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1.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(6): 657-666, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056655

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the occurrence of infectious morbidities according to day care attendance during the first year of life. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the 12-month follow-up of a medium-sized city birth cohort from children born in 2015, in the Southern Brazil. Main exposure variables were day care attendance from 0 to 11 months of age, type of day care center (public or private), and age at entering day care. Health outcomes were classified as follows: "non-specific respiratory symptoms," "upper respiratory tract infection," "lower respiratory tract infection," "flu/cold," "diarrhea," or "no health problem," considering the two weeks prior to the interview administered at 12 months of life. Associations were assessed using Poisson regression adjusted by demographic, behavioral, and socioeconomic variables. Results: The sample included 4018 children. Day care attendance was associated with all classifications of health outcomes mentioned above, except for flu/cold. These were stronger among children who entered day care at an age closer to the outcome time-point. An example are the results for lower respiratory tract infection and diarrhea, with adjusted prevalence ratios of 2.79 (95% CI: 1.67-4.64) and 2.04 (95% CI: 1.48-2.82), respectively, for those who entered day care after 8 months of age when compared with those who never attended day care. Conclusions: The present study consistently demonstrated the association between day care attendance and higher occurrence of infectious morbidities and symptoms at 12 months of life. Hence, measures to prevent infectious diseases should give special attention to children attending day care centers.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a ocorrência de morbidades infecciosas de acordo com a frequência em creches durante o primeiro ano de vida. Métodos: Esta foi uma análise transversal dos dados de uma coorte de nascimento, em uma cidade de tamanho médio, na visita aos 12 meses de idade de crianças nascidas em 2015 no Sul do Brasil. As principais variáveis de exposição foram frequência em creches de zero aos 11 meses de idade, tipo de creche (pública ou particular) e idade ao entrar na creche. Os resultados de saúde foram classificados como: "sintomas respiratórios não específicos", "infecção do trato respiratório superior", "infecção do trato respiratório inferior", "gripe/resfriado", "diarreia" ou "nenhum problema de saúde", considerando as duas semanas anteriores à entrevista feita aos 12 meses de vida da criança. As associações foram avaliadas com a regressão de Poisson ajustada pelas variáveis demográficas, comportamentais e socioeconômicas. Resultados: A amostra incluiu 4.018 crianças. O ato de frequentar creches foi associado a todas as classificações de resultados de saúde mencionados, exceto gripe/resfriado. Esses resultados foram mais fortes entre as crianças que começaram a frequentar creches em uma idade mais próxima ao ponto de tempo do resultado. Um exemplo são os resultados para infecção do trato respiratório inferior e diarreia, índice de prevalência ajustado de 2,79 (IC de 95%: 1,67-4,64) e 2,04 (IC de 95%: 1,48-2,82), respectivamente, naqueles que ingressaram nas creches após os oito meses de idade, em comparação com aqueles que nunca frequentaram creche. Conclusões: O presente estudo mostra sistematicamente a associação entre a frequência em creches e a maior ocorrência de morbidades infecciosas e sintomas aos 12 meses de vida da criança. Assim, deve-se dar atenção especial às medidas para prevenir as doenças infecciosas em crianças que frequentes creches.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Child Day Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Diarrhea, Infantile/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Socioeconomic Factors , Epidemiologic Methods , Public Sector , Private Sector , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Qualitative Research , Diarrhea, Infantile/prevention & control
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 30-38, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-RS | ID: biblio-897050

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION Infections caused by respiratory viruses are important problems worldwide, especially in children. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a respiratory pathogen and causes severe infections with nonspecific symptoms. This study reports the hMPV occurrence and dissemination in southern Brazil and compares the frequency of occurrence of this virus and the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) in the epidemiological weeks in a three-year period (2009-2011). METHODS: In total, 545 nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens from individuals with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) who were negative for other seven respiratory viruses were analyzed for the presence of hMPV. Human metapneumovirus was detected by direct immunofluorescence and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: hMPV was detected in 109 patients from the main geographic regions of the southernmost state of Brazil, presenting similar overall prevalence in males (46.8%) and females (53.2%). Among children who were less than six years old, hMPV was detected in 99 samples of all age groups, with a higher frequency in infants who were less than one year old (45.7%) compared to all other age groups until six years. hMPV and hRSV infection occurred in almost the same epidemiological weeks (EWs) of each year, with peaks of incidence between EW 31/37 and EW 26/38 for the years 2009 and 2011, respectively. hMPV was further detected in several cases of SARS and it was the only virus detected in three deaths. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicate that hMPV is in circulation in southern Brazil and highlight the importance of diagnosing hMPV for influenza-like illness in the population. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Metapneumovirus/pathogenicity , Epidemiological Monitoring , Adenoviruses, Human , Pneumovirinae/classification , Paramyxoviridae Infections/virology , Coronavirus , Enterovirus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Influenza, Human , Human bocavirus
4.
Infectio ; 20(3): 180-189, jul.-sep. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-791170

