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1.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1270077

ABSTRACT

In managing HIV/AIDS with highly active antiretroviral agents, the historical therapeutic aim remains to maintain the plasma concentrations at a level above the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) required for 50% inhibition in viral replication.Concentration dependent toxicity is often observed in patients with elevated drug exposure and high peak plasma levels in lieu of accurately calculated drug dosages. Similarly lowplasmaconcentrationsarefrequently witnessed in individuals receiving adequate dosage regimens. Pharmacogenetic variations in drug metabolizing enzymes may contribute to this phenomenon.Over the last decade, knowledge about the role of pharmacogenetics in the treatment and prediction of ARV plasma levels have increased significantly. However, the extent of these genetic variations remain largely unknown in the South African population,which has sparked a renewed enthusiasm forlocalpharmacogenetic studies


Subject(s)
Delavirdine , Nucleosides , Polymorphism, Genetic , Protease Inhibitors , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
3.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 252-262, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dual regimen with dolutegravir plus cobicistat-boosted darunavir (DTG/DRV/c) is reasonable alternative option for patients with existing resistance and/or intolerance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients who switched to DTG/DRV/c among treatment-experienced patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a tertiary university hospital were selected. We analyzed the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability based on serial laboratory data and clinical findings. The primary endpoint was defined as the proportion of patients with plasma HIV RNA below 50 copies/mL at week 48 after switch. Secondary endpoints included evaluation of safety and tolerability. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients were retrospectively analyzed. The main reasons for the change to DTG/DRV/c were treatment failure in 13 patients (41.9%), simplification in 12 patients (38.7%), and adverse drug reaction in 6 patients (19.4%). Among the 13 patients who switched owing to treatment failure, the proportion of patients in whom the viral loads were suppressed to less than 50 copies/mL increased from 0% at baseline to 45% at 4 weeks, 50% at 12 weeks, 50% at 24 weeks, and 66.7% at 48 weeks. HIV virus levels decreased and CD4⁺ T cell counts increased during the follow-up period. In non-treatment failure patients (18 patients), the levels of viral suppression and CD4⁺ T cells were maintained. There were no significant differences in renal function, liver function, glucose levels, and lipid profile before and after regimen changes. The tolerability was very good: 30 patients (96.8%) tolerated the drugs well and only 1 patient discontinued owing to no improvement in renal insufficiency. Two patients (6.4%) in treatment failure group failed to reach viral suppression. CONCLUSION: The use of DTG/DRV/c in HIV treatment-experienced patients appears to be a very good regimen for switch therapy that is effective and well tolerated, without significant adverse drug reaction.


Subject(s)
Cell Count , Cobicistat , Darunavir , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Follow-Up Studies , Glucose , HIV , Humans , Humans , Liver , Plasma , Renal Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors , RNA , T-Lymphocytes , Treatment Failure , Viral Load
4.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 252-262, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-722322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dual regimen with dolutegravir plus cobicistat-boosted darunavir (DTG/DRV/c) is reasonable alternative option for patients with existing resistance and/or intolerance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients who switched to DTG/DRV/c among treatment-experienced patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a tertiary university hospital were selected. We analyzed the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability based on serial laboratory data and clinical findings. The primary endpoint was defined as the proportion of patients with plasma HIV RNA below 50 copies/mL at week 48 after switch. Secondary endpoints included evaluation of safety and tolerability. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients were retrospectively analyzed. The main reasons for the change to DTG/DRV/c were treatment failure in 13 patients (41.9%), simplification in 12 patients (38.7%), and adverse drug reaction in 6 patients (19.4%). Among the 13 patients who switched owing to treatment failure, the proportion of patients in whom the viral loads were suppressed to less than 50 copies/mL increased from 0% at baseline to 45% at 4 weeks, 50% at 12 weeks, 50% at 24 weeks, and 66.7% at 48 weeks. HIV virus levels decreased and CD4⁺ T cell counts increased during the follow-up period. In non-treatment failure patients (18 patients), the levels of viral suppression and CD4⁺ T cells were maintained. There were no significant differences in renal function, liver function, glucose levels, and lipid profile before and after regimen changes. The tolerability was very good: 30 patients (96.8%) tolerated the drugs well and only 1 patient discontinued owing to no improvement in renal insufficiency. Two patients (6.4%) in treatment failure group failed to reach viral suppression. CONCLUSION: The use of DTG/DRV/c in HIV treatment-experienced patients appears to be a very good regimen for switch therapy that is effective and well tolerated, without significant adverse drug reaction.


Subject(s)
Cell Count , Cobicistat , Darunavir , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Follow-Up Studies , Glucose , HIV , Humans , Humans , Liver , Plasma , Renal Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors , RNA , T-Lymphocytes , Treatment Failure , Viral Load
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1849-1856, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773966

ABSTRACT

Background@#Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are the earliest and most commonly used anti-human immunodeficiency virus drugs and play an important role in high active antiretroviral therapy. However, NRTI drug therapy can cause peripheral neuropathic pain. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms of rapamycin on the pain sensitization of model mice by in vivo experiments to explore the effect of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain caused by NRTIs.@*Methods@#Male Kun Ming (KM) mice weighing 20-22 g were divided into control, 2 mg/kg rapamycin, 12 mg/kg stavudine, and CMC-Na groups. Drugs were orally administered to mice for 42 consecutive days. The von Frey filament detection and thermal pain tests were conducted on day 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 after drug administration. After the last behavioral tests, immunohistochemistry and western blotting assay were used for the measurement of mTOR and other biomarkers. Multivariate analysis of variance was used.@*Results@#The beneficial effects of rapamycin on neuropathic pain were attributed to a reduction in mammalian target of rapamycin sensitive complex 1 (mTORC1)-positive cells (70.80 ± 2.41 vs. 112.30 ± 5.66, F = 34.36, P < 0.01) and mTORC1 activity in the mouse spinal cord. Mechanistic studies revealed that Protein Kinase B (Akt)/mTOR signaling pathway blockade with rapamycin prevented the phosphorylation of mTORC1 in stavudine-intoxicated mice (0.72 ± 0.04 vs. 0.86 ± 0.03, F = 4.24, P = 0.045), as well as decreased the expression of phospho-p70S6K (0.47 ± 0.01 vs. 0.68 ± 0.03, F = 6.01, P = 0.022) and phospho-4EBP1 (0.90 ± 0.04 vs. 0.94 ± 0.06, F = 0.28, P = 0.646).@*Conclusions@#Taken together, these results suggest that stavudine elevates the expression and activity of mTORC1 in the spinal cord through activating the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. The data also provide evidence that rapamycin might be useful for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , HIV Infections , Drug Therapy , Humans , Male , Mice , Neuralgia , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Phosphatidylinositols , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Sirolimus , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
6.
Brasília; CONITEC; maio 2017. graf, ilus, tab.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-908702

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTO: A resposta brasileira à epidemia de aids é resultante de um longo processo de atuação do governo brasileiro que garante desde 1996 acesso universal ao tratamento antirretroviral. Contudo, apesar dos inúmeros avanços ocorridos na redução da morbimortalidade nos últimos anos, o número de novos casos de aids vem se mantendo praticamente inalterado. No Brasil, a epidemia de aids é concentrada em determinados segmentos populacionais, que apresentam uma maior prevalência de infecção pelo HIV, quando comparados à população em geral, e respondem pela maioria de casos novos da infecção. Assim, para essas populações sob maior risco de infecção pelo HIV faz-se necessário a construção de estratégias de prevenção focalizadas como forma de impactar a epidemia. TECNOLOGIA: Profilaxia pré-exposição (PrEP) oral, na forma de tenofovir associado a entricitabina (TDF/FTC 300/200mg). Consiste no uso de antirretrovirais previamente à exposição de risco. INDICAÇÃO: Redução de risco em adquirir a infecção pelo HIV, entre pessoas sob risco aumentado. PERGUNTA: O uso de tenofovir associado a entricitabina (TDF/FTC 300/200mg) quando comparado ao uso de placebo reduz o risco de infecção pelo HIV entre pessoas sob alto risco? EVIDÊNCIAS CIENTÍFICAS: As evidências científicas disponíveis demostram que o uso de PrEP reduz o risco de infecção pelo HIV, comparado a placebo, com eficácia >70% (RR=0,30, 95% IC: 0,21-0,45, p= 0,001). Sua eficácia está diretamente relacionada à adesão ao medicamento. Os eventos adversos foram similares entre o grupo placebo e o que usou PrEP. Casos de resistência aos medicamentos foram encontrados entre aqueles que iniciaram PrEP durante a fase aguda da infecção, mas a incidência de resistência durante o uso de PrEP foi baixa. Não foi encontrada associação entre uso de PrEP e mudanças no comportamento sexual. O uso de PrEP demonstrou segurança e eficácia, para a redução de risco em adquirir a infecção pelo HIV, entre pessoas sob risco aumentado, quando comparado ao uso de placebo. RECOMENDAÇÃO DA CONITEC: A CONITEC recomendou a incorporação da associação de tenofovir e entricitabina (TDF/FTC 300/200mg) como profilaxia pré-exposição (PrEP) para populações sob risco aumentado de infecção pelo HIV no SUS, condicionada à aprovação do registro na ANVISA para essa indicação e à apresentação de um plano de acompanhamento anual das pessoas que receberão a profilaxia, de forma que sua incorporação possa ser reavaliada dentro de um prazo de tempo de, no máximo, 2 anos. CONSULTA PÚBLICA: Por meio da Consulta Pública nº 05 foram recebidas 147 contribuições distribuídas entre os formulários destinados a experiência e opinião e os para contribuições técnico-científicas. O nível de concordância com a recomendação inicial favorável à incorporação do medicamento como profilaxia pré-exposição (prep) para populações sob risco aumentado de adquirir o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) no SUS foi alto, abrangendo quase a totalidade das contribuições técnico-científica e 77% das contribuições de experiência e opinião. Entre as discordantes ou parcialmente concordantes não foram identificadas contribuições que trouxessem evidências científicas novas às já incluídas nesse parecer técnico-científico ou contestações às evidências científicas identificadas e que embasam a proposta de incorporação do medicamento com finalidade profilática. A maioria das experiências profissionais relatadas convergem com a proposta de incorporação elaborada nesse parecer. RECOMENDAÇÃO FINAL: Deliberou-se por unanimidade recomendar a incorporação da associação de tenofovir e entricitabina (TDF/FTC 300/200mg) como profilaxia pré-exposição (prep) para populações sob risco aumentado de adquirir o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) no SUS, condicionada à aprovação da inclusão da indicação para profilaxia pré-exposição ao HIV no registro do medicamento pela ANVISA e reavaliação do plano de acompanhamento anual das pessoas que receberão a profilaxia, em até 2 anos. DECISÃO: Incorporar o tenofovir associado a entricitabina (TDF/FTC 300/200mg) como profilaxia pré-exposição (PrEP) para populações sob maior risco de adquirir o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV), no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde ­ SUS, dada pela Portaria nº 21, publicada no DOU nº 101, do dia 29 de maio de 2017, seção 1, pág. 73.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Brazil , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Health Evaluation/economics , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Unified Health System
7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1,supl): 497-504, May. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886661

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify the 516 G>T polymorphism of the CYP2B6 gene and evaluate its influence on central nervous system (CNS) side effect development in HIV-positive individuals undergoing Efavirenz (EFV) treatment in a population from southern Brazil. Additionally, we performed a survey on the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of our sample. In addition to medical records evaluation, whole blood of 89 individuals was analyzed for viral load, T lymphocyte count (CD4+ and CD8+), and the polymorphism. Considering the side effects of the CNS reported by individuals but without considering the genetic variables, no statistically significant association was noted between the adverse effects and the antiretroviral treatment (including or not EFV). In addition, no statistically significant difference was noted for the influence of genotype on the viral load or the number of T lymphocytes (CD4+ and CD8+) among individuals undergoing EFV treatment. This is the first study that investigated the impact of the 516 G>T polymorphism of the CYP2B6 gene among HIV-positive individuals from southern Brazil. Its clinical significance indicates the need for prospective studies in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Benzoxazines/adverse effects , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6/genetics , Prospective Studies , CD4-CD8 Ratio , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Viral Load , Benzoxazines/therapeutic use , Genotype
8.
Brasília; CONITEC; mar. 2017.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-907177

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTO: Atualmente, encontra-se disponível na RENAME somente a apresentação de 100mg por comprimido para tomada diária de 2 comprimidos. A apresentação etravirina 200 mg reduzirá o número de comprimidos ingeridos diariamente, em combinação com outros antirretrovirais que compõe seu regime terapêutico. A comodidade posológica contribui para adesão ao tratamento. TECNOLOGIA: etravirina (Intelence®). INDICAÇÃO: pacientes em falha virológica e que apresentem resistência viral a pelo menos um antirretroviral de cada uma das classes dos ITRNN, Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa Análogos de Nucleosídeos (ITRN) e Inibidores de Protease (IP), detectada por exames de genotipagem realizado nos últimos 13 meses. RECOMENDAÇÃO DA CONITEC: A CONITEC deliberou, por unanimidade, recomendar a incorporação da apresentação de 200 mg da etravirina para o tratamento da infecção pelo HIV, na reunião do dia 02 de fevereiro de 2017. DECISÃO: Incorporar a apresentação de 200mg do antirretroviral etravirina para o tratamento da infecção pelo HIV, no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS. A decisão foi dada pela Portaria SCTIE-MS nº 12 publicada no Diário Oficial da União (DOU) nº 50, de 14 de março de 2017, pág. 53.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Brazil , Health Evaluation/economics , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Unified Health System
9.
Brasília; CONITEC; mar. 2017.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-837204

ABSTRACT

Tecnologia: etravirina (Intelence®). Indicação: pacientes em falha virológica e que apresentem resistência viral a pelo menos um antirretroviral de cada uma das classes dos ITRNN, Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa Análogos de Nucleosídeos (ITRN) e Inibidores de Protease (IP), detectada por exames de genotipagem realizado nos últimos 13 meses. Demandante: Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde do Ministério da Saúde. Contexto: Atualmente, encontra-se disponível na RENAME somente a apresentação de 100mg por comprimido para tomada diária de 2 comprimidos.A apresentação etravirina 200 mg reduzirá o número de comprimidos ingeridos diariamente, em combinação com outros antirretrovirais que compõe seu regime terapêutico. A comodidade posológica contribui para adesão ao tratamento. Recomendação da CONITEC: A CONITEC deliberou, por unanimidade, recomendar a incorporação da apresentação de 200 mg da etravirina para o tratamento da infecção pelo HIV, na reunião do dia 02 de fevereiro de 2017. Decisão: Incorporar a apresentação de 200mg do antirretroviral etravirina para o tratamento da infecção pelo HIV, no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS. A decisão foi dada pela Portaria SCTIE -MS nº 12 publicada no Diário Oficial da União (DOU) nº 50, de 14 de março de 2017.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/therapy , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Brazil , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Unified Health System
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(1): 148-156, Mar. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840946

ABSTRACT

The combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), a multidrug combination regimen, usually consisting Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors, non- Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors and Protease Inhibitors has altered the morbidity pattern affecting HIV-infected individuals to include non-AIDS-defining malignancies (nADMs). The speculation is rife; does cART induce or promote the progression of nADMs such as breast cancer? This study was therefore designed to investigate of the effects of some antiretroviral drugs (at clinically relevant concentrations) on the expression of anti-angiogenic gene; VEGF165b in two human breast cell lines; MCF-7 and MCF-10A by Real Time qPCR and immuno-fluorescence. All of the antiretroviral drugs and combinations tested produced patterns of slight up or downregulation of VEGF165b mRNA expression but the alterations did not attain statistical significance. They also did not alter VEGF165bprotein localisation in both cell lines. The findings reported here suggest that antiretroviral drugs probably do not influence the angiogenic pathway in the development of breast cancer in patients under the combined antiretroviral regimen.


El tratamiento antirretroviral combinado (TARc), un régimen de combinación de múltiples fármacos, consistiendo generalmente en inhibidores nucleósidos de la transcriptasa reversa, inhibidores no-nucleósidos de la transcriptasa reversa e inhibodres de proteasa que alteran el patrón de mortalidad que afecta a infectados por el VIH incluyendo neoplasias definidas como no HIV (nADMs). La especulación es moneda corriente; TARc induce o promueve la progresión de nADMs como cáncer de mama? Por lo tanto, este estudio se diseñó para investigar los efectos de algunos de los fármacos antirretrovirales (en concentraciones clínicamente relevantes) sobre la expresión del gen anti-angiogénico; VEGF165b en dos líneas celulares de mama humana; MCF-7 y MCF-10A por PCR tiempo real e inmunofluorescencia. Todos los fármacos antirretrovirales y las combinaciones probadas pueden regular en forma ligera hacia arriba o hacia abajo la expresión de ARNm producidos por VEGF165b pero las alteraciones no fueron estadísticamente significativos. Además, no se alteran los niveles de proteína VEGF165b, para la localización en ambas líneas celulares. Los resultados aquí presentados sugieren que los medicamentos antirretrovirales probablemente no influyen en la vía angiogénica en el desarrollo del cáncer de mama en pacientes bajo el régimen antirretroviral combinado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Epithelial Cells , Immunohistochemistry , MCF-7 Cells , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
12.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(4): 323-329, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828125

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Development of drug-resistance mutations is the main cause of failure in antiretroviral therapy. In Brazil, there is scarce information on resistance pattern for patients failing antiretroviral therapy. Objectives To define the HIV mutational profile associated with drug resistance in Brazilian patients from 5 large cities, after first, second or further failures to antiretroviral therapy. Methods We reviewed genotyping results of 1520 patients failing therapy in five Brazilian cities. Frequency of mutations, mean number of active drugs, viral susceptibility to each antiretrovirals drug, and regional differences were assessed. Results Mean time of antiretrovirals use was 22.7 ± 41.1 months. Mean pre-genotyping viral load was 4.2 ± 0.8 log (2.1 ± 2.0 after switching antiretrovirals). Mean number of remaining active drugs was 9.4, 9.0, and 7.9 after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd failure, respectively. We detected regional variations in drug susceptibility: while BA and RS showed the highest (∼40%) resistance level to ATV/r, FPV/r and LPV/r, in the remaining cities it was around half of this rate. We detected 90% efavirenz/nevirapine resistance in SP, only 45% in RS, and levels between 25% and 30% in the other cities. Regarding NRTI, we found a similar pattern, with RJ presenting the highest, and CE the lowest susceptibility rates for all NRTI. Zidovudine resistance was detected in only 3% of patients in RJ, against 45–65% in the other cities. RJ and RS showed 3% resistance to tenofovir, while in CE it reached 55%. DRV/r (89–97%) and etravirine (61–85%) were the most active drugs, but again, with a wide variation across cities. Conclusions The resistance mutational profile of Brazilian patients failing antiretroviral therapy is quite variable, depending on the city where patients were tested. This variation likely reflects distinctive choice of antiretrovirals drugs to initiate therapy, adherence to specific drugs, or circulating HIV-1 strains. Overall, etravirine and DRV/r remain as the most active drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/drug effects , HIV-1/genetics , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Genotype
13.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 219-224, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28867

ABSTRACT

The efficacy and safety of a single tablet regimen (STR) of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF) were analyzed in Phase 3 clinical trials in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve and ART-experienced Asian subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1. Studies GS-US-236-102 and GS-US-236-103 were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 144-week studies conducted in ART-naïve subjects, comparing E/C/F/TDF versus efavirenz (EFV)/F/TDF or ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV+RTV) plus emtricitabine/tenofovir DF (F/TDF), respectively. Studies GS-US-236-115 and GS-US-236-121 were randomized, open-label, 96-week long conducted in ART-experienced subjects, who switched to E/C/F/TDF from ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI+RTV)+F/TDF, or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI)+F/TDF regimens. The E/C/F/TDF appeared to have sustained efficacy and safety and was well tolerated in the small number of ART-naïve and ART-experienced Asian subjects.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Atazanavir Sulfate , HIV , HIV-1 , Humans , Humans , Protease Inhibitors , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(7): 847-864, Nov. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764593

ABSTRACT

Reverse transcriptase (RT) is a multifunctional enzyme in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 life cycle and represents a primary target for drug discovery efforts against HIV-1 infection. Two classes of RT inhibitors, the nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) and the nonnucleoside transcriptase inhibitors are prominently used in the highly active antiretroviral therapy in combination with other anti-HIV drugs. However, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant viral strains has limited the successful rate of the anti-HIV agents. Computational methods are a significant part of the drug design process and indispensable to study drug resistance. In this review, recent advances in computer-aided drug design for the rational design of new compounds against HIV-1 RT using methods such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics, free energy calculations, quantitative structure-activity relationships, pharmacophore modelling and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity prediction are discussed. Successful applications of these methodologies are also highlighted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-HIV Agents/chemistry , Computer-Aided Design , Drug Design , HIV Reverse Transcriptase/antagonists & inhibitors , HIV-1 , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/pharmacology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Reverse Transcriptase/chemistry , HIV-1 , Models, Biological , Molecular Structure , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/chemistry
15.
Rev. med. Rosario ; 81(1): 19-23, ene.-abr. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-758454

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Describir la función sexual de un grupo de mujeres con VIH bajo tratamiento antirretroviral. Evaluar si existe diferencia entre las tratadas con un esquema que contiene Inhibidores No Nucleósidos de la Transcriptasa Inversa (INNTI) y aquéllas que reciben Inhibidores de la Proteasa (IP). Material y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, transversal. Muestra: 92 pacientes mujeres con VIH bajo tratamiento antirretroviral, que son asistidas en el Instituto Centralizado de Asistencia e Investigación Clínica Integral (CAICI). Instrumento: Se les realizó una encuesta que consta de características demográficas, preguntas referidas al VIH y al The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Análisis estadístico: se utilizó ANOVA, Kruskall-Wallis, Chi cuadrado, regresión logística y alpha de Cronbach. Resultados. Edad media: 42±10 años; 65% tenían pareja estable, siendo el 73% de estas sero-discordantes. La mayoría (45,7%) estaban en tratamiento antirretroviral por más de dos años, con una media de CD4 mayor a 500 cél/ml y el 90% con carga viral plasmática indetectable. El 64,1% presentaba otra enfermedad asociada, por lo que el 55,4% tomaba medicación concomitante. El 27,2% continuó con su actividad sexual luego del diagnóstico de VIH, pero el 26,1% nunca la retomó. La puntuación total alcanzada por medio del FSFI fue de 20,4±10,1 para las tratadas con IP y 20±10,6 para las tratadas con INNTI (p <0,005). Conclusiones. La muestra analizada presentó un puntaje compatible con disfunción sexual. No hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa en la función sexual de las mujeres tratadas con IP y las tratadas con INNTI


Summary Objective: To describe the sexual function in a group of women with HIV on antiretroviral treatment. To assess whether there is a difference between those treated with Non-nucleoside Inhibitors of he Reverse Transcriptase (NNRTI) and those receiving protease inhibitors (PIs). Material and methods: Descriptive, transversal study. Study sample: 92 women with HIV on antiretroviral therapy who are assisted in the Central Institute of Integral Assistance and Clinical Research (CAICI). Instrument: They completed a survey consisting of questions about demographic characteristics, HIV, and The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Statistical analysis: ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square, logistic regression and Cronbach’s alpha. Results: Average age was 42±10 years; 65% had a steady partner, of which 73% were sero-discordant. Most patients (45.7%) had been on antiretroviral treatment for more than two years, with a mean CD4 greater than 500 cells/ml and 90% with undetectable plasma viral load. Other illnesses were present in 64.1%, and 55.4% were taking concomitant medication. Sexual activity after HIV diagnosis was continued by 27.2%, while 26.1% never resumed it. The total score achieved by the FSFI was 20.4±10.1 among those treated with IP and 20.0±10.6 among those treated with NNRTI(p<0.005). Conclusions: The score in the present sample supports the existence of sexual dysfunction. There was no statistically significant difference in the sexual function of women treated with either PI or NNRTI


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , HIV , Sexuality , Treatment Outcome , Autoimmune Diseases/prevention & control , HIV Protease Inhibitors , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , HIV Reverse Transcriptase/therapeutic use
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(2): 116-122, 04/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746470

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aims to estimate the prevalence of thyroid diseases and anti-TPO status. We searched for an association among presence of immune reconstitution and use of stavudine, didanosine and protease inhibitors with thyroid diseases. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was performed to analyze the records of 117 HIV-infected patients who had their CD4+ cell count, viral load, anti-TPO, TSH and free T4 levels collected on the same day. Immune reconstitution was considered in those whose T CD4+ count was below 200 cells/mm3, but these values increased above 200 cells/mm3 after the use of antiretrovirals. The odds ratio obtained by a 2x2 contingency table and a chi-square test were used to measure the association between categorical variables. Results The prevalence of thyroid disease was 34.18%; of these, 4.34% were positive for anti-TPO. There was an association of risk between stavudine use and subclinical hypothyroidism (OR = 4.19, 95% CI: 1.29 to 13.59, X2 = 6.37, p = 0.01). Immune reconstitution achieved protection associated with thyroid disease that was near statistical significance OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.19 to 1.04, X2 = 3.55, p = 0.059. Conclusion The prevalence of thyroid disease in the sample studied was higher than what had been found in the literature, with a low positive anti-TPO frequency. The historical use of stavudine has an association of risk for the presence of subclinical hypothyroidism, and immune reconstitution has trends towards protection for the presence of thyroid diseases. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Autoantibodies/isolation & purification , Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , Iodide Peroxidase/immunology , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stavudine/therapeutic use , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/blood , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , Asymptomatic Diseases/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Didanosine/therapeutic use , Hypothyroidism/chemically induced , Hypothyroidism/immunology , Prevalence , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Stavudine/adverse effects , Thyroid Diseases/drug therapy
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269951

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the drug resistance of HIV patients to the HIV-1 CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC strains in Sichuan province during 2010 to 2013.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>1.5 ml of plasma were collected from AIDS patients who had been receiving anti-retroviral treatment for over 6 months but still had a HIV-1 virus load of over 1 000 copies/ml from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013 in Sichuan province. Genetic analysis of the HIV-1 pol gene was performed using self-established method, and patients with a positive drug-resistant HIV-1 pol gene mutation were included. HIV-1 poly gene was successfully sequenced for a total of 1 213 patients. Drug resistance of different HIV-1 strains was compared with χ2 test or Fisher exact test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>558 cases (46.0%) of the 1 213 successfully sequenced patients were infected by HIV-1-strains with drug-resistant mutations, including 327 cases (58.6%) infected by CRF01_AE strain, 126 (22.6%) by CRF07_BC strain, 46 (8.2%) by CRF08_BC strain, 33 (5.9%) by B strain, 4 (0.7%) by C strain, 1 (0.2%) by CRF02_AG strain, and 21 (3.8%) by unidentified strains. Drug-resistant mutation analysis revealed that L33, F116, L74, Q151, and T69 resistance mutations occurred only in the CRF01_AE strain, while A71, K43, and Q58 resistance mutations occurred only in the CRF07_BC strain; in nuclear nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), CRF01_AE subtype strains showed highly resistant rate were higher than CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC and B subtype strains, with the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The drug-resistant HIV-1 strains in Sichuan mainly included the CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC strains, which had different resistance mutations.</p>


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Drug Resistance, Viral , Genes, pol , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Humans , Mutation , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors , Viral Load
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269942

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the condition of HIV-1 drug resistance mutation among failures of first-line antiretroviral therapy in Henan province.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The sub platform of China's legal infectious disease monitoring information reporting system-HIV/AIDS integrated prevention and control data information management system was used to collect the information of patients experiencing first-line antiretroviral treatment failure (virus load ≥ 1 000 copies/ml) more than one year among nine cities of Henan in 2011. A total of 40 cases with no information and 212 cases with incomplete drug resistance results were deleted, and 1 922 cases were included in this study and genotype resistance testing was carried out. Non-conditional logistic regression analysis was used to analyse the influencing factors of drug resistance mutation.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 1 922 cases were included in the analysis. 1 039 cases were males, 833 cases were females, the age was (45.7 ± 12.1) years, 82.73% (1 590) were married, and 87.93% (1 690) were transmitted by blood. 64.20% (1 234) patients acquired drug resistance. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and protease inhibitor (PI) resistance mutations were found in 62.59% (1 203), 49.74% (956) and 0.94% (18) of subjects, respectively. 42.09% (809) of patients harbored NRTI and NNRTI resistance mutations synchronously. ≥ 1TAM was the most commonly emerged NRTI resistance mutation (41.94% (806)), the prevalences of TAM-1 and TAM-2 were 8.48% (163) and 4.24% (81), respectively. K65R/N and Q151M complex existed in 23 and 4 patients, respectively. K103N/S was the most commonly emerged NNRTI resistance mutation (34.32% (659)). Non-conditional logistic regression analysis showed that, factors associated with high drug resistance were the following: transmitted by mother to child (OR = 9.05, 95% CI: 1.14-72.12), clinical stage was IV (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.09-2.66) and 5-year-treated (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.03-2.47). Factors associated with low drug resistance were the following: 1-year-treated (OR = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.13-0.27).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Complex patterns of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations were identified among individuals experiencing failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy in Henan province. Factors associated with high drug resistance were lived in Luohe, Shangqiu, Nanyang, Xinyang, transmitted by mother to child, clinical stage was IV, and 5-year-treated.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , China , Drug Resistance, Viral , Genetics , Female , Genotype , HIV Infections , Drug Therapy , HIV-1 , Genetics , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Protease Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-291624

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the drug sensitivity and analyze the replication kinetics of HIV-1 B and CRF07_BC subtypes with I132L or T139K/R mutations.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The amino acids in position 132 and 139 of reverse transcriptase (RT) region of the infectious clone PNL4-3 (HIV-1 B subtype) were changed to L and T/R through site mutagenesis. Combined with the previously constructed infectious clone of HIV-1 CRF07_BC subtype with I132L and T139K/R mutations in RT region, mutated PNL4-3 infectious clones were transfected into 293T cells. The infection ability of mutated clones was detected. The drug sensitivity to NNRTIs (TMC-125, DLV, NVP, EFV) and the properties of replication kinetics were also evaluated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The mutated infectious clones were constructed including PNL4-3-RT-I132L, PNL4-3-RT-T139K and PNL4-3-RT-T139R. The I132L and T139K/R mutations in HIV-1 B and CRF07_BC infectious clones reduced their drug sensitivity to NNRTIs, which accompanied with the increase of EC50 (concentration for 50% of maximal effect). In subtype CRF07_BC, I132L mutation increased EC50 by 2.55, 19.35, 28.05, 6.13 fold, T139K mutation increased EC50 by 4.67, 3.66, 7.35, 3.30 fold, and T139R mutation increased EC50 by 1.82, 4.69, 25.12, 1.89 fold, respectively. In subtype B, I132L increased EC50 by 3.91, 4.61, 6.38, 3.56 fold, T139K increased EC50 by 3.13, 1.78, 2.26, 2.10 fold, T139R increased EC50 by 5.79, 3.99, 5.78, 2.75 fold, respectively. Similar as wild type PNL4-3, the replication ability of 132L/139K/139R mutated infectious clones reached the peak in day 11. However, compared to wild type BC-WT, I132L/T139R mutations delayed the peak time to day 14 and 21.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The novel drug resistance associated mutations I132L and T139K/R can reduce the drug sensitivity to NNRTIs in subtype B and CRF07_BC, and the replication ability of CRF_07BC declined by I132L mutation.</p>


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , Drug Resistance , Genotype , HIV-1 , Kinetics , Mutation , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Protein Folding , Pyridazines , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors , Virus Replication
20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 509-515, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251749

ABSTRACT

Besides 36 (28 single-tablets and 8 fixed-dose combinations) used antiretroviral drugs clinically, there are a number of investigational antiretroviral agents currently in phase 2-3 clinical trial. Tenofoviralafenamidefumarate (TAF) is a novel nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor that is potent and less toxicity than tenofovir (TDF). Doravirine is a non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor that demonstrates activity against NNRTI-resistant viral strains. GSK744 is an integrase inhibitor with a long acting preparation. In addition, several drugs with new mechanisms are also noted, for example, BMS-663 068 is a small molecule CD4 attachment inhibitors and cenicriviroc is a novel CCR5/CCR2 antagonist with antiretroviral activity and anti-inflammatory effects. Several drug classes that target known pathways in HIV latency have being developed, and leading the list are histone deacetylase inhibitors. Other agents include protein kinase C activators, positive transcription elongation factor activators, DNA methyl-transferase inhibitors and histone methyl-transferase inhibitors and so on. This review is focused on the above-mentioned drug candidates that may be used in clinical in next couple of years and those compounds that can reverse latent HIV infections.


Subject(s)
Adenine , Therapeutic Uses , Anti-HIV Agents , Therapeutic Uses , HIV Infections , Drug Therapy , Humans , Organophosphates , Therapeutic Uses , Organophosphonates , Therapeutic Uses , Piperazines , Therapeutic Uses , Pyridones , Therapeutic Uses , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Tenofovir
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