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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878983

ABSTRACT

To determine the content of extracts in different processed products of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and the content of chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, senkyunolide Ⅰ, coniferyl ferulate, senkyunolide A and ligustilide, in order to study the effect of different proces-sing methods on the alcohol-soluble extract and the content of six ingredients of Chuanxiong Rhizoma. The extract was determined according to the alcohol-soluble extract determination method set forth in item 2201 of the 2020 Chinese Pharmacopoeia Ⅳ; the content was determined by using Agilent TC-C_(18) column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) for gradient elution, with acetonitrile(A)-0.5% acetic acid solution(B) as the mobile phase; the column temperature was at 30 ℃; the flow rate was 1.0 mL·min~(-1), the detection wavelength was 285 nm; and the injection volume was 10 μL. Compared with Chuanxiong Rhizoma, the extracts of processed products all increased significantly; by the degree of increase, the order was stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with honey>stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with rice wine>stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with Angelicae Dahuricae Radix decoction>stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with tea decoction; the HPLC method was convenient and reliable, with a high linear relationship of chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, senkyunolide Ⅰ, coniferyl ferulate, senkyunolide A and ligustilide, and a high precision, repeatability, stability and the sample recovery rate in Chuanxiong Rhizoma and its processed products. There were 15 chromatographic peaks before and after processing, eight of them were identified. Compared with the pre-processing, two chromatographic peaks were added after the stir-frying with honey and rice wine; and four chromatographic peaks were added after the processing with Angelicae Dahuricae Radix decoction; the contents of chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, senkyunolide Ⅰ, coniferyl ferulate, senkyunolide A, and ligustilide in stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with rice wine were all reduced. Except for the content of ferulic acid that increased, the content of the other five components decreased in stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with honey, stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with tea decoction, and stir-frying Chuanxiong Rhizoma with Angelicae Dahuricae Radix decoction. Rice wine, honey, decoction of tea and Angelicae Dahuricae Radix could all promote the dissolution of chemical components in Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and increase the content of extract; the changes in the contents of six components of different processed products could provide a certain basis for studying chemical composition and efficacy of different processed products of Chuanxiong Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Chlorogenic Acid , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Rhizome/chemistry , Wine
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878877

ABSTRACT

Rhei Radix et Rhizoma(RRR) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, with extensive pharmacological effects and clinical applications. This paper summarized processing history evolution of RRR and its effect on chemical compositions and pharmacological effects, and provided feasible insights for further studies on the chemical compositions and pharmacological effects of RRR before and after processing. Relevant information demonstrated that RRR has a long history of processing and various methods. At pre-sent, Chinese Pharmacopoeia mainly records four processing methods: cleaning(raw RRR), wine processing(RRR stir-fried with wine), steaming processing(RRR wine steaming), fried charcoal(RRR charring). RRR has a good effect in clearing heat effect, hemostatic effect and blood promoting effect, and its main chemical components are anthraquinone/anthrones, stilbene, phenylbutanone, chromogens, flavonoids and tannin compounds. This paper reviewed the history evolution of RRR and its effect on chemical composition and pharmacological changes, and put forward further study ideas, with the aim to provide a basic reference for processing mechanism, effective material basis and clinical application of RRR.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Roots/chemistry , Rhizome/chemistry , Wine
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 518-526, sept. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008290

ABSTRACT

Valeriana amurensis Smir. ex Kom. widely distributed in the northeast region of China and some region in Russia and Korea, and its underground parts (roots and rhizomes) being used to cure nervous system diseases such as insomnia. The active components including the essential oil and iridoids of underground parts were investigated in different harvest periods in order to evaluate the quality for the roots and rhizomes of V. amurensis. The content of the essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and bornyl acetate in the oil was quantitated by GC-EI. The iridoids, valepotriates were determined by potentiometric titration and the main component, valtrate was quantitated by HPLC-UV. The factors of biomass were considered in the determination of collection period. Statistical analysis of results showed that, the highest content of the essential oil per plant was 22.69 µl in withering period and then 21.58 µl in fruit ripening period, while the highest contents of bornyl acetate, valepotriates and valtrate per plant were 2.82 mg, 31.90 mg and 0.98 mg in fruit ripening period separately. Fruit ripening period was decided as the best harvest period for the content of active constituents and output of drug, and it would provide scientific basis for the artificial cultivation of V. amurensis.


Valeriana amurensis Smir. ex Kom. Se distribuye ampliamente en la región noreste de China y en algunas regiones de Rusia y Corea, y sus partes subterráneas (raíces y rizomas) se utilizan para curar enfermedades del sistema nervioso como el insomnio. Se investigaron los componentes activos, incluidos el aceite esencial y los iridoides de las partes subterráneas de V. amurensis en diferentes períodos de cosecha para evaluar la calidad de las raíces y rizomas. El contenido del aceite esencial se obtuvo mediante hidrodestilación y el acetato de bornilo en el aceite se cuantificó por GC-EI. Los iridoides, valepotriatos se determinaron mediante valoración potenciométrica y el componente principal, el valtrato se cuantificó por HPLC-UV. Los factores de biomasa fueron considerados en la determinación del período de recolección. El análisis estadístico de los resultados mostró que el mayor contenido de aceite esencial por planta fue de 22,69 µl en el período de marchitación y luego de 21,58 µl en el período de maduración de la fruta, mientras que el mayor contenido de acetato de bornilo, valepotriatos y valtrato por planta fue de 2.82 mg, 31.90 mg y 0,98 mg, respectivamente, en el período de maduración de la fruta por separado. Se definió el período de maduración de la fruta como el mejor período de cosecha para el contenido de constituyentes activos y la producción de droga, lo cual proporcionaría una base científica para el cultivo artificial de V. amurensis.


