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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2048-2053, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#With the ongoing worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, an increasing number of viral variants are being identified, which poses a challenge for nucleic acid-based diagnostic tests. Rapid tests, such as real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), play an important role in monitoring COVID-19 infection and controlling its spread. However, the changes in the genotypes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants may result in decreased sensitivity of the rRT-PCR assay and it is necessary to monitor the mutations in primers and probes of SARS-CoV-2 detection over time.@*METHODS@#We developed two rRT-PCR assays to detect the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and nucleocapsid (N) genes of SARS-CoV-2. We evaluated these assays together with our previously published assays targeting the ORF1ab and N genes for the detection and confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants of concern (VOCs). In addition, we also developed two rRT-PCR assays (S484K and S501Y) targeting the spike gene, which when combined with the open reading frames (ORF)1ab assay, respectively, to form duplex rRT-PCR assays, were able to detect SARS-CoV-2 VOCs (lineages B.1.351 and B.1.1.7).@*RESULTS@#Using a SARS-CoV-2 stock with predetermined genomic copies as a standard, the detection limit of both assays targeting RdRp and N was five copies/reaction. Furthermore, no cross-reactions with six others human CoVs (229E, OC43, NL63, HKU1, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus) were observed using these assays. In addition, the S484K and S501Y assays were combined with the ORF1ab assay, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Four rRT-PCR assays (RdRp, N, S484K, and S501Y) were used to detect SARS-CoV-2 variants, and these assays were shown to be effective in screening for multiple virus strains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 211-215, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876875

ABSTRACT

@#Objective. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of self-collected snorted and spit saliva in detecting COVID-19 using RT-PCR (ssRT-PCR) and lateral flow antigen test (ssLFA) versus nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR (npRT-PCR). Methods. One hundred ninety-seven symptomatic subjects for COVID-19 testing in a tertiary hospital underwent snort-spit saliva self-collection for RT-PCR and antigen testing and nasopharyngeal swab for RT-PCR as reference. Positivity rates, agreement, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were estimated. Results. Estimated prevalence of COVID-19 using npRT-PCR was 9% (exact 95% CI of 5.5% - 14.1%). A higher positivity rate of 13% in the ssRT-PCR assay suggested possible higher viral RNA in the snort-spit samples. There was 92.9% agreement between ssRT-PCR and npRT-PCR (exact 95% CI of 88.4% to 96.1%; Cohen’s Kappa of 0.6435). If npRT-PCR will be assumed as reference standard, the estimated Sensitivity was 83.3% (exact 95% CI of 60.8% to 94.2%), Specificity 93.9% (exact 95% CI of 89.3% to 96.5%), Positive predictive value of 57.7% (exact 95% CI of 38.9% to 74.5%), Negative predictive value of 98.2% (exact 95% CI of 95% to 99.4%), positive likelihood ratio of 3.65 (95% CI of 7.37 to 24.9), negative likelihood ratio of 0.178 (95% CI of 0.063 to 0.499). There was 84.84% agreement (95% exact CI of 79.1% to 89.5%; Cohen’s Kappa of 0.2356) between ssLFAvs npRT-PCR, sensitivity of 38.9% (exact 95% CI of 20.3% to 61.4%), specificity of 89.4% (exact 95% CI of 84.1% to 93.1%), PPV of 26.9% (95% CI of 13.7% to 46.1%), NPV of 93.6% (exact 95% CI of 88.8% to 96.4%), LR+ of 3.67 (95% CI of 1.79 - 7.51), LR – of 0.68 (95% CI of 0.47 - 0.99). Conclusion. Our data showed that snort-spit saliva RT-PCR testing had acceptable diagnostic performance characteristics and can potentially be used as an alternative to the standard nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swab RT-PCR test for COVID-19 in certain situations. However, our data also showed that snort-spit saliva antigen testing using lateral flow assay did not offer acceptable performance.


Subject(s)
Saliva , SARS-CoV-2 , Reverse Transcription , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
3.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 36(3): e1164, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156440

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En el Instituto de Hematología e Inmunología se realiza el estudio molecular de las leucemias mieloides agudas (LMA). Para las leucemias mieloides agudas no promielocíticas (LPM) se determinan cuatro biomarcadores: los genes de fusión RUNX1-RUNX1T1 y CBF(-MYH11, la duplicación interna en tándem del gen FLT3 (DIT FLT3) y la mutación A del gen NPM1 (NPM1-A). Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de estos cuatro biomarcadores, en pacientes cubanos con leucemias mieloides agudas primaria no promielocíticas. Métodos: Se incluyeron 91 pacientes entre niños y adultos, estudiados en el Instituto durante tres años desde el debut. A partir de ARN de sangre medular se obtuvo ADN complementario por transcripción inversa; se amplificaron los fragmentos correspondientes mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa y el producto se analizó por electroforesis capilar. Resultados: El RUNX1-RUNX1T1 apareció en el 24,2 por ciento, fue más frecuente en los pacientes pediátricos y disminuyó significativamente con la edad. El CBFβ-MYH11 solo se encontró en adultos (4,8 por ciento). La NPM1-A con 41 por ciento fue mayoritaria entre los adultos. La DIT FLT3 se observó en el 21,6 por ciento y no mostró relación con la edad. NPM1-A y DIT FLT3 fueron las aberraciones con mayor presencia simultánea. Conclusiones: Por primera vez se describe la frecuencia de los cuatro biomarcadores moleculares en los pacientes cubanos con leucemias mieloides agudas primaria no promielocíticas; su comportamiento fue similar a lo descrito por otros autores, aunque se encontraron algunas particularidades(AU)


Introduction: At the Institute of Hematology and Immunology, the molecular study of acute myeloid leukemias (AML) is carried out. For nonpromyelocytic acute myeloid leukemias, four biomarkers are determined: the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 and CBF(-MYH11 fusion genes, the internal tandem duplication of the FLT3 gene (DIT FLT3), and the A mutation of the NPM1 gene (NPM1-A). Objective: To determine the frequency of these four biomarkers in Cuban patients with nonpromyelocytic primary acute myeloid leukemias. Methods: 91 patients were included, children and adults, who were studied at the Institute for three years from their disease debut. Complementary DNA was obtained from medullary blood RNA by reverse transcription. The corresponding fragments were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the product was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Results: RUNX1-RUNX1T1 appeared in 24.2 percent; it was more frequent in pediatric patients and decreased significantly with age. CBFβ-MYH11 was found only in adults (4.8 percent). NPM1-A, accounting for 41 percent, represented the majority among adults. FLT3 DIT was observed in 21.6 por ciento and was not related to age. NPM1-A and DIT FLT3 were the disorders with the greatest concurrence. Conclusions: For the first time, the frequency of the four molecular biomarkers is described in Cuban patients with primary non-promyelocytic acute myeloid leukemias. Its characterization was similar to that described by other authors, although some peculiarities were found(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Complementary , Reverse Transcription , Electrophoresis, Capillary
4.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(3): 253-260, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134986

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ulcerative colitis is one of the IBDs. Its etiology and pathogenesis remain undefined with an interaction between environmental, genetic and immunological factors is the most accepted explanation. Several recent studies have examined microRNA expression in the peripheral blood and tissues from IBD patients. The study aims at assessing the expression of serum miR-16 in ulcerative colitis patients and its correlation with disease extent, activity and severity. It included 30 treatment naïve ulcerative colitis patients of different presentations. Serum miR-16 expression was assessed using reverse transcriptase quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR), and then correlated with that of a group of 20 healthy subjects to assess its role in diagnosis of ulcerative colitis. Also, it was correlated with disease extent (proctitis, left sided colitis, extensive colitis) and disease activity and severity indices (Truelove and Witts criteria, fecal calprotectin and UCEIS). Thirty ulcerative colitis patients were enrolled, 53% had mild, 37% had moderate, while 10% had severe disease. Concerning endoscopic extent, 8 had proctitis, 14 had left sided colitis and 8 had extensive colitis. Serum expression of miR-16 in the 30 patients were compared to that of the healthy control subjects. The patients' group showed median serum miR-16 expression of 1.91, 1.13 for the control group with a significant difference between both groups. Correlation between serum miR-16 expression with disease extent, activity and severity showed no significant relation. From the current study we can conclude that increased serum expression of miR-16 is associated with ulcerative colitis despite no significant relation to disease activity extent or severity.