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Antes del año 1996, la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) era considerada una condición fatal; sin embargo, con la introducción de la terapia antirretroviral combinada, se transformó en una enfermedad crónica con gran incremento en su expectativa de vida. A pesar de esta terapia, existen una serie de complicaciones a las que los individuos con VIH están expuestos. El pulmón es el órgano más comúnmente afectado. Las infecciones oportunistas como la neumonía por Pneumocystis jirovecii , el compromiso pulmonar asociado a histoplasmosis, tuberculosis y micobacterias no tuberculosas, entre otras, aún son condiciones que amenazan a esta población. Objetivo: Esta revisión pretende abordar los cambios en el diagnóstico, pronóstico y epidemiología de los pacientes con VIH e infecciones pulmonares, luego de la introducción de la terapia antirretroviral combinada. Metodología: Se revisaron las bases de datos electrónicas MEDLINE (pubmed), EMBASE, SciELOy LILACS. Se incluyeron revisiones sistemáticas, ensayos clínicos aleatorizados, estudios controlados, series de tiempo, « antes y después ¼ , estudios observacionales desde el año 1995 hastadiciembre de 2014, así como datos epidemiológicos de la OMS. Conclusiones: Después de casi 20 años de su introducción, la terapia antirretroviral combinadaha modificado la historia natural de la infección por VIH, con disminución en la frecuencia depresentación y mortalidad relacionada con la mayoría de los patógenos que comprometen eltracto respiratorio.


Background: Prior to 1996, HIV was considered practically fatal. However, after highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced, HIV became a chronic disease with a great increase in life expectancy. Despite this therapy, there are many complications to which an HIV infected person is exposed, with the lung the most commonly affected organ. Opportunistic infections such as pneumocystis pneumonia, histoplasmosis, tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacteria, among others, are still important threats to the HIV population. Objective: This review aims to address changes in the diagnosis, prognosis and epidemiology of HIV-infected patients with lung infections since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced. Methodology: The electronic databases MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, LILACS and SciELO were reviewed. Systematic reviews, randomised, controlled studies, case series, « before and after ¼ ,observational studies from 1995 until December 2014 were included in addition to epidemiological data from the WHO. Conclusions: After nearly 20 years since its introduction, combined antiretroviral therapy has changed the natural history of HIV infection, with a decrease in the frequency of occurrence and mortality related to most pathogens involving the respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Therapeutics
6.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 15(2): 102-108, Mar.-Apr. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-582410

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine rates of mask-wearing, of respiratory infection and the factors associated with mask-wearing and of respiratory infection in healthcare workers (HCWs) in Beijing during the winter of 2007/2008. METHODS: We conducted a survey of 400 HCWs working in eight hospitals in Beijing by face to face interview using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: We found that 280/400 (70.0 percent) of HCWs were compliant with mask-wearing while in contact with patients. Respiratory infection occurred in 238/400 (59.5 percent) subjects from November, 2007 through February, 2008. Respiratory infection was higher among females (odds ratio [OR], 2.00 [95 percent confidence interval {CI}, 1.16-3.49]) and staff working in larger hospitals (OR, 1.72 [95 percent CI, 1.092.72]), but was lower among subjects with seasonal influenza vaccination (OR, 0.46 [95 percent CI, 0.280.76]), wearing medical masks (reference: cotton-yarn; OR, 0.60 [95 percent CI, 0.39-0.91]) or with good mask-wearing adherence (OR, 0.60 [95 percent CI, 0.37-0.98]). The risk of respiratory infection of HCWs working in low risk areas was similar to that of HCWs in high risk area. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that female HCWs and staffs working in larger hospitals are the focus of prevention and control of respiratory infection in Beijing hospitals. Mask-wearing and seasonal influenza vaccination are protective for respiratory infection in HCWs; the protective efficacy of medical masks is better than that of cotton yarn ones; respiratory infection of HCWs working in low risk areas should also be given attention.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Masks , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , China , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Seasons , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-552733

