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1.
Salud pública Méx ; 59(2): 128-136, mar.-abr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846072

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To analyze successful national smokefree policy implementation in Colombia, a middle income country. Materials and methods: Key informants at the national and local levels were interviewed and news sources and government ministry resolutions were reviewed. Results: Colombia’s Ministry of Health coordinated local implementation practices, which were strongest in larger cities with supportive leadership. Nongovernmental organizations provided technical assistance and highlighted noncompliance. Organizations outside Colombia funded some of these efforts. The bar owners’ association provided concerted education campaigns. Tobacco interests did not openly challenge implementation. Conclusions: Health organization monitoring, external funding, and hospitality industry support contributed to effective implementation, and could be cultivated in other low and middle income countries.


Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar la implementación exitosa de políticas nacionales de ambientes libres de humo en Colombia, un país de ingresos medios. Material y métodos: Entrevistas con informantes claves a nivel nacional y local, y revisión de artículos en las noticias y resoluciones ministeriales nacionales. Resultados: El Ministerio de Salud de Colombia coordinó las prácticas locales para la implementación, que fueron más fuertes en las ciudades grandes y en las ciudades con líderes políticos que la apoyaron. Organizaciones no gubernamentales proporcionaron asistencia técnica y destacaron el incumplimiento. Organizaciones fuera de Colombia financiaron algunos de estos esfuerzos. La asociación de propietarios de bares proporcionó campañas de educación concertadas. Intereses tabacaleros no desafiaron abiertamente la implementación. Conclusiones. La vigilancia de las organizaciones no gubernamentales, la financiación externa y el apoyo de la industria de la hospitalidad contribuyeron a una implementación eficaz. Tales factores pueden ser cultivados en países de ingresos bajos y medios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Smoke-Free Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Public Policy , Restaurants/legislation & jurisprudence , Restaurants/organization & administration , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Universities , Organizations , Colombia , Tobacco Industry , Guideline Adherence , Financing, Organized , Government Agencies , Health Promotion
2.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(supl.3): e00140315, 2017. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-889815

ABSTRACT

Resumo: O tabagismo passivo causa sérios e mortais efeitos à saúde. Desde 1996, o Brasil vem avançando na implementação da legislação antifumo em locais públicos fechados. Este artigo busca avaliar a percepção do cumprimento da legislação antifumo nas cidades de Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul), Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, com base nos resultados da pesquisa ITC-Brasil (International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project). Os resultados desta pesquisa mostraram uma redução significativa da proporção de pessoas que notaram indivíduos fumando em restaurantes e bares entre 2009 e 2013 nas três cidades pesquisadas. Paralelamente, houve um aumento da proporção de fumantes que referiram ter fumado na área externa desses estabelecimentos. Tais resultados provavelmente refletem uma implementação exitosa das leis antifumo. Vale ressaltar que ao diminuir a exposição ao fumo passivo, aumentamos ainda mais a desnormalização do tabagismo na população em geral, podendo assim diminuir sua iniciação e aumentar a cessação de fumar.


Resumen: El tabaquismo pasivo causa serios y mortales efectos para la salud. Desde 1996, Brasil ha avanzado en la implementación de la legislación antitabaco en locales públicos cerrados. Este artículo busca evaluar la percepción del cumplimiento de la legislación antitabaco en las ciudades de Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul), Río de Janeiro y São Paulo, Brasil, en base a los resultados de la investigación ITC-Brasil (International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project). Los resultados de esta investigación mostraron una reducción significativa de la proporción de personas que notaron individuos fumando en restaurantes y bares entre 2009 y 2013 en las tres ciudades investigadas. Paralelamente, hubo un aumento de la proporción de fumadores que informaron haber fumado en el área externa de esos establecimientos. Tales resultados probablemente reflejan una implementación exitosa de las leyes antitabaco. Vale resaltar que al disminuir la exposición al humo pasivo, aumentamos incluso más la desnormalización del tabaquismo en la población en general, pudiendo así disminuir su iniciación y aumentar el abandono del tabaco.


Abstract: Passive smoking causes severe and lethal effects on health. Since 1996 Brazil has been moving forward in the implementation of anti-smoking legislation in enclosed public spaces. This article aims to evaluate the perceived enforcement of anti-smoking legislation in the cities of Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul State), Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil, based on the results of the ITC-Brazil Survey (International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project). The results of the survey showed a significant reduction in the proportion of people who saw individuals smoking in restaurants and bars between 2009 and 2013 in the three cities surveyed. Concurrently there was an increase in the proportion of smokers who mentioned having smoked in the outer areas of these facilities. These results likely reflect a successful implementation of anti-smoking laws. Of note is the fact that by decreasing passive smoking we further enhance smoking denormalization among the general population, decreasing smoking initiation and increasing its cessation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Restaurants/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Law Enforcement , Perception , Public Policy , Telephone , Urban Population , Brazil , Interviews as Topic , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Policy
3.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156427

ABSTRACT

Background. Smoking tobacco affects the health of smokers as well as non-smokers who are exposed to secondhand smoke. The Government of India enacted the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act in 2003, which included a ban on smoking in public places and on sale of tobacco around educational institutions. We assessed the extent of compliance with these laws in restaurants and educational institutions in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey using an observation checklist in restaurants and educational institutions in Chennai. We used cluster sampling for restaurants and random sampling for schools and colleges. We collected data regarding the signage displaying prohibition of smoking as per the law and sale of tobacco products around educational institutions. We estimated the proportions for various indicators. Results. Among the 400 restaurants surveyed, 371 (92.8%) did not have any signage displaying prohibition of smoking and of the 29 restaurants with signage, only 4 were as per the specifications. There were 62 (15.5%) smoking events in restaurants at the time of visit for survey. Among the 287 schools surveyed, only 8 (2.8%) had the signage displaying prohibition of smoking and 2 (0.7%) had the signage for ban on sale of tobacco products. Of the 54 colleges surveyed, 8 (14.8%) had the signage displaying prohibition of smoking and 7 (13%) had the signage for ban on sale of tobacco products. Conclusion. There was low compliance of smoke-free laws in restaurants and educational institutions in Chennai. We recommend a robust monitoring mechanism to ensure the enforcement of smoke-free laws in public places.


Subject(s)
Humans , India , Law Enforcement , Location Directories and Signs/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Public Policy , Restaurants/legislation & jurisprudence , Schools/legislation & jurisprudence , Smoking/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence
4.
Salud pública Méx ; 54(3): 225-232, mayo-jun. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626694

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the economic impact of a 100% smoke-free law on bars and restaurants in an Argentinean province. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a time series analysis of restaurant and bar revenues in the province of Santa Fe 31 months before and 29 months after the implementation of the 100% smokefree environment law. The neighboring province of Entre Rios without smoking restrictions at the time of this study, was used as the control province. RESULTS: Average taxable revenues post-legislation in the province of Santa Fe as a whole and in the two most important cities were higher when compared to the total provincial revenue pre-legislation. No significant differences were observed with the total revenue from the province of Entre Rios. CONCLUSIONS: We found no statistically significant evidence that the 100% smoke-free environment legislation in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, had a negative impact on the revenues of local bars and restaurants.


OBJETIVOS: Evaluar el impacto económico de una ley de ambientes 100% libres de humo de tabaco sobre las ventas de bares y restaurantes en una provincia argentina. MATERIAL y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis de serie temporal sobre las ventas de bares y restaurantes en Santa Fe, 31 meses antes y 29 meses después de la ley. Se utilizó a la provincia vecina de Entre Ríos, sin ley en el momento del estudio, como provincia control. RESULTADOS: El promedio de ventas post-ley tanto en la provincia de Santa Fe como en sus dos ciudades más importantes fue mayor al compararse con el promedio provincial total pre-ley. No se observaron diferencias significativas en las ventas totales al ser comparadas con la provincia de Entre Ríos. CONCLUSIONES: No se demostró evidencia estadísticamente significativa sobre el impacto negativo de la legislación de ambientes 100% libres de humo sobre las ventas de bares y restaurantes en la provincia de Santa Fe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Restaurants/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Argentina , Fossil Fuels , Public Policy , Restaurants/economics , Seasons , Salaries and Fringe Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Taxes/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence
5.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 27(4): 283-290, abr. 2010.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-548483

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Documentar a reação da indústria do cigarro à regulamentação do fumo em locais públicos no Brasil, iniciada com legislação em 1996 Métodos: Foram pesquisados os bancos de dados Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (legacy.library.ucsf.edu/) e British American Tobacco (BAT) Company Documents (bat.library.ucsf.edu/). Utilizaram-se as palavras-chave Brasil/Brazil; Souza Cruz; fumo passivo, tabagismo passivo/passive smoking; fumo de segunda mão/secondhand smoking; convivência em harmonia/courtesy of choice; e nomes de instituições, políticos e pessoas atuantes na área de controle de tabaco. Foram pesquisados ainda os websites de fabricantes de cigarro e de estabelecimentos da indústria da hospitalidade no Brasil, e sites de notícias, jornais e revistas. A pesquisa foi limitada a documentos com datas entre 1995 e 2005. Resultados: A primeira lei a restringir o fumo no Brasil (lei 9 294 de 1996) beneficiou a indústria por sua redação, pela qual um mesmo espaço poderia ser compartilhado por fumantes e não-fumantes desde que houvesse uma separação entre as duas categorias (área de fumantes e área de não-fumantes). Como em outros países, a indústria do cigarro criou parcerias com associações de hotéis, bares e restaurantes para evitar a aprovação de leis que exijam espaços 100 por cento livres de fumo, conforme preconizado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Entretanto, leis locais em municípios e estados representativos (como Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo) têm tido sucesso em criar espaços 100 por cento livres de fumo. Conclusões: É fundamental que o Brasil reconheça os prejuízos causados pelo fumo e revise a sua lei federal de regulamentação do fumo em locais fechados. O conhecimento acerca das estratégias da indústria permite que políticos e profissionais de saúde preparem argumentos de oposição a medidas que podem comprometer a saúde pública.


Objectives: To document the response of the tobacco industry to the regulation of smoking in public places in Brazil starting in 1996. Methods: The Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (legacy.library.ucsf.edu/) and the British American Tobacco (BAT) Company Documents (bat.library.ucsf.edu/) were searched. The following key words were used: Brasil/Brazil; Souza Cruz; fumo passivo, tabagismo passivo/passive smoking; fumo de segunda mão/secondhand smoking; convivência em harmonia/courtesy of choice; along with the names of institutions, politicians, and individuals associated with tobacco control. We also searched the websites of cigarette manufacturers and hospitality industry organizations and businesses, news websites, and online newspapers and magazines. The search was limited to the period from 1995 to 2005. Results: The text of the first law restricting smoking in Brazil (no. 9 294, of 1996) benefited the industry by stating that smokers and nonsmokers could share the same space provided that specific areas were designated as smoking and nonsmoking. As in other countries, the tobacco industry established partnerships with hotel, bar, and restaurant associations to prevent the passing of laws creating 100 percent smoke-free environments, as recommended by the World Health Organization. However, local state and city laws in major cities and states (such as Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo) have been successful in ensuring the creation of 100 percent smoke-free places. Conclusions: It is essential that Brazil recognize the damage caused by smoking and revise its federal law regulating smoking in closed environments. The knowledge concerning the strategies employed by the industry may be useful for politicians and health care professionals to prepare arguments opposing measures that can be detrimental to public health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Industry , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Brazil , Cooperative Behavior , Dissent and Disputes , Health Policy , Lobbying , Restaurants/legislation & jurisprudence , Societies , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence
6.
In. Isosaki, Mitsue; Nakasato, Miyoko. Gestão de serviço de nutrição hospitalar. São Paulo, Elsevier, 2009. p.39-55.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-536271
8.
Salud pública Méx ; 44(supl.1): s136-s143, 2002.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-464241

ABSTRACT

Con el objetivo de revisar la información sobre los efectos adversos de fumar tabaco y de la exposición al humo del tabaco en el ambiente (HTA), se revisó la base de MEDLINE para identificar citas relevantes. Los efectos adversos a la salud, de la exposición al HTA, son daños ocupacionales significativos para los trabajadores de los servicios de alimentación. Se han demostrado altos niveles de sustancias mutagénicas en el aire ambiental de restoranes y en la orina de los trabajadores, así como la exposición al 3-aminofenil, un carcinógeno asociado con la hemoglobina. La mejor manera de proteger a estos trabajadores es reducir el consumo de tabaco en restoranes, hoteles, cantinas y tabernas. En trabajadores de restoranes es evidente el incremento del riesgo de cáncer pulmonar atribuible a la exposición al HTA.


A MEDLINE search was conducted to identify relevant references, to review the information on adverse effects of tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Occupational exposure to ETS causes significant damages to food industry workers. High levels of mutagenic substances have been demonstrated in restaurant air as well as in the urine samples from those workers. Exposition to 3-aminophenyl, a hemoglobine-associated carcinogen. The best way to protect these workers is the reduction of tobacco smoking in restaurants, hotels, bars and taverns. In restaurant workers, ETS attributable risk for lung cancer is evident.


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Facilities , Restaurants , Smoking/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Public Facilities/legislation & jurisprudence , Restaurants/legislation & jurisprudence , Smoking/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/statistics & numerical data
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