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1.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 789-800, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010990

ABSTRACT

Five new saponins, including three steroid saponins, paristenoids A-C (1-3), and two triterpenoid saponins, paristenoids D-E (4-5), along with four known ones (6-9) were isolated from the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. stenophylla. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified mainly by detailed spectroscopic analysis, including extensive 1D and 2D NMR, MS, as well as chemical methods. Compound 3 is a new cyclocholestanol-type steroidal saponin with a rare 6/6/6/5/5 fused-rings cholestanol skeleton, and this skeleton has been first found from the genus Paris. The cytotoxicities of the isolated compounds against three human three glioma cell lines (U87MG, U251MG and SHG44) were evaluated, and compound 7 displayed certain inhibitory effect with IC50 values of 15.22 ± 1.73, 18.87 ± 1.81 and 17.64 ± 1.69 μmol·L-1, respectively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rhizome/chemistry , Steroids/chemistry , Liliaceae/chemistry , Saponins/chemistry , Triterpenes/analysis
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5003-5013, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008670

ABSTRACT

In this study, CM-5 spectrophotometer and Heracles NEO ultra-fast gas-phase electronic nose were used to analyze the changes in color and odor of vinegar-processed Cyperi Rhizoma(VPCR) pieces. Various analysis methods such as DFA and partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) were combined to identify different processing degrees and quantify the end point of processing. The results showed that with the increase in vinegar processing, the brightness parameter L~* of VPCR pieces decreased gradua-lly, while the red-green value a~* and yellow-blue value b~* initially increased and reached their maximum at 8 min of processing, followed by a gradual decrease. A discriminant model based on the color parameters L~*, a~*, and b~* was established(with a discrimination accuracy of 98.5%), which effectively differentiated different degrees of VPCR pieces. Using the electronic nose, 26 odor components were identified from VPCR samples at different degrees of vinegar processing. DFA and PLS-DA models were established for different degrees of VPCR pieces. The results showed that the 8-min processed samples were significantly distinct from other samples. Based on variable importance in projection(VIP) value greater than 1, 10 odor components, including 3-methylfuran, 2-methylbuty-raldehyde, 2-methylpropionic acid, furfural, and α-pinene, were selected as odor markers for differentiating the degrees of vinegar processing in VPCR. By combining the changes in color and the characteristic odor components, the optimal processing time for VPCR was determined to be 8 min. This study provided a scientific basis for the standardization of vinegar processing techniques for VPCR and the improvement of its quality standards and also offered new methods and ideas for the rapid identification and quality control of the end point of processing for other traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Rhizome/chemistry , Quality Control , Electronics
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4942-4949, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008663

ABSTRACT

Root rot is a microbial disease that is difficult to control and can result in serious losses in the planting of most Chinese medicinal materials. As high as 87.6% of roots or rhizomes of Chinese medicinal materials are susceptible to root rot, which seriously affects the cultivation development of Chinese medicinal materials. Trichoderma fungi, possessing biological control functions, can induce plants to improve their resistance to microbial diseases, promote plant growth, and effectively reduce the losses caused by various microbial diseases on cultivation. At present, Trichoderma is rarely used in the cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials, so it has great application potential for the prevention and control of root rot diseases in farmed Chinese medicinal materials. Based on the above situation, after comparison and discussion, it is believed that compared with chemical control and physical control, biological control of root rot diseases of Chinese medicinal materials is more efficient and meets the development needs of Chinese medicinal materials ecological planting in China. This paper reviewed the progress in the research and application of Trichoderma in the control of root rot diseases in the root and rhizome of farmed Chinese medicinal materials in the past 10 years and found that most of the current research on the biological control of root rot diseases in Chinese medicinal materials was mostly limited to the verification of the inhibitory effect of Trichoderma strains on the growth of the pathogenic microbes. Studies on the induction effect of Trichoderma on Chinese medicinal materials are not in depth. Studies on the responding mechanisms of most Chinese medicinal materials to Trichoderma are highly absent. Moreover, there are few reports on field experiments, which indicates that there is a long way to go before Trichoderma is widely applied in the farming practice of Chinese medicinal materials. To sum up, this paper aimed to link the present and the future and advocated further relevant research and more experiments on the application of Trichoderma in the farming of Chinese medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Farms , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Rhizome , Trichoderma
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4789-4797, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008646

ABSTRACT

This study aims to objectively and quantitatively analyze the research status and hot spots of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and provide guidance for further research and clinical application of this herbal medicine. Firstly, the research articles involving Chuanxiong Rhizoma from 2010 to 2023 were retrieved from seven databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Medline, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, and SinoMed. Then, NoteExpress and manual reading were employed to complete the de-duplication and screening of the articles, and the annual number of publications and journals was analyzed. Finally, CiteSpace was used for systematic analysis of the research institutions, authors, and keywords, and the corresponding knowledge maps were established. After screening, 1 137 articles in Chinese and 433 articles in English were included, and the annual number of publications showed an increasing trend. Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae and Journal of Ethnopharmacology were the top Chinese and English journal in the number of publications. Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine published the most articles in Chinese and English, respectively. PENG Cheng and FENG Yi were the authors published more articles in Chinese and English. Ferulic acid, signaling pathway, mechanism, headache, ligustrazine, and apoptosis were frequent keywords. A total of 20 clusters and 30 bursts were generated. The comprehensive analysis showed that the research trends and hot spots in this field mainly focused on pharmacological components and isolation, pharmacological effects and mechanism, clinical application and efficacy, compatibility and efficacy of drug pairs, quality evaluation and control, and cultivation and germplasm improvement.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Rhizome , Publications , Medicine
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4589-4597, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008626

ABSTRACT

The shortage of Paridis Rhizoma promotes comprehensive utilization and development research of waste aerial parts of the original plant. The chemical compositions of the aerial parts of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis were clarified based on the ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupoles time of flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) in the previous investigation, and a series of flavonoids and steroidal saponins were isolated. The present study continued the isolation and structure identification of the new potential compounds discovered based on UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. By using silica gel, ODS, flash rapid preparation, and other column chromatography techniques, combined with prepared high performance liquid chromatography, five compounds were isolated from the 75% ethanol extract of the aerial parts of P. polyphylla var. chinensis, and their structures were identified by spectral data combined with chemical transformations, respectively, as(23S,25R)-23,27-dihydroxy-diosgenin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranoside(1),(25R)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-furost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside(2),(25R)-27-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5-en-3β,27-dihydroxyspirost-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside(3),(25R)-27-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5-en-3β,27-dihydroxyspirost-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranoside(4), and aculeatiside A(5). Among them, compounds 1-4 were new ones, and compound 5 was isolated from P. polyphylla var. chinensis for the first time.


Subject(s)
Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Saponins/analysis , Liliaceae/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Rhizome/chemistry , Melanthiaceae , Molecular Structure
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3125-3131, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981447

ABSTRACT

Dao-di medicinal materials produced in a specific environment always present excellent appearance and high quality. Because of the unique appearance, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma is regarded as a paradigm in the research on excellent appearance. This paper systematically summarized the research progress in the genetic and environmental factors influencing the formation of the excellent appearance of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, aiming to provide reference for the quality improvement of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and the scientific connotation of Dao-di Chinese medicinal materials. The Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma with high quality generally has a robust and long rhizome, a large angle between branch roots, and the simultaneous presence of a robust basal part of rhizome, adventitious roots, rhizome bark with circular wrinkles, and fibrous roots with pearl points. The cultivated and wild Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma have significant differences in the appearance and no significant difference in the population genetic diversity. The differences in the appearance are associated with cell wall modification, transcriptional regulation of genes involved in plant hormone transduction, DNA methylation, and miRNA regulation. The rhizosphere soil microorganisms including Fusarium and Alternaria, as well as the endophytes Trichoderma hamatum and Nectria haematococca, may be the key microorganisms affecting the growth and development of Panax ginseng. Cultivation mode, variety, and root exudates may be the main factors influencing the stability of rhizosphere microbial community. Ginsenosides may be involved in the formation of the excellent appearance. However, most of the available studies focus on the partial or single factors in the formation of Dao-di medicinal materials, ignoring the relationship within the complex ecosystems, which limits the research on the formation mechanism of Dao-di medicinal materials. In the future, the experimental models for the research involving genetic and environmental factors should be established and mutant materials should be developed to clarify the internal relationship between factors and provide scientific support for the research on Dao-di medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Alternaria , Microbiota , Panax/genetics , Rhizome
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2981-2988, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981430

ABSTRACT

Paris rugosa(Melanthiaceae) only grows in Yunnan province of China at present, and its chemical constituents have not been systematically studied. In this study, nine compounds, including one new compound pariposide G(1) and eight known compounds of cerin(2), stigmast-4-en-3-one(3), β-ecdysone(4), ophiopogonin C'(5), methyl protogracillin(6), gracillin(7), parissaponin H(8), and parisyunnanoside G(9), were isolated and identified from the ethanol extract of P. rugosa rhizomes by column chromatography methods and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Compounds 1-9 were isolated from this plant for the first time. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of all the compounds were evaluated. The results showed that ophiopogonin C' had strong inhibitory effects on Candida albicans [MIC_(90)=(4.68±0.01) μmol·L~(-1)] and the fluconazole-resistant strain of C. albicans [MIC_(90)=(4.66±0.02) μmol·L~(-1)].


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Candida albicans , China , Liliaceae , Melanthiaceae , Rhizome
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1858-1865, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981404

ABSTRACT

To optimize the extraction process of Chuanxiong Rhizoma-Gastrodiae Rhizoma herb pair by network pharmacology combined with analytic hierarchy process(AHP)-entropy weight method and multi-index orthogonal test. The potential active components and targets of Chuanxiong Rhizoma-Gastrodiae Rhizoma were screened by network pharmacology and molecular docking, and the process evaluation indexes were determined with reference to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). The core components of Chuanxiong Rhizoma-Gastrodiae Rhizoma were determined as gastrodin, parishin B, parishin C, parishin E, ferulic acid, and 3-butylphthalide. With the extraction volume of each indicator and yield of dry extract as comprehensive evaluation indicators, the extraction conditions were optimized by the AHP-entropy weight method and orthogonal test as the ethanol volume of 50%, the solid-liquid ratio of 1∶8(g·mL~(-1)), extraction for three times, and 1.5 h each time. Through network pharmacology and molecular docking, the process evaluation index was determined, and the optimized process was stable and reproducible for the extraction of Chuanxiong Rhizoma-Gastrodiae Rhizoma herb pair, which could provide reference for in-depth research.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Network Pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Rhizome
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2781-2791, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981381

ABSTRACT

Rosae Radix et Rhizoma is a herbal medicine in a variety of famous Chinese patent medicines, while the quality standard for this medicine remains to be developed due to the insufficient research on the quality of Rosae Radix et Rhizoma from different sources. Therefore, this study comprehensively analyzed the components in Rosae Radix et Rhizoma of different sources from the aspects of extract, component category content, identification based on thin-lay chromatography, active component content determination, and fingerprint, so as to improve the quality control. The results showed that the content of chemical components varied in the samples of different sources, while there was little difference in the chemical composition among the samples. The content of components in the roots of Rosa laevigata was higher than that in the other two species, and the content of components in the roots was higher than that in the stems. The fingerprints of triterpenoids and non-triterpenoids were established, and the content of five main triterpenoids including multiflorin, rosamultin, myrianthic acid, rosolic acid, and tormentic acid in Rosae Radix et Rhizoma was determined. The results were consistent with those of major component categories. In conclusion, the quality of Rosae Radix et Rhizoma is associated with the plant species, producing area, and medicinal parts. The method established in this study lays a foundation for improving the quality standard of Rosae Radix et Rhizoma and provides data support for the rational use of the stem.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Rhizome/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Quality Control
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2086-2091, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981340

