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1.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 6-6, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396592

ABSTRACT

The negative impact of Rhipicephalus microplusinfestations on cattle farming is well-known. The main control method is the use of ixodicides, which have as side effects environmental contamination, the selection of resistant lineages, and toxicity. Their use is also prohibited in systems that produce organic and agroecological food. Such factors reinforce the importance of strengthening researchrelated to the application of homeopathic principles in animal production. Aim: In this setting, this work aimed at assessing the efficacy of the homeopathic therapy to control Rhipicephalus microplusticks in dairy cattle. Methodology: 63 crossbred and Girolando breed cows, 1 and 9 years of age, naturally infested by ticks and created under a semi-intensive system in three farms (1, 2,and 3) were assayed. The animals were divided into three control groups and three treated groups, using the drug product EndectoSigo® (Psorinum12 CH, Sulphur 12CH, Ledum palustre12 CH, Cina12 CH e Apis mell.7CH) at a dose of 10 g/animal/day added to mineral and/or food supplement. The visual counting of teleogines with the size equal to or higher than four millimeters indiameter was performed in the neck or udder area of the animal. Pluviometry and registration of ixodicide baths were performed as well.The means obtained were compared by using ANOVA test and Tukey's test. Results: The mean number of teleogines on farm 1was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the treatment group. As for farms 2 and 3, there was no statistical difference between the groups (treated and control); however, it was observed that two ixodicide baths were required in the control group (farm 2). Thepluviometry did not interfere with the manifestation. Conclusion: It was concluded that the homeopathic treatment has the efficacy required to control this tick in cattle and can be an alternative to the use of chemical ixodicides.


Subject(s)
Pest Control , Rhipicephalus , Homeopathy
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(5): 503-514, sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369017

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil from Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi leaves and fruits, and to determine its acaricidal activity on Rhipicephalus microplusy larval packet test and larvicidal action on Aedes aegyptiby larval immersion test. The chemical analysis of the essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes in bacupari leaves and fruits, and α-cedrene, α-chamigrene, α-trans-bergamotene, and ß-curcumene as major compounds. Essential oil from leaves of G. gardneriana presented acaricidal activity on R. microplus (LC50= 4.8 mg/mL; LC99= 10.8 mg/mL) and larvicidal effect on A. aegypti (LC50= 5.4 mg/mL; LC99 = 11.6 mg/mL), where as essential oil from the fruits of G. gardneriana showed LC50= 4.6 mg/mL and LC99= 8.9 mg/mL against R. microplus and LC50= 6.4 mg/mL and LC99= 13.9 mg/mL against A. aegypti. These results thus demonstrate the potential acaricidal and larvicidal activity of essential oil of G. gardneriana, offering new perspectives for the realization of bioassays from this essential oil.


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la composición química del aceite esencial de las hojas y frutos de Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi, y determinar su actividad acaricida en Rhipicephalus microplus y larvicida en Aedes aegypti empleando la prueba de inmersión de larvas. El análisis químico del aceite esencial por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas identificó hidrocarburos sesquiterpénicos y sesquiterpenos oxigenados en hojas y frutos de bacupari, y α-cedreno, α-chamigreno, α-trans-bergamoteno y ß-curcumeno como compuestos principales. El aceite esencial obtenido de las hojas de G. gardneriana presentó actividad acaricida en la garrapata del ganado (LC50= 4,8 mg/mL; LC99= 10,8 mg/mL) y actividad larvicida en A. aegypti (LC50= 5,4 mg/mL; LC99= 11,6 mg/mL), así como, el aceite esencial obtenido de los frutos de G. gardneriana mostró LC50= 4,6 mg/mL y LC99= 8,9 mg/mL contra las larvas de garrapatas de ganado y LC50= 6,4 mg/mL y LC99= 13,9 mg/mL en las larvas de A. aegypti. Por lo tanto, estos resultados demuestran la actividad acaricida y larvicida del aceite essencial de G. gardneriana, ofreciendo nuevas perspectivas para la realización de bioensayos a partir de este aceite esencial.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Garcinia/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Aedes/drug effects , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Acaricides , Insecticides/chemistry , Larva , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 55-61, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153051

ABSTRACT

The number of domestic animals living with human beings is rapidly increasing in parallel with an enhanced risk of transmission of their parasites and the pathogens they might carry. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of hematophagous arthropods infesting domestic animals from Northeastern Brazil and to remark the implications of their occurrence on the epidemiology and control of selected veterinary and human diseases. From January 2017 to April 2019, ectoparasites infesting domestic cats, dogs and horses were collected for their respective hosts and identified. Overall, ectoparasites were sampled from 86 domestic animals, living in different anthropic settings. A total of 401 specimens (344 ticks and 57 fleas) were collected from different hosts [i.e., 10 (2.49%), 96 (23.94%) and 295 (73.57%) from cats, dogs and horses, respectively]. Two flea (i.e., Ctenocephalides canis and Ctenocephalides felis) and 5 tick species (i.e., Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma sculptum, Dermacentor nitens, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) were identified. This study provides data on the ectoparasite fauna infesting domestic animals from Northeastern Brazil. The diagnosis and treatment of these parasites should not be underestimated, considering the role that hematophagous arthropods display as vectors of pathogens of medical and veterinary concern.(AU)


O número de animais domésticos infestados por ectoparasitos vivendo em estreito contato com seres humanos está aumentando, elevando o risco de infecção pelos patógenos transmitidos por vetores. Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a ocorrência de ectoparasitos infestando animais do nordeste do Brasil e discutir as implicações desse parasitismo na epidemiologia e no controle de doenças de importância médico-veterinária. De janeiro de 2017 a abril de 2019, artrópodes foram coletados de gatos, cães e cavalos, e identificados morfologicamente. Ectoparasitos foram removidos de 86 animais infestados provenientes de áreas urbanas e rurais. Foram identificados 401 espécimes (344 carrapatos e 57 pulgas) coletados de diferentes hospedeiros (10 (2,49%), 96 (23,94%) e 295 (73,57%) de gatos, cães e cavalos, respectivamente. Duas espécies de pulgas (Ctenocephalides canis e Ctenocephalides felis) e cinco espécies de carrapatos (Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma sculptum, Dermacentornitens, Rhipicephalus microplus e Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) foram identificadas. Este estudo fornece informações sobre a ectofauna de animais domésticos do nordeste do Brasil. Portanto, o diagnóstico e o tratamento desses parasitos não devem ser subestimados, considerando que os artrópodes aqui relatados podem veicular patógenos de importância médico-veterinária.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Ticks , Ectoparasitic Infestations/epidemiology , Siphonaptera , Horses/parasitology , Brazil , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Rhipicephalus , Ctenocephalides , One Health , Amblyomma
4.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 37: e37031, Jan.-Dec. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358890

ABSTRACT

The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick is a major concern for the livestock market worldwide, as it causes serious economic damage. Plant-derived acaricides are an attractive alternative to control this ectoparasite and limit the development of resistance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity of Furcraea foetida leaf extract against engorged female R. (B.) microplus ticks. Our in vitro bioassays showed that the crude extract of leaves from F. foetida caused hemorrhagic swelling and skin lesions in the ticks, and three days of treatment caused 100% mortality. Dose-response assay indicated that this toxicity effect was dose-dependent. Similar effects were observed when the crude extract from F. foetida leaves was denatured by boiling at 100°C. These results suggest that the toxicity of the leaf extract might be associated with thermostable biomolecules. Together, our results show for the first time that the crude extract of F. foetida leaves has acaricidal activity against engorged female R. (B.) microplus ticks and it acts in a dose-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Complex Mixtures/analysis , Complex Mixtures/toxicity , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Acaricides
5.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 37: e37068, Jan.-Dec. 2021. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359174

ABSTRACT

In this study, the recombinant gut protein rRa92A produced in Pichia pastoris yeast cells was used to immunize cattle in two experiments, one in Brazil and the other in Uganda. In both experiments, the animals were intramuscularly (IM) injected with 200 µg of recombinant protein in Brazil on days 0, 30 and 51 and in Uganda on days 0, 30. Blood samples for sera separation were collected from different days in both experiments. These samples were analyzed by ELISAs. In Brazil, ticks collected from the animals during the experimental period were analyzed for biological parameters. At Uganda, blood was collected to assess blood parameters, clinical signs were recorded and adult tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) counts were performed. All animals of the vaccinated groups were shown to produce antibodies, and it was not possible to detect an effect on Rhipicephalus microplus. All the clinical parameters were considered within the normal ranges for both the experimental and control groups in Uganda. Antibody absorbance was elevated after each immunization and remained high until the end of the experiments, remaining low in the control animals. The results of stall test carried out in Brazil using R. microplus tick showed efficacy of 21.95%. The rRa92A immunization trial experiments in Uganda showing a decrease of 55.2% in the number of engorged adult ticks, which was statistically significant (p<0.05). Assessment of the immunogenicity of Ra92A produced in the P. pastoris expression system in bovines is reported for the first time, and the protein acted as a concealed antigen.


Subject(s)
Recombinant Proteins , Cattle , Vaccines , Rhipicephalus/pathogenicity
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e002221, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251367

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study reports the action of essential oils (EO) from five plants on the activity of native and recombinant acetylcholinesterases (AChE) from Rhipicephalus microplus. Enzyme activity of native susceptible AChE extract (S.AChE), native resistant AChE extract (R.AChE), and recombinant enzyme (rBmAChE1) was determined. An acetylcholinesterase inhibition test was used to verify the effect of the EO on enzyme activity. EO from Eucalyptus globulus, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus aurantium var.dulcis inhibited the activity of S.AChE and R.AChE. Oils from the two Citrus species inhibited S.AChE and R.AChE in a similar way while showing greater inhibition on R.AChE. The oil from E. globulus inhibited native AChE, but no difference was observed between the S.AChE and R.AChE; however, 71% inhibition for the rBmAChE1 was recorded. Mentha piperita oil also inhibited S.AChE and R.AChE, but there was significant inhibition at the highest concentration tested. Cymbopogon winterianus oil did not inhibit AChE. Further studies are warranted with the oils from the two Citrus species that inhibited R.AChE because of the problem with R. microplus resistant to organophosphates, which target AChE. C. winterianus oil can be used against R. microplus populations that are resistant to organophosphates because its acaricidal properties act by mechanism(s) other than AChE inhibition.


Resumo Este estudo relata a ação de óleos essenciais de cinco plantas na atividade de acetilcolinesterases (AChE) nativas e recombinantes de Rhipicephalus microplus. A atividade enzimática do extrato de acetilcolinesterase nativa suscetível (S.AChE) e resistente (R.AChE) e da enzima recombinante (rBmAChE1) foi determinada. Um teste de inibição da AChE foi utilizado, para verificar o efeito dos óleos essenciais sobre a atividade enzimática. Óleos essenciais de Eucalyptus globulus, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus aurantium var. dulcis inibiram a atividade de S.AChE e R.AChE. Os óleos das duas espécies de Citrus inibiram S.AChE e R.AChE de maneira semelhante, mas mostraram maior inibição sobre R.AChE. O óleo de E. globulus inibiu a AChE nativa, mas sem diferença entre a S.AChE e a R.AChE; no entanto, 71% de inibição para rBmAChE1 foi observada. O óleo de Mentha piperita também inibiu S.AChE e R.AChE, mas houve inibição significativa apenas nas concentrações mais altas testadas. O óleo de Cymbopogon winterianus não inibiu a AChE. Estudos adicionais são necessários com os óleos das duas espécies de Citrus que inibiram a R.AchE, devido ao problema de R. microplus resistente aos organofosforados ter como alvo AChE. O óleo de C. winterianus pode ser usado contra populações de R. microplus, que são resistentes a organofosforados, porque suas propriedades acaricidas agem por mecanismos diferentes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cymbopogon , Rhipicephalus/enzymology , Acaricides/pharmacology , Acetylcholinesterase , Larva
7.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e009221, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1341182

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to chemically characterize the essential oils (EOs) of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) and Eremanthus erythropappus (candeia) and evaluate their acaricidal activity, together with that of their major compounds and cinnamyl acetate derivative, against Rhipicephalus microplus. Essential oil compounds were identified through gas chromatography. The larval packet test (LPT) at concentrations ranging from 0.31 to 10.0 mg/mL and the adult immersion test (AIT) at concentrations between 2.5 and 60.0 mg/mL were performed. (E)-cinnamaldehyde and α-bisabolol were the major compounds in cinnamon (86.93%) and candeia (78.41%) EOs, respectively. In the LPT, the EOs of cinnamon and candeia and the compounds (E)-cinnamaldehyde, α-bisabolol and cinnamyl acetate resulted in 100% mortality at concentrations of 2.5, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 10.0 mg/mL respectively. In the AIT, percentage control values > 95% were observed for cinnamon and candeia EOs, (E)-cinnamaldehyde and α-bisabolol at the concentrations of 5.0, 60.0, 20.0, and 20.0 mg/mL, respectively, whereas cinnamyl acetate showed low activity. We conclude that EOs and their compounds showed high acaricidal activity, whereas the acetylated derivative of (E)-cinnamaldehyde presented less acaricidal activity on R. microplus engorged females.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar quimicamente os óleos essenciais (OE) de Cinnamomum zeylanicum (canela) e Eremanthus erythropappus (candeia) e avaliar sua atividade acaricida, juntamente com a de seus principais compostos e do derivado de acetato de cinamila, sobre Rhipicephalus microplus. Os compostos do óleo essencial foram identificados por cromatografia gasosa. Foram realizados o Teste de Pacote de Larvas (TPL), em concentrações variando de 0,31 a 10,0 mg/mL, e o Teste de Imersão de Adultos (TIA), em concentrações entre 2,5 e 60,0 mg/mL. (E)-cinnamaldeído e α-bisabolol foram os principais compostos nos OE da canela (86,93%) e da candeia (78,41%), respectivamente. No TPL, os OEs de canela e candeia, e os compostos (E)-cinnamaldeído, α-bisabolol e acetato de cinamila resultaram em 100% de mortalidade nas concentrações de 2,5, 2,5, 5,0, 10,0 e 10,0 mg/mL, respectivamente. No TIA, valores percentuais de controle >95% foram observados para OE de canela e candeia, (E)-cinnamaldeído e α-bisabolol nas concentrações de 5,0, 60,0, 20,0 e 20,0 mg/mL, respectivamente, enquanto o acetato de cinamila apresentou baixa atividade. Conclui-se que os OEs e seus compostos apresentaram alta atividade acaricida, enquanto o derivado acetilado do (E)-cinnamaldeído apresentou menor atividade acaricida em fêmeas ingurgitadas de R. microplus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Rhipicephalus , Acaricides/pharmacology , Cinnamates , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Larva
8.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00482020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1349006

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the resistance of tick populations on 16 family farms that were members of the agricultural producers' cooperative of the São Pedro region of the state of São Paulo (COOPAMSP). Bioassays were conducted on nine commercial products in 2018 and 2019. Their active agents were as follows: deltamethrin, amitraz, cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + citronella, cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + fenthion, cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + piperonyl butoxide, dichlorvos + chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, chlorfenvinphos + dichlorvos, and ivermectin. On some farms, a larval packet test (LPT) was also performed. Overall, four acaricides presented mean efficacy greater than 89%, among which two were associations of pyrethroids + organophosphates and two were associations of organophosphates + organophosphates. Deltamethrin, cypermethrin and ivermectin presented mean efficacy lower than 50%. In the bioassays using the LPT, all five farms showed resistance to diazinon, while only one farm presented resistance to cypermethrin. The results were handed over to each farmer with appropriate guidance for treatments. This study demonstrated that the important points to be implemented related directly to use control strategies, based on direct assistance for farmers and diagnosis of tick population sensitivities.


Subject(s)
Ticks , Tick Control , Acaricides , Organophosphates , Biological Assay , Community-Institutional Relations , Cymbopogon , Rhipicephalus , Diazinon , Fenthion
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06821, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1250485

ABSTRACT

Fipronil was registered in Uruguay in 1997, and, since then, it has been used for the control of Haematobia irritans irritans and Rhipicephalus microplus. The susceptibility of H. irritants to this drug has not been evaluated. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to evaluate the resistance of H. irritans to fipronil. Additionally, a survey was carried out with the farmers to evaluate the use of fipronil for H. irritans control in the ranches where the flies came from. For the bioassays, 31 field populations of H. irritans were exposed to 10 concentrations of fipronil (3.2-16.0μg.cm2), and their LC50 values were calculated using probit analysis. A bioassay was performed with horn flies from the susceptible colony maintained at the USDA-ARS Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory for comparison and calculation of resistance ratios (RRs). All 31 field populations surveyed in the study were susceptible to fipronil, with resistance ratios ranging from <0.5 to 2.2. Four populations with RRs >1 did not differ significantly from the susceptible strain. A single population showed an RR >2.2. Overall, the survey shows that fipronil was mostly used for R. microplus control, and in only three ranches, which were free of R. microplus, was fipronil used for horn fly control. Seventeen farmers did not use fipronil at all in the last three years. It is concluded that, in Uruguay, field populations of horn flies remain susceptible to fipronil.(AU)


O fipronil foi registrado no Uruguai em 1997 e, desde então, tem sido utilizado no controle de Haematobia irritans irritans e Rhipicephalus microplus. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a susceptibilidade de populações de campo de H. irritans ao fipronil. Além disso, foi realizada uma pesquisa para avaliar a utilização de fipronil e as práticas de controle de H. irritans nas fazendas de onde provinham as moscas. Para os bioensaios, 31 populações de campo de H. irritans foram expostas a 10 concentrações de fipronil (3,2-16,0μg.cm2), e seus valores de CL50 foram calculados usando análise probit. Um bioensaio foi realizado com H. irritans da colônia suscetível mantida no USDA-ARS Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory para comparação e cálculo das razões de resistência (RRs). Todas as 31 populações de campo pesquisadas no estudo eram suscetíveis ao fipronil, com taxas de resistência variando de <0,5 à 2,2. Quatro populações com Rrs >1 não diferiram significativamente da cepa suscetível. Uma única população apresentou RR >2,2. No geral, o fipronil tinha sido usado principalmente para o controle de R. microplus, e em apenas três fazendas, que estavam livres de R. microplus, o fipronil era utilizado para o controle da H. irritans. Em 17 fazendas não tinha sido utilizado fipronil nos últimos três anos. Conclui-se que no Uruguai as populações de H. irritans no campo permanecem suscetíveis ao fipronil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Biological Assay , Pest Control, Biological , Rhipicephalus/pathogenicity , Diptera , Livestock , Surveys and Questionnaires , Disease Susceptibility , Laboratories
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(1): e020620, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288685

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ectoparasitic infestation in dairy cattle, the most common being Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, causes significant loss in production. The control of ectoparasites often occurs incorrectly, resulting in resistance to the active ingredients and residues in milk. To understand of acaricide use in the microregion of Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil), questionnaires were applied to the owners of 100 dairy farms in the region and were selected randomly. Dairy farms were allocated according to production scale: up to 150 liters/day, 151-400 liters/day and more than 400 liters/day. The interviewees were asked about production characteristics, acaricide management and active ingredients. The interview answers were subjected to descriptive analysis. Results showed that all properties, independent of production-scale, used acaricides. The most cited was: Cypermethrin Chlorpyrifos Citronellal (31%), Fluazuron (18.6%) and Fipronil (17%). Among the interviewed, 41,1% use drugs that have restrictions that are not allowed in legislation for use in lactating dairy cows (fluazuron, fipronil, ivermectin). 15% affirmed they weren't aware of the "withdrawal period" of medication and 73% change in the active ingredient used. In order to revert this antiparasitic drug's resistance situation and contamination of milk with drug residues, it is necessary to focus on the awareness of milk producers and training of labor.


Resumo A infestação por ectoparasitas em bovinos leiteiros, sendo o mais comum o Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, causa prejuízos significativos na produção. No entanto, o controle dos ectoparasitas geralmente ocorre incorretamente, resultando em resistência aos princípios ativos e presença de resíduos no leite. Para entender os padrões de uso de acaricidas na microrregião de Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram aplicados questionários aos proprietários de 100 fazendas leiteiras que foram classificadas de acordo com uma escala de produção: até 150 litros/dia, de 151 a 400 litros/dia e mais de 400 litros/dia. Os entrevistados foram questionados sobre características da produção, manejo do acaricida de gado e conhecimento sobre os princípios ativos. Todas as propriedades, independentemente da escala de produção, usavam acaricidas. Foram citados com maior frequência: Cipermetrina + Clorpirifós + Citronelal (31%), Fluazuron (18.6%) e Fipronil (17%). Entre os produtores entrevistados, 41,1 % fazem uso de drogas com restrição que não são atualmente permitidas na legislação para uso em vacas em lactação (fluazuron, fipronil, ivermectina). 15% dos produtores de leite afirmaram não estar cientes do "período de carência" dos medicamentos; outros relatam trocas constantes do princípio ativo utilizado. Para reverter a situação do uso indiscriminado de antiparasitários, é necessário focar na conscientização dos produtores de leite e na formação do trabalho.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Cattle Diseases , Rhipicephalus , Acaricides , Brazil , Lactation , Cattle , Farms
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(1): e025220, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156219

ABSTRACT

Abstract Southern cattle tick resistance to pour-on and injectable acaricides has yet to be evaluated on a broader scope, and the paucity of information on the subject may hinder efforts to control this parasite. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance profile of ten populations of Rhipicephalus microplus to the acaricides fluazuron, fipronil and ivermectin in cattle herds in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The larval immersion test (LIT) was used to evaluate susceptibility to ivermectin and fipronil and the adult immersion test (AIT) was performed to evaluate fluazuron. Samples were randomly obtained in ten farms, and in general, we found resistance in five samples to fluazuron and in four samples to ivermectin and fipronil. Six samples showed incipient resistance to ivermectin and fipronil. Five of the ten evaluated samples showed resistance and/or incipient resistance to all the active ingredients, and the other five to two active ingredients. Among the samples classified as resistant, the average resistance ratio for ivermectin was 2.75 and 3.26 for fipronil. These results demonstrate the advanced status of resistance to the most modern chemical groups for the control of R. microplus in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul.


Resumo A resistência do carrapato-do-boi a acaricidas com modo de aplicação "pour-on" e injetáveis é pouco avaliada em estudos mais abrangentes, e essa escassez de informação pode resultar falhas no seu controle. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o perfil de resistência em dez populações de Rhipicephalus microplus aos acaricidas fluazuron, fipronil e ivermectina, em rebanhos bovinos em Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. A caracterização fenotípica da resistência foi realizada por meio do teste de imersão de adultos (AIT) para o fluazuron, e teste de imersão de larvas (LIT) para fipronil e ivermectina. As amostras foram obtidas aleatoriamente em dez fazendas, sendo diagnosticada resistência em cinco amostras ao fluazuron e em quatro amostras à ivermectina e fipronil. Seis amostras apresentaram resistência incipiente à ivermectina e fipronil. Cinco das dez amostras avaliadas apresentaram resistência e / ou resistência incipiente a todos os princípios ativos, e as outras cinco a dois princípios ativos. Entre as amostras classificadas como resistentes, a média do fator de resistência para ivermectina foi de 2,75 e de 3,26 para fipronil. Esses resultados demonstram o avançado estado de resistência aos mais modernos grupos químicos para o controle de R. microplus em Mato Grosso do Sul.


Subject(s)
Animals , Tick Infestations/parasitology , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Drug Resistance , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Acaricides/pharmacology , Phenylurea Compounds/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Brazil , Cattle
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(4): e010520, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144235

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cattle tick fever (CTF) causes significant economic losses in the livestock sector. The pathogenic action of the hemoparasites is associated with anemia, weight loss, abortion and reduced productivity, which result with animal death. Programs to prevent CTF involve several procedures, including immunization, chemoprophylaxis and use of ectoparasiticides, together with the vector control in the environment. The objective of this study was to report an acute outbreak of CTF in a group of 157 Hereford cattle from a farm without presence of the vector, that were moved to a farm in the same state with a high tick infestation (Rhipicephalus microplus). On the day before the transportation, the animals received a chemoprophylaxis with imidocarb dipropionate (3 mg/kg, SC), which was repeated 21 days after the first application. After 42 days, some animals showed signs compatible with CTF, which was confirmed through clinical examination, necropsy, histopathological and hemoparasitological analyses. The morbidity rate was 37.6% and the mortality rate was 24.8%. Calves that were recently weaned were the group most affected with the tick fever, morbidity (100% and mortality (73%). Chemoprophylaxis in association with use of ectoparasiticides was not sufficient to control the outbreak of the disease.


Resumo A "tristeza parasitária bovina" (TPB) gera importantes perdas econômicas na bovinocultura mundial. A ação patogênica dos hemoparasitas resulta em anemia, perda de peso, abortos e diminuição da produtividade, culminando, muitas vezes, em óbito dos animais. Um programa de prevenção para TPB necessita de medidas integradas, como a imunização, quimioprofilaxia e utilização de ectoparasiticidas, em conjunto com ações que visem ao controle ambiental dos vetores. Este artigo tem em vista o relato de um surto de TPB em uma fazenda de produção de bovinos de corte e com alta infestação do carrapato (Rhipicephalus microplus). A fazenda adquiriu 157 animais puros de origem, da raça Hereford, proveniente de uma fazenda sem presença do vetor. No dia anterior ao transporte, os animais receberam quimioprofilaxia com dipropionato de imidocarb (3mg/Kg/SC), repetindo-se 21 dias após a primeira aplicação. Aos 42 dias, alguns bezerros manifestaram sinais clínicos compatíveis com TPB, sendo confirmado pelo exame clínico, necropsia, análises histopatológicas e hemoparasitológicas. A morbidade foi de 37,6% (59/157), e a letalidade de 24,8% (39/157). A categoria de bezerros recém desmamados foi a mais acometida, com morbidade de 100% (52/52) e letalidade de 73% (38/52). A quimioprofilaxia associada à utilização de ectoparasiticidas foram insuficientes para evitar a ocorrência do surto da enfermidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Babesiosis/diagnosis , Babesiosis/prevention & control , Babesiosis/epidemiology , Anaplasmosis/diagnosis , Anaplasmosis/prevention & control , Anaplasmosis/epidemiology , Tick Infestations/prevention & control , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Chemoprevention/veterinary , Rhipicephalus
13.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e019819, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138071

ABSTRACT

Abstract We investigated the in vitro acaricide activity of the methanolic extract (ME) and alkaloid-rich fraction (AF) of Prosopis juliflora on Rhipicephalus microplus and correlated this effect with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. The acaricide activity was evaluated using adult and larval immersion tests. Also, we studied the possible interaction mechanism of the major alkaloids present in this fraction via molecular docking at the active site of R. microplus AChE1 (RmAChE1). Higher reproductive inhibitory activity of the AF was recorded, with effective concentration (EC50) four times lower than that of the ME (31.6 versus 121 mg/mL). The AF caused mortality of tick larvae, with lethal concentration 50% (LC50) of 13.8 mg/mL. Both ME and AF were seen to have anticholinesterase activity on AChE of R. microplus larvae, while AF was more active with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.041 mg/mL. The LC-MS/MS analyses on the AF led to identification of three alkaloids: prosopine (1), juliprosinine (2) and juliprosopine (3). The molecular docking studies revealed that these alkaloids had interactions at the active site of the RmAChE1, mainly relating to hydrogen bonds and cation-pi interactions. We concluded that the alkaloids of P. juliflora showed acaricide activity on R. microplus and acted through an anticholinesterase mechanism.


Resumo A atividade carrapaticida in vitro do extrato metanólico (EM) e da fração de alcaloides (FA) de Prosopis juliflora foi investigada, frente ao Rhipicephalus microplus, e relacionada com a inibição da enzima acetilcolinesterase (AChE). A predição in silico das interações de alcaloides dessa fração com a AChE1 de R. microplus (RmAChE1) foi realizada por acoplamento molecular. A atividade carrapaticida foi avaliada, utilizando-se os ensaios de imersão de adultos e larvas. Maior efeito sobre parâmetros reprodutivos de teleóginas foi verificado para a FA, com valor de Concentração Efetiva 50% (CE50) (31.6 mg/mL), quatro vezes menor do que o valor do EM (121 mg/mL). A FA induziu mortalidade de larvas (Concentração Letal de 50% - CL50 = 13,8 mg/mL). A inibição da atividade da AChE de larvas do carrapato foi observada para EM e FA, sendo a FA mais ativa (Concentração Inibitória 50%- CI50 de 0,041mg/mL). As análises químicas da FA permitiram a identificação dos alcaloides prosopina (1), juliprosinina (2) e juliprosopina (3). No ensaio in silico, observou-se que esses alcaloides podem interagir com o sítio ativo da RmAChE1, principalmente por ligações de hidrogênio e interações cátion-pi. Os alcaloides de P. juliflora têm atividade carrapaticida contra R. microplus, atuando através do mecanismo anticolinesterásico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cholinesterases/metabolism , Prosopis/chemistry , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Rhipicephalus/enzymology , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Chromatography, Liquid , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Acaricides/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Larva
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e000220, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138087

ABSTRACT

Abstract The effects of two different products - Metarril® SP Organic (dry conidia) and Metarril® SC Organic (emulsifiable concentrated conidia in vegetable oil) - on eggs, larvae and Rhipicephalus microplus engorged females were here explored. Three concentrations (108, 107, and 106 conidia mL-1) for both products were prepared in water + 0.1% Tween® 80 (v/v); afterward, bioassays were carried out for all R. microplus stages by immersion in suspensions (Metarril® SP) or formulations (Metarril® SC). Metarril® SP suspensions showed low efficacy and did not affect biological parameters of treated engorged females; for eggs and larvae, only slight decreases in hatchability and larvae population were observed. Despite a delay in germination, Metarril® SC presented better results; for females, reductions in Egg Mass Weight (EMW) and Egg Production Index (EPI) were reported. On eggs, 108 conidia mL-1 increased Incubation Period (IP), shortened Hatching Period (HP) and decreased hatchability by up to 61%; for larvae, 107 and 108 conidia mL-1 reached 99.6 and 100% larval mortality respectively, 10 days after fungal exposure. Thus, further studies involving the use of oil-based formulations for ticks such as Metarril® SC need to be performed, especially to control the most susceptible stages (eggs and larvae).


Resumo No presente trabalho, os efeitos de dois diferentes produtos foram avaliados - Metarril® SP Organic (conídios secos) e Metarril® SC Organic (conídios concentrados em óleo vegetal) - para ovos, larvas e fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus microplus. Três concentrações (108, 107 e 106 conídios mL-1) para cada produto foram preparadas em água + Tween® 80 0,1% (v/v); os bioensaios foram realizados para todos os estágios de R. microplus por imersão nas suspensões (Metarril® SP) ou formulações (Metarril® SC). Metarril® SP não afetou os parâmetros biológicos das fêmeas, demonstrando assim baixa eficácia; para ovos e larvas, foram observadas discretas diminuições na eclodibilidade e na população de larvas. Apesar de um atraso na germinação, Metarril® SC apresentou melhores resultados; para as fêmeas, foram detectadas reduções no Peso da Massa de Ovos (PMO) e no Índice de Produção de Ovos (IPO). Para os ovos, a concentração de 108 conídios mL-1 aumentou o Período de Incubação (PI), reduziu o Período de Eclosão (PE) e também o da eclodibilidade em até 61%; para larvas, 107 e 108 conídios mL-1 atingiram 99,6 e 100% de mortalidade larval, respectivamente, 10 dias após a exposição fúngica. Com isso, estudos adicionais que envolvem o uso de formulações à base de óleo para carrapatos, como Metarril® SC, precisam ser realizados, especialmente para controlar os estágios mais suscetíveis (ovos e larvas).


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pest Control, Biological , Tick Control/methods , Tick Control/standards , Rhipicephalus/microbiology , Metarhizium , Larva
15.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 555-565, nov. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102241

ABSTRACT

Rhipicephalus microplus, is one parasites that cause severe productivity losses in the cattle industry of Brazil and shows increasing resistance to conventional pesticides. This research aims to study the chemical composition, and acaricidal activity of the essential oil from Ocotea notata leaves, a brazilian endemic species, against R. microplus. The effect on R. microplus engorged adult females was evaluated using the immersion test. The oil reduced the survival by 90% after incubation for 15 days and there was 100% reduction for posture inhibition and reproductive capacity. These results suggest that the O. notata essential oil has activity on the R. microplus.


Rhipicephalus microplus, es un parásito que causa graves pérdidas de productividad en la industria ganadera de Brasil y muestra una creciente resistencia a los pesticidas convencionales. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo estudiar la composición química y la actividad acaricida del aceite esencial de las hojas de Ocotea notata, una especie endémica brasileña, contra R. microplus. El efecto sobre las hembras adultas engordadas de R. microplus se evaluó mediante la prueba de inmersión. El aceite redujo la supervivencia en 90% después de la incubación durante 15 días y hubo una reducción del 100% para la inhibición de la postura y la capacidad reproductiva. Estos resultados sugieren que el aceite esencial de O. notata tiene actividad contra R. microplus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Ocotea/chemistry , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Acaricides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Ticks/drug effects , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Tick Control/methods , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Lauraceae/chemistry , Acaricides/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
16.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(11): 879-888, Nov. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1056911

ABSTRACT

Brazil has one of the largest commercial cattle herds in the world, which naturally coexist with an enormous number of parasitic species. Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is among these species, interfering with animal productivity and causing losses to the beef and dairy cattle sector. The use of chemical acaricides in the control of this mite has resulted in the emergence of resistant populations. In this sense, alternative control measures using plants as sources of botanical acaricides have shown to be effective. Eugenia pyriformis Cambess is a Brazilian plant with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity; however, there are no reports on its acaricidal activity in the literature. The present study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal and larvicidal potential of E. pyriformis leaf essential oil (EO) on southern cattle tick at different stages of the reproductive cycle. E. pyriformis leaves were collected and dried, and had their EO extracted by hydrodistillation (3h) using a modified Clevenger apparatus. Chemical analysis was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and 32 compounds belonging to the sesquiterpene class were identified: hydrocarbons (17.98%) and oxygenated forms (81.96%), with spathulenol (43.65%) and caryophyllene oxide (12.17%) as the most common. The EO was evaluated by the Adult Immersion Test at the concentrations (500.00 to 3.12mg/mL) in which the following parameters were measured: mortality of females (%), hatchability of eggs (%), and product efficiency (%). Larvae were assessed by the Larval Packet Test at concentrations ranging from 25.00 to 0.00004mg/mL. Lethal concentrations (LC) required for killing 50 and 99.9% of adult females and larvae were determined using Probit analysis. LC50 and LC99.9 of EO were 0.06 and 24.60mg/mL and 1,208.80 and 2,538mg/mL for larvae and adult females, respectively. Action of the EO in the free-living cycle of R. (B.) microplus larvae was another parameter assessed. To this end, the larvae were deposited in pots containing Brachiaria decumbens and, after migration to the leaf apex, a solution containing LC99.9 (24.60mg/mL) of the EO was sprayed. After 24h, 72.25% of the larvae had died, indicating stability of the EO when subjected to uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions. The mechanism of action through which the EO killed the larvae and adult females was investigated by the Bioautographic Method, which showed inhibition of 3.15mg/mL of the EO on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme. The results found in the present experiment indicate that E. pyriformis essential oil is an alternative in the control of southern cattle tick in the larval (parasitic) and free-living cycle (non-parasitic) stages under field conditions.(AU)


O Brasil dispõe de um dos maiores rebanhos bovinos comerciais do mundo, sendo natural que junto a esse rebanho, coexista uma enorme quantidade de espécies parasitárias; dentre estes o carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus que interfere na produtividade animal, causando prejuízos à pecuária de corte e leite. A utilização de acaricidas químicos no controle deste ácaro tem causado o surgimento de populações resistentes e neste sentido, controles alternativos utilizando plantas como fontes de acaricidas botânicos têm se mostrado eficazes. Eugenia pyriformis Cambess é uma planta brasileira com atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana, entretanto não há relatos da atividade acaricida. O objetivo do presente estudo consistiu na avaliação do potencial acaricida e larvicida do óleo essencial das folhas de E. pyriformis sobre o carrapato bovino nos diferentes estágios do ciclo reprodutivo. As folhas foram coletadas, secas e o OE extraído por hidrodestilação (3 horas) em aparelho Clevenger modificado. A análise química foi realizada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG/EM) sendo identificados 32 compostos, pertencentes à classe sesquiterpenos: hidrocarbonetos (17.98%) e oxigenados (81.96%); tendo como majoritários o spathulenol (43,65%) e caryophylene oxide (12,17%). O OE foi avaliado pelo teste de imersão de adultos nas concentrações (500,00 a 3,12mg/mL) onde foram mensurados os parâmetros: mortalidade das fêmeas (%), eclodibilidade dos ovos (%) e eficiência do produto (%). As larvas foram avaliadas pelo teste de imersão larval (Larval Packet Test) nas concentrações que variaram de 25,00 a 0,00004mg/mL. Foram determinadas as concentrações letais (CLs) necessárias para matar 50 e 99,9% das fêmeas adultas e das larvas utilizando a análise de Probitos. As CL50 e CL99,9 do OE foram (0,06 e 24,60mg/mL) para as larvas e (1.208,80 e 2.538mg/mL) para as fêmeas adultas, respectivamente. Outro parâmetro avaliado em nossa pesquisa foi mensurar a ação do OE no ciclo de vida livre das larvas de R.(B.) microplus; onde as larvas foram depositadas em vasos com Brachiaria decumbens e após migração destas para o ápice das folhas, foi aspergido solução contendo a CL99,9 (24,60mg/mL) do OE. Após 24 horas, 72,25% das larvas morreram indicando que houve estabilidade do OE quando submetido a condições de temperatura e umidade não controladas. O mecanismo de ação pelo qual o OE matou as larvas e fêmeas adultas foi investigado pelo método bioautográfico, indicando uma inibição de 3,15mg/mL do óleo essencial sobre a enzima acetilcolinesterase (AChE). Os resultados encontrados no presente experimento indicaram que o óleo essencial de E. pyriformis é uma alternativa no controle do carrapato bovino no estágio larval (parasitário) e no ciclo de vida livre (estágio não parasitário) em condições de campo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Rhipicephalus , Larvicides , Acaricides , Eugenia , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use
17.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 360-366, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042528

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mycoplasma ovis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen with a worldwide distribution and can cause mild to severe hemolytic anemia, icterus, and poor weight gain in animals. Although M. ovis has been described in small ruminants worldwide, data on M. ovis in sheep in Brazil is unknown. The objective of the present study was to present the first report of hemotropic mycoplasma (HM) in sheep from Brazil. We evaluated factors associated with this infection, such age group, tick presence, and anemia. Blood samples were collected from 33 sheep from a farm in southern Brazil and screened for hemoplasmas using PCR. Out of 33 samples, 26 (78.8%) tested positive for M. ovis. The sequencing of positive samples showed 100% identity with multiple M. ovis 16S rDNA sequences. No association was observed between the presence of M. ovis and the FAMACHA© score (p = 0.620). Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (15/33, 45.4%) was the tick species found on the animals. No significant association between M. ovis infection and presence of ticks (p = 0.4134) and age group (p = 0.4221) was observed. This is the first report of M. ovis infection in sheep from Brazil and only the second report of this pathogen in sheep in Latin America.


Resumo Mycoplasma ovis é um patógeno zoonótico emergente com distribuição mundial e pode causar anemia hemolítica de leve a grave, icterícia e baixo ganho de peso em animais. Embora M. ovis tenha sido descrito em pequenos ruminantes em todo o mundo, os dados sobre M. ovis em ovinos no Brasil são desconhecidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar o primeiro relato de micoplasmas hemotrópicos em ovinos no Brasil. Avaliamos os fatores associados a essa infecção, como faixa etária, presença de carrapatos e anemia. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de 33 ovelhas de uma fazenda no sul do Brasil e testadas para hemoplasmas usando a PCR. Das 33 amostras, 26 (78,8%) apresentaram resultado positivo. O sequenciamento das amostras positivas mostrou 100% de identidade com múltiplas sequências de M. ovis 16S rDNA. Não foi observada associação entre a presença de M. ovis e o escore FAMACHA© (p = 0,620). Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (15/33, 45,4%) foi a espécie de carrapato encontrada nos animais. Não houve associação significativa entre infecção por M. ovis e presença de carrapatos (p = 0,4134) e faixa etária (p = 0,4221). Este é o primeiro relato de infecção por M. ovis em ovinos no Brasil e o segundo relato deste patógeno em ovinos na América Latina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Sheep Diseases/microbiology , Mycoplasma/classification , Mycoplasma Infections/veterinary , Phylogeny , Sheep Diseases/diagnosis , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Sheep , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Rhipicephalus/microbiology , Mycoplasma/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma/genetics , Mycoplasma Infections/diagnosis , Mycoplasma Infections/epidemiology
18.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 56(3): e157595, out. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1046823

ABSTRACT

Tick infestation causes major problems in cattle. Tick parasitism accounts for significant economic losses in many beef and dairy herds in the vast majority of the states in the Brazilian territory including the State of Santa Catarina in the southern region of the country. Tick resistance to several active principles occurs due to a number of factors including the indiscriminate, injudicious and inadequate use of tick insecticides. Considering the great importance of fighting off tick infestations in cattle, we evaluated the efficiency of 8 different topical active principles against the ixodid tick R. microplus and identified the main factors that contribute to the development of ticks that are resistant to acaricides in the farms and bovine herds studied. For such purpose, R. microplus telegionae were collected in 39 farms locates in different municipalities of the West of Santa Catarina, south Brazil. At the time of sample collection, information about the management, the history of the acar used in the herd, the number of annual applications of these pesticides, the frequency of acaricide rotation, and the frequency of technical monitoring for strategic tick control were retrieved. We collected this data in order determine contributing factors to the development resistant R. microplus populations. For the sensitivity profile of these ticks to a number of different acaricides tested, 10 engorged females for each principle and a control were used. The results of our study show that most associations between pyrethroids and organophosphates had an efficiency between 96.6% and 100% in the control of R. microplus except for the combination of Alfacipermetrine 15%, Ethion 16%, and Chlorpyrifos 8.5% that had 93.4% of efficiency. Among the chemicals not associated with any other type of compound, Amitraz 12.5% ​​was effective in 98.3% of the cases. In contrast, Cypermethrin 15% had an efficiency in only 25.8% of the farms/herds analyzed. Based on the results of the present study, we may infer that the methods of control and management used by producers may be related to the low indexes of resistance to topical acaricides in the different populations of ticks in the study area.


A infestação por carrapatos em bovinos gera grandes problemas, sendo esse parasito responsável por elevados prejuízos econômicos em diversos rebanhos de produção de corte e também de leite na maioria das regiões brasileiras, inclusive em Santa Catarina. A resistência dos carrapatos frente aos diversos princípios ativos pode ser decorrente de fatores como o uso indiscriminado de carrapaticidas, bem como a inadequada forma de aplicação dos mesmos. Tendo em vista a grande importância em combater essas infestações, buscou-se avaliar a eficiência de oito diferentes princípios ativos de contato contra o carrapato Rhipicephalus microplus, bem como identificar os principais fatores que possam contribuir com a seleção de carrapatos resistentes nas propriedades avaliadas. Para isso, teleóginas de R. microplus foram coletadas em 39 propriedades de diferentes municípios do Oeste de Santa Catarina. No momento da coleta também foram obtidas informações referentes ao sistema de manejo dos animais, histórico dos carrapaticidas utilizados, número de aplicações anuais, frequência de rodízios de acaricidas, e frequência de acompanhamento técnico para controle estratégico, com a finalidade de evidenciar os diferentes fatores que possam estar contribuindo para o surgimento de eventual resistência das populações do R. microplus. A avaliação de suscetibilidade foi realizada através da técnica de biocarrapaticidograma, utilizando 10 teleóginas ingurgitadas para cada princípio e mais o controle. Dentre os principais resultados obtidos, a maioria das associações entre piretróides e organofosforados demonstraram ter eficiência entre 96,6% e 100%, com exceção da associação de Alfacipermetrina 15%, Ethion 16% e Clorpirifós 8,5% com 93,4% de eficiência. Dentre as bases químicas sem nenhum tipo de associação o Amitraz 12,5% demonstrou ser eficaz em 98,3%, em contrapartida a Cipermetrina 15% teve eficiência em apenas 25,8% das propriedades analisadas. A partir dos resultados obtidos, pode se afirmar que as formas de controle e manejo adotados pelos produtores podem estar relacionadas com os baixos índices de resistência aos carrapaticidas de contato, nas diferentes populações de carrapato na região do estudo.


Subject(s)
R Factors , Rhipicephalus/immunology , Acaricides/administration & dosage
19.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(4): 545-554, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977929

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study involved two field trials with the aim of evaluating the efficacy of diflubenzuron, via mineral supplementation, against Haematobia irritans parasitizing cattle. Concomitantly with the main trial, a stall test was conducted to ascertain the effects of a different formulation with the same active ingredient against Rhipicephalus microplus, along with the action of diflubenzuron on the reproductive parameters of R. microplusfemales that had naturally detached from cattle. Against H. irritans, it was observed that the efficacy indexes fordiflubenzuron were low (≤ 31.3% or 44.6%) or null (0.0%) throughout the study. The anti- R. microplus efficacy of diflubenzuron, at weekly intervals, ranged from 0.0 to 13.7% over the entire experimental period. Null efficacy (0.0%) was registered for diflubenzuron in relation to the reproductive parameters of R. microplusfemales that had naturally detached from cattle. The different diflubenzuron formulations, administered via mineral salt supplementation, did not show satisfactory efficacy indexes against H. irritans and R. microplus parasitizing cattle, within the experimental design of the present study. In addition, this agent did not present any deleterious effects on the reproductive parameters of R. microplus females.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do diflubenzuron, administrado via suplementação mineral, contra Haematobia irritans parasitando bovinos, em dois testes à campo. Concomitantemente, foi realizado testes em estábulo para determinar os efeitos de uma formulação diferente, com o mesmo princípio ativo, contra Rhipicephalus microplus , bem como a ação do diflubenzuron nos parâmetros reprodutivos de fêmeas de R. microplus recolhidas após desprendimento natural do hospedeiro bovino. Contra H. irritans, foi observado que foram baixos (≤ 31,3% ou 44,6%) ou nulos (0,0%) os índices de eficácia do diflubenzuron. A eficácia anti-R. microplus do diflubenzuron, observada em intervalos semanais, variaram de 0,0% a 13,7% durante todo o período experimental. Com relação aos parâmetros reprodutivos das fêmeas de R. microplus recolhidas, foi observada eficácia nula (0,0%) para o diflubenzuron. Conclui-se que as diferentes formulações administradas via sal mineral no atual estudo, contra H. irritans e R. microplus parasitando bovinos, não apresentaram eficácia satisfatória. Este agente também não mostrou efeito deletério sobre os parâmetros reprodutivos de fêmeas de R. microplus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Muscidae/drug effects , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Diflubenzuron/administration & dosage , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Tick Infestations/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Dietary Supplements , Ectoparasitic Infestations/drug therapy
20.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(4): 555-561, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977923

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to perform a morphological, molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Borrelia theileri obtained from infected Rhipicephalus microplus in Brazil. Fifty engorged R. microplus females from cattle in the municipality of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, were analyzed for spirochetes by hemolymph smear. Macerated eggs and positive ticks, as well as blood from the bovine infested by these ticks, were analyzed the glpQ, flaB and hpt genes by PCR. The PCR products were purified and sequenced for analysis and construction of a phylogenetic tree. Only 2% (1/50) of the ticks generated a positive result by both smear and PCR. The spiral forms (n = 50) had (media ± SD) a mean length of 19.17 ± 4.12 µm, diameter of 0.2935 ± 0.0469 and number of turns 8.44 ± 2.59. Sequence alignments of the three evaluated genes exhibited 98% similarity to B. theileri isolates, occurring in a clade highly related to B. theileri strain KAT. Egg maceration samples were positive for the three evaluated genes, whereas bovine blood was negative by PCR. This is the most detailed characterization of B. theileri in the Americas to-date, presenting morphological, molecular and phylogenetic data, including the transovarial transmission of the spirochete in the host tick.


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo realizar a caracterização morfológica, molecular e filogenética de Borrelia theileri obtida de Rhipicephalus microplus naturalmente infectado em bovino no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Um total de 50 fêmeas de R. microplus ingurgitadas foram analisadas para espiroquetas por meio de esfregaço de hemolinfa. Ovos macerados e carrapatos, assim como sangue de bovinos infectados por esses carrapatos, foram analisados os genes glpQ, flaB e hpt por PCR. Os produtos de PCR foram purificados e sequenciados para análise e construção de uma árvore filogenética. Apenas 2% (1/50) dos carrapatos geraram um resultado positivo tanto pelo esfregaço como pela PCR. As formas espirais (n = 50) apresentaram (média ± DP) comprimento médio de 19,17 ± 4,12, diâmetro de 0,2935 ± 0,0469 e número de voltas de 8,44 ± 2,59. Os alinhamentos das sequências dos três genes avaliados exibiram 98% de similaridade aos isolados de B. theileri, ocorrendo em um clado altamente relacionado à linhagem de B. theileri KAT. As amostras de maceração de ovos foram positivas para os três genes avaliados, enquanto o sangue bovino foi negativo pela PCR. Esta é a mais completa caracterização de B. theileri nas Américas, apresentando dados morfológicos, moleculares e filogenéticos, incluindo a transmissão transovarial da espiroqueta no carrapato hospedeiro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Borrelia/genetics , Rhipicephalus/microbiology , Phylogeny , Borrelia/isolation & purification , Cattle/parasitology , Polymerase Chain Reaction
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