ABSTRACT

O Vírus respiratório sincicial humano (hRSV - human respiratory syncytial virus) e o Metapneumovírus humano (hMPV - human metapneumovirus) são os principais agentes etiológicos identificados nas infecções respiratórias agudas (IRAs). As IRAs representam importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade em crianças no mundo todo. hRSV e hMPV são membros da família Paramyxoviridae. São vírus envelopados, não-segmentados dotados de genoma de RNA de fita simples com sentido negativo. O hRSV é o agente viral melhor caracterizado neste grupo, associado à doença do trato respiratório inferior. Recentemente foi identificado um novo patógeno humano pertencente à subfamília Pneumovirinae, o hMPV, o qual possui similaridades com o hRSV, na sua organização genômica, estrutura viral, antigenicidade e sintomas clínicos. A subfamília Pneumovirinae contém dois gêneros: gênero Pneumovirus que contêm o hRSV, o RSV bovino (bRSV - bovine RSV), bem como os RSV ovino, caprino e o vírus da pneumonia murina, o segundo gênero Metapneumovirus que consiste do MPV aviário (aMPV - avian MPV) e hMPV. Neste trabalho, apresentamos uma breve revisão narrativa da literatura sobre aspectos importantes da biologia, epidemiologia e manifestações clínicas das infecções por estes dois vírus respiratórios.


The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and the human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are the main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARIs). ARIs are an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae family. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. The respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the best characterized viral agent of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in the lower respiratory tract. Recently, a new human pathogen belonging to the subfamily Pneumovirinae was identified, the human metapneumovirus (hMPV), which is structurally similar to the hRSV in terms of genomic organization, viral structure, antigenicity, and clinical symptoms. The subfamily Pneumovirinae contains two genera: genus Pneumovirus contains the hRSV, the bovine RSV (bRSV), as well as the ovine and caprine RSV and pneumonia virus of mice, the second genus Metapneumovirus, consists of the avian MPV (aMPV) and hMPV. In this study, we present a brief review of the literature on important aspects of the biology, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of infections by two respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Metapneumovirus/pathogenicity , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Virus Diseases , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/pathogenicity , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 11(4): 399-402, Aug. 2007. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-460699

ABSTRACT

Influenza virus infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Influenza activity varies worldwide, and regional detection is influenced by geographic conditions, demographic and patient-risk factors. We assessed influenza activity and patterns of seasonality during three consecutive years (2001-2003) in three risk groups in São Paulo city. Four-hundred-twelve outpatients with acute respiratory infection were subjected to epidemiological, clinical and laboratory investigations; these included community population (N=140), health-care workers (N=203), and renal-transplanted patients (N=69). Nasal wash samples were tested by direct fluorescent assay for influenza, parainfluenza, adenovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus. Overall Influenza positivity was 21 percent, and a progressive decline was observed in all groups over time. Influenza A and B co-circulated at the same time in 2001 and 2002, but not in 2003. Low influenza-vaccination rates (19 percent) were reported by health-care workers. Unexpected low levels of etiological agents were detected in renal-transplanted patients, and infected cases were less symptomatic than immunocompetent patients. Based on this study, we conclude that health-care worker-immunization programs should be implemented and the clinical patterns of infected influenza patients should be used as a guide for better case-definition criteria for adequate influenza surveillance, particularly for renal-transplant patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Fluorescence , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/transmission , Risk Factors , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Seasons
9.
Neumol. pediátr ; 2(3): 130-134, 2007. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-486838

ABSTRACT

Con el desarrollo de técnicas de biología molecular se han descrito nuevos agentes respiratorios, algunos de ellos emergentes y otros en circulación desde hace años. La mayoría afecta a lactantes y producen cuadros respiratorios que requieren hospitalización. El espectro clínico aún no se encuentra completamente definido. Estos nuevos agentes deben incluirse en el diagnóstico de las infecciones respiratorias en Pediatría.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Metapneumovirus/pathogenicity , Parvoviridae/pathogenicity , /pathogenicity , Torque teno virus/pathogenicity , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/pathogenicity
10.
Arch. med. res ; 30(3): 216-23, mayo-jun. 1999. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-256651