Subject(s)
Valerian/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Seasons , Camphanes/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Rhizome/chemistry , Iridoids/analysis
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(6): e8132, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001537

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to elucidate the concise effects of a traditional herb pair, Curcumae rhizoma-Sparganii rhizoma (CRSR), on uterine leiomyoma (UL) by analyzing transcriptional profiling. The UL rat model was made by intramuscular injection of progesterone and gavage administration of diethylstilbestrol. From 11 weeks of the establishment of the model, rats of the UL+CRSR group were gavaged daily with CRSR (6.67 g/kg). The serum concentrations of progesterone (P) and estradiol (E2) were determined by radioimmunoassay, the uterine index was measured by caliper measurement, and the pathological status was observed by hematoxylin and eosin stain. Gene expression profiling was checked by NimbleGen Rat Gene Expression Microarrays. The results indicated that the uterine mass of UL+CRSR rats was significantly shrunk and serum P and E2 levels significantly reduced compared to UL animals and nearly to the level of normal rats. Results of microarrays displayed the extensive inhibition of CRSR upon the expression of proliferation and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes, and significantly regulated a wide range of metabolism disorders. Furthermore, CRSR extensively regulated key pathways of the UL process, such as MAPK, PPAR, Notch, and TGF-β/Smad. Regulation of the crucial pathways for the UL process and ECM metabolism may be the underlying mechanisms of CRSR treatment. Further studies will provide clear clues for effectively treating UL with CRSR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Uterine Neoplasms/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Curcuma/chemistry , Rhizome/chemistry , Leiomyoma/drug therapy , Transcription Factors , Uterine Neoplasms/genetics , Uterine Neoplasms/metabolism , Radioimmunoassay , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Leiomyoma/genetics , Leiomyoma/metabolism
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 15(3): 136-143, May. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907529

ABSTRACT

Essential oils hydrodistilled from the rhizomes of Cyperus papyrus L. growing wild in two localities (KwaDlangezwa and Richard’s Bay) of uMhlathuze City, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa has been studied. The major components of KwaDlangezwa oil were caryophyllene oxide (12.7 percent), cyperene (10.2 percent) and 1,8-cineole (8.4 percent). The oil of Richard’s Bay comprised mainly of caryophyllene oxide (24.4 percent), humulene epoxide II (13.2 percent), aristolene (9.1 percent) and aromadendrene epoxide II (7.3 percent). The antibacterial activity of the oils was assayed using agar-disc diffusion and broth-microdilution methods. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) revealed that the oil samples inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 3983 and ATCC 6538), with MIC of 1.25 and 0.31 mg/mL for each oil. Streptococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212; MIC of 1.25 and 0.6 mg/mL, respectively) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 4983; MIC of 1.25 mg/mL for both oils). Only the Richard Bay oil showed activity against Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus with MIC of 1.25mg/mL, respectively.


Los aceites esenciales hidrodestilados de los rizomas de Cyperus papyrus L., que crecen en dos localidades (KwaDlangezwa y Bahía Richard) de la ciudad de uMhlathuze, la provincia KwaZulu-Natal, de Sudafrica han sido estudiados. Los mayores componentes del aceite de KwaDlangezwa fueron óxido de cariofileno (12,7 por ciento), cipereno (10,2 por ciento) y 1,8-cineol (8,4 por ciento). El aceite de la bahía de Richard consistió principalmente cariofileno (24,4 por ciento), epóxido II de humuleno (13,2 por ciento), aristoleno (9,1 por ciento) y epóxido II de aromandreno (7,3 por ciento). La actividad antibacterial de los aceites fueron ensayados utilizando la difusión en discos de agar y el método de microdilución en caldo. La concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI) reveló que las muestras inhibieron el crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 3983 y ATCC 6538), con una MIC de 1,25 y 0,31 mg/ml de cada aceite. Streptococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212; CMI de 1,25 y 0.6 mg/mL, respectivamente) y Escherichia coli (ATCC 4983; CMI de 1,25 mg/mL para ambos aceites). Solo el aceite de la bahía Richard mostró actividad contra Bacillus cereus y Bacillus pumilis con CMI de 1,25 mg/mL, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , Cyperus/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas , Enterococcus faecalis , Escherichia coli , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Rhizome/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus , Sesquiterpenes/analysis
6.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-9, 2015. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-734614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Curcuma longa Linnaeus and Zingiber officