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1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(12): 1145-1154, Dec. 2016. tab, graf, mapas
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-842032

ABSTRACT

Realizou-se estudo epidemiológico descritivo da raiva dos herbívoros no estado do Paraná entre os anos de 1977 e 2012. Os casos confirmados de raiva e o total de amostras de encéfalo encaminhadas para o diagnóstico foram distribuídos por espécie, por ano, por meses, por mesorregião geográfica e por municípios, aplicando-se o teste de Qui-quadrado para verificar se havia associação com esses fatores. Modelo probabilístico foi ajustado à série histórica para verificação de padrões cíclico ou sazonal. Comprovou-se que a raiva é uma doença endêmica no PR, com ocorrência variável entre os anos, sem padrão sazonal e com ciclicidade aparente a cada 18 anos, acometendo, sobretudo, bovinos (86,9%) e equídeos (11,3%). Verificou-se grande difusão no estado (47,6% dos municípios), e a maior expansão geográfica aconteceu na última década. As áreas de ocorrência maior foram as mesorregiões Centro Oriental e de Curitiba, seguidas por Norte Pioneiro e Oeste. O número de casos de raiva por município se correlacionou, ainda que fracamente, com o número de abrigos de Desmodus rotundus (r=0,469; p<0,0001). Sugere-se que a imunização anual de bovinos e equídeos passe a ser adotada nas áreas de maior ocorrência (mesorregiões Centro Oriental e de Curitiba) e encorajada nas de ocorrência intermediária (mesorregiões Norte Pioneiro e Oeste).(AU)


A descriptive epidemiological survey of rabies in herbivorous reared in the state of Parana, Brazil, was carried out from 1977 to 2012. The positive cases and the total number of brain samples processed for diagnostic purposes were distributed according to species, year, month, geographical region and municipality. Chi-square test was used to verify if rabies was associated to these factors. Probabilistic model was applied to historical series in order to verify cyclic and seasonal patterns. In Parana, rabies is an endemic disease with variable yearly occurrence, without seasonal pattern and with a possible cyclic pattern every 18 years. Cattle (86.9%) and equides (11.3%) were mainly affected. Rabies was registered in 47.6% of all municipalities, indicating a great spread of this disease in Parana, mainly during the last decade. Middlewest and Curitiba regions, followed by Pioneer North and West regions, were the areas of most occurrence. The number of cases per municipality was weakly correlated with the number of shelters for Desmodus rotundus (r=0.469; p<0.0001). Therefore, we suggest that annual immunization of cattle and equides should be applied in the high occurrence areas (Middlewest and Curitiba regions) and encouraged in intermediate occurrence areas (Pioneer North and West regions).(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Encephalitis/epidemiology , Endemic Diseases/veterinary , Equidae , Lyssavirus , Rhabdoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Mass Vaccination/veterinary
2.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135600

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: An outbreak of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) among children from Nagpur division, Maharashtra was investigated to confirm the aetiology and to describe clinico-epidemiological features. Methods: AES cases among children <15 yr, from Nagpur division, hospitalized between June-September 2007, were investigated. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were tested for IgM antibodies against Chandipura virus (CHPV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and for CHPV RNA by RT-PCR. Partial N gene sequences were used for phylogenetic analysis. Virus isolations were attempted in rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell line. Sandflies were collected, pooled and tested for CHPV RNA by RT-PCR. Results: A total of 78 AES cases were recorded in children <15 yr of age. Case fatality ratio was 43.6 per cent. Male to female ratio was 1:1.2. Chandipura (CHP) was confirmed in 39 cases. CHPV RNA was detected in both CSF and serum specimens of 2 cases and in serum of 22 cases. Phylogenetic analysis showed 99.98 – 100 per cent nucleotide identity in the sequences studied. Anti-CHPV IgM antibodies were detected in CSF of 2 cases and in serum of 8 cases. Seroconversion to anti-CHPV IgM antibodies was observed in 5 cases. Clinical manifestations of CHP cases (n=38) were fever (100%), convulsion (76.3%), altered sensorium (34.2%), headache (23.7%), vomiting (44.7%) and diarrhoea (23.7%). CHPV RNA was detected in one of two pools of sandflies from affected locality. Interpretation & conclusions: Chandipura virus was confirmed as the aetiological agent of this acute encephalitis outbreak with high case-fatality among children.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Base Sequence , Cell Line, Tumor , Child , Cluster Analysis , DNA Primers/genetics , Disease Outbreaks , Encephalitis, Viral/epidemiology , Encephalitis, Viral/pathology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Phylogeny , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rhabdoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Rhabdoviridae Infections/pathology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Vesiculovirus/genetics
4.
Article in Thai | IMSEAR | ID: sea-41819

ABSTRACT

A study of bat lyssavirus survey was done in Thailand from 2001 to 2003. A total of 932 bats of 11 species were captured in 8 provinces for blood collection and testing for neutralizing antibodies against rabies virus (RABV), Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) and broader panel of other lyssaviruses (Irkut, Aravan and Khujand). All Thai bat samples were negative to RABV Sixteen samples of 394 with sufficient volume of serum had detectable neutralizing antibodies against Irkut, Aravan, Khujand and ABL viruses. Another 13 samples were also found to have antibody to ABLV. However, due to insufficient volume, further analysis to other lyssaviruses could not be performed. Nevertheless, this showed that the prevalence of lyssavirus infection in Thai bats could be as high as 7.3% (29/396). The present study showed that natural occurrence of lyssavirus antibodies found in Thai bats were related to newer putative lyssavirus genotype(s) other than those previously described. These data also suggest that several lyssaviruses are in circulation throughout Thailand as well as other Asian countries, such as in the Philippines, Central Asia, and in certain parts of Russia. The present study and preparation of this article was supported by grants from the Thailand Research Fund and the National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Thailand.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lyssavirus/isolation & purification , Rhabdoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Thailand/epidemiology
5.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 6(3): 151-5, set.-dez. 1999. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-285726

ABSTRACT

Foram realizadas inoculaçöes experimentais do vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Alagoas (VSA) em tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus), pela via intraperitoneal e por imersäo em suspensäo viral, com o objetivo de verificar se o mesmo se replicava neste sistema hospedeiro e se o vírus era eliminado na água, o que poderia representar um importante papel no ciclo epidemiológico da virose. Os peixes foram dispostos em grupos testemunhos e inoculados com suspensäo de vírus VSA, tanto pela via intraperitoneal quanto por imersäo. Foram observadas alteraçöes anatomopatológicas em órgäos da cavidade abdominal e cérebro. Esses órgäos e a água do aquário foram inoculados em células BHK21 e observados a presença de efeito citopático característico dos vírus pertencentes a este gênero. A segunda passagem do vírus em peixes confirmou as lesöes encontradas anteriormente e o isolamento em novas inoculaçöes em cultivo celular. Os resultados sugerem que a tilápia é sensível ao VSA nas duas vias de inoculaçäo, elimina formas infectantes do vírus na água, podendo representar um importante elo na cadeia epidemiológica da estomatite vesicular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fish Diseases/epidemiology , Rhabdoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Rhabdoviridae Infections/veterinary , Stomatitis/epidemiology , Stomatitis/veterinary , Tilapia/virology , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus , Fishes/virology
6.
In. Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C; Travassos da Rosa, Jorge F. S. An Overview of Arbovirology in Brazil and Neighbouring Countries. Belem, Instituto Evandro Chagas, 1998. p.72-99, tab.
Monography in English | LILACS | ID: lil-248895

ABSTRACT

Os mais importantes aspectos clinicicos e ecoepidemiologicos e aspectos preventivos acerca das arboviroses associadas com doenca humana no Brasil sao discutidos.Trinta e seis arbovirus dentre os tipos presentemente isolados no Pais tem sido incriminados como causadores de doenca humana. Destes, cinco sao importantes em termos de saude publica pois estao associados com epidemias , sao os virus Dengue (DEN), Mayaro(MAY), Oropouche (ORO), Rocio (ROC) e Febre amarela (FA). DEN e ORO estao associados com doenca humana epidemica em areas urbanas enquanto MAY, ROC e FA especialmente em areas rurais. Basicamente, o virus ORO determina um quadro febril algumas vezes acmpanhado por meningite asseptica. MAY e DEN sao responsaveis por quadros exantematicos, sendo que DEN, nos ultimos anos tem sido associado com quadros de febre hemorragica, o que sabidamente e o mecanismos pelo qual o virus FA determinaa sua apresentacao clinica classica e o ROC esta associado com graves quadros de encefalite. Trinta e um outros arbovirus tem sido associados com doenca febril benigna em poucos e esporadicos casos. Afora DEN e os Arenavirus Flexal e Sabia ( nao sao arbovirus), todos os arbovirus envolvidos com doenca humana na AmazoniaBrasileira, sao mantidos em natureza atraves de um ciclo silvestre desenvolvido na floresta, onde diversas especies de insetos hematofagos e vertebrados silvestres atuam como vetores e hospedeiros, respectivamente.O virus DEN tem um ciclo urbano em que o mosquito Aedes aegypti e o vetor e o homem atua como hospedeiro. Os arenavirus sao transmitidos diretamente ao homen atraves de excretas de roedores que sao seus principais hospedeiros.Excetuando os cinco virus associados com epidemias que causam um grande impacto socio-economico, inclusive levando a morte, casos verificados com FA, DEN e ROC, o verdadeiro papel dessesvirus como agentes sistematicos de doencas humanas e ainda puco conhecido. Novos estudos sao necessarios para esclarecer aspectos ainda obscuros acerca da epidemiologia da maioria desses arbovirus


Subject(s)
Alphavirus/pathogenicity , Arboviruses/pathogenicity , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine/pathogenicity , Encephalomyelitis, Equine/epidemiology , Encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan Equine/epidemiology , Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Bunyaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Flavivirus Infections/epidemiology , Brazil , Encephalitis, St. Louis , Arenaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Arenaviridae Infections/etiology , Arenaviridae Infections/prevention & control , Rhabdoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Rhabdoviridae Infections/etiology , Rhabdoviridae Infections/prevention & control
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