ABSTRACT

We explored the correlations between the color difference values [ΔL~*(lightness), Δa~*(red-green), Δb~*(yellow-blue)] and the content of four active components(including sesquiterpenoids and polyacetylenes) in the powder of Atractylodes lancea and A. chinensis, aiming to provide reference for the quality evaluation of Atractylodis Rhizoma and establish a qualitative model that can distinguish between A. lancea and A. chinensis based on the chromatic values. The tristimulus values(L~*, a~*, and b~*) of 23 batches of A. lancea and A. chinensis were measured by a color difference meter. The content of atractylenolide Ⅱ, β-eudesmol, atractylodin, and atractylone in the 23 batches of samples were measured by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Principal component analysis(PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) were performed to establish the qualitative models for distinguishing between A. lancea and A. chinensis. SPSS was employed to analyze the correlations between the tristimulus values and the content of the four index components. The results showed that the established PCA and PLS-DA models can divide the A. lancea and A. chinensis samples into two regions, and the tristimulus values of A. lancea and A. chinensis were positively correlated with the content of β-eudesmol and atractylodin. Therefore, the PCA and PLS-DA models can successfully identify A. lancea and A. chinensis, and the appearance color can be used to quickly predict the internal quality of Atractylodis Rhizoma. This study provides a reference for the quality evaluation of Atractylodis Rhizoma and the modern research on the color of Chinese medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Atractylodes , Sesquiterpenes, Eudesmane , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Rhizome , Excipients
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2455-2463, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981321

ABSTRACT

This study explored toxicity attenuation processing technology of Rhizoma Dioscoreae Bulbiferae stir-fried with Paeoniae Radix Alba decoction for the first time, and further explored its detoxification mechanism. Nine processed products of Rhizoma Dioscoreae Bulbiferae stir-fried with Paeoniae Radix Alba decoction were prepared by orthogonal experiment with three factors and three levels. Based on the decrease in the content of the main hepatotoxic component diosbulbin B before and after processing of Rhizoma Dioscoreae Bulbiferae by high-performance liquid chromatography, the toxicity attenuation technology was preliminarily screened out. On this basis, the raw and representative processed products of Rhizoma Dioscoreae Bulbiferae were given to mice by gavage with 2 g·kg~(-1)(equival to clinical equivalent dose) for 21 d. The serum and liver tissues were collected after the last administration for 24 h. The serum biochemical indexes reflecting liver function and liver histopathology were combined to further screen out and verify the proces-sing technology. Then, the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant indexes of liver tissue were detected by kit method, and the expressions of NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1) and glutamate-cysteine ligase(GCLM) in mice liver were detected by Western blot to further explore detoxification mechanism. The results showed that the processed products of Rhizoma Dioscoreae Bulbiferae stir-fried with Paeoniae Radix Alba decoction reduced the content of diosbulbin B and improved the liver injury induced by Rhizoma Dioscoreae Bul-biferae to varying degrees, and the processing technology of A_2B_2C_3 reduced the excessive levels of alanine transaminase(ALT) and aspartate transaminase(AST) induced by raw Rhizoma Dioscoreae Bulbiferae by 50.2% and 42.4%, respectively(P<0.01, P<0.01). The processed products of Rhizoma Dioscoreae Bulbiferae stir-fried with Paeoniae Radix Alba decoction reversed the decrease protein expression levels of NQO1 and GCLM in the liver of mice induced by raw Rhizoma Dioscoreae Bulbiferae to varying degrees(P<0.05 or P<0.01), and it also reversed the increasing level of malondialdehyde(MDA) and the decreasing levels of glutathione(GSH), glutathione peroxidase(GPX), and glutathione S-transferase(GST) in the liver of mice(P<0.05 or P<0.01). In summary, this study shows that the optimal toxicity attenuation processing technology of Rhizoma Dioscoreae Bulbiferae stir-fried with Paeoniae Radix Alba decoction is A_2B_2C_3, that is, 10% of Paeoniae Radix Alba decoction is used for moistening Rhizoma Dioscoreae Bulbiferae and processed at 130 ℃ for 11 min. The detoxification mechanism involves enhancing the expression levels of NQO1 and GCLM antio-xidant proteins and related antioxidant enzymes in the liver.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Antioxidants/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Rhizome/chemistry , Paeonia/chemistry , Glutathione/analysis
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6408-6413, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008840

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents of Helleborus thibetanus were isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 gel column chromatography, and semi-preparative RP-HPLC, and the structures of all compounds were identified by modern spectrographic technology(MS, NMR). The MTT method was used to measure the cytotoxicity of compounds 1-8. Twelve compounds were isolated from the roots and rhizomes of H. thibetanus and were identified as(25R)-22β,25-expoxy-26-[(O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-1β,3β-dihydroxyfurosta-5-en(1), β-sitosterol myristate(2), β-sitosterol lactate(3), β-sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyrannoside(4), 4,6,8-trihydroxy-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-one(5), 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene(6), 7,8-dimethylbenzo pteridine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione(7), 1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid(8), p-hydroxy cinnamic acid(9), lauric acid(10), n-butyl α-L-arabinofuranoside(11) and methyl-α-D-fructofuranoside(12), respectively. Among them, compound 1 is a new compound and named thibetanoside L; compounds 2, 5-8, 11 are first isolated from the family Ranunculaceae; compound 12 is isolated from the genus Helleborus for the first time. The results of MTT assay showed that the IC_(50) values of compounds 1-8 against HepG2 and HCT116 cells were greater than 100 μmol·L~(-1).


Subject(s)
Helleborus/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Plant Roots/chemistry , Rhizome/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6225-6233, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008821

ABSTRACT

This study aims to mine the regularity of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) prescriptions for sick sinus syndrome(SSS) and provide a reference for clinical syndrome differentiation and treatment. The relevant papers were retrieved from CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, and SinoMed with the time interval from inception to January 31, 2023. The relevant information from qualified papers was extracted to establish a library. Lantern 5.0 and Rstudio were used to analyze the latent structure and association rules of TCMs with the frequency ≥3%, which combined with frequency descriptions, were used to explore the rules of TCM prescriptions for SSS. A total of 192 TCM prescriptions were included, involving 115 TCMs with the cumulative frequency of 1 816. High-frequency TCMs include Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Astragali Radix, and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. The high-frequency medicines mainly had the effects of tonifying, releasing exterior with pungent-warm, and activating blood and resolving stasis. The analysis of the latent structure model yielded 13 hidden variables, 26 hidden classes, 8 comprehensive cluster models, and 21 core prescriptions. Accordingly, the common syndromes of SSS were inferred as heart-Yang Qi deficiency, heart-spleen Yang deficiency, heart-kidney Yang deficiency, Yang deficiency and blood stasis, both Qi and Yin deficiency and blood stasis, and Yin and Yang deficiency. The analysis of association rules predicted 30 strong association rules, among which Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata had the highest support. SSS is a syndrome with Yang deficiency and Qi deficiency as the root causes and cold, phlegm, and stasis as the manifestations. The clinical treatment of SSS should focus on warming Yang and replenishing Qi, which should be supplemented with the therapies of activating blood and resolving stasis, warming interior and dissipating cold, or regulating Qi movement for resolving phlegm according to the patients' syndromes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sick Sinus Syndrome/drug therapy , Yang Deficiency/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Prescriptions , Rhizome/chemistry , Aconitum , Panax
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5498-5508, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008746

