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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1498-1509, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970621

ABSTRACT

To explore the changes and the reaction mechanisms between soil microecological environment and the content of secon-dary metabolites of plants under water deficit, this study carried out a pot experiment on the 3-leaf stage seedlings of Rheum officinale to analyze their response mechanism under different drought gradients(normal water supply, mild, moderate, and severe drought). The results indicated that the content of flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, and alkaloids in the root of R. officinale varied greatly under drought stresses. Under mild drought stress, the content of substances mentioned above was comparatively high, and the content of rutin, emodin, gallic acid, and(+)-catechin hydrate in the root significantly increased. The content of rutin, emodin, and gallic acid under severe drought stress was significantly lower than that under normal water supply. The number of species, Shannon diversity index, richness index, and Simpson index of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil were significantly higher than those in blank soil, and the number of microbial species and richness index decreased significantly with the aggravation of drought stresses. In the context of water deficit, Cyanophyta, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Streptomyces, and Actinomyces were the dominant bacteria in the rhizosphere of R. officinale. The relative content of rutin and emodin in the root of R. officinale was positively correlated with the relative abundance of Cyanophyta and Firmicutes, and the relative content of(+)-catechin hydrate and(-)-epicatechin gallate was positively correlated with the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. In conclusion, appropriate drought stress can increase the content of secondary metabolites of R. officinale from physiological induction and the increase in the association with beneficial microbe.


Subject(s)
Rhizosphere , Rheum , Droughts , Soil , Catechin , Emodin , Bacteria/metabolism , Water/metabolism , Firmicutes , Soil Microbiology
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191127, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420451

ABSTRACT

Abstract The effects of Rheum ribes on lead acetate levels and hepatic biochemical factors due to lead acetate toxicity were investigated. Forty male Wistar rats were designated into four groups: Control; lead acetate (receiving in drinking water at 0.6 g/L, daily); hydroalcoholic extract groups (200 and 400 mg/kg doses, gavage, once daily). Treatments were conducted for 10 days. On the 11th day, blood samples were collected to measure lead acetate levels and biochemical factors. Liver tissue samples were examined for histopathological changes. Lead serum levels were increased in lead acetate-treated rats (p<0.001). Lead acetate treatment was associated with a significant increase in liver tissue damage (p<0.001), while R. ribes extract prevented liver tissue damage (p<0.05). The levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly lower in the groups lead acetate + extract (two doses) than in the lead acetate group (p<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively), but alkaline phosphatase level, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time and international normalized ratio were not different between the lead acetate + extract groups and the lead acetate group. The results showed the inhibitory role of R. ribes on lead-induced hepato-toxicity. The results make Rhubarb a good candidate to protect against the deleterious effect of chronic lead intoxication after complementary studies


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Rheum/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/analysis , Polygonaceae/classification , Lead/toxicity
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1060-1066, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879004

ABSTRACT

Rhei Radix et Rhizoma is a kind of commonly used Chinese medicinal materials. Due to the overharvesting, the wild resource is endangering. Large market demand caused severely adulterant of commercial Rhei Radix et Rhizoma medicinal materials and decoction pieces. This manuscript reviewed the advances of the original species authentication in the industrial chain of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma during the latest decade, including characteristics and microscopic features, phytochemical analysis on anthraquinones, and molecular authentication based on DNA barcoding. Accordingly, an original species authentication route for the industrial chain of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma was summarized:(1)the identification of seeds and seedlings by DNA barcoding;(2) the selection of high variable sites based on the chloroplast genome;(3)biomonitoring of the Rhei Radix et Rhizoma medicinal materials and decoction pieces by two-dimensional DNA barcode;(4)traceability of Chinese patent medicines by third-generation sequencing. In conclusion, the combination of molecular identification and traditional identification methods provides a new idea for the identification of the original species of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma in the industrial chain and a essential guidance for the research of drug safety and efficacy of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthraquinones , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Plant Roots , Rheum , Rhizome
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 902-906, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878954

ABSTRACT

The color characteristic information of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma powder was obtained by spectrophotometer, the feasibility of rapid identification of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma origin based on chromaticity value was studied by statistical analysis. The results of rank correlation analysis showed that a~*(P<0.01), b~*(P<0.01) had significantly correlation with the origin of medicinal herbs, which could be used as two important parameters to distinguish the origin of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, the larger the a~* value, the more red the powder color,and the greater the b~* value, the more yellow the powder color. Meanwhile, through Fisher discriminant analysis, the linear discriminant functions of different genus Rhei Radix et Rhizoma were established, which was Rheum tanguticum=40.666a~*+0.019b~*-213.303, Rh. palmatum=34.121a~*+0.061b~*-151.770, Rh. officinale=28.071a~*+0.113b~*-104.604 3, the coincidence rate of cross-validation was over 95%, among them, the discriminant rate of Rh. tanguticum and Rh. officinale reached 100%;In addition, using the percentile method to analyze the 90% reference value range of three different origin of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, as a result, Rh. tanguticum a~*(10.236 5-10.604 7), b~*(32.294 8-34.841 7); Rh. palmatum a~*(8.602 7-8.770 0), b~*(27.534 8-28.968 6), and Rh. officinale a~*(6.825 7-7.464 3),b~*(21.001 6-27.716 4). According to this study, rank correlation analysis and Fisher discriminant analysis are feasible to distinguish the base of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma in a certain range, and provide some theoretical basis for the identification of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. It also provides a new method and idea for the identification of other multi-base Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastropoda , Plant Roots , Rheum , Rhizome
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 15-23, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878905

ABSTRACT

Rhei Radix et Rhizoma was first recorded in Shennong Ben Cao Jing, with a wide range of pharmacological activities. Autoimmune disease is a kind of disease that damages the tissue structure and function of immune cells and their components due to the impairment of immune tolerance function, including atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune thyroiditis, ulcerative colitis, type 1 diabetes and IgA nephropathy. In recent years, clinical and experimental studies show that Rhei Radix et Rhizoma has potential therapeutic effects on autoimmune diseases. Under the guidance of the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, this paper reviews therapeutic and intervening effects of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma and its main active ingredient anthraquinone on autoimmune diseases. It also puts forward new study directions in view of the existing problems in studies of rhubarb and its anthraquinone, with the aim to provide reference for clinical treatment and scientific studies of effect of Rhei Radix et Rhizomaon autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthraquinones , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Rheum , Rhizome
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1128-1134, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008482

ABSTRACT

A combination of LC-MS technology and activity evaluation was used to identify the antipyretic ingredients in rhubarb. The rat model of fever was established with dried yeast and then was administered ethanol extract and different polar fractions of rhubarb. Next, the anal temperature of these rats was measured and recorded at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h after administration, and the inhibition rate of each part on the rise of body temperature was calculated. The inhibition rate is higher and the antipyretic effect is better. The chemical composition of the effective fraction was analyzed with UPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS/MS technology. Compared with the model group, the increase of body temperature of ethanol extract group all reduced at each measurement time especially after 3 h, and the inhibition rate were 38.7%(P<0.05), 78.2%(P<0.01) and 72.4%(P<0.01) at 3 h, 4 h, and 5 h after administration, respectively. Both n-butanol and water fraction showed some antipyretic activity in the early stage, with the inhibition rate of 28.1%(P<0.01) and 24.9%(P<0.05) at 1 h after administration, respectively, while other fractions were not active. Thirty-three and twelve compounds were identified from n-butanol and water fraction by LC-MS/MS analysis, respectively, including ten tannins, fifteen anthraquinone glycosides, four anthrone glycosides, one phenolic glycoside, one naphthaline derivative, one anthraquinone and one sucrose. These results revealed that rhubarb had antipyretic activity on rats, and tannin and anthraquinone glycosides were the main active ingredients inside.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Anthraquinones , Antipyretics/pharmacology , Chromatography, Liquid , Fever/drug therapy , Glycosides , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Rheum/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Tannins
7.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 111-114, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760556

ABSTRACT

The herbal formula, DF-02, consisting of Ephedra intermedia and Rheum palmatum are used for the treatment of the metabolic diseases such as obesity and liver fibrosis in Korean local clinics. We aimed to develop the simultaneous analytical conditions for four standards, (+)-pseudoephedrine (PSEP) and (−)-ephedrine (EP) for E. intermedia, and aloe-emodin (AE) and chrysophanol (CP) for R. palmatum using HPLC-UV techniques. The validated conditions yielded the high precision (relative standard deviation (RSD) 0.9994). As a result, four standards of DF-02 were simultaneously determined under the developed method, which will be utilized for the quality control or evaluation of DF-02 and many herbal preparations containing E. intermedia and R. palmatum.


Subject(s)
Calibration , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Ephedra , Liver Cirrhosis , Metabolic Diseases , Methods , Obesity , Plant Preparations , Quality Control , Rheum
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2131-2138, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773117

ABSTRACT

The dose-toxicity-effect relationship between licorice combined with rhubarb in purgation was studied. A total of 108 ICR mice were divided into control group,model group,positive group,low,medium and high-dose rhubarb groups,and low,medium and high-dose rhubarb-liquorice decoction group. After 6 days of continuous administration of loperamide hydrochloride,the constipation model of mice was replicated,and each group was given lactulose,different doses of rhubarb and rhubarb-liquorice decoction for 14 days. After administration,the defecation characteristics,blood biochemistry,liver,kidney and colon pathological changes in each group were compared. Based on the objective weight given by factor analysis,the dose-toxicity-effect relationship was comprehensively analyzed by multi-index scoring method. Two common factors were extracted by factor analysis,representing effect and toxicity respectively. The results showed that rhubarb could exert a diarrhea effect at the dosage of 1/2,2 and 8 times of the high limit set forth in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia,increase the defecation volume and the intestinal tract propulsion rate,reduce the time of anal and the oral transmission,and increase the water content of feces. The combination with licorice could alleviate its diarrhea effect,especially at the dosage of 1/2 times of the high limit set forth in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. However,rhubarb showed obvious hepatic and colon toxicities at the dosage of 2 and 8 times of the high limit set forth in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia,and the combination with licorice could significantly reduce its toxicity. It shows that licorice has a " mediating" effect on rhubarb by alleviating the purgation property and reducing the toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cathartics , Pharmacology , Colon , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glycyrrhiza , Chemistry , Kidney , Liver , Mice, Inbred ICR , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Rheum , Chemistry , Toxicity Tests
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 920-926, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777537

ABSTRACT

Anthraquinones,dianthrones and tannins are the main active ingredients of Rheum tanguticum. In this study the three components were determined by HPLC,and the results were analyzed by multiple comparisons,principal components analysis(PCA)and correspondence analysis(CA). The results showed that the contents of components in different growing areas and types(wild and cultivated) reached a significant level(P<0. 05). Baiyu county,Xiaojin county and Ruoergai county had obvious advantages in the accumulation of catechin hydrate,rhien and sensenoside A respectively. The principal component was different in two growing type and the wild environment was conducive to combined anthraquinones accumulation. For active components,normalized planting was better than retail cultivating. Therefore,the effect on the accumulation of chemical components in Rh. tangusticum,should be taken into full account in the selection of the cultural base of Rh. tanguticum. The standardized cultivating is superior to retail cultivating in terms of the accumulation of active ingredients,and standardized planting is inferior to the wild.


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Phytochemicals , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Rheum , Chemistry , Tannins
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17110, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011643

ABSTRACT

Rhubarb is commonly used as a cathartic in Asian countries. However, researchers have devotedextensive concerns to the quality control and safety of rhubarb and traditional Chinese preparations composed of rhubarb due to the instable purgative effect and potential nephrotoxicity of anthraquinones. In this study, we aimed to prepare rhubarb total free anthraquinones (RTFA) oral colon-specific drug delivery granules (RTFA-OCDD-GN) to delivery anthraquinones to colon to produce purgative effect. RTFA-OCDD-GN were prepared using chitosan and Eudragit S100 through a double-layer coating process and the formulation was optimized. Continuous release studies were performed in a simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2), followed by a small-intestinal fluid (pH 6.8) and a colonic fluid (pH 7.4, containing rat cecal contents). The purgative effect test was performed in rats. The dissolution profile of RTFA-OCDD-GN showed that the accumulative dissolution rate of RTFA was about 83.0% in the simulated colonic fluid containing rat cecal contents and only about 9.0% in the simulated gastrointestinal fluids. And the RTFA-OCDD-GN could produce the comparative purgative activity as rhubarb, suggesting it could deliver the free AQs to the colon. The RTFA-OCDD-GN was a useful media to enhance the purgative activity of free anthraquinones after administered orally.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Rheum/adverse effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anthraquinones/adverse effects , Colon , Projects , Cathartics/analysis
11.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 410-415, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689616

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of rhubarb on neonatal rats with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) induced by hyperoxia.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 64 rats (postnatal day 4) were randomly divided into four groups: air control, rhubarb control, hyperoxia model, and hyperoxia+rhubarb (n=16 each). The rats in the hyperoxia model and hyperoxia+rhubarb groups were exposed to hyperoxia (60% O2) to establish a BPD model. The rats in the rhubarb control and hyperoxia+rhubarb groups were given rhubarb extract suspension (600 mg/kg) by gavage daily. The pathological changes of lung tissue were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining on postnatal days 14 and 21. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured by spectrophotometry. The mRNA and protein expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The hyperoxia model group showed reduced alveolar number, increased alveolar volume, and simplified alveolar structure, which worsened over the time of exposure to hyperoxia. These pathological changes were significantly reduced in the hyperoxia+rhubarb group. On postnatal days 14 and 21, compared with the air control and rhubarb control groups, the hyperoxia model group had significantly reduced radical alveolar count (RAC), significantly reduced activity of SOD in the lung tissue, and significantly increased content of MDA and mRNA and protein expression levels of TNF-α and IL-6 (P<0.05). Compared with the hyperoxia model group, the hyperoxia+rhubarb group had significantly increased RAC, significantly increased activity of SOD in the lung tissue, and significantly reduced content of MDA and mRNA and protein expression levels of TNF-α and IL-6 (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Rhubarb may play a protective role in rats with BPD induced by hyperoxia through inhibiting inflammatory response and oxidative stress.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia , Metabolism , Pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Hyperoxia , Lung , Metabolism , Pathology , Plant Extracts , Therapeutic Uses , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rheum , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Genetics
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1142-1150, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-686962

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>Gastrointestinal dysfunction plays a critical role in the prognosis of critically ill patients. Previous studies showed rhubarb, a traditional Chinese herb, can protect the intestinal barrier function, prevent intestinal bacterial translocation, and promote gastrointestinal peristalsis, but the clinical studies are less. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of rhubarb on gastrointestinal dysfunction in critically ill patients.</p><p><b>Methods</b>From June 2015 to May 2017, a total of 368 critically ill patients with Grade I-III acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into two groups according to the exposure factors (whether the patients received rhubarb treatment): the rhubarb group and the usual treatment group. Clinical data were collected within the first 24 h of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and 7 days after treatment. Survival data on day 28 after ICU admission and the durations of ICU and total hospitalization were also collected. Propensity score matching (PSM) was conducted to reduce confounding bias between the groups. The logistic regression was conducted to screen the influence factors.</p><p><b>Results</b>The eligible patients were divided into rhubarb group (n = 219, 59.5%) and usual treatment group (n = 149, 40.5%). Before PSM, the remission rate of feeding intolerance in rhubarb group and usual treatment group were 59.8% and 39.6%, respectively. After PSM, the remission rate of feeding intolerance in rhubarb group and usual treatment group was 77.9% and 30.9%, respectively. The remission rates of feeding intolerance in rhubarb group were significantly higher than those in the usual treatment group (all P < 0.05). Compared with the usual treatment group, the rhubarb group had a higher rate of AGI improvement, lower level of C-reactive protein, shorter stay in ICU before and after PSM (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in 28-day mortality between rhubarb and usual treatment groups before and after PSM (48 vs. 33, P = 0.959; and 16 vs. 21, P = 0.335). The logistic regression analysis showed that the single factor, whether receiving rhubarb therapy, affected the proportion of patients whose enteral nutrition needs ≥83.7 kJ·kg·d after 7 days of treatment (odds ratio: 7.908, 95% confidence interval: 3.661-17.083, P < 0.001). No serious adverse effects were found in two groups.</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>The rhubarb might significantly improve feeding tolerance and relieve gastrointestinal dysfunction in critically ill patients, without serious adverse reactions. It provided proof for the treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction with rhubarb during clinical practice.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , APACHE , Critical Illness , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Metabolism , Pathology , Intensive Care Units , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Rheum , Chemistry
13.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(5): 435-440, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896349

ABSTRACT

Summary Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of rhubarb on extravascular lung water (EVLW) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Method: A total of 80 patients with ARDS were randomly divided into a treatment group (40 cases) and control group (40 cases). Patients in the treatment group received rhubarb (30.0 g/d) and patients in the control group received conventional therapy for seven consecutive days. Extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) were determined using pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) technology, and the oxygenation index was measured by blood gas analysis at baseline and on days 3, 5 and 7 after treatment. Results: The oxygenation index was higher and the levels of EVLWI and PVPI were lower after treatment in the two groups; however, these indexes showed significant differences on the 5th and 7th days after rhubarb treatment compared with the results in the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Rhubarb can decrease EVLWI and PVPI, and improve oxygenation in patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Rheum/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Extravascular Lung Water/drug effects , Oxygen/physiology , Pulmonary Edema/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Time Factors , Blood Gas Analysis , Capillary Permeability/drug effects , Capillary Permeability/physiology , Cardiac Output/drug effects , Cardiac Output/physiology , Extravascular Lung Water/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Lung/drug effects , Lung/physiopathology , Middle Aged
14.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 847-854, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812050

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to investigate the intervening role of Didang decoction (DDD) at different times in macrovascular endothelial defense function, focusing on its effects on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. The effects of DDD on mitochondrial energy metabolism were also investigated in rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs). Type 2 diabetes were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) combined with high fat diet. Rats were randomly divided into non-intervention group, metformin group, simvastatin group, and early-, middle-, late-stage DDD groups. Normal rats were used as control. All the rats received 12 weeks of intervention or control treatment. Western blots were used to detect the expression of AMP-activated protein kinase α1 (AMPKα1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor 1α (PGC-1α). Changes in the intracellular AMP and ATP levels were detected with ELISA. Real-time-PCR was used to detect the mRNA level of caspase-3, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and Bcl-2. Compared to the diabetic non-intervention group, a significant increase in the expression of AMPKα1 and PGC-1α were observed in the early-stage, middle-stage DDD groups and simvastatin group (P < 0.05). The levels of Bcl-2, eNOS, and ATP were significantly increased (P < 0.05), while the level of AMP and caspase-3 were decreased (P < 0.05) in the early-stage DDD group and simvastatin group. Early intervention with DDD enhances mitochondrial energy metabolism by regulating the AMPK signaling pathway and therefore may play a role in strengthening the defense function of large vascular endothelial cells and postpone the development of macrovascular diseases in diabetes.


Subject(s)
Animals , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate , Metabolism , Aorta , Metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases , Metabolism , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Diptera , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Endothelial Cells , Metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular , Metabolism , Energy Metabolism , Leeches , Mitochondria , Metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Metabolism , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha , Metabolism , Phytotherapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Metabolism , Prunus persica , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rheum , Signal Transduction
15.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(2): e15022, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951893

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The effects of rheum on serum parameters in a taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) rat model were investigated using pathological and biochemical tests, and a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)-based metabonomic strategy. Healthy rats and rats with AP were either treated with rheum (7.5% at a dose of 1.5 g/kg) or left untreated. Serum samples were collected from the AP and rheum-treated groups at 6, 12, and 24 h after treatment. The effect of rheum on pathological changes in the pancreatic was investigated to validate the AP model. We obtained 1H NMR spectra and analyzed the results using the partial least squares discriminant method. The results of the pathological and metabolic analyses revealed an amelioration of multiple metabolic abnormalities and an increase in the aerobic respiration ratio after treatment, compared with the AP groups. These results were attributed to improvements in energy supply and the elimination of metabolic products. The study also promoted NMR-based metabonomic analysis as a feasible method of assessing traditional Chinese drugs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Pancreatitis/pathology , Rheum/adverse effects , Taurocholic Acid/administration & dosage , Metabolomics , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/instrumentation
16.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 9-15, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198628

ABSTRACT

DF formula is comprised of three traditional herbs, Ephedra intermedia, Rheum palmatum and Lithospermum erythrorhizon, and locally used for treating of the metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes in Korea. We tried to optimize the extraction conditions of two major components, (−)-ephedrine and (+)-pseudoephedrine, in DF formula using response surface methodology with Box-Behnken design (BBD). The experimental conditions with 70% for EtOH concentrations, 4.8 hour for extraction hours and 8.7 times for the solvent to material ratio were suggested for the optimized extraction of DF formula with the highest amounts of (−)-ephedrine and (+)-pseudoephedrine in the designed model.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Ephedra , Korea , Lithospermum , Metabolic Diseases , Obesity , Rheum
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1218-1225, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330640

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Leakage of the intestinal mucosal barrier may cause translocation of bacteria, then leading to multiorgan failure. This study hypothesized that rhubarb monomers might protect the gut mucosal barrier in sepsis through junction proteins.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 230-250 g) under anesthesia and sedation were subjected to cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). After surgical preparation, rats were randomly assigned to eight groups (n = 6 or 8 each group): sham group (Group A: normal saline gavage); sepsis group (Group B: normal saline gavage); Group C (intraperitoneally, dexamethasone 0.5 mg/kg) immediately after CLP surgery; and rhubarb monomer (100 mg/kg in normal saline)-treated groups (Group D: rhein; Group E: emodin; Group F: 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid; Group G: 1-O-caffeoyl-2-(4-hydroxy-O-cinnamoyl)-D-glucose; and Group H: daucosterol linoleate). Animals were sacrificed after 24 h. Intestinal histology, lactulose, mannitol concentrations were measured, and zonula occludens (ZO)-1, occludin and claudin-5 transcription (polymerase chain reaction), translation (by Western blot analysis), and expression (by immunohistochemistry) were also measured.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Intestinal histology revealed injury to intestinal mucosal villi induced by sepsis in Group B, compared with Group A. Compared with Group A (0.17 ± 0.41), the pathological scores in Groups B (2.83 ± 0.41, P < 0.001), C (1.83 ± 0.41, P < 0.001), D (2.00 ± 0.63, P < 0.001), E (1.83 ± 0.41, P < 0.001), F (1.83 ± 0.75, P < 0.001), G (2.17 ± 0.41, P < 0.001),and H (1.83 ± 0.41, P < 0.001) were significantly increased. Lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio in Group B (0.046 ± 0.003) was significantly higher than in Group A (0.013 ± 0.001, P< 0.001) while L/M ratios in Groups C (0.028 ± 0.002, P< 0.001), D (0.029 ± 0.003, P< 0.001), E (0.026 ± 0.003, P< 0.001), F (0.027 ± 0.003, P< 0.001), G (0.030 ± 0.005, P< 0.001), and H (0.026 ± 0.002, P< 0.001) were significantly lower than that in Group B. ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5 transcription, translation, and expression in Group B were significantly lower than that in Group A (P < 0.001), but they were significantly higher in Groups C, D, E, F, G, and H than those in Group B (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Rhubarb monomer treatment ameliorated mucosal damage in sepsis via enhanced transcription, translation, and expression of junction proteins.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Claudin-5 , Metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa , Metabolism , Lactulose , Metabolism , Mannitol , Metabolism , Occludin , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rheum , Chemistry , Sepsis , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein , Metabolism
18.
Mycobiology ; : 93-98, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729447

ABSTRACT

A new leaf spot disease was observed on leaves of Rheum palmatum (Chinese rhubarb) in Northwest China (Gansu Province) starting in 2005. A Septoria-like fungus was isolated and completion of Koch's postulates confirmed that the fungus was the casual agent of the leaf spot disease. Morphology and molecular methods were combined to identify the pathogen. The fungus produced conidiomata pycnidia and the conidia were 2~5 septate, 61.2~134.1 µm in length and 3.53~5.3 µm in width, which is much larger than the known Spetoria species that infects Polygonaceae species. Phylogenic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region confirmed that this Spetoria-like fungus is within the Spetoria genus but distinct from known Spetoria species. Together, these morphological and phylogenetic data support that the R. palmatum infecting Spetoria strain is a newly-described plant pathogenic species.


Subject(s)
China , Classification , Fungi , Plants , Polygonaceae , Rheum , Spores, Fungal
19.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 97-101, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20940

ABSTRACT

Emodin is an anthraquinone derivative from the roots of Rheum officinale Baill that possesses a variety of biological activities, including inhibition of 5α-reductase and prostaglandin D2. In this study, we investigated whether emodin promotes hair growth. After emodin was topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6 N mice, the hair growth rate and morphological analysis were evaluated in dorsal skin for 15 days. After 13 days of treatment, minoxidil or emodin (0.01% or 0.1%)-treated groups showed remarkable regrowth of hairs relative to the vehicle control group. Scoring of the hair growth and rate of hair growth area for 15 days revealed that groups treated with minoxidil and 0.1% emodin were significantly higher than the vehicle control group. Histological examination revealed the emodin and minoxidil groups markedly recovered the number and morphology of hair follicles, including the subcutis depth, relative to the vehicle group. These results suggest that emodin has an excellent promoting effect in hair growth similar to that of minoxidil and might be useful for treatment of baldness or alopecia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Alopecia , Emodin , Hair Follicle , Hair , Minoxidil , Prostaglandin D2 , Rheum , Skin
20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1737-1743, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251313

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Intact endothelial structure and function are critical for maintaining microcirculatory homeostasis. Dysfunction of the latter is an underlying cause of various organ pathologies. In a previous study, we showed that rhubarb, a traditional Chinese medicine, protected intestinal mucosal microvascular endothelial cells in rats with metastasizing septicemia. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of rhubarb on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9)-induced vascular endothelial (VE) permeability.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Rhubarb monomers were extracted and purified by a series of chromatography approaches. The identity of these monomers was analyzed by hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), carbon-13 NMR, and distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We established a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayer on a Transwell insert. We measured the HUVEC permeability, proliferation, and the secretion of VE-cadherin into culture medium using fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran assay, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, in response to treatment with MMP9 and/or rhubarb monomers.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 21 rhubarb monomers were extracted and identified. MMP9 significantly increased the permeability of the HUVEC monolayer, which was significantly reduced by five individual rhubarb monomer (emodin, 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, 1-O-caffeoyl-2-(4-hydroxyl-O-cinnamoyl)-β-D-glucose, daucosterol linoleate, and rhein) or a combination of all five monomers (1 μmol/L for each monomer). Mechanistically, the five-monomer mixture at 1 μmol/L promoted HUVEC proliferation. In addition, MMP9 stimulated the secretion of VE-cadherin into the culture medium, which was significantly inhibited by the five-monomer mixture.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The rhubarb mixture of emodin, 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, 1-O-caffeoyl-2-(4-hydroxyl-O-cinnamoyl)-β-D-glucose, daucosterol linoleate, and rhein, at a low concentration, antagonized the MMP9-induced HUVEC monolayer permeability by promoting HUVEC proliferation and reducing extracellular VE-cadherin concentrations.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Cadherins , Metabolism , Capillary Permeability , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Cell Biology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Metabolism , Rheum , Chemistry
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