Resumo A colite ulcerativa é uma das DII. Sua etiologia e patogênese permanecem indefinidas; a interação entre fatores ambientais, genéticos e imunológicos é a explicação mais aceita. Vários estudos recentes avaliaram a expressão de microRNA no sangue e tecidos periféricos em pacientes com DII. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a expressão do miR-16 sérico em pacientes com colite ulcerativa e sua correlação com a extensão, atividade e gravidade da doença. Foram incluídos 30 pacientes de colite ulcerativa, com diferentes apresentações, que ainda não haviam sido submetidos a nenhum tipo de tratamento. A expressão sérica de miR-16 foi avaliada usando transcrição reversa seguida de reação em cadeia da polimerase quantitativa (RT-qPCR) e, em seguida, correlacionada com a de um grupo de 20 indivíduos saudáveis para avaliar seu papel no diagnóstico de colite ulcerativa. Além disso, foi feita uma correlação com a extensão da doença (proctite, colite do lado esquerdo, colite extensa) e com os índices de atividade e gravidade da doença (critérios de Truelove e Witts, calprotectina fecal e UCEIS). Trinta pacientes com colite ulcerativa foram incluídos no estudo, classificada como leve em 53%, moderada em 37% e grave em 10%. Quanto à extensão endoscópica, oito apresentavam proctite, 14 apresentavam colite do lado esquerdo e oito apresentavam colite extensa. A expressão sérica de miR-16 nos 30 pacientes foi comparada à dos indivíduos controle saudáveis. No, grupo de pacientes, a expressão sérica de miR-16 foi de 1,91 (grupo controle: 1,13), uma diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os dois grupos. Não foi observada relação significativa entre a expressão sérica de miR-16 e a extensão, atividade e gravidade da doença. A partir do presente estudo, pode-se concluir que o aumento da expressão sérica do miR-16 está associado à colite ulcerativa, apesar de não haver relação significativa com a extensão ou gravidade da atividade da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/pathology , MicroRNAs , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: LINC01234, a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), is overexpressed in several cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated the role of LINC01234 in CRC development and confirmed its correlation with Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6), a tumor suppressor gene that is dysregulated in CRC. METHODS: We tested mRNA levels using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Tissue samples from patients with CRC, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), hyperplastic polyp, and adenoma were included. Correlations between clinicopathological parameters, overall survival (OS) rate, and LINC01234 were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis H test. Additionally, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor formation in nude mice were tested to investigate the mechanism of LINC01234. Western blotting was used to determine protein levels. RESULTS: LINC01234 expression was significantly upregulated in CRC tissues and CRC cell lines than in non-tumor tissues and normal epithelial cells, respectively. LINC01234 was associated with high tumor stage, larger tumor size, and metastasis. Patients with higher LINC01234 expression showed reduced OS. Cell proliferation was inhibited by LINC01234 knockdown, whereas apoptosis was enhanced. Mice injected with SW480 cells with LINC01234 knockdown displayed decreased tumor volume, weight, and Ki-67 levels compared with those injected with control cells. KLF6 was negatively regulated by LINC01234. Overexpression of KLF6 showed effects similar to those observed following LINC01234 knockdown on cell proliferation and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: LINC01234 could be a prognostic biomarker in CRC patients. Upregulation of LINC01234 in CRC promotes tumor development through negative regulation of KLF6.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Animals , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Colorectal Neoplasms , Epithelial Cells , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Mice , Mice, Nude , Neoplasm Metastasis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polyps , Prognosis , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Long Noncoding , RNA, Messenger , Tumor Burden , Up-Regulation
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii as a nosocomial pathogen is one of the major public health problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of an efflux pump gene adeJ for the multidrug resistance of A. baumannii clinical isolates.METHODS: Two groups (MDRAB and SAB) of A. baumannii clinical isolates were studied. The SAB group consisted of strains that did not meet the criteria of MDRAB and were susceptible to more categories of antibiotics than MDRAB. Antimicrobial susceptibility results obtained by VITEKII system were used in data analysis and bacterial group allocation. We performed real-time reverse transcription PCR to determine relative expression of adeJ. We compared relative expression of adeJ in comparison groups by considering two viewpoints: i) MDRAB and SAB groups and ii) susceptible and non-susceptible groups for each antibiotic used in this study.RESULTS: The mean value of relative expression of adeJ of MDRAB and SAB groups was 1.4 and 0.92, respectively, and showed significant difference (P=0.002). The mean values of relative expression of adeJ of susceptible and non-susceptible groups to the antibiotics cefepime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, tigecycline, piperacillin/tazobactam, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, piperacillin, and gentamicin showed statistically significant differences.CONCLUSION: The overexpression of adeIJK might contribute to the multi-drug resistance in A. baumannii clinical isolates. Further, the overexpression of adeIJK might be one of the factors contributing to the resistance to numerous antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Acinetobacter , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Ceftazidime , Ciprofloxacin , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Gentamicins , Imipenem , Piperacillin , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Public Health , Reverse Transcription , Statistics as Topic
7.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(1): 39-46, mar. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003279

ABSTRACT

Tributyltin (TBT) is recognized as a major environmental problem at a global scale. Haloalkaliphilic tributyltin (TBT)-degrading bacteria may be a key factor in the remediation of TBT polluted sites. In this work, three haloalkaliphilic bacteria strains were isolated from a TBT-contaminated site in the Mediterranean Sea. After analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences the isolates were identified as Sphingobium sp. HS1, Stenotrophomonas chelatiphaga HS2 and Rhizobium borbori HS5. The optimal growth conditions for biodegradation of TBT by the three strains were pH 9 and 7% (w/v) salt concentration. S. chelatiphaga HS2 was the most effective TBT degrader and has the ability to transform most TBT into dibutyltin and monobutyltin (DBT and MBT). A gene was amplified from strain HS2 and identified as TBTB-permease-like, that encodes an ArsB-permease. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis in the HS2 strain confirmed that the TBTB-permease-like gene contributes to TBT resistance. The three novel haloalkaliphilic TBT degraders have never been reported previously.


Se considera a la tributiltina (TBT) como un problema medioambiental serio a escala global. Las bacterias haloalcalifílicas degradadoras de TBT pueden constituir un factor clave para remediar áreas contaminadas con dicho xenobiótico. En este estudio se aislaron 3 cepas de bacterias haloalcalifílicas procedentes de un sitio contaminado con TBT en el mar Mediterráneo. Tras analizar las secuencias del gen de 16S del ARNr, se identificaron los aislados como Sphingo-bium sp. HS1, Stenotrophomonas chelatiphaga HS2 y Rhizobium borbori HS5. Las condiciones de crecimiento óptimas para la biodegradación de TBT por parte de las 3 cepas fueron pH 9 y 7% (p/v) de concentración de sal. S. chelatiphaga HS2 fue el degradador de TBT más efectivo, con capacidad de transformar la mayor parte de ese compuesto en dibutiltina y monobutiltina (DBT y MBT). Se amplificó un gen de la cepa HS2, que fue identificado como tipo TBTB-permeasa, que codifica para una ArsB permeasa. Un análisis de la cepa HS2 por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa (RT PCR) confirmó que el gen TBTB-permeasa contribuye a la resistencia al TBT. Estos 3 nuevos degradadores haloalcalifílicos de TBT no habían sido reportados previamente.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods , Biodegradation, Environmental , Mediterranean Sea/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcription/genetics , Environmental Restoration and Remediation/analysis
8.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 315-328, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764498

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical value of serum miR-221-3p and miR-122-5p expression levels in the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum samples from 141 gastric cancer cases (gastric cancer group), 110 gastric polyps (gastric polyp group), and 75 healthy people (healthy control) were used to detect miR-221-3p and miR-122-5p expression using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Serum miR-221-3p expression was significantly higher in the gastric cancer group than in the gastric polyp group, and it was significantly lower than that before operation. The miR-221-3p expression was significantly higher in the death group than in the survival group. The proliferation and migration ability significantly increased and the apoptosis rate significantly decreased by miR-221-3p transfection in gastric cancer cells. In contrast, the function of miR-122-5p in gastric cancer cells was opposite of miR-221-3p. Serum miR-221-3p expression was negatively correlated with that of miR-122-5p in gastric cancer. Serum miR-221-3p and miR-122-5p expressions were significantly correlated with the degree of differentiation, tumor, node, metastasis stage, lymph node metastasis, and invasion depth. miR-221-3p and miR-122-5p expression levels were independent prognostic factors for postoperative gastric cancer. In the diagnosis and predicting prognosis of gastric cancer, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the area under curve of combined detection of serum miR-221-3p and miR-122-5p expression had a greater diagnostic effect than either single maker. CONCLUSIONS: The miR-221-3p and miR-122-5p are involved in the development of gastric cancer, and they have important clinical values in gastric cancer diagnosis and prognosis.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Area Under Curve , Diagnosis , Lymph Nodes , MicroRNAs , Neoplasm Metastasis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polyps , Prognosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , ROC Curve , Stomach Neoplasms , Transfection
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764408

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The light-emitting diode (LED) curing light used is presumed to be safe. However, the scientific basis for this is unclear, and the safety of LED curing light is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of LED curing light irradiation according to the conditions applied for the polymerization of composite resins in dental clinic on the cell viability and inflammatory response in Raw264.7 macrophages and to confirm the stability of LED curing light. METHODS: Cell viability and cell morphology of Raw264.7 macrophages treated with 100 ng/ml of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or/and LED curing light with a wavelength of 440~490 nm for 20 seconds were confirmed by methylthiazolydiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay and microscopic observation. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was confirmed by NO assay and PGE2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in total RNA and protein was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: The LED curing light did not affect the viability and morphology of normal Raw264.7 cells but affected the cell viability and induced cytotoxicity in the inflammation-induced Raw264.7 cells by LPS. The irradiation of the LED curing light did not progress to the inflammatory state in the inflammation-induced Raw264.7 macrophage. However, LED curing light irradiation in normal Raw264.7 cells induced an increase in NO and PGE2 production and mRNA and protein expression of IL-1β and TNF-α, indicating that it is possible to induce the inflammatory state. CONCLUSION: The irradiation of LED curing light in RAW264.7 macrophage may induce an excessive inflammatory reaction and damage oral tissues. Therefore, it is necessary to limit the long-term irradiation which is inappropriate when applying LED curing light in a dental clinic.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Cell Survival , Composite Resins , Dental Clinics , Dinoprostone , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Interleukins , Macrophages , Nitric Oxide , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymerization , Polymers , Reverse Transcription , RNA , RNA, Messenger , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
10.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 362-374, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764284

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The chemical structure of tubulosine has been known since the mid-1960s. However, little is known about its biological and pharmacological functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the novel functions of tubulosine in cancer treatment, specifically in breast cancer. METHODS: An Unpaired (Upd)-induced Drosophila cell line and interleukin (IL)-6-stimulated human breast cancer cell lines were used to investigate the biological and pharmacological activities of tubulosine in vitro. To investigate the activities of tubulosine, we performed molecular and cellular experiments such as Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses, immunoprecipitation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assays, and immunofluorescence staining using breast cancer cell lines. RESULTS: Tubulosine exhibited anticancer activity in IL-6-stimulated human breast cancer cells. Moreover, tubulosine reduced the tyrosine phosphorylation level and transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) protein at 92E in Upd-induced Drosophila cells. Additionally, tubulosine suppressed IL-6-induced Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 signaling, resulting in decreased viability and induction of apoptotic cell death in breast cancer cells. Interestingly, inhibition of IL-6-induced JAK2/STAT3 signaling by tubulosine was associated with the blocking of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) and glycoprotein 130 (gp130) binding. CONCLUSION: Tubulosine exhibits anticancer activity through functional inhibition of IL-6-induced JAK2/STAT3 signaling by targeting IL-6Rα/gp130 binding in breast cancer cells. These findings suggest that tubulosine may hold promise for the treatment of inflammation-associated cancers, including breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Death , Cell Line , DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase , Drosophila , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Glycoproteins , Humans , Immunoprecipitation , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Janus Kinase 2 , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Interleukin-6 , Reverse Transcription , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Transducers , Tyrosine
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oxytocin (OXT) has been reported to act as a growth regulator in various tumor cells. However, there is a paucity of data on the influence of OXT on cell proliferation of corticotroph adenomas. This study aimed to examine whether OXT affects cell growth in pituitary tumor cell lines (AtT20 and GH3 cells) with a focus on corticotroph adenoma cells. METHODS: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were conducted with AtT20 cells to confirm the effects of OXT on hormonal activity; flow cytometry was used to assess changes in the cell cycle after OXT treatment. Moreover, the impact of OXT on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), nuclear factor κB, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway was analyzed by Western blot. RESULTS: OXT treatment of 50 nM changed the gene expression of OXT receptor and pro-opiomelanocortin within a short time. In addition, OXT significantly reduced adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion within 1 hour. S and G2/M populations of AtT20 cells treated with OXT for 24 hours were significantly decreased compared to the control. Furthermore, OXT treatment decreased the protein levels of PCNA and phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (P-ERK) in AtT20 cells. CONCLUSION: Although the cytotoxic effect of OXT in AtT20 cells was not definite, OXT may blunt cell proliferation of corticotroph adenomas by altering the cell cycle or reducing PCNA and P-ERK levels. Further research is required to investigate the role of OXT as a potential therapeutic target in corticotroph adenomas.


Subject(s)
ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Blotting, Western , Cell Cycle , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Corticotrophs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression , Oxytocin , Phosphotransferases , Pituitary Neoplasms , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Protein Kinases , Reverse Transcription
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763577

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adequate bone formation around titanium alloy implants is integral to successful implantation surgery. Stem cell-coated implants may accelerate peri-implant bone formation. This study investigates the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) pretreatment on a titanium-alloy surface in terms of proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). METHODS: Allogenic leukocyte-depleted PRP was obtained from blood supernatants. The hADSCs were isolated from thigh subcutaneous fat tissue. Grit-blasted titanium plugs were used in two different groups. In one group, 200 µL of PRP was added to the grit-blasted titanium plugs. The hADSCs were seeded in two groups: grit-blasted titanium plugs with or without PRP. The number of hADSCs was measured after 4 hours, 3 days, and 7 days of culture using Cell Counting Kit-8. Osteogenesis of hADSCs was measured by using an alkaline phosphatase activity assay on days 7 and 14, and a calcium assay on days 14 and 21. Osteogenic gene expression was measured by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and type I collagen mRNA. The microscopic morphology of grit-blasted titanium plugs with or without PRP was examined with a field-emission scanning electron microscope using a JSM-7401F apparatus on days 1 and 7. RESULTS: Proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs were found to be significantly higher on the grit-blasted titanium alloy preprocessed with PRP than the same alloy without pretreatment. Furthermore, a structural fibrillar mesh developed compactly on the grit-blasted titanium alloy with the PRP pretreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that a hADSC-based approach can be used for tissue-engineered peri-implant bone formation and that PRP pretreatment on the grit-blasted titanium alloy can improve proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Alloys , Calcium , Cell Count , Collagen Type I , Gene Expression , Humans , Osteocalcin , Osteogenesis , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger , Stem Cells , Subcutaneous Fat , Thigh , Titanium
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760188

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Increased apoptosis was recently found in the hypertrophied left ventricle of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Although the available evidence suggests that apoptosis can be induced in cardiac cells by various insults including pressure overload, cardiac apoptosis appears to result from an exaggerated local production of angiotensin in adult SHRs. Altered expressions of Bcl associated X (Bax), Bcl-2, chemokine receptor (CCR)-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (PERK), and connexin 43 proteins, and kallikrein mRNA were investigated to explore the effects of losartan on the SHR model. METHODS: Twelve-week-old male rats were grouped as follows: control (C), SHR (hypertension: H), and losartan (L; SHRs were treated with losartan [10 mg/kg/day] for 5 weeks). Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were performed. RESULTS: Expression of Bax, CCR-2, MCP-1, TGF-β1, PERK, and connexin 43 proteins, and kallikrein mRNA was significantly increased in the H group compared to that in the C group at weeks 3 and 5. Expression of Bax, CCR-2, MCP-1, TGF-β1, and connexin 43 proteins and kallikrein mRNA was significantly decreased after losartan treatment at week 5. PERK protein expression was significantly decreased after losartan treatment at weeks 3 and 5. Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly decreased in the H group compared to that in the C group at weeks 3 and 5. CONCLUSION: Losartan treatment reduced expression of Bax, CCR-2, MCP-1, TGF-β1, PERK, and connexin 43 proteins, and kallikrein mRNA in SHRs, along with decreased inflammation and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiotensins , Animals , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Connexin 43 , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Gene Expression , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Inflammation , Kallikreins , Losartan , Male , Monocytes , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger , Transforming Growth Factors
14.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 106-116, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786391

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Hypoxia—a characteristic of almost all types of solid tumors—has been associated with poor outcomes in several human malignancies. Genipin—an active constituent of Gardenia fruit— has been reported to exert an anti-tumor effect in several cancers. In this study, we investigated inhibition of angiogenesis using Genipin-mediated hypoxia-induced hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1) and VEGF expression in human cervical cancer cells.METHODS: Under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in cervical cancer HeLa cells was detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Luciferase reporter assays were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the hypoxia-induced survivin activation.RESULTS: Surprisingly, we found that Genipin suppressed the HIF-1α accumulation during hypoxia in human liver cancer cell line (HepG2), human prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP), colon cancer cell line (HCT116), and breast cancer cell line (MDA231). Genipin treatment also significantly reduced hypoxia-induced secretion of VEGF.CONCLUSIONS: Suppression of HIF-1α accumulation following treatment with Genipin under hypoxia was associated with PI3K and MAPK pathways. Taken together, these results suggested that Genipin inhibits HIF-1α expression through inhibition of PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways. These results provide new insights into a potential mechanism of the anticancer properties of Genipin.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Blotting, Western , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Line , Colonic Neoplasms , Gardenia , HeLa Cells , Humans , Liver Neoplasms , Luciferases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prostatic Neoplasms , Reverse Transcription , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785834

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The release of microvesicles (MVs) from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been implicated in intercellular communication, and may contribute to beneficial paracrine effects of stem cell-based therapies. We investigated the effect of administration of MSC-MVs on the therapeutic potential of carbon tetrachloride (CCL₄) induced liver fibrosis in rats.METHODS: Our work included: isolation and further identification of bone marrow MSC-MVs by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by CCl4 followed by injection of prepared MSC-MVs in injured rats. The effects of MSC-MVs were evaluated by biochemical analysis of liver functions, RNA gene expression quantitation for collagen-1α, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by real time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) techniques. Finally histopathological examination of the liver tissues was assessed for all studied groups.RESULTS: BM-MSC-MVs treated group showed significant increase in serum albumin levels, VEGF quantitative gene expression (p < 0.05), while it showed a significant decrease in serum alanine transaminase (ALT) enzyme levels, quantitative gene expression of TGF-β, collagen-1α, IL-1β compared to CCL₄ fibrotic group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the histopathological assessment of the liver tissues of BM-MSC-MVs treated group showed marked decrease in the collagen deposition & improvement of histopathological picture in comparison with CCL₄ fibrotic group.CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that BM-MSC-MVs possess anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and pro-angiogenic properties which can promote the resolution of CCL₄ induced liver fibrosis in rats.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Animals , Bone Marrow , Carbon Tetrachloride , Collagen , Gene Expression , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats , Reverse Transcription , RNA , Serum Albumin , Transforming Growth Factors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 727-734, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762113

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer worldwide. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), has been reported to be aberrantly expressed in hypoxic cancer cells. MALAT1 plays a significant role in many malignancies, including HCC. The aim of this study was to explore the role of MALAT1 in hypoxic HCC cells and its underlying regulatory mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was performed to detect the mRNA levels of MALAT1 and microRNA-200a (miR-200a) in HCC cells. Cell invasion and migration ability were evaluated by Transwell assay. Starbase v2.0 and luciferase reporter assay were employed to identify the association between MALAT1 and miR-200a. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: MALAT1 levels were significantly upregulated in HCC cells under hypoxia. Hypoxia promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion, and blocked apoptosis in Hep3B cells, which were weakened by knockdown of MALAT1. Starbase v2.0 showed that MALAT1 and miR-200a have a complementarity region, and luciferase reporter assay verified that MALAT1 interacted with miR-200a in Hep3B cells. Moreover, MALAT1 negatively regulated the expression of miR-200a. miR-200a levels were dramatically downregulated in HCC cells under hypoxia. Upregulation of miR-200a inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells under hypoxia. Interestingly, downregulation of miR-200a partially reversed the tumor-suppressive effect of knockdown of MALAT1 on Hep3B cells in hypoxic condition. CONCLUSION: LncRNA MALAT1 was involved in proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis by interacting with miR-200a in hypoxic Hep3B cells, revealing a new mechanism of MALAT1 involved in hypoxic HCC progression.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Hypoxia , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cell Proliferation , Down-Regulation , Flow Cytometry , Luciferases , Lung , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Long Noncoding , RNA, Messenger , Up-Regulation
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 611-618, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762100

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Family with sequence similarity 83 member H (FAM83H) plays key roles in tumorigenesis. However, the specific roles of FAM83H in cervical cancer (CC) have not been well studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The RNA-seq data of 306 CC tissues and three normal samples downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas were used to analyze the expression of FAM83H. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to draw survival curves. Associations between FAM83H expression and clinicopathological factors were analyzed by chi-square test. Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze prognostic factors. Loss-of-function assays were conducted to discover the biological functions of FAM83H in cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion, and migration. Real-time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to measure the expression levels of FAM83H in CC cell lines. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that FAM83H is overexpressed in CC tissues and that high FAM83H expression is associated with worse overall survival (OS). High FAM83H expression in CC was associated with clinical stage, pathologic tumor, and pathologic node. Univariate analysis suggested that FAM83H expression was significantly related to the OS of CC patients. Although multivariate analysis showed that FAM83H expression was not an independent prognostic factor for the OS of CC patients, the effects of FAM83H on CC cell growth and motility was significant. Loss-of-function experiments demonstrated that knockdown of FAM83H inhibited proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion of CC cells by inactivating PI3K/AKT pathway. CONCLUSION: FAM83H might play a crucial role in CC progression and could act as a novel therapeutic target in CC.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Carcinogenesis , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Genome , Humans , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Reverse Transcription , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760896

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (hRV) are the most common causes of child respiratory viral infections. We aimed to investigate epidemiological and clinical characteristics of RSV and hRV single infections and coinfections. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal aspirates of hospitalized children aged <5 years were tested using multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from October 2014 to April 2017. Their medical records were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: RSV or hRV was detected in 384 patients who divided into 3 groups: patients with RSV (R group, n=258); patients with hRV (H group, n=99); and patients with both (RH group, n=27). The R group (median age, 6 months) consisted of 248 (96.1%) patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), and 14 (5.4%) needed oxygen inhalation. Infants aged <12 months (63.2%) had respiratory difficulty and were supplied oxygen more often. The H group (median age, 16 months) consisted of 56 (56.6%) patients with LRTI, 4 (4%) required oxygen inhalation, and 1 (1.0%) required mechanical ventilation. Infants (40.4%) showed longer hospitalization compared to patients aged ≥12 months (5 vs. 4 days, P<0.05). The RH group consisted of 24 (88.9%) patients with LRTI, and 2 (7.4%) needed oxygen inhalation. Hospitalization days and oxygen inhalation and mechanical ventilation rates did not differ between single infections (R and H groups) and coinfections (RH group). CONCLUSIONS: RSV was detected more often in younger patients and showed higher LRTI rates compared to hRV. Single infections and coinfections of RSV and hRV showed no difference in severity.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Hospitalized , Coinfection , Epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Inhalation , Korea , Medical Records , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Oxygen , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Respiratory Tract Infections , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcription , Rhinovirus
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719664

ABSTRACT

Neutrophilic leukemoid reaction may occur in many situations, including hemolysis, malignancy, infection, and exposure to certain toxins. It usually shows morphological overlap with chronic myeloid leukemia in which promyelocytes are not majorly associated. Here, we present a case of promyelocytic leukemoid reaction in a patient with sepsis. A 28-year-old man was admitted for renal stone removal. After percutaneous nephrolithotomy, his condition deteriorated with fever (37.8℃), tachycardia (130/min), acute renal failure, pleural effusion, and pulmonary edema. Complete blood count indicated a white blood cell count of 73.39×10⁹/L including 82% promyelocytes, hemoglobin 8.9 g/dL, and platelet count of 85×10⁹/L. A bone marrow aspirate showed that promyelocytes accounted for 73.8% of all nucleated cells. Following bone marrow examination, treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was started immediately. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) study revealed the absence of PML-RARA (promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha) and other RARA (retinoic acid receptor alpha) rearrangements. Once the chromosome analysis of bone marrow cells demonstrated the normal karyotype, ATRA was discontinued.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Adult , Blood Cell Count , Bone Marrow , Bone Marrow Cells , Bone Marrow Examination , Fever , Granulocyte Precursor Cells , Hemolysis , Humans , Karyotype , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Leukemoid Reaction , Leukocyte Count , Nephrostomy, Percutaneous , Neutrophils , Platelet Count , Pleural Effusion , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pulmonary Edema , Reverse Transcription , Sepsis , Tachycardia , Tretinoin
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic hyperglycemia has deleterious effects on pancreatic β-cell function and turnover. Recent studies support the view that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) plays a role in β-cell failure under hyperglycemic conditions. However, little is known about how CDK5 impair β-cell function. Myricetin, a natural flavonoid, has therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we examined the effect of myricetin on high glucose (HG)-induced β-cell apoptosis and explored the relationship between myricetin and CDK5. METHODS: To address this question, we subjected INS-1 cells and isolated rat islets to HG conditions (30 mM) in the presence or absence of myricetin. Docking studies were conducted to validate the interaction between myricetin and CDK5. Gene expression and protein levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers were measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Activation of CDK5 in response to HG coupled with the induction of ER stress via the down regulation of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) gene expression and reduced the nuclear accumulation of pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) leads to β-cell apoptosis. Docking study predicts that myricetin inhibit CDK5 activation by direct binding in the ATP-binding pocket. Myricetin counteracted the decrease in the levels of PDX1 and SERCA2b by HG. Moreover, myricetin attenuated HG-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells and rat islets and reduce the mitochondrial dysfunction by decreasing reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) loss. CONCLUSION: Myricetin protects the β-cells against HG-induced apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress, possibly through inactivation of CDK5 and consequent upregulation of PDX1 and SERCA2b.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Calcium-Transporting ATPases , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Down-Regulation , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Gene Expression , Genes, Homeobox , Glucose , Hyperglycemia , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Reticulum , Reverse Transcription , Up-Regulation
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