ABSTRACT

In order to solve the problem of weak correlation between quality control components and efficacy of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, this study detected the interaction between small molecular chemical components of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and total proteins of various organs of mice by fluorescence quenching method to screen potential active components. The 27 chemical components in Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were detected by HPLC and their deletion rates in 34 batches of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were calculated. Combined with the principle of component effectiveness and measurability, the potential quality markers(Q-markers) of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were screened. RAW264.7 macrophage injury model was induced by microplastics. The cell viability and nitric oxide content were detected by CCK-8 and Griess methods. The levels of inflammatory factors(TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, CRP) and oxidative stress markers(SOD, MDA, GSH) were detected by the ELISA method to verify the activity of Q-markers. It was found that the interaction strength between different chemical components and organ proteins in Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma was different, reflecting different organ selectivity and 18 active components were screened out. Combined with the signal-to-noise ratio of the HPLC chromatographic peaks and between-run stability of the components, seven chemical components such as liquiritin apioside, liquiritin, isoliquiritin apioside, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin and ammonium glycyrrhizinate were finally screened as potential Q-markers of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. In vitro experiments showed that Q-markers of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma could dose-dependently alleviate RAW264.7 cell damage induced by microplastics, inhibit the secretion of inflammatory factors, and reduce oxidative stress. Under the same total dose, the combination of various chemical components could synergistically enhance anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects compared with the single use. This study identified Q-markers related to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, which can provide a reference for improving the quality control standards of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Antioxidants/analysis , Microplastics/analysis , Plastics/analysis , Rhizome/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Glycyrrhiza/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/analysis
15.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 65-80, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971665

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had caused a global pandemic since 2019, and posed a serious threat to global health security. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played an indispensable role in the battle against the epidemic. Many components originated from TCMs were found to inhibit the production of SARS-CoV-2 3C-like protease (3CLpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro), which are two promising therapeutic targets to inhibit SARS-CoV-2. This study describes a systematic investigation of the roots and rhizomes of Sophora tonkinensis, which results in the characterization of 12 new flavonoids, including seven prenylated flavanones (1-7), one prenylated flavonol (8), two prenylated chalcones (9-10), one isoflavanone (11), and one isoflavan dimer (12), together with 43 known compounds (13-55). Their structures including the absolute configurations were elucidated by comprehensive analysis of MS, 1D and 2D NMR data, and time-dependent density functional theory electronic circular dichroism (TDDFT ECD) calculations. Compounds 12 and 51 exhibited inhibitory effects against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro with IC50 values of 34.89 and 19.88 μmol·L-1, repectively while compounds 9, 43 and 47 exhibited inhibitory effects against PLpro with IC50 values of 32.67, 79.38, and 16.74 μmol·L-1, respectively.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Rhizome , COVID-19 , Peptide Hydrolases , Antiviral Agents/chemistry
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1212-1217, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970592

ABSTRACT

Rhizome rot is one of the main disease in the cultivation of Polygonatum cyrtonema, and it is also a global disease which seriously occurs on the perennial medicinal plants such as Panax notoginseng and P. ginseng. There is no effective control method at present. To identify the effects of three biocontrol microbes(Penicillium oxalicum QZ8, Trichoderma asperellum QZ2, and Brevibacillus amyloliquefaciens WK1) on the pathogens causing rhizome rot of P. cyrtonema, this study verified six suspected pathogens for their pathogenicity on P. cyrtonema. The result showed that Fusarium sp. HJ4, Colletotrichum sp. HJ4-1, and Phomopsis sp. HJ15 were the pathogens of rhizome rot of P. cyrtonema, and it was found for the first time that Phomopsis sp. could cause rhizome rot P. cyrtonema. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of biocontrol microbes and their secondary metabolites on three pathogens were determined by confrontation culture. The results showed that the three tested biocontrol microbes significantly inhibited the growth of three pathogens. Moreover, the secondary metabolites of T. asperellum QZ2 and B. amyloliquefaciens WK1 showed significant inhibition against the three pathogens(P<0.05), and the effect of B. amyloliquefaciens WK1 sterile filtrate was significantly higher than that of high tempe-rature sterilized filtrate(P<0.05). B. amyloliquefaciens WK1 produced antibacterial metabolites to inhibit the growth of pathogens, and the growth inhibition rate of its sterile filtrate against three pathogens ranged from 87.84% to 93.14%. T. asperellum QZ2 inhibited the growth of pathogens through competition and antagonism, and P. oxalicum QZ8 exerted the inhibitory effect through competition. The research provides new ideas for the prevention and treatment of rhizome rot of P. cyrtonema and provides a basis for the di-sease control in other crops.


Subject(s)
Polygonatum , Rhizome
17.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(10): e20210372, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364722

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the chemical profiles and evaluated the inhibitory effect against 5-Lipoxygenase (5-Lox) activity for extracts of ginger rhizome, callus, and callus treated with the elicitors; yeast extract (100, 300 and 500 mg/L), glycine (100, 200 and 300 mg/L) and salicylic acid (100 and 200 mg/L). Oils and chloroform: methanol (CM) extracts were prepared by maceration in petroleum ether and CM (1:1, v/v), respectively. Chemical profiles were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Oil of the callus recorded higher 5-Lox inhibitory effect (IC50 58.33±4.66 µg/mL) than the oil of rhizome (IC50168.34±15.64 µg/mL) and comparable to that of the positive control; Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (IC50 61.25±1.02 µg/mL). The chemical profile of the callus oil contained large amounts of fatty acids, mainly the unsaturated fatty acid oleic acid (31.11%) and saturated fatty acid palmitic acid (28.56%). Elicitors modified the chemical profile of the callus and ameliorated the anti-5-Lox activity of CM extract of the callus. CM extracts of callus treated with 100 and 300 mg/L yeast extract and 50 mg/L salicylic acid significantly suppressed (P ≤ 0.05) the 5-Lox activity by 33.16%, 25.46% and 16%, respectively as compared to the CM extract of untreated callus. In conclusion, ginger callus could be considered as a valuable dietary supplement in the treatment of various inflammatory disorders.


O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar os perfis químicos e avaliar o efeito inibitório da atividade da 5-Lipoxigenase (5-Lox) em extratos de rizoma, calo e calo de gengibre tratados com os eliciadores; extrato de levedura (100, 300 e 500 mg / L), glicina (100, 200 e 300 mg / L) e ácido salicílico (100 e 200 mg / L). Extratos de óleos e clorofórmio: metanol (CM) foram preparados por maceração em éter e CM (1: 1, v / v), respectivamente. Os perfis químicos foram determinados por análise de cromatografia gasosa / espectrometria de massa (GC / MS). O óleo do calo registrou maior efeito inibitório de 5-Lox (IC50 58,33 ± 4,66 µg / mL) do que o óleo de rizoma (IC50168,34 ± 15,64 µg / mL) e comparável ao do controle positivo; Ácido nordi-hidroguaiarético (IC50 61,25 ± 1,02 µg / mL). O perfil químico do óleo de calo continha grandes quantidades de ácidos graxos, principalmente o ácido graxo insaturado ácido oleico (31,11%) e ácido graxo saturado palmítico (28,56%). Os elicitores modificaram o perfil químico do calo e melhoraram a atividade anti-5-Lox do extrato de CM do calo. Extratos de CM de calos tratados com 100 e 300 mg / L de extrato de levedura e 50 mg / L de ácido salicílico suprimiram significativamente (P ≤ 0,05) a atividade de 5-Lox em 33,16%, 25,46% e 16%, respectivamente, em comparação com o extrato de CM de calo não tratado. Em conclusão, o calo de gengibre pode ser considerado um suplemento dietético valioso no tratamento de vários distúrbios inflamatórios.


Subject(s)
Lipoxygenase/analysis , Salicylic Acid , Zingiber officinale/chemistry , Rhizome/chemistry , Yeasts
18.
Semina ciênc. agrar ; 43(3): 1373-1394, maio.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1369587

ABSTRACT

Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) female inflorescences are important raw materials used to produce beers, cosmetics, and medicines. Vegetative propagation is the preferred way of obtaining seedlings for commercial cultivations as female plants produce more lupulin than male plants, a component of commercial interest. It can be carried out by macropropagation (stem cuttings or rhizomes) or micropropagation. This review aimed to systematize different techniques of hop vegetative propagation, with no time frame, from searches in the main academic research bases: Capes Journal Portal, Scielo, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and ResearchGate. Most studies are related to micropropagation, mainly addressing different plant regulators and concentrations, as well as types of explants and culture media, strategies to produce virus-free plants, artificial lighting, and cryopreservation. Experiments with stem cuttings are more common regarding macropropagation, but factors such as size and origin of cuttings, rooting period, and the response of different cultivars need to be better evaluated. Cultivation by cuttings allows the production of clones of female plants and micropropagation the production of virus-free clones in a short time and less physical space. Currently, micropropagation has been widely applied to cryopreservation.(AU)


As inflorescências femininas do lúpulo (Humulus lupulus L.) são matérias-primas importantes utilizadas na produção de cervejas, cosméticos e medicamentos. Como as plantas femininas produzem mais lupulina que as masculinas, componente de interesse comercial, a propagação vegetativa é a forma preferencial de obtenção de mudas para os cultivos comerciais. Esta pode ser realizada por macropropagação (estaquia caulinar ou rizomas) ou micropropagação. O objetivo desta revisão foi sistematizar as diferentes técnicas de propagação vegetativa do lúpulo, sem recorte temporal, a partir de buscas nas principais bases de pesquisa acadêmica: Portal de Periódicos Capes, Scielo, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, Google Acadêmico e Research Gate. A maioria dos trabalhos são relacionados à micropropagação, abordando principalmente diferentes reguladores vegetais e concentrações, além de tipos de explantes e meios de cultura, estratégias para produzir plantas livres de vírus, iluminação artificial e criopreservação. Quanto à macropropagação, experimentos com estaquia caulinar são mais comuns, porém fatores precisam ser melhor avaliados tais como tamanho e origem das estacas, período de enraizamento e resposta de diferentes cultivares. O cultivo por estacas permite a produção de clones de plantas femininas e a micropropagação a produção de clones isentos de vírus, em pouco tempo e em menor espaço físico. Atualmente, a micropropagação tem sido muito aplicada à criopreservação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humulus/growth & development , Rhizome , Inflorescence , Cannabaceae/growth & development , History
19.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 193-203, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929228

ABSTRACT

Metabolic syndrome (MS) involves people with the following risk factors: obesity, hypertension, high glucose level and hyperlipidemia. It can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of MS in the world's adult population is about 20%-25%. Today, there is much care to use medicinal plants. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) as well as curcumin which is derived from the rhizome of the plant, has been shown beneficial effects on different components of MS. Thus, the purpose of this manuscript was to introduce different in vitro, in vivo and human studies regarding the effect of turmeric and its constituent on MS. Moreover, different mechanisms of action by which this plant overcomes MS have been introduced. Based on studies, turmeric and its bioactive component, curcumin, due to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, have antidiabetic effects through increasing insulin release, antihyperlipidemic effects by increasing fatty acid uptake, anti-obesity effects by decreasing lipogenesis, and antihypertensive effects by increasing nitric oxide. According to several in vivo, in vitro and human studies, it can be concluded that turmeric or curcumin has important values as a complementary therapy in MS. However, more clinical trials should be done to confirm these effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Curcuma , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Metabolic Syndrome/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rhizome
20.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 541-550, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939919

ABSTRACT

The rhizome of giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhiza (L.) Schott), which is a highly adaptable wild plant, is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. In the current study, the antiproliferative constituents of giant taro were investigated and six new (1-6) and four known piperidine alkaloids (7-10) were isolated from its rhizomes. Their chemical structures and absolute configurations were elucidated using various spectroscopic methods and the Mosher ester method. The isolated alkaloids were screened for the antiproliferative activity through MTT assay. The results indicated that piperidine alkaloids exerted potential antiproliferative activity against HepG2, AGS and MCF-7 tumor cells. Further researches showed that compounds 3-5 dose-dependently decreased the colony formation rate and induced the apoptosis of AGS cells, while compound 4 induced AGS cell death via the proapoptotic pathway. This study demonstrates that the piperidine alkaloids isolated from giant taro exhibit significant antitumor activity, which provides phytochemical evidence for further development and utilization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Alocasia/chemistry , Piperidines/pharmacology , Plants , Rhizome/chemistry
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