbidades infecciosas de acordo com a frequência em creches durante o primeiro ano de vida. Métodos: Esta foi uma análise transversal dos dados de uma coorte de nascimento, em uma cidade de tamanho médio, na visita aos 12 meses de idade de crianças nascidas em 2015 no Sul do Brasil. As principais variáveis de exposição foram frequência em creches de zero aos 11 meses de idade, tipo de creche (pública ou particular) e idade ao entrar na creche. Os resultados de saúde foram classificados como: "sintomas respiratórios não específicos", "infecção do trato respiratório superior", "infecção do trato respiratório inferior", "gripe/resfriado", "diarreia" ou "nenhum problema de saúde", considerando as duas semanas anteriores à entrevista feita aos 12 meses de vida da criança. As associações foram avaliadas com a regressão de Poisson ajustada pelas variáveis demográficas, comportamentais e socioeconômicas. Resultados: A amostra incluiu 4.018 crianças. O ato de frequentar creches foi associado a todas as classificações de resultados de saúde mencionados, exceto gripe/resfriado. Esses resultados foram mais fortes entre as crianças que começaram a frequentar creches em uma idade mais próxima ao ponto de tempo do resultado. Um exemplo são os resultados para infecção do trato respiratório inferior e diarreia, índice de prevalência ajustado de 2,79 (IC de 95%: 1,67-4,64) e 2,04 (IC de 95%: 1,48-2,82), respectivamente, naqueles que ingressaram nas creches após os oito meses de idade, em comparação com aqueles que nunca frequentaram creche. Conclusões: O presente estudo mostra sistematicamente a associação entre a frequência em creches e a maior ocorrência de morbidades infecciosas e sintomas aos 12 meses de vida da criança. Assim, deve-se dar atenção especial às medidas para prevenir as doenças infecciosas em crianças que frequentes creches.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Child Day Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Diarrhea, Infantile/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Socioeconomic Factors , Epidemiologic Methods , Public Sector , Private Sector , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Qualitative Research , Diarrhea, Infantile/prevention & control
18.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(4): 541-547, out.-dez. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058050

ABSTRACT

RESUMO As infecções do trato respiratório inferior associadas à ventilação mecânica são uma das complicações mais frequentes em pacientes em ventilação mecânica. Há muitos anos, a traqueobronquite associada à ventilação mecânica tem sido considerada uma doença que não demanda antibioticoterapia. Na última década, diversos estudos demonstraram que a traqueobronquite associada à ventilação mecânica deve ser considerada um processo intermediário que leva à pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica, uma vez que apesar de ter impacto limitado sobre a mortalidade dos pacientes gravemente enfermos internados nas unidades de terapia intensiva, em contrapartida, demonstra associação significativa com o aumento dos custos hospitalares desses pacientes, assim como do tempo de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva e hospitalar, do uso de antibióticos, e da duração da ventilação mecânica. Embora ainda necessitemos de evidências científicas mais robustas, especialmente no que tange às modalidades terapêuticas, os dados atuais a respeito da traqueobronquite associada à ventilação mecânica salientam que há desfechos suficientemente importantes que exigem vigilância epidemiológica e controle clínico adequados.


ABSTRACT Ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infection is one of the most frequent complications in mechanically ventilated patients. Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis has been considered a disease that does not warrant antibiotic treatment by the medical community for many years. In the last decade, several studies have shown that tracheobronchitis could be considered an intermediate process that leads to ventilator-associated pneumonia. Furthermore, ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis has a limited impact on overall mortality but shows a significant association with increased patient costs, length of stay, antibiotic use, and duration of mechanical ventilation. Although we still need clear evidence, especially concerning treatment modalities, the present study on ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis highlights that there are important impacts of including this condition in clinical management and epidemiological and infection surveillance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Tracheitis/etiology , Bronchitis/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Tracheitis/epidemiology , Bronchitis/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
20.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(1): 12-18, abr. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-995613

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory infections represent a world pediatric health burden. RSV, influenza and adenoviruses are among the most frequent causative agents. Adenoviruses usually produce upper respiratory infections, but they can be responsible for acute lower respiratory infection in children with severe clinical outcome. It is necessary a special clinical and epidemiological organization to avoid nosocomial adenovirus local outbreaks. Rapid diagnose, done by immunofluorescence assay and PCR, individual case isolation and supportive therapy are necessary for an appropriate management. The increasing immune compromised population represents a challenge for the adenovirus diagnosis with quantitative PCR and for nosocomial infection control and potential antiviral treatment.


Las infecciones respiratorias agudas son un problema prioritario mundial de morbimortalidad infantil y son causadas predominantemente por virus, entre los que destacan el virus respiratorio sincicial (VRS), virus influenza (FLU) y adenovirus (ADV). Los ADV normalmente causan infecciones respiratorias altas, pero pueden provocar infecciones bajas muy graves, que dejan secuelas y tienen alta letalidad. Requieren un manejo clínico y epidemiológico especial para evitar los graves brotes nosocomiales observados en Latinoamérica. Esto incluye un diagnóstico rápido hecho con técnicas de inmunodiagnóstico y reacción en cadena polimerasa (PCR), aislamiento individual del paciente y terapia de soporte. En pacientes inmunocomprometidos, la infección por ADV representa un gran desafío para el diagnóstico, con uso de PCR cuantitativo (qPCR) y eventual tratamiento antiviral. El objetivo de esta revisión es el de actualizar las propiedades, patogenia, epidemiología y diagnóstico del ADV, con énfasis en los cuadros respiratorios de mayor morbimortalidad que se producen en algunos niños.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/diagnosis , Adenovirus Infections, Human/etiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology , Adenoviruses, Human/pathogenicity
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