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1.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 83: e0006, 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535603

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Obter imagens de fundoscopia por meio de equipamento portátil e de baixo custo e, usando inteligência artificial, avaliar a presença de retinopatia diabética. Métodos: Por meio de um smartphone acoplado a um dispositivo com lente de 20D, foram obtidas imagens de fundo de olhos de pacientes diabéticos; usando a inteligência artificial, a presença de retinopatia diabética foi classificada por algoritmo binário. Resultados: Foram avaliadas 97 imagens da fundoscopia ocular (45 normais e 52 com retinopatia diabética). Com auxílio da inteligência artificial, houve acurácia diagnóstica em torno de 70 a 100% na classificação da presença de retinopatia diabética. Conclusão: A abordagem usando dispositivo portátil de baixo custo apresentou eficácia satisfatória na triagem de pacientes diabéticos com ou sem retinopatia diabética, sendo útil para locais sem condições de infraestrutura.


ABSTRACT Introduction: To obtain fundoscopy images through portable and low-cost equipment using artificial intelligence to assess the presence of DR. Methods: Fundus images of diabetic patients' eyes were obtained by using a smartphone coupled to a device with a 20D lens. By using artificial intelligence (AI), the presence of DR was classified by a binary algorithm. Results: 97 ocular fundoscopy images were evaluated (45 normal and 52 with DR). Through AI diagnostic accuracy around was 70% to 100% in the classification of the presence of DR. Conclusion: The approach using a low-cost portable device showed satisfactory efficacy in the screening of diabetic patients with or without diabetic retinopathy, being useful for places without infrastructure conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Algorithms , Artificial Intelligence , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnostic imaging , Photograph/instrumentation , Fundus Oculi , Ophthalmoscopy/methods , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Mass Screening , Neural Networks, Computer , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological/instrumentation , Machine Learning , Smartphone , Deep Learning
2.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 27(2)jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440530

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad COVID-19, declarada como pandemia por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, afecta otros sistemas y órganos ajenos al aparato respiratorio, por ejemplo: los ojos. Objetivo: Caracterizar las manifestaciones oculares de la COVID-19 y sus posibles complicaciones. Método: Se realizó un análisis exhaustivo de bibliografía a través de los motores de búsqueda SciELO, PubMed y Google Académico; se seleccionó un total de 55 artículos. Conclusiones: Clínicamente, la COVID-19 se ha asociado a conjuntivitis leve, que puede ser el primer y único síntoma de la enfermedad, así como a afecciones retinianas, enfermedad de Kawasaki, complicaciones neurooftalmológicas y en el paciente de cuidados intensivos. La pronta detección de estas afecciones puede influir directamente en la posterior evolución del paciente.


Introduction: COVID-19, a pandemic declared by the World Health Organization, affects not only the respiratory system but other systems and organs, for example the eyes. Objective: to characterize ocular manifestations of COVID-19 and their possible complications. Methods: an exhaustive analysis of the bibliography was carried out through SciELO, PubMed and Google Scholar search engines; a total of 55 articles were selected. Conclusions: COVID-19 has been clinically associated with mild conjunctivitis, which may be the first and only symptom of the disease, as well as retinal disorders, Kawasaki disease, neuro-ophthalmological complications, and in intensive care patients. Early detection of these conditions can directly influence the subsequent evolution of the patient.


Subject(s)
Retina , Conjunctivitis , COVID-19
3.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 603-617, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010766

ABSTRACT

Light adaptation enables the vertebrate visual system to operate over a wide range of ambient illumination. Regulation of phototransduction in photoreceptors is considered a major mechanism underlying light adaptation. However, various types of neurons and glial cells exist in the retina, and whether and how all retinal cells interact to adapt to light/dark conditions at the cellular and molecular levels requires systematic investigation. Therefore, we utilized single-cell RNA sequencing to dissect retinal cell-type-specific transcriptomes during light/dark adaptation in mice. The results demonstrated that, in addition to photoreceptors, other retinal cell types also showed dynamic molecular changes and specifically enriched signaling pathways under light/dark adaptation. Importantly, Müller glial cells (MGs) were identified as hub cells for intercellular interactions, displaying complex cell‒cell communication with other retinal cells. Furthermore, light increased the transcription of the deiodinase Dio2 in MGs, which converted thyroxine (T4) to active triiodothyronine (T3). Subsequently, light increased T3 levels and regulated mitochondrial respiration in retinal cells in response to light conditions. As cones specifically express the thyroid hormone receptor Thrb, they responded to the increase in T3 by adjusting light responsiveness. Loss of the expression of Dio2 specifically in MGs decreased the light responsive ability of cones. These results suggest that retinal cells display global transcriptional changes under light/dark adaptation and that MGs coordinate intercellular communication during light/dark adaptation via thyroid hormone signaling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Dark Adaptation , Light , Retina , Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells/metabolism , Adaptation, Ocular , Neuroglia/physiology , Cell Communication , Thyroid Hormones
4.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 768-772, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008130

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the macular structure and microcirculation in both eyes of the patients with myopic anisometropia.Methods Optical coherence tomography angiography(OCTA)was employed to scan the macular areas in both eyes of 44 patients with myopic anisometropia.The patients were assigned into high and low groups based on the refractive diopter,and the parameters such as retinal thickness,choroidal thickness,vascular density,and perfusion density in the macular areas of both eyes were compared between the two groups.Results Other macular areas except the central and external nasal areas and the choroid of the fovea in the high group were thinner than those in the low group(all P<0.05).There was no statistically significant difference in retinal vascular density or perfusion density in different areas between the two groups(all P>0.05).Conclusion In the patients with myopic anisometropia,most areas of the retina in the case of high myopia is thinner than that in the case of low myopia,while there is no difference in retinal vascular density or perfusion density in both eyes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anisometropia , Choroid/blood supply , Microcirculation , Myopia , Retina , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
5.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; : 88-95, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970015

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Detection of neurological conditions is of high importance in the current context of increasingly ageing populations. Imaging of the retina and the optic nerve head represents a unique opportunity to detect brain diseases, but requires specific human expertise. We review the current outcomes of artificial intelligence (AI) methods applied to retinal imaging for the detection of neurological and neuro-ophthalmic conditions.@*METHOD@#Current and emerging concepts related to the detection of neurological conditions, using AI-based investigations of the retina in patients with brain disease were examined and summarised.@*RESULTS@#Papilloedema due to intracranial hypertension can be accurately identified with deep learning on standard retinal imaging at a human expert level. Emerging studies suggest that patients with Alzheimer's disease can be discriminated from cognitively normal individuals, using AI applied to retinal images.@*CONCLUSION@#Recent AI-based systems dedicated to scalable retinal imaging have opened new perspectives for the detection of brain conditions directly or indirectly affecting retinal structures. However, further validation and implementation studies are required to better understand their potential value in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Retina , Optic Disk , Aging
6.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 497-501, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981984

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the clinical and genetic features of Joubert syndrome (JS) in children.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data, genetic data, and follow-up data of 20 children who were diagnosed with JS in the Department of Children's Rehabilitation, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, from January 2017 to July 2022.@*RESULTS@#Among the 20 children with JS, there were 11 boys and 9 girls. The common clinical manifestations were developmental delay (20 children, 100%), abnormal eye movement (19 children, 95%), and hypotonia (16 children, 80%), followed by abnormal respiratory rhythm in 5 children (25%) and unusual facies (including prominent forehead, low-set ears, and triangular mouth) in 3 children (15%), and no limb deformity was observed. All 20 children (100%) had the typical "molar tooth sign" and "midline cleft syndrome" on head images, and 6 children (30%) had abnormal eye examination results. Genetic testing was performed on 7 children and revealed 6 pathogenic genes, i.e., the CPLANE1, RPGRIP1L, MKS1, CC2D2A, CEP120, and AHI1 genes.@*CONCLUSIONS@#For children with developmental delay, especially those with abnormal eye movement and hypotonia, it is recommended to perform a head imaging examination to determine the presence or absence of "molar tooth sign" and "midline cleft syndrome", so as to screen for JS to avoid missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. There are many pathogenic genes for JS, and whole-exome sequencing can assist in the diagnosis of JS.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , Cerebellum , Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Kidney Diseases, Cystic/genetics , Eye Abnormalities/genetics , Retina , Retrospective Studies , Muscle Hypotonia/genetics
7.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 431-440, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981071

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To develop a few-shot learning (FSL) approach for classifying optical coherence tomography (OCT) images in patients with inherited retinal disorders (IRDs).@*METHODS@#In this study, an FSL model based on a student-teacher learning framework was designed to classify images. 2,317 images from 189 participants were included. Of these, 1,126 images revealed IRDs, 533 were normal samples, and 658 were control samples.@*RESULTS@#The FSL model achieved a total accuracy of 0.974-0.983, total sensitivity of 0.934-0.957, total specificity of 0.984-0.990, and total F1 score of 0.935-0.957, which were superior to the total accuracy of the baseline model of 0.943-0.954, total sensitivity of 0.866-0.886, total specificity of 0.962-0.971, and total F1 score of 0.859-0.885. The performance of most subclassifications also exhibited advantages. Moreover, the FSL model had a higher area under curves (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in most subclassifications.@*CONCLUSION@#This study demonstrates the effective use of the FSL model for the classification of OCT images from patients with IRDs, normal, and control participants with a smaller volume of data. The general principle and similar network architectures can also be applied to other retinal diseases with a low prevalence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Deep Learning , Retinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Retina/diagnostic imaging , ROC Curve
8.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 21-25, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970871

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical characteristics and genetic basis of two Chinese pedigrees affected with Joubert syndrome.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the two pedigrees was collected. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. Candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing. Prenatal diagnosis was carried out for a high-risk fetus from pedigree 2.@*RESULTS@#The proband of pedigree 1 was a fetus at 23+5 weeks gestation, for which both ultrasound and MRI showed "cerebellar vermis malformation" and "molar tooth sign". No apparent abnormality was noted in the fetus after elected abortion. The fetus was found to harbor c.812+3G>T and c.1828G>C compound heterozygous variants of the INPP5E gene, which have been associated with Joubert syndrome type 1. The proband from pedigree 2 had growth retardation, mental deficiency, peculiar facial features, low muscle tone and postaxial polydactyly of right foot. MRI also revealed "cerebellar dysplasia" and "molar tooth sign". The proband was found to harbor c.485C>G and c.1878+1G>A compound heterozygous variants of the ARMC9 gene, which have been associated with Joubert syndrome type 30. Prenatal diagnosis found that the fetus only carried the c.485C>G variant. A healthy infant was born, and no anomalies was found during the follow-up.@*CONCLUSION@#The compound heterozygous variants of the INPP5E and ARMC9 genes probably underlay the disease in the two pedigrees. Above finding has expanded the spectrum of pathogenic variants underlying Joubert syndrome and provided a basis for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pedigree , Cerebellum/abnormalities , Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnosis , Eye Abnormalities/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases, Cystic/diagnosis , Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases/genetics , Retina/abnormalities , East Asian People , Mutation
9.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 82: e0017, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431668

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A doença de Tay-Sachs é um distúrbio neurodegenerativo autossômico recessivo, o qual envolve o metabolismo dos lipídios, levando ao acúmulo de gangliosídeos nos tecidos, devido à deficiência da enzima hexosaminidase A. Esse depósito progressivo resulta em perda da função neurológica e, quando acomete as células ganglionares da mácula, causa o achado típico da doença, a "mácula em cereja". A patologia é diagnosticada por meio dos níveis de hexosaminidase A e hexosaminidase total no soro, além análise do DNA do gene HEXA. Este caso relata uma criança com doença de Tay-Sachs cujo diagnóstico foi suspeitado por conta dos achados oftalmológicos.


ABSTRACT Tay-Sachs Disease is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder, which involves the metabolism of lipids, leading to the accumulation of gangliosides in the tissues, due to the deficiency of the enzyme Hexosaminidase A. This progressive deposit results in loss of neurological function and, when it affects macula ganglion cells, it causes the typical disease finding, the "cherry red spot". The pathology is diagnosed through the levels of Hex A and total Hexosaminidase in the serum, in addition to the analysis of the DNA of the HEXA gene. This case reports a child with Tay-Sachs disease with a suspected diagnosis was through ophthalmologic findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Retinal Diseases/etiology , Tay-Sachs Disease/complications , Tay-Sachs Disease/genetics , Retina , Retinal Diseases/diagnosis , Tay-Sachs Disease/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Hexosaminidase A/genetics , Macula Lutea/pathology
10.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 35(1): e1303, ene.-mar. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409033

ABSTRACT

La retinopatía de la prematuridad es una enfermedad dinámica vasoproliferativa de la retina inmadura postnatal que afecta a los bebés prematuros. Cuando aparecen signos de atipicidad en su diagnóstico o evolución deben descartarse otras entidades vasculares de la retina, que generalmente tienen un trasfondo genético y semejan o coexisten con dicha entidad. Se presenta un caso con características de Retinopatía del prematuro y algunos signos de atipicidad. Se describe su manejo y evolución, así como una breve descripción de las entidades que conforman el diagnóstico diferencial(AU)


Retinopathy of prematurity is a dynamic vasoproliferative disease of the immature postnatal retina that affects premature babies. When signs of atypicality appear in its diagnosis or evolution, other vascular entities of the retina must be ruled out, which generally have a genetic background and resemble or coexist with said entity. We present a case with characteristics of Retinopathy of prematurity and some signs of atypicality. Its management and evolution are described, as well as a brief description of the entities that make up the differential diagnosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Retinopathy of Prematurity/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Retina
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(2): 180-191, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364366

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Structural imaging of the brain is the most widely used diagnostic tool for investigating neurodegenerative diseases. More advanced structural imaging techniques have been applied to early or prodromic phases, but they are expensive and not widely available. Therefore, it is highly desirable to search for noninvasive, easily accessible, low-cost clinical biomarkers suitable for large-scale population screening, in order to focus on making diagnoses at the earliest stages of the disease. In this scenario, imaging studies focusing on the structures of the retina have increasingly been used for evaluating neurodegenerative diseases. The retina shares embryological, histological, biochemical, microvascular and neurotransmitter similarities with the cerebral cortex, thus making it a uniquely promising biomarker for neurodegenerative diseases. Optical coherence tomography is a modern noninvasive imaging technique that provides high-resolution two-dimensional cross-sectional images and quantitative reproducible three-dimensional volumetric measurements of the optic nerve head and retina. This technology is widely used in ophthalmology practice for diagnosing and following up several eye diseases, such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Its clinical impact on neurodegenerative diseases has raised enormous interest over recent years, as several clinical studies have demonstrated that these diseases give rise to reduced thickness of the inner retinal nerve fiber layer, mainly composed of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. In this review, we aimed to address the clinical utility of optical coherence tomography for diagnosing and evaluating different neurodegenerative diseases, to show the potential of this noninvasive and easily accessible method.


RESUMO A avaliação estrutural do cérebro, feita por meio dos exames de neuroimagem, é a forma mais utilizada de ferramenta diagnóstica e de acompanhamento das doenças neurodegenerativas. Técnicas de imagem mais sofisticadas podem ser necessárias especialmente nas fases mais precoces, antes mesmo do surgimento de quaisquer sintomas, porém costumam ser caras e pouco acessíveis. Sendo assim, é de fundamental importância a busca de biomarcadores não invasivos, de fácil acesso e baixo custo, que possam ser utilizados para rastreio populacional e diagnóstico mais precoce. Nesse cenário, o número de estudos com ênfase em técnicas de imagem para avaliação estrutural da retina em pacientes com doenças neurodegenerativas tem aumentado nos últimos anos. A retina apresenta similaridade embriológica, histológica, bioquímica, microvascular e neurotransmissora com o córtex cerebral, tornando-se assim um biomarcador único e promissor nas doenças neurodegenerativas. A tomografia de coerência óptica é uma moderna técnica de imagem não invasiva que gera imagens seccionais bidimensionais de alta resolução e medidas volumétricas tridimensionais reprodutivas do disco óptico e da mácula. Essa tecnologia é amplamente utilizada na prática oftalmológica para o diagnóstico e o seguimento de diversas doenças oculares, como glaucoma, retinopatia diabética e degeneração macular relacionada à idade. A redução da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina e das camadas de células ganglionares em pacientes com doenças neurodegenerativas foi demonstrada em diversos estudos clínicos nos últimos anos. Nesta revisão, abordamos as principais aplicações clínicas da tomografia de coerência óptica nas doenças neurodegenerativas e discutimos o seu papel como potencial biomarcador nessas afecções.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Retina/pathology , Retina/diagnostic imaging
12.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 354-359, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936323

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the the effects of leptin on the proliferation, differentiation and PTEN expression of rat retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) cultured under hypoxic condition.@*METHODS@#SD rat RPCs were cultured in normoxic conditions or exposed to hypoxia in the presence of 0, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10, and 30 nmol/L leptin for 12, 48 and 72 h, and the cell viability was assessed using cell counting kit 8 (CCK 8) assay. The RPCs in primary culture were divided into control group, hypoxia group, and hypoxia+leptin group, and after 48 h of culture, the cell medium was replaced with differentiation medium and the cells were further cultured for 6 days. Immunofluorescence staining was employed to detect the cells positive for β-tubulin III and GFAP, and Western blotting was used to examine the expression of PTEN at 48 h of cell culture.@*RESULTS@#The first generation of RPCs showed suspended growth in the medium with abundant and bright cellular plasma and formed mulberry like cell spheres after 2 days of culture. Treatment with low-dose leptin (below 3.0 nmol/L) for 48 h obviously improved the viability of RPCs cultured in hypoxia, while at high concentrations (above 10 nmol/L), leptin significantly suppressed the cell viability (P < 0.05). The cells treated with 3.0 nmol/L leptin for 48 h showed the highest viability (P < 0.05). After treatment with 3.0 nmol/L leptin for 48 h, the cells with hypoxic exposure showed similar GFAP and β-tubulin Ⅲ positivity with the control cells (P>0.05), but exhibited an obvious down-regulation of PTEN protein expression compared with the control cells (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#In rat RPCs with hypoxic exposure, treatment with low dose leptin can promote the cell proliferation and suppress cellular PTEN protein expression without causing significant effects on cell differentiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Hypoxia/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Leptin/pharmacology , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retina/metabolism , Stem Cells/metabolism , Tubulin
13.
Biol. Res ; 55: 14-14, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a specific microvascular complication arising from diabetes, and its pathogenesis is not completely understood. tRNA-derived stress-induced RNAs (tiRNAs), a new type of small noncoding RNA generated by specific cleavage of tRNAs, has become a promising target for several diseases. However, the regulatory function of tiRNAs in DR and its detailed mechanism remain unknown. RESULTS: Here, we analyzed the tiRNA profiles of normal and DR retinal tissues. The expression level of tiRNA-Val was significantly upregulated in DR retinal tissues. Consistently, tiRNA-Val was upregulated in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) under high glucose conditions. The overexpression of tiRNA-Val enhanced cell proliferation and inhibited cell apoptosis in HRMECs, but the knockdown of tiRNA-Val decreased cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, tiRNA-Val, derived from mature tRNA-Val with Ang cleavage, decreased Sirt1 expression level by interacting with sirt1 3'UTR, leading to the accumulation of Hif-1α, a key target for DR. In addition, subretinal injection of adeno-associated virus to knock down tiRNA-Val in DR mice ameliorated the symptoms of DR. CONCLUSION: tiRNA-Val enhance cell proliferation and inhibited cell apoptosis via Sirt1/Hif-1α pathway in HRMECs of DR retinal tissues.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetic Retinopathy/genetics , Diabetic Retinopathy/metabolism , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Retina/metabolism , Retina/pathology , Endothelial Cells , Sirtuin 1/metabolism , Neovascularization, Pathologic/genetics
14.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 267-270, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927371

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of acupuncture on visual acuity, intraocular pressure, visual field, retinal and choroidal thickness on optic disc and macular area in patients with optic atrophy.@*METHODS@#A total of 33 patients with optic atrophy were treated with acupuncture. Acupuncture was given at Chengqi (ST 1), Shangjingming (Extra), Qiuhou (EX-HN 7) and Fengchi (GB 20) etc., 30 min each time, once a day, for 14 days. The visual acuity, intraocular pressure, visual field indexes (mean deviation [MD], pattern standard deviation [PSD] and visual field index [VFI]), optic disc retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, macular retinal thickness and choroidal thickness of optic disc and sub-foveal were compared before and after treatment.@*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the visual acuity was increased (P<0.05), the MD value was decreased (P<0.05), the thickness of nerve fiber layer on the upper temporal side of optic disc was thinner (P<0.05), and the choroidal thickness of average, nasal side and lower temporal side of optic disc was increased (P<0.05). There was significant correlation between visual field MD and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in different quadrants before and after treatment (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture could improve visual acuity, increase choroidal thickness in part of optic disc area in patients with optic atrophy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture Therapy , Optic Atrophy/therapy , Optic Disk/diagnostic imaging , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence
15.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0020, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365724

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O lúpus eritematoso sistêmico é uma doença que pode apresentar comprometimento oftalmológico geralmente benigno, sendo as alterações mais encontradas a síndrome do olho seco e a catarata. Nos pacientes com a doença estável, o dano oftalmológico parece estar relacionado ao tratamento sistêmico a longo prazo, o que enfatiza a importância do exame oftalmológico completo de rotina. Porém, quando a doença está em franca atividade e, em especial, quando há o envolvimento renal, deve-se iniciar o tratamento precoce com corticoterapia sistêmica e com medidas de suporte, para se evitarem repercussões mais complexas, como as crises hipertensivas que podem levar ao óbito.


ABSTRACT Systemic lupus erythematosus may present ophthalmological involvement, usually benign, and the most common changes are dry eye syndrome and cataract. In patients with stable disease, ophthalmologic damage appears to be related to long-term systemic treatment, emphasizing the importance of routine complete ophthalmologic examination. However, in full-blown disease, especially when there is renal involvement, early treatment should start with systemic steroid therapy and supportive measures, to avoid major repercussions, such as hypertensive crises that may lead to death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Hypertensive Retinopathy/etiology , Hypertension, Malignant/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Ophthalmoscopy , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Visual Acuity , Pulse Therapy, Drug , Hypertensive Retinopathy/diagnosis , Hypertensive Retinopathy/drug therapy , Slit Lamp Microscopy , Fundus Oculi , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/etiology , Hypertension, Malignant/etiology
16.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0103, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407672

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Optical coherence tomography is often used for detection of glaucoma as well as to monitor progression. This paper reviews the most common types of artifacts on the optical coherence tomography report that may be confused with glaucomatous damage. We mainly focus on anatomy-related artifacts in which the retinal layer segmentation and thickness measurements are correct. In such cases, the probability maps (also known as deviation maps) show abnormal (red and yellow) regions, which may mislead the clinician to assume disease is present. This is due to the anatomic variability of the individual, and the normative database must be taken into account.


RESUMO A tomografia de coerência óptica é frequentemente usada para detectar glaucoma, bem como para monitorar a progressão. Este artigo analisa os tipos mais comuns de artefatos no relatório de tomografia de coerência óptica que podem ser confundidos com danos glaucomatosos. Nós nos concentramos principalmente nos artefatos relacionados à anatomia em que a segmentação da camada da retina e as medidas de espessura estão corretas. Nesses casos, os mapas de probabilidade (também conhecidos como mapas de desvio) mostram regiões anormais (vermelho e amarelo), o que pode induzir o clínico em erro ao supor que a doença está presente. Isto se deve à variabilidade anatômica do indivíduo, e o banco de dados normativo deve ser levado em conta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glaucoma/diagnostic imaging , Artifacts , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Posture , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Torsion Abnormality , Head Movements , Diagnostic Errors , Eye Movements , Fovea Centralis , Nerve Fibers/pathology
17.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0060, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407680

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To evaluate the retinal blood vascular network of the retinographies of patients with different grades of diabetic retinopathy. Methods Ninety Retinographies (MESSIDOR database) were used, with different grades of diabetic retinopathy divided into 4 groups: no retinopathy (n=23), grade one (n=20), grade two (n=20) and grade three (n=27) diabetic retinopathy. The grades of diabetic retinopathy were classified according to the number of microaneurysms, number of hemorrhages and the presence of neovascularization. The images were skeletonized and quantified by fractal methods: dimension of box-counting (Dbc) and information (Dinf). Results The means of Dbc values of groups were around 1.25, without statistically significant difference in the dimension values between groups for whole retina. There was also no statistical difference in Dinf values between groups, whose means ranged between 1.294 ± 0.013 (group of grade 1) and 1.3 ± 0.017 (group of grade 3). The retinographies were divided into regions of equal areas. The fractal values of some retinal regions showed statistical differences, but these differences were not enough to show the sensitivity of fractal methods in identifying diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion The fractal methods were not able to identify the different grades of diabetic retinopathy in retinographies.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a rede vascular sanguínea da retina a partir de retinografias de pacientes com diferentes graus de retinopatia diabética. Métodos Foram utilizadas 90 retinografias (banco de dados MESSIDOR), com diferentes graus de retinopatia diabética divididas em quatro grupos: sem retinopatia (n=23), retinopatia diabética de grau um (n=20), grau dois (n=20) e grau três (n=27). Os graus de retinopatia foram classificados conforme o número de microaneurismas, número de hemorragias e presença de neovascularização. As imagens foram esqueletizadas e quantificadas pelos métodos fractais: dimensão da contagem de caixas e informação. Resultados As médias dos valores das dimensões de contagem de caixas para todos os grupos foram próximas a 1,25, sem diferença estatisticamente significativa nos valores das dimensões entre os grupos para retina inteira. Também não houve diferença estatística nos valores da dimensão de informação entre os grupos, cujas médias variaram entre 1,294 ± 0,013 (grupo do grau 1) e 1,3 ± 0,017 (grupo do grau 3). As imagens retinianas foram divididas em regiões de áreas iguais. Os valores fractais de algumas regiões retinais mostraram diferenças estatísticas, mas estas não foram suficientes para mostrar a sensibilidade dos métodos fractais na identificação da retinopatia diabética. Conclusão Os métodos fractais não foram capazes de identificar os diferentes graus de retinopatia diabética em retinografias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retinal Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Fractals , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnostic imaging , Retina/pathology , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Retinal Vessels/pathology , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological
18.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0026, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376786

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe an innovative animal model of eye transplantation used in rabbits. Methods: six Dutch-belted male rabbits were submitted to lateral orbitotomy in the right eye, wide retrobulbar anatomy exposure, dissection of the structures, identification and distal section of the optic nerve followed by anastomosis either by vicryl (group 1) or fibrin glue (group 2). Electroretinography recording was performed before the section of the optic nerve and every 30 seconds after, to monitor the function of retina. Left eye was used as control group. Results: After optic nerve resection and anastomosis, stable ERG amplitude of the right eye was lost after 302 seconds in group 1 and after 296 seconds on group 2. Left eye kept longer stable ERG amplitude curves. Conclusions: The animal model of whole eye transplantation was effective in describing a novel technique to be used in rabbits, with success of the anatomic procedure. Further studies will clarify the best anastomosis methods and maintenance of function of the receptor organ. Translational relevance: this animal model of whole eye transplantation provides a novel perspective for blind patients and the research models, since we describe a novel mammal animal model. This model can be used as basis of a human model of whole eye transplantation in future studies.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever uma técnica cirúrgica inovadora para transplante de olho em um modelo animal em coelhos. Métodos: Seis coelhos machos com Dutch Belted foram submetidos à orbitotomia lateral do olho direito, com ampla exposição da anatomia retrobulbar, dissecção do cone muscular, exposição e secção distal do nervo óptico seguida de anastomose por vicryl (Grupo 1) ou cola de fibrina (Grupo 2). O registro da eletrorretinografia foi realizado antes da secção do nervo óptico e a cada 30 segundos após, para monitorar a função da retina. O olho esquerdo foi usado como grupo controle. Resultados: Após a ressecção do nervo óptico, a estabilidade da amplitude da eletrorretinografia foi perdida no olho direito após 302 segundos no Grupo 1 e após 296 segundos no Grupo 2. O olho esquerdo manteve eletrorretinografia estável por períodos mais longos. Conclusão: O modelo animal de transplante total de olho foi eficaz em descrever uma nova técnica cirúrgica para ser utilizada em laboratório com coelhos, com sucesso do procedimento anatômico. Novos estudos esclarecerão os melhores métodos de anastomose e manutenção da função do órgão receptor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Optic Nerve/surgery , Retina/physiology , Electroretinography , Eye/transplantation , Orbit/surgery , Rabbits , Retinal Ganglion Cells/physiology , Anastomosis, Surgical , Eye Enucleation , Models, Animal , Slit Lamp Microscopy
19.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0027, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376789

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The objective of this article was to review the disorganization of inner retinal layers as a biomarker in diabetic macular edema. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed®/MEDLINE®, Cochrane and Embase until August 2021. The keywords used were: "disorganization of inner retinal layers (DRIL)", "diabetic macular edema (DME)" and "biomarkers". No restrictions were imposed on the types of study to be included. The studies selected for eligibility were those that included the diagnosis of diabetic macular edema (center involved, resolved), that were well documented with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, that included disorganization of inner retinal layers as one of the reported alterations, with a follow-up of at least 3 months, and those in which the best corrected visual acuity was evaluated pre and post. There were no limitations regarding the type of treatment established. References of identified studies were searched for additional relevant articles. Articles not published in peer review journals were excluded. All studies were evaluated by two investigators independently. When one of them was in doubt, it was assessed by a third evaluator. A total of seven studies were included. Four were retrospective, longitudinal cohort study and three cross-sectional observational. Regarding the population studied, 61.5% were men and 38.4% were women, most of them had diabetes mellitus type 2 (85.8%). Regarding the stage of diabetes, the percentage of patients with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy was 28.2%, with moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy was 28.5%, with severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy was 15.9% and with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy was 27.4%. In 100% of the studies, the diagnosis of diabetic macular edema in the center involved was included by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Heidelberg). In all the studies, the presence of disorganization of inner retinal layers was recorded and its association with best corrected visual acuity was evaluated. The measurement was carried out using the LogMAR scale. In all the studies, the presence or absence of disorganization of inner retinal layers was associated with the best corrected worse/better final visual acuity using p <0.05 as a statical significance. The disorganization of inner retinal layers as a biomarker and their presence have shown to be important predictors of visual acuity in the future in patients with diabetic macular edema. Histopathological studies are required to understand its mechanism of action.


RESUMO O objetivo deste artigo foi revisar sobre a desorganização das camadas internas da retina como biomarcador no edema macular diabético. Uma busca sistemática foi realizada no PubMed®/MEDLINE®, Cochrane e Embase até agosto de 2021. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram "disorganization of inner retinal layers (DRIL)", "diabetic macular edema (DME)" e "biomarkers". Não foram impostas restrições quanto aos tipos de estudo a serem incluídos. Os estudos selecionados para elegibilidade foram aqueles que incluíram o diagnóstico de edema macular diabético (centro envolvido, resolvido), que foram bem documentados com tomografia de coerência óptica de domínio espectral, que incluíram a desorganização das camadas internas da retina como uma das alterações relatadas, com acompanhamento de pelo menos 3 meses, e aqueles em que a melhor acuidade visual corrigida foi avaliada pré e pós. Não houve limitações quanto ao tipo de tratamento estabelecido. Referências de estudos identificados foram pesquisadas para artigos relevantes adicionais. Foram excluídos os artigos não publicados em revistas de revisão por pares. Todos os estudos foram avaliados por dois investigadores de forma independente. Quando havia dúvida com algum deles, a mesma era avaliada por um terceiro avaliador. Um total de sete estudos foram incluídos. Quatro eram estudos de coorte retrospectivos longitudinais e três eram observacionais transversais. Em relação à população estudada, a proporção de homens foi de 61,5% e de mulheres, 38,4%, a maioria com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (85,8%). Em relação ao estágio do diabetes, o percentual de pacientes com retinopatia diabética não proliferativa leve foi de 28,2%, retinopatia diabética não proliferativa moderada foi de 28,5%, de retinopatia diabética não proliferativa grave foi de 15,9% e de retinopatia diabética não proliferativa foi de 27,4%. Em 100% dos estudos, o diagnóstico de edema macular diabético no centro envolvido foi incluído pela tomografia de coerência óptica de domínio espectral (Heidelberg). Em todos os estudos, foi registrada a presença de desorganização das camadas internas da retina e avaliada sua associação com a melhor acuidade visual corrigida. A medição foi realizada usando a escala LogMAR. Em todos os estudos, a presença ou ausência de desorganização das camadas internas da retina foi associada a pior/melhor acuidade visual final melhor corrigida usando p<0,05 como significância estática. A desorganização das camadas internas da retina como biomarcador e sua presença têm se mostrado importantes como preditor da acuidade visual no futuro em pacientes com edema macular diabético. Estudos histopatológicos são necessários para entender seu mecanismo de ação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Retina/pathology , Biomarkers , Macular Edema/physiopathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/physiopathology , Vision Disorders/physiopathology , Retinal Vein Occlusion/physiopathology , Visual Acuity/physiology , Diabetes Complications , Systematic Review
20.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0057, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394860

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o impacto da triagem de retinopatia diabética de paciente diabéticos realizada com retinografia colorida. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo, de caráter descritivo, avaliando laudos de retinografias realizadas desde a implementação do protocolo da triagem de retinopatia diabética de paciente diabéticos acompanhados no Ambulatório de Endocrinologia de um hospital terciário do Sistema Único de Saúde, de maio de 2018 até maio de 2020. Resultados Realizaram retinografia 727 pacientes diabéticos, que tinham entre 14 e 91 anos, sendo a maioria com 60 anos ou mais (53,2%), do sexo feminino (68%) e brancos (87,6%). Não apresentavam retinopatia diabética 467 (64,2%) pacientes, 125 (17,2%) tinham retinopatia diabética não proliferativa, 37 (5,1%) retinopatia diabética não proliferativa grave e/ou suspeita de edema macular, 65 (8,9%) retinopatia diabética proliferativa, 21 (2,9%) suspeita de outras patologias, e as imagens de 12 (1,7%) pacientes eram insatisfatórias. Foram considerados de alto risco (aqueles com retinopatia diabética não proliferativa grave e/ou edema macular, retinopatia diabética proliferativa ou imagem insatisfatória) 114 (15,68%) pacientes. Conclusão O rastreio de retinopatia diabética com retinografia colorida possibilitou a detecção de pacientes diabéticos de alto risco que necessitavam atendimento com brevidade, permitindo o acesso deles à consulta oftalmológica e diminuindo a morbidade da doença relacionada ao tratamento tardio. Os demais foram encaminhados à Atenção Primária para regulamentação, por meio do Sistema de Regulação.


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the impact of diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening using color retinography in diabetic patients. Methods Retrospective descriptive study, evaluating reports of all retinographs performed since the implementation of the protocol for screening for diabetic retinopathy in diabetic patients followed up at the endocrinology outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital of the Unified Health System, from May 2018 to May 2020. Results 727 diabetic with age range from 14 to 91 years old, the majority being 60 years old or older (53.2%), female (68%) and white (87.6%), patients underwent retinography. Of the patients, 467 (64.2%) did not have DR, 125 (17.2%) had non-proliferative DR, 37 (5.1%) had severe non-proliferative DR and/or suspected macular edema, 65 (8.9%) had proliferative DR, 21 (2.9%) had suspicion signs of other pathologies and 12 (1.7%) had unsatisfactory images. A total of 114 (15.68%) patients were considered at high risk (those with severe non-proliferative NP and/or EM, proliferative DR or poor image) and were referred for comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation. Conclusion The screening of RD with color retinography enabled the detection of high-risk diabetic patients who needed assistance sooner and enabled their access to ophthalmologic consultation, which decreased disease morbidity. The others were referred to primary care for regulation through the Regulation System (SISREG).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Photography/methods , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnostic imaging , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological , Unified Health System , Mydriasis/chemically induced , Retrospective Studies , Color , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/etiology , Diabetic Retinopathy/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Diagnostic Screening Programs , Fundus Oculi , Hospitals, Public
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