Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 221
Filter
1.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(2): 180-191, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364366

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Structural imaging of the brain is the most widely used diagnostic tool for investigating neurodegenerative diseases. More advanced structural imaging techniques have been applied to early or prodromic phases, but they are expensive and not widely available. Therefore, it is highly desirable to search for noninvasive, easily accessible, low-cost clinical biomarkers suitable for large-scale population screening, in order to focus on making diagnoses at the earliest stages of the disease. In this scenario, imaging studies focusing on the structures of the retina have increasingly been used for evaluating neurodegenerative diseases. The retina shares embryological, histological, biochemical, microvascular and neurotransmitter similarities with the cerebral cortex, thus making it a uniquely promising biomarker for neurodegenerative diseases. Optical coherence tomography is a modern noninvasive imaging technique that provides high-resolution two-dimensional cross-sectional images and quantitative reproducible three-dimensional volumetric measurements of the optic nerve head and retina. This technology is widely used in ophthalmology practice for diagnosing and following up several eye diseases, such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Its clinical impact on neurodegenerative diseases has raised enormous interest over recent years, as several clinical studies have demonstrated that these diseases give rise to reduced thickness of the inner retinal nerve fiber layer, mainly composed of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. In this review, we aimed to address the clinical utility of optical coherence tomography for diagnosing and evaluating different neurodegenerative diseases, to show the potential of this noninvasive and easily accessible method.


RESUMO A avaliação estrutural do cérebro, feita por meio dos exames de neuroimagem, é a forma mais utilizada de ferramenta diagnóstica e de acompanhamento das doenças neurodegenerativas. Técnicas de imagem mais sofisticadas podem ser necessárias especialmente nas fases mais precoces, antes mesmo do surgimento de quaisquer sintomas, porém costumam ser caras e pouco acessíveis. Sendo assim, é de fundamental importância a busca de biomarcadores não invasivos, de fácil acesso e baixo custo, que possam ser utilizados para rastreio populacional e diagnóstico mais precoce. Nesse cenário, o número de estudos com ênfase em técnicas de imagem para avaliação estrutural da retina em pacientes com doenças neurodegenerativas tem aumentado nos últimos anos. A retina apresenta similaridade embriológica, histológica, bioquímica, microvascular e neurotransmissora com o córtex cerebral, tornando-se assim um biomarcador único e promissor nas doenças neurodegenerativas. A tomografia de coerência óptica é uma moderna técnica de imagem não invasiva que gera imagens seccionais bidimensionais de alta resolução e medidas volumétricas tridimensionais reprodutivas do disco óptico e da mácula. Essa tecnologia é amplamente utilizada na prática oftalmológica para o diagnóstico e o seguimento de diversas doenças oculares, como glaucoma, retinopatia diabética e degeneração macular relacionada à idade. A redução da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina e das camadas de células ganglionares em pacientes com doenças neurodegenerativas foi demonstrada em diversos estudos clínicos nos últimos anos. Nesta revisão, abordamos as principais aplicações clínicas da tomografia de coerência óptica nas doenças neurodegenerativas e discutimos o seu papel como potencial biomarcador nessas afecções.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Retina/pathology , Retina/diagnostic imaging
2.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0060, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407680

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To evaluate the retinal blood vascular network of the retinographies of patients with different grades of diabetic retinopathy. Methods Ninety Retinographies (MESSIDOR database) were used, with different grades of diabetic retinopathy divided into 4 groups: no retinopathy (n=23), grade one (n=20), grade two (n=20) and grade three (n=27) diabetic retinopathy. The grades of diabetic retinopathy were classified according to the number of microaneurysms, number of hemorrhages and the presence of neovascularization. The images were skeletonized and quantified by fractal methods: dimension of box-counting (Dbc) and information (Dinf). Results The means of Dbc values of groups were around 1.25, without statistically significant difference in the dimension values between groups for whole retina. There was also no statistical difference in Dinf values between groups, whose means ranged between 1.294 ± 0.013 (group of grade 1) and 1.3 ± 0.017 (group of grade 3). The retinographies were divided into regions of equal areas. The fractal values of some retinal regions showed statistical differences, but these differences were not enough to show the sensitivity of fractal methods in identifying diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion The fractal methods were not able to identify the different grades of diabetic retinopathy in retinographies.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a rede vascular sanguínea da retina a partir de retinografias de pacientes com diferentes graus de retinopatia diabética. Métodos Foram utilizadas 90 retinografias (banco de dados MESSIDOR), com diferentes graus de retinopatia diabética divididas em quatro grupos: sem retinopatia (n=23), retinopatia diabética de grau um (n=20), grau dois (n=20) e grau três (n=27). Os graus de retinopatia foram classificados conforme o número de microaneurismas, número de hemorragias e presença de neovascularização. As imagens foram esqueletizadas e quantificadas pelos métodos fractais: dimensão da contagem de caixas e informação. Resultados As médias dos valores das dimensões de contagem de caixas para todos os grupos foram próximas a 1,25, sem diferença estatisticamente significativa nos valores das dimensões entre os grupos para retina inteira. Também não houve diferença estatística nos valores da dimensão de informação entre os grupos, cujas médias variaram entre 1,294 ± 0,013 (grupo do grau 1) e 1,3 ± 0,017 (grupo do grau 3). As imagens retinianas foram divididas em regiões de áreas iguais. Os valores fractais de algumas regiões retinais mostraram diferenças estatísticas, mas estas não foram suficientes para mostrar a sensibilidade dos métodos fractais na identificação da retinopatia diabética. Conclusão Os métodos fractais não foram capazes de identificar os diferentes graus de retinopatia diabética em retinografias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retinal Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Fractals , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnostic imaging , Retina/pathology , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Retinal Vessels/pathology , Diabetic Retinopathy/pathology , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological
3.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0027, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376789

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The objective of this article was to review the disorganization of inner retinal layers as a biomarker in diabetic macular edema. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed®/MEDLINE®, Cochrane and Embase until August 2021. The keywords used were: "disorganization of inner retinal layers (DRIL)", "diabetic macular edema (DME)" and "biomarkers". No restrictions were imposed on the types of study to be included. The studies selected for eligibility were those that included the diagnosis of diabetic macular edema (center involved, resolved), that were well documented with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, that included disorganization of inner retinal layers as one of the reported alterations, with a follow-up of at least 3 months, and those in which the best corrected visual acuity was evaluated pre and post. There were no limitations regarding the type of treatment established. References of identified studies were searched for additional relevant articles. Articles not published in peer review journals were excluded. All studies were evaluated by two investigators independently. When one of them was in doubt, it was assessed by a third evaluator. A total of seven studies were included. Four were retrospective, longitudinal cohort study and three cross-sectional observational. Regarding the population studied, 61.5% were men and 38.4% were women, most of them had diabetes mellitus type 2 (85.8%). Regarding the stage of diabetes, the percentage of patients with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy was 28.2%, with moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy was 28.5%, with severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy was 15.9% and with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy was 27.4%. In 100% of the studies, the diagnosis of diabetic macular edema in the center involved was included by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Heidelberg). In all the studies, the presence of disorganization of inner retinal layers was recorded and its association with best corrected visual acuity was evaluated. The measurement was carried out using the LogMAR scale. In all the studies, the presence or absence of disorganization of inner retinal layers was associated with the best corrected worse/better final visual acuity using p <0.05 as a statical significance. The disorganization of inner retinal layers as a biomarker and their presence have shown to be important predictors of visual acuity in the future in patients with diabetic macular edema. Histopathological studies are required to understand its mechanism of action.