ABSTRACT

Background. This study was conducted to assess the magnitude of the risk of high morbidity (= 7 episodes/year) for acute respiratory infections (ARI) in infants attending day care centers (DCC), and to compare the incidence, duration, and severity of ARI in children staysing at home (Home). Methods. Using a cohort desing, 282 infants (DCC, 138 and Home, 144) were followed for a year. Age at entry into the study ranged from 43 days to 4 months. During follow-up, social wokers interviewed the mothers weekly to register whether the infants had an ARI. Also, infant health conditions and physical growth were updated monthly. Results. ARI incidence was 14 episodes per child/year among DCC infants with a median of 74 sick days, while among children at home, the ARI incidence was 6 episodes, and the median was 40 days. The incidence density ratio for DCC children was 2.33 (95 percent CI, 2.13-2.54); after adjusting for other convariates, the relative risk increased to 5.27 (95 percent CI, 3.54-7.83). Conclusions. Infants attending DCCs will suffer ARI more frequently than children cared for at home. We did not dinf seasonal variations in the incidence rates among DCC infants. The quality of care provided at these facilities should be analyzed in more depth for proposing measures to decrease ARI incidence


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child Day Care Centers , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Acute Disease , Incidence , Mexico/epidemiology , Risk Factors
11.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 48(6): 492-500, nov.-dez. 1998. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-277373

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e objetivos: as infecçöes pulmonares säo responsáveis por cerca de 15 por cento das infecçöes hospitalares. A inalaçäo de aerossóis contendo bactérias é uma das principais vias de entrada de microorganismos no trato respiratório inferior e o circuito respiratório de aparelho de anestesia pode funcionar como reservatório para esses microorganismos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a contaminaçäo dos circuitos respiratórios e a eficácia de uma rotina padronizada de limpeza. Método: foram analisadas 45 traquéias utilizadas no ramo inspiratório, 45 utilizadas no ramo expiratório e 45 traquéias limpas, näo utilizadas, que haviam passado por uma rotina de limpeza padronizada. A análise processou-se com a coleta de material do interior das traquéias com o uso de culturetes e posterior encaminhamento do material para o laboratório de microbiologia para verificar o crescimento bacteriano. Resultados: ocorreu crescimento bacteriano em 35,5 por cento das traquéias utilizadas no ramo inspiratório, em 44,4 por cento das utilizadas no ramo expiratóro e em 35,5 por cento das traquéias limpas. A bactéria mais frequentemente encontrada foi o Staphylococcus sp DNAse negativo, mas também foram encontrados bacilos Gram negativo, como Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae e outras em todos os grupos de traquéias. Conclusöes: o circuito respiratório do aparelho de anestesia apresentou contaminaçäo bacteriana. A rotina padronizada empregada na limpeza desses circuitos näo foi eficiente. Parece ser mais indicado a adoçäo de um circuito que passou por um processo de esterilizaçäo ou desinfecçäo, para cada novo paciente que utilizar o aparelho


Subject(s)
Equipment Contamination , Cross Infection/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission
13.
Colomb. med ; 14(4): 136-42, 1983. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-81606

ABSTRACT

En el Hospital Universitario del Valle "Evaristo Garcia" de Cali, Colombia, de Febrero a Septiembre de 1981, entre 683 personas examinadas se encontraron 31,5% de portadores nasales de Staphylococus Aureus. Como se presentan errores en la identificacion del estafilococo, se empleo un procedimiento nuevo, la prueba de la termonucleasa que demostro ser mas sensible y precisa que las tradicionales de produccion de coagulasa y fermentacion del manitol que arrojaron cifras mas bajas de 30,9% y 28,5%, respectivamente. La distribucion de prevalencia entre el personal mostro 38,9% para los medicos. La proporcion mas alta 68,7% correspondio al departamento de Ginecologia y Obstetricia. Como se trataba de una tecnica nueva, la fagotipificacion de las cepas aisladas corroboro que la prueba es confiable y conduce al diagnostico preciso de S. Aureus. Con este metodo se pudo establecer que los tipos mas comunes en el Hospital Evaristo Garcia son los complejos 94/96 y 95


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission
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