RESUMO O objetivo deste artigo foi revisar sobre a desorganização das camadas internas da retina como biomarcador no edema macular diabético. Uma busca sistemática foi realizada no PubMed®/MEDLINE®, Cochrane e Embase até agosto de 2021. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram "disorganization of inner retinal layers (DRIL)", "diabetic macular edema (DME)" e "biomarkers". Não foram impostas restrições quanto aos tipos de estudo a serem incluídos. Os estudos selecionados para elegibilidade foram aqueles que incluíram o diagnóstico de edema macular diabético (centro envolvido, resolvido), que foram bem documentados com tomografia de coerência óptica de domínio espectral, que incluíram a desorganização das camadas internas da retina como uma das alterações relatadas, com acompanhamento de pelo menos 3 meses, e aqueles em que a melhor acuidade visual corrigida foi avaliada pré e pós. Não houve limitações quanto ao tipo de tratamento estabelecido. Referências de estudos identificados foram pesquisadas para artigos relevantes adicionais. Foram excluídos os artigos não publicados em revistas de revisão por pares. Todos os estudos foram avaliados por dois investigadores de forma independente. Quando havia dúvida com algum deles, a mesma era avaliada por um terceiro avaliador. Um total de sete estudos foram incluídos. Quatro eram estudos de coorte retrospectivos longitudinais e três eram observacionais transversais. Em relação à população estudada, a proporção de homens foi de 61,5% e de mulheres, 38,4%, a maioria com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (85,8%). Em relação ao estágio do diabetes, o percentual de pacientes com retinopatia diabética não proliferativa leve foi de 28,2%, retinopatia diabética não proliferativa moderada foi de 28,5%, de retinopatia diabética não proliferativa grave foi de 15,9% e de retinopatia diabética não proliferativa foi de 27,4%. Em 100% dos estudos, o diagnóstico de edema macular diabético no centro envolvido foi incluído pela tomografia de coerência óptica de domínio espectral (Heidelberg). Em todos os estudos, foi registrada a presença de desorganização das camadas internas da retina e avaliada sua associação com a melhor acuidade visual corrigida. A medição foi realizada usando a escala LogMAR. Em todos os estudos, a presença ou ausência de desorganização das camadas internas da retina foi associada a pior/melhor acuidade visual final melhor corrigida usando p<0,05 como significância estática. A desorganização das camadas internas da retina como biomarcador e sua presença têm se mostrado importantes como preditor da acuidade visual no futuro em pacientes com edema macular diabético. Estudos histopatológicos são necessários para entender seu mecanismo de ação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Retina/pathology , Biomarkers , Macular Edema/physiopathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/physiopathology , Vision Disorders/physiopathology , Retinal Vein Occlusion/physiopathology , Visual Acuity/physiology , Diabetes Complications , Systematic Review
4.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(3): 225-229, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248976

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate visual function and changes in the central macular thickness of patients with unresponsive neovascular age-related macular degeneration who were switched from ranibizumab (Lucentis®) to aflibercept (Eylea®) treatment at 30 months. Methods: This retrospective study examined patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration who were switched to aflibercept after ≥6 previous intravitreal ranibizumab injections at 4- to 8-week intervals. All patients were switched to intravitreal aflibercept (2.0 mg) and analyzed after 3 consecutive injections followed by a prore nata dosing regimen and after 30 months of treatment. Best corrected visual acuity, biomicroscopic examination, intraocular pressure, fundus examination, and central macular thickness were recorded at the start of treatment, before the transition to intravitreal aflibercept treatment, and at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months of intravitreal aflibercept treatment. Results: A total of 33 eyes met the inclusion criteria. The median age of the patients was 73.57 ± 7.98 years, and 21 (61.8%) patients were males and 12 (35.3%) were females. Before the transition, the patients received a mean of 16.8 ± 8.8 ranibizumab injections (range 6-38).After the transition to intravitreal aflibercept treatment, the mean number of aflibercept injections was 9.09 ± 3.94. No significant differences were observed in best corrected visual acuity after the aflibercept switch in any of the months. The central macular thickness was significantly decreased at 6, 12, 18, and 30 months (p=0.01, p=0.03, p=0.05, p=0.05, p<0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration who were switched to intravitreal aflibercept treatment due to unresponsiveness to intravitreal ranibizumab exhibited a significant anatomic improvement in the retina, and although this state persisted, there was no significant functional gain.(AU)


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar, depois de 30 meses, a função visual e as alterações na espessura macular central de pacientes com degeneração macular relacionada à idade sem resposta terapêutica ao ranibizumabe (Lucentis®) que mudaram seu tratamento para o aflibercepte (Eylea®). Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo de pacientes com degeneração macular neovascular relacionada à idade que mudaram o tratamento para o aflibercepte após 6 ou mais injeções intravítreas de ranibizumabe a intervalos de 4-8 semanas. Todos os pacientes mudaram para o aflibercepte intravítreo (2,0 mg) e depois de 3 injeções consecutivas, seguidas de um regime de dosagem pro re nata, foram avaliados após 30 meses de tratamento. A melhor acuidade visual corrigida, o exame biomicroscópico, a pressão intraocular, a fundoscopia e a espessura macular central foram registrados no início do tratamento, antes da transição para o tratamento com aflibercepte intravítreo e aos 6, 12, 18, 24 e 30 meses de tratamento com o aflibercepte intravítreo. Resultados: Satisfizeram aos critérios de inclusão 33 olhos. A mediana da idade dos pacientes foi de 73,57 ± 7,98 anos. Dos pacientes, 21 (61,8%) eram homens e 12 (35,3%) eram mulheres. Antes da transição para o tratamento com o aflibercepte intravítreo, os pacientes receberam em média 16,8 ± 8,8 injeções de ranibizumabe (faixa 6-38).Depois da transição, o número médio de injeções de aflibercepte foi de 9,09 ± 3,94. Não houve diferenças significativas na melhor acuidade visual corrigida depois da mudança para o aflibercepte em qualquer das avaliações. Houve diminuição significativa da espessura macular central aos 6, 12, 18 e 30 meses (respectivamente, p=0,01, p=0,03, p=0,05, p=0,05 e p<0,001). Conclusão: Pacientes com degeneração macular neovascular relacionada à idade que mudaram seu tratamento para o aflibercepte intravítreo devido à falta de resposta ao ranibizumabe intravítreo, tiveram melhora anatômica significativa da retina; mas embora esse estado tenha persistido, não foi observado nenhum ganho funcional significativo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Retina/pathology , Visual Acuity , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Macular Degeneration/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies
5.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(1): 33-41, jan.-fev. 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251314

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A Leucemia Linfocitica Aguda (LLA) é uma doença caracterizada por uma alta taxa de sobrevida, porém o número absoluto de crianças que morrem por ela representa uma grande parcela dos casos de óbitos infantis por câncer. A morbidade decorrente de seu tratamento pode deixar sequelas em pessoas com grande expectativa de vida, tornando-se extremamente necessário o entendimento da patogênese desta doença, possibilitando o desenvolvimento de novos tratamentos e diminuição de sequelas provocadas pela doença. O diagnóstico precoce é importante para se evitar complicações oculares que possam levar a baixa de acuidade visual em longo prazo e para avaliação de recaídas de tratamento sendo determinante no direcionamento de condutas.


ABSTRACT The Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) is a disease characterized by a high survival rate, but the absolute number of children who die from it represents a large proportion of cases of infant deaths from cancer. The morbidity resulting from its treatment can leave sequelae in people with high life expectancy, making it extremely necessary to understand the pathogenesis of this disease, enabling the development of new treatments and reduction of sequelae caused by the disease. This early diagnosis is important to avoid ocular complications that may lead to low long-term visual acuity and to evaluate treatment relapses and determine the conducts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Prognosis , Retina/pathology , Leukemic Infiltration , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/diagnosis
7.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(5): 389-395, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131621

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Reduction of ganglion cell layer thickness may occur in diabetic patients without retinopathy. The relationships of this preclinical finding with retinal thickness or reduced parafoveal vessel density have not been established. This study investigated the relationships of ganglion cell layer thickness with retinal thickness and parafoveal vessel density in patients with and without diabetes. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional, prospective study that used optical coherence tomography angiography to compare non-diabetic patients (group 1) with diabetic patients without retinopathy (group 2). Ganglion cell layer thickness, macular thickness, and parafoveal vessel density (central, inner, and complete) medians were compared between groups (Mann-Whitney U test), and their relationships were assessed in each group (Spearman Rho test). Results: In total, 68 eyes were included in this study: 34 in group 1 and 34 in group 2. Ganglion cell layer thickness did not differ between groups in any sector. There were strong positive correlations between fields 2 (superior parafoveal), 3 (temporal parafoveal), and 4 (inferior parafoveal) of the optical coherence tomography macular thickness map and the ganglion cell layer thickness in all sectors in both groups. Central vessel density mean was lower in diabetic patients. In group 1 alone, thickness changes in the inferior and nasal inferior ganglion cell layer sectors were partially explained by inner vessel density (r2=0.32 and r2=0.27). Conclusions: Mean ganglion cell layer thickness was not lower in diabetic patients without retinopathy than in non-diabetic patients. Moreover, it exhibited a substantial correlation with total macular thickness. Parafoveal vessel density decreased before ganglion cell layer thinning was observed.


RESUMO Objetivo: Pode ocorrer redução da espessura da camada de células ganglionares em pacientes diabéticos sem retinopatia. As relações desse achado pré-clínico com a espessura da retina ou a densidade reduzida de vasos parafoveais não foram estabelecidas. Este estudo investigou as relações da espessura da camada de células ganglionares com a espessura da retina e densidade dos vasos parafoveais em pacientes com e sem diabetes. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo, observacional, transversal que utilizou angiotomografia de coerência óptica para comparar pacientes não diabéticos (grupo 1) com pacientes diabéticos sem retinopatia (grupo 2). As médias da espessura da camada de células ganglionares, espessura macular e densidade dos vasos parafoveais (central, interno e completo) foram comparadas entre os grupos (teste U de Mann-Whitney) e suas relações foram avaliadas em cada grupo (Teste de Spearman Rho). Resultados: No total, 68 olhos foram incluídos neste estudo: 34 no grupo 1 e 34 no grupo 2. A espessura da camada de células ganglionares não diferiu entre os grupos em nenhum setor. Houve fortes correlações positivas entre os campos 2 (parafoveal superior), 3 (parafoveal temporal) e 4 (parafoveal inferior) do mapa da espessura macular da tomografia de coerência óptica e a espessura da camada de células ganglionares em todos os setores dos dois grupos. A média da densidade central dos vasos foi menor nos pacientes diabéticos. Somente no grupo 1, as alterações de espessura da camada de células ganglionares nos setores inferior e nasal inferior foram parcialmente explicadas pela densidade do vaso interno (r2=0,32 e r2=0,27). Conclusões: A média da espessura da camada de células ganglionares não foi menor em pacientes diabéticos sem retinopatia do que em pacientes não diabéticos. Além disso, exibiu uma correlação substancial com a espessura macular total. A densidade dos vasos parafoveais diminui antes do desbaste da camada de células ganglionares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retina , Retinal Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Retinopathy , Retina/pathology , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnostic imaging
8.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(3): 309-313, May-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132084

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) and macular, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and ganglion cell layer (GCL) thicknesses in treatment-naive children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), children with ADHD on regular methylphenidate (MPH) treatment for at least 3 months, and healthy controls. Methods: A total of 58 treatment-naive children with ADHD, 45 children with ADHD on regular MPH treatment, and 44 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. All participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to assess global RNFL thickness, central macular thickness, and GCL thickness in both eyes. Results: Separate univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) on the outcome variables revealed a significant difference among the research groups with respect to IOP in the left eye. Post-hoc univariate analyses indicated that left IOP was significantly higher in children with ADHD under MPH treatment than among healthy controls. However, global RNFL thickness, central macular thickness, and GCL thickness of both eyes, as well as IOP in the right eye, were not significantly different across groups. Conclusion: Further longitudinal follow-up studies are needed to determine whether MPH treatment has any effect on IOP or OCT findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Retinal Ganglion Cells/pathology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/physiopathology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/pathology , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Macula Lutea/pathology , Nerve Fibers/pathology , Reference Values , Retina/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Analysis of Variance , Tomography, Optical Coherence
9.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(2): 132-140, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088966

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the relationships between (i) thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head topography, and visual field parameters and (ii) corneal biomechanical properties in normal controls and patients with ocular hypertension and primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: This observational, cross-sectional study included 68 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma, 99 eyes with ocular hypertension and 133 control eyes. Corneal biomechanical properties, optic nerve head topographic features, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and visual fields were assessed in all cases. Corneal biomechanical properties, retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses, and optic nerve head topographic features were compared among the groups. The associations between structural and functional measures of glaucomatous damage and corneal biomechanical factors were also evaluated. Results: Significantly lower corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor values were observed in the primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension groups as compared with the control group, but there were no significant differences between the primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension groups. In the ocular hypertension group, no associations were observed between the corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor with values and the structural and functional parameters. In the primary open-angle glaucoma group, positive correlations were observed between the corneal hysteresis values and the global retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (p<0.01, r=0.27), mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (p<0.01, r=0.33), and mean deviation (p<0.01, r=0.26), and negative correlations were observed between the corneal resistance factor values, and the cup area (p<0.01, r=-0.39), cup-to-disk ratio (p=0.02, r=-0.28), linear cup-to-disk ratio (p=0.02, r=-0.28), and cup shape (p=0.03, r=-0.26). In the control group, weak correlations were detected between the corneal hysteresis and the cup area (p=0.03, r=0.19), cup-to-disk ratio (p=0.01, r=0.21), and linear cup-to-disk ratio (p=0.01, r=0.22). Conclusions: Distinct correlations were identified between the corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor values and the functional and structural parameters in the primary open-angle glaucoma and control groups. Corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor may have different roles in the pathophysiology of glaucoma.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar as relações entre (i) espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina, topografia do nervo óptico e parâmetros do campo visual e (ii) propriedades biomecânicas da córnea, em controles normais e pacientes com hiperten são ocular e glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto. Métodos: Este estudo observacional, transversal, incluiu 68 olhos com glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto, 99 olhos com hipertensão ocular e 133 olhos controle. As propriedades biomecânicas da córnea, as características topográficas da cabeça do nervo óptico, a espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina e os campos visuais foram avaliados em todos os casos. As propriedades biomecânicas da córnea, a espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina e as características topográficas da cabeça do nervo óptico foram comparadas entre os grupos. As associações entre medidas estruturais e funcionais de danos glaucomatosos e fatores biomecânicos da córnea também foram avaliadas. Resultados: Valores de histerese corneana e da resistência corneana foram significativamente menores nos grupos com glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto e hipertensão ocular em com paração ao grupo controle, mas não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto e hipertensão ocular. No grupo com hipertensão ocular, não foram observadas associações entre histerese da córnea e o fator de resistência corneana com os valores e os parâmetros estruturais e funcionais. No grupo com glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto foram observadas correlações positivas entre os valores de histerese corneana e a espessura a camada de fibras nervosas da retina (p<0,01, r=0,27), espessura média da camada de fibras nervosas da retina (p<0,01, r=0,33) e desvio médio (p<0,01, r=0,26), e correlações negativas entre o os valores do fator de resistência da córnea e a área de escavação (p<0,01, r=-0,39), a relação escavação/disco (p=0,02, r=-0,28), a relação copo-para-disco linear (p=0,02, r=-0,28) e a forma da escavação (p=0,03, r=-0,26). No grupo controle, correlações foram detectadas entre a histerese da córnea e área de escavação (p=0,03, r=0,19), relação escavação/disco (p=0,01, r=0,21) e relação copo-para-disco linear (p=0,01, r=0,22). Conclusões: Correlações distintas foram identificadas entre histerese da córnea e os valores de resistência da córnea e os parâmetros funcionais e estruturais nos grupos de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto e controle. A histerese da córnea e o fator de resistência da córnea podem ter diferentes papéis na fisiopatologia do glaucoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Retina/pathology , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/pathology , Ocular Hypertension/pathology , Cornea/pathology , Nerve Fibers/pathology , Reference Values , Retina/physiopathology , Biomechanical Phenomena , Visual Fields/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Linear Models , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/physiopathology , Ocular Hypertension/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cornea/physiopathology , Intraocular Pressure
10.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(4): 263-269, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019422

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare retinal and choroidal thickness in patients with Behçet's disease with and without ocular involvement as well as to evaluate the correlation between erythrocyte sedimentation rate and choroidal thickness among patients with Behçet's disease. Methods: This was a prospective interventional study investigating erythrocyte sedimentation as well as choroidal and retinal thickness among patients with Behçet's disease. Patients who were diagnosed based on The International Criteria for Behçet's Disease with (Group A) or without (Group B) ocular involvement and a matched control group (Group C) participated in the study. Optical coherence tomography measurements and blood tests were performed on the same day. Retinal and choroidal thickness were measured using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), and central macular thickness, central subfoveal choroidal thickness, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were measured using optical coherence tomography. Results: Average erythrocyte sedimenta­tion values were 9.89 mm/h in Group A, 16.21 mm/h in Group B, and 3.89 mm/h in Group C; average central subfoveal choroidal thickness values were 350.66, 331.74, and 325.95 mm, respectively. Average central macular thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness values of patients in Groups A, B and C were 226.39 and 225.97mm; 234.11 and 92.00 mm; and 97.58 and 99.84 mm, respectively. No significant difference was seen between Group A and B patients in central subfoveal choroidal thickness, central macular thickness, or retinal nerve fiber layer thickness values. Central macular thickness was statistically significantly thinner in Groups A and B than in Group C (p=0.016). Group A had thinning in the nasal quadrant of the retinal and general retinal nerve fiber layers when compared with those in Group C (p=0.010 and 0.041, respectively). A connection could not be established between the erythrocyte sedimentation, central subfoveal cho­roidal thickness, central macular thickness, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in the patients with Behçet's disease. Conclusion: The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is typically used to test for activation of Behçet's disease and assess treatment response. In our study, we could not establish a connection between the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and central subfoveal choroidal thickness, central macular thickness, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with systematically active Behçet's disease without ocular involvement.


RESUMO Objetivos: Comparar a espessura da retina e da coroide em pacientes com doença de Behçet, com e sem acometimento ocular e avaliar a correlação entre a taxa de sedimentação de eritrócitos e a espessura da coroide em pacientes com doença de Behçet. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo intervencional que investigou a sedimentação de eritrócitos, espessura de coroide e da retina em pacientes com doença de Behçet. Os pacientes que foram diagnosticados com base nos Critérios Internacionais para a Doença de Behçet com (Grupo A) ou sem (Grupo B) envolvimento ocular e um grupo controle correspondente (Grupo C) participaram do estudo. Medidas de tomografia de coerência óptica e exames de sangue foram realizados no mesmo dia. As espessuras da retina e da coroide foram medidas utilizando tomografia de coerência óptica de domínio espectral (Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Hidelberg, Germany) e a espessura macular central, a espessura coroidal subfoveal central e a espessura da camada de fibra nervosa da retina foram medidas usando tomografia de coerência óptica. Resultados: Os valores médios de sedimentação de eritrócitos foram de 9,89 mm/h no Grupo A, 16,21 mm/h no Grupo B e 3,89 mm/h no Grupo C; os valores médios da espessura da coroide subfoveal central foram 350,66, 331,74 e 325,95 mm respectivamente. Os valores médios da espessura macular central e da espessura da camada de fibra nervosa da retina dos pacientes nos grupos A, B e C foram de 226,39, 225,97, 234,11 mm e 92,00, 97,58, 99,84 mm respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre pacientes do Grupo A e B na espessura da coroide subfoveal central, espessura macular central ou valores da espessura da camada de fibra nervosa da retina. A espessura macular central foi estatisticamente significativamente mais fina nos Grupos A e B do que no Grupo C (p=0,016). O Grupo A apresentou afinamento na porção nasal das camadas retiniana e geral da fibra nervosa da retina quando comparado com o Grupo C (p=0,010, p=0,041, respectivamente). Não foi possível estabelecer uma conexão entre a sedimentação dos eritrócitos, a espessura subfoveal central da coroide, a espessura macular central e espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina nos pacientes com doença de Behçet. Conclusão: A taxa de sedimentação de eritrócitos é comumente utilizada para testar a ativação da doença de Behçet e avaliar a resposta ao tratamento. Em nosso estudo, não foi possível estabelecer uma conexão entre a taxa de sedimentação de eritrócitos e a espessura da coroide subfoveal central, espessura macular central e espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina em pacientes com doença de Behçet sistematicamente ativa sem envolvimento ocular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Retina/pathology , Blood Sedimentation , Behcet Syndrome/pathology , Behcet Syndrome/blood , Choroid/pathology , Reference Values , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Uveitis/etiology , Uveitis/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Behcet Syndrome/complications , Prospective Studies , Choroid/diagnostic imaging , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Intraocular Pressure , Nerve Fibers/pathology
11.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(3): 183-188, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001301

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To test the hypothesis that Chagas disease predisposes to optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer alterations. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 41 patients diagnosed with Chagas disease and 41 controls, paired by sex and age. The patients underwent ophthalmologic examinations, including intraocular pressure measurements, optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer screening with retinography, optical coherence tomography, and standard automated perimetry. Results: All of the patients with Chagas disease had a recent cardiologic study; 15 (36.6%) had heart failure, 14 (34.1%) had cardiac form without left ventricular dysfunction, and 12 (29.3%) had indeterminate form. Optic nerve/retinal nerve fiber layer alterations were observed in 24 patients (58.5%) in the Chagas disease group and 7 controls (17.1%) (p£0.01). Among these, optic nerve pallor, optic nerve alterations suggestive of glaucoma, notch, peripapillary hemorrhage, and localized retinal nerve fiber layer defect were detected. Alterations were more prominent in patients with Chagas disease and heart failure (11 patients), although they also occurred in those with Chagas disease without left ventricular dysfunction (7 patients) and those with indeterminate form (6 patients). Optical coherence tomography showed that themean of the average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured 89 ± 9.7 mm, and the mean of retinal nerve fiber layer superior and inferior thickness measured 109 ± 17.5 and 113 ± 16.8 mm, respectively were lower in patients with Chagas disease. In controls, these values were 94 ± 10.6 (p=0.02); 117 ± 18.1 (p=0.04), and 122 ± 18.4 mm (p=0.03). Conclusion: Changes in optic nerve/ retinal nerve fiber layer were more prevalent in patients with Chagas disease.


RESUMO Objetivo: Testar a hipótese de que a doença de Chagas predispõe a alterações no nervo óptico e camada de fibras nervosas peripapilar. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal com 41 pacientes diagnosticados com doença de Chagas e 41 controles, pareados por sexo e idade. Os pacientes foram submetidos a exames oftalmológicos, incluindo medida da pressão intraocular, avaliação do nervo óptico e camada de fibras nervosas através de retinografia, tomografia de coerência óptica e perimetria automatizada padrão. Resultados: Todos os pacientes com doença de Chagas apresentavam estudo cardiológico recente; 15 pacientes (36,6%) apresentavam insuficiência cardíaca; 14 (34,1%) forma cardíaca sem disfunção de ventrículo esquerdo e 12 (29,3%), forma indeterminada. Alterações do nervo óptico/camada de fibras nervosas foram observadas em 24 pacientes (58,5%) do grupo com doença de Chagas e 07 controles (17,1%) (p£0,01). Dentre estas, palidez do nervo óptico, alterações do nervo óptico sugestivas de glaucoma, entalhe, hemorragia peripapilar e defeito da camada de fibras localizado foram detectados. As alterações foram mais proeminentes nos pacientes com doença de Chagas e insuficiência cardíaca (11 pacientes) embora também ocorressem naqueles com doença de Chagas sem disfunção de ventrículo esquerdo (7 pacientes) e com forma indeterminada (6 pacientes). A tomografia de coerência óptica mostrou que a média da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina mediu 89 ± 9,7 mm), e a média da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas superior e inferior mediu 109 ± 17,5 e 113 ± 16,8 mm, respectivamente, foi menor em pacientes com doença de Chagas. Nos controles, esses valores foram de 94 ± 10,6 mm (p=0,02); 117 ± 18,1 (p=0,04) e 122 ± 18,4 mm (p=0,03). Conclusão: Alterações do nervo óptico/camada de fibras nervosas da retina foram mais prevalentes nos pacientes com doença de Chagas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Optic Nerve/pathology , Retina/pathology , Chagas Disease/pathology , Nerve Fibers/pathology , Optic Nerve/physiopathology , Optic Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Retina/physiopathology , Retinal Diseases/etiology , Retinal Diseases/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Optic Nerve Diseases/physiopathology , Optic Nerve Diseases/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Analysis of Variance , Chagas Disease/complications , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Field Tests , Intraocular Pressure
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(4): 522-526, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014255

ABSTRACT

Alport syndrome is an inherited progressive form of glomerular disease that is often associated with sensorineural hearing loss and ocular abnormalities. We report two men with Alport syndrome. Both had chronic kidney disease and consulted for long-term loss of visual acuity. One had auditory abnormalities. On the ophthalmological examination, both had anterior lenticonus and one had dot or fleck retinopathy. Those findings are described in up to 50% and 70% of men with X-linked Alport syndrome, respectively. Both patients had a family history of Alport syndrome or suggestive signs and symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Eye Diseases/pathology , Nephritis, Hereditary/pathology , Retina/pathology , Tonometry, Ocular , Visual Acuity , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Eye Diseases/physiopathology , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Nephritis, Hereditary/diagnosis , Nephritis, Hereditary/physiopathology
13.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(1): 6-11, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973873

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Obesity is associated with eye diseases, but the underlying structural changes and pathogenic mechanisms have not been examined in detail. Here, we assessed the effects of morbid obesity on the morphometric indices of eye disease. Methods: Morbidly obese volunteers (n=101, body mass index [BMI] ³40) and healthy individuals (n=95, BMI: 18.50-24.99) were examined by Goldman applanation tonometry, pachymetry, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Intraocular pressure, anterior chamber depth, axial length, central corneal thickness, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, central foveal thickness, and choroidal thickness were compared between groups. Results: Uncorrected intraocular pressure was significantly greater in the morbidly obese group than in the healthy control group (15.5 ± 2.5 vs. 14.5 ± 2.6 mmHg, p=0.009), whereas axial length, anterior chamber depth, and central corneal thickness did not differ between the groups. The mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness at the temporal quadrant was reduced in the morbidly obese group (72.7 ± 13.6 vs. 85.05 ± 52.6 mm, p=0.024). Similarly, the mean retinal thicknesses at nasal and temporal 1500-mm locations were lower in the morbidly obese group (346.6 ± 18.2 vs. 353.7 ± 18.8 mm, p=0.008; 323.1 ± 20.3 vs. 330.0 ± 18.9 mm, p=0.001). The mean choroidal thickness was also reduced in almost all measurement locations (fovea, temporal 500 and 1000 mm, and nasal 500, 1000, and 1500 mm) of the obese group (p<0.05). Weight and BMI were negatively correlated with subfoveal choroidal thickness (r=-0.186, p=0.009; r=-0.173, p=0.015). Conclusion: Morbid obesity is associated with elevated uncorrected intraocular pressure and signs of neuropathy and retinopathy. Obesity may thus increase the risks of glaucoma and glaucomatous optic neuropathy.


RESUMO Objetivo: A obesidade está associada a doenças oulares, mas as mudanças estruturais subjacentes e os mecanismos patogênicos não foram examinados detalhadamente. Aqui avaliamos os efeitos da obesidade mórbida nos índices morfométricos da doença ocular. Métodos: Voluntários obesos mórbidos (n=101, índice de massa corporal ³40) e indivíduos saudáveis (n=95, índice de massa corporal 18,50 a 24,99) foram examinados por tonometria de aplanação de Goldman, paquimetria e tomografia de coerência óptica de domício espectral. A pressão intraocular, profundidade da câmara anterior, comprimento axial, espessura central da córnea, espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina, espessura foveal central e espessura da coroide foram comparadas entre os grupos. Resultados: A pressão intraocular não corrigida foi significativamente maior no grupo com obesidade mórbida do que no grupo controle saudável (15,5 ± 2,5 vs. 14,5 ± 2,6 mmHg, p=0,009), enquanto que o comprimento axial, profundidade da câmara anterior e espessura central da córnea não diferiram entre os grupos. A espessura média da camada de fibras nervosas da retina no quadrante temporal foi reduzida no grupo com obesidade mórbida (72,7 ± 13,6 vs. 85,05 ± 52,6 mm, p=0,024). Da mesma forma, a média das espesuras da retinianas nas localizações nasal e temporal de 1500 m foi menor no grupo com obesidade mórbida (346,6 ± 18,2 mm vs. 353,7 ± 18,8 mm, p=0,008; 323,1 ± 20,3 mm vs. 330,0 ± 18,9 mm, p=0,001). A espessura média da coroide também foi reduzida em quase todos os locais de mensuração (fóvea, temporal 500 e 1000 mm, nasal 500, 1000 e 1500 mm) do grupo obeso (p<0,05). Peso e índice de massa corporal foram negativamente correlacionados com a espessura da coroide subfoveal (r=-0,186, p=0,009; r=-0,173, p=0,015). Conclusão: A obesidade mórbida está associada à elevada pressão intraocular não corrigida e a sinais de neuropatia e retinopatia. A obesidade pode, assim, aumentar os riscos de glaucoma e neuropatia óptica glaucomatosa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Retinal Diseases/etiology , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Choroid Diseases/etiology , Retina/pathology , Retinal Diseases/physiopathology , Tonometry, Ocular/methods , Obesity, Morbid/physiopathology , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Choroid Diseases/physiopathology , Glaucoma/etiology , Glaucoma/physiopathology , Choroid/pathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Corneal Pachymetry/methods , Intraocular Pressure
14.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 77(6): 360-362, nov.-dez. 2018. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-985313

ABSTRACT

Resumo A Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl é uma desordem autossômica recessiva rara, com heterogeneidade clínica e genética. As principais características são retinopatia pigmentar, obesidade, polidactilia, dificuldades de aprendizado, diversos graus de deficiência intelectual, anomalias renais e hipogonadismo. O objetivo desse trabalho é relatar dois casos de síndrome de Bardet-Biedl em pacientes diagnosticados no Instituto Benjamin Constant e fazer uma revisão literária da síndrome. Revisão de prontuário e pesquisa bibliográfica nas bases de dados do PubMed, SciELO, MEDLINE e LILACS. Atualmente não há tratamento para a Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl, mas o diagnóstico precoce é importante para orientar a gestão da criança através de uma avaliação regular da pressão arterial, peso, estudos de imagiologia renais, exames oftalmológicos e apoio psicológico.


Abstract The Bardet-Biedl Syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Its main characteristics are pigmentary retinopathy, obesity, polydactyly, learning disabilities, various degrees of intellectual disability, renal anomalies and hypogonadism. The objective of this study is to report two cases of the Bardet-Biedl syndrome in patients diagnosed at the Benjamin Constant Institute and to perform a literary review of the syndrome. Review of medical records and bibliographic research were made from the PubMed, SciELO, MEDLINE and LILACS databases. Currently, treatment for the Bardet-Biedl Syndrome does not exist, but early diagnosis is important to guide the child through a regular assessment of blood pressure, weight, renal imaging studies, eye exams and psychological support.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Retinitis Pigmentosa/etiology , Bardet-Biedl Syndrome/complications , Retinal Dystrophies/etiology , Retina/pathology , Retinitis Pigmentosa/diagnosis , Bardet-Biedl Syndrome/diagnosis , Bardet-Biedl Syndrome/genetics , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological , Retinal Dystrophies/diagnosis
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 97-103, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893194

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Head trauma damages the optic nerve visual function and visual acuity.Effects of head trauma on the retina was investigated with biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical respects.The study was conducted on 30 rats with three groups: group 1 was control group (n=10). Second group was head-traumatized group (n=10) and last group was head-traumatized+Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE, i.p. 20ml/kg/day). Upon head was traumatized, CAPE was applied to trauma+CAPE group and then for the following four days. At the end of 5th day, rats were anesthetized with ketamine hydroxide and then blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis. MDA and GSH-Px values were compared. After blood sample, total eyes of rats were dissected for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. In trauma group, degeneration in retinal photoreceptor cells, disintegrity and in inner and outer nuclear layers, hypertrophy in ganglion cells, and hemorrhage in blood vessels were observed. In the group treated with CAPE, lesser degeneration in photoreceptor cells, regular appearances of inner and outer nuclear layers, mild hemorrhage in blood vessels of ganglionic cell layer were observed. The apoptotic changes caused by trauma seen in photoreceptor and ganglionic cells were decreased and cellular organization was preserved due to CAPE treatment. CAPE was thought to induce healing process on traumatic damages.


RESUMEN: El trauma craneal daña la función visual del nervio óptico y la agudeza visual. Se investigaron los efectos del traumatismo craneal en la retina con aspectos bioquímicos, histológicos e inmunohistoquímicos. El estudio se realizó en 30 ratas distribuidas en tres grupos: grupo control (n = 10); grupo con traumatismo craneal (n = 10); grupo con traumatismo craneoencefálico + Éster fenetílico de ácido cafeico (CAPE, i.p. 20 ml / kg / día). Sobre la cabeza traumatizada, se aplicó CAPE a trauma + grupo CAPE durante los siguientes cuatro días. Al final del día 5, las ratas se anestesiaron con hidróxido de ketamina y luego se tomaron muestras de sangre para el análisis bioquímico. Se compararon los valores de MDA y GSH-Px. Después de la muestra de sangre, se disecaron los ojos de las ratas para su análisis histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico. En el grupo de traumatismos, se observó degeneración en las células fotorreceptoras retinianas, desintegridad en capas nucleares internas y externas, hipertrofia en células ganglionares y hemorragia en los vasos sanguíneos. En el grupo tratado con CAPE, se observó una menor degeneración en las células fotorreceptoras, apariciones regulares de capas nucleares internas y externas, hemorragia leve en los vasos sanguíneos de la capa de células ganglionares. Los cambios apoptóticos causados por el trauma visto en el fotorreceptor y las células ganglionares disminuyeron y la organización celular se conservó debido al tratamiento con CAPE. Se concluyó que CAPE induce un proceso de curación en daños traumáticos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Caffeic Acids/administration & dosage , Phenylethyl Alcohol/administration & dosage , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Retina/drug effects , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/pathology , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Phenylethyl Alcohol/analogs & derivatives , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retinal Diseases/pathology , Retina/pathology
16.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(1): 37-41, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888179

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare postoperative changes in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with macular holes treated with vitrectomy with Brilliant Blue-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling. Methods: Twenty-two eyes of 20 patients with macular holes were studied. Each eye was selected to undergo Brilliant Blue-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling. The circumferential retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was determined using spectral domain optical coherence tomography preoperatively and 2 months postoperatively. Mean overall and sectoral retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses were obtained for each patient. Results: There was no statistically significant difference (p≥0.05) between the pre- and post-treatment measurements in relation to each CFN variable, i.e., on average, pre-treatment measures were the same as post-treatment measures. Furthermore, despite the differences between the pre- and post-treatment measures always being positive (pre-post >0), they are not statistically significant. Conclusions: This study showed no significant decrease in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements after macular holes surgery, regardless of age or sex.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar as alterações pós-operatórias na espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina em pacientes com buracos maculares submetidos à vitrectomia via pars-plana associada à remoção de membrana limitante interna. Métodos: Foram estudados 22 olhos de 20 pacientes consecutivos diagnosticados com buraco macular. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à vitrectomia via pars-plana e remoção de membrana limitante interna corada com azul brilhante. A espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina em região peripapilar foi determinada por tomografia de coerência óptica de domínio espectral antes e 2 meses após a cirurgia. As espessuras totais e espessuras setoriais da camada de fibras nervosas da retina foram obtidas para cada paciente. Resultados: Os resultados mostram que não existe diferença estatisticamente significativa (p≥0,05) entre as medidas pré e pós-operatórias em relação a cada uma das variáveis. Conclusão: Este estudo não demonstrou diminuição significativa nas medidas da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas retinianas após a cirurgia de buraco macular, independente da faixa etária ou sexo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Retina/pathology , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Retinal Perforations/surgery , Vitrectomy/methods , Nerve Fibers/pathology , Postoperative Period , Reference Values , Retina/surgery , Time Factors , Benzenesulfonates , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Coloring Agents , Preoperative Period
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 135-140, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742493

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess whether the asymmetry in the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness between superior and inferior hemispheres on optical coherence tomography (OCT) is useful for early detection of glaucoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patient population consisted of Training set (a total of 60 subjects with early glaucoma and 59 normal subjects) and Validation set (30 subjects with early glaucoma and 30 normal subjects). Two kinds of ratios were employed to measure the asymmetry between the superior and inferior pRNFL thickness using OCT. One was the ratio of the superior to inferior peak thicknesses (peak pRNFL thickness ratio; PTR), and the other was the ratio of the superior to inferior average thickness (average pRNFL thickness ratio; ATR). The diagnostic abilities of the PTR and ATR were compared to the color code classification in OCT. Using the optimal cut-off values of the PTR and ATR obtained from the Training set, the two ratios were independently validated for diagnostic capability. RESULTS: For the Training set, the sensitivities/specificities of the PTR, ATR, quadrants color code classification, and clock-hour color code classification were 81.7%/93.2%, 71.7%/74.6%, 75.0%/93.2%, and 75.0%/79.7%, respectively. The PTR showed a better diagnostic performance for early glaucoma detection than the ATR and the clock-hour color code classification in terms of areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) (0.898, 0.765, and 0.773, respectively). For the Validation set, the PTR also showed the best sensitivity and AUC. CONCLUSION: The PTR is a simple method with considerable diagnostic ability for early glaucoma detection. It can, therefore, be widely used as a new screening method for early glaucoma.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Color , Early Diagnosis , Female , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Nerve Fibers/pathology , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Retina/pathology , Retinal Ganglion Cells , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): 321-323, Sept.-Oct. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888138

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This report presents multimodal imaging of a 27-year-old woman diagnosed with benign familial fleck retina (OMIM 228980), an uncommon disorder. Fundus photographs revealed retinal flecks that affected her post-equatorial retina but spared the macular area. Fundus autofluorescence and infrared imaging demonstrated a symmetrical pattern of yellow-white fleck lesions that affected both eyes. Her full-field electroretinogram and electrooculogram were normal. An optical coherence tomography B-scan was performed for both eyes, revealing increased thickness of the retinal pigmented epithelium leading to multiple small pigmented epithelium detachments. The outer retina remained intact in both eyes. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography with split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation algorithm and 3 × 3 mm structural en face optical coherence tomography did not show macular lesions. Benign familial fleck retina belongs to a heterogenous group of so-called flecked retina syndromes, and should be considered in patients with yellowish-white retinal lesions without involvement of the macula.


RESUMO O objetivo do presente relato é demonstrar um estudo multimodal de um paciente com diagnóstico de Benign Familial Fleck Retina (BFFR) (OMIM 228980), uma alteração retinana muito rara. Retinografia colorida demonstrou "flecks" na retina posterior ao equador, poupando mácula. Tanto autofluorescência quando imagem "infrared," nota-se padrão simétrico de lesões amareladas em ambos os olhos. Eletrorretinograma padrão de campo total e EOG não evidenciaram alterações. SD OCT B-scan demostrou pequenos e múltiplos descolamentos do epitélio pigmentado (EPR), com retina externa intacta em ambos os olhos. Angiografia por OCT com "split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation algorithm" e "structural" "en face" OCT 3 x 3 mm não apontaram anormalidades na mácula. BFFR pertence ao heterogêneo grupo chamado "flecked retina syndromes," devendo ser considerada em pacientes com flecks retinianos poupando mácula.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Retina/pathology , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Retinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Eye Diseases, Hereditary/pathology , Eye Diseases, Hereditary/diagnostic imaging , Retinal Diseases/pathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Electroretinography/methods
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 840-844, Sept. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893061

ABSTRACT

Traumatic head injury is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. As a result of head trauma occurring in the retina of the various biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical effects were investigated. Sprague­Dawley rats were subjected to traumatic brain injury with a weight-drop device using 300 g-1 m weight­height impact. Twenty one rats were divided into three groups, as group 1 (vehicle-treated control), group 2 (vehicle-treated trauma) group 3 trauma + Potentilla fulgens ( P. Fulgens) 400 mg/kg/day, i.p.). Distilled water was used as vehicle. All rats were decapitated 5 days after the induction of trauma, and the protective effects of P. Fulgens were evaluated by histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses. Although further studies are necessary to evaluate the time-and dose-dependent neuroprotective effects of P. Fulgens. Depending on whether trauma inhibits apoptosis of photoreceptor cells, ganglion cells, it is thought that the the support against the degeneration of neural connections can be considered. This study indicates that P.Fulgens is potentially useful for the treatment of eye disorders induced by traumatic brain injury.


El trauma de cráneo es una de las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad. Como resultado de un traumatismo craneal, la retina puede sufrir diversos efectos bioquímicos, histológicos e inmunohistoquímicos. Veintiún ratas Sprague-Dawley fueron sometidas a lesión craneal traumática con un dispositivo, de caída de peso, usando un impacto de 300 g-1 m de peso-altura. Las ratas fueron divididas en tres grupos: grupo 1 (control), grupo 2 (traumatismo) y grupo 3 trauma + Potentilla fulgens (400 mg / kg / día, i. p.). Se usó agua destilada como vehículo en todos los grupos. Las ratas fueron decapitadas 5 días después de la inducción del trauma, y se evaluaron los efectos protectores de P. Fulgens mediante análisis histológicos, inmunohistoquímicos y bioquímicos. Es necesario realizar más estudios para evaluar los efectos neuroprotectores, dependientes del tiempo y la dosis, de P. Fulgens. Dependiendo si el trauma inhibe la apoptosis de las células fotorreceptoras, se estima que la disposición de las células ganglionares ayuda contra la degeneración de las conexiones neuronales. P. Fulgens ha demostrado ser efectivo para el tratamiento de los trastornos oculares inducidos por lesión cerebral traumática.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Craniocerebral Trauma/complications , Eye Injuries/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Potentilla/chemistry , Retina/pathology , Eye Injuries/etiology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retina/drug effects
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 1063-1068, Sept. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893094

ABSTRACT

Head trauma affects the optic nerve visual function and visual acuity. As a result of head trauma occurring in the retina of the various biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical effects were investigated. The protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum was evaluated on the damage to the retina of the rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to traumatic brain injury with a weight-drop device using 300 g-1 m weight-height impact. Thirty rats were divided into three groups as group 1 control, 2 group trauma, 3 group trauma+Gonoderma lucidum (20 mL/kg per day via gastric gavage) Ganoderma lucidum was administered for 7 days after trauma.All rats were decapitated 5 days after the induction of trauma, and the protective effects of Ganoderma lucidum in retina were evaluated by histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses. The antioxidant effect of Ganoderma lucidum on the cellular degeneration extracellular matrix and retinal barrier in retina after head trauma was investigated.


El traumatismo craneal afecta al nervio óptico en relación a su función y la agudeza visual. Se estudiaron los diversos efectos bioquímicos, histológicos e inmunohistoquímicos en la retina producidos por una lesión y trauma a la cabeza. En esta investigación se evaluó el efecto protector de Gonaderin lucidum sobre el daño a la retina de ratas. Ratas Sprague-Dawley fueron sometidas a una lesión cerebral traumática con un dispositivo de caída de peso usando un impacto de 300 g-1 m de peso-altura. Treinta ratas se dividieron en tres grupos: grupo 1, de control; grupo 2, trauma; grupo 3, de trauma + Gonoderma lucidum (20 ml / kg día, a través de una sonda gástrica). Ganoderma lucidum se administró durante 7 días después del trauma. Todas las ratas fueron decapitadas 5 días después. La inducción del trauma y los efectos protectores de Ganoderma lucidum en la retina fueron evaluados mediante análisis histológicos, inmunohistoquímicos y bioquímicos. Se investigó el efecto antioxidante de Ganoderma lucidum sobre la degeneración celular en la matriz extracelular y la barrera retiniana en la retina después del traumatismo craneal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Craniocerebral Trauma/pathology , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Reishi/chemistry , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Antioxidants/metabolism , Craniocerebral Trauma/drug therapy , Immunohistochemistry , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retinal Diseases/etiology , Retina/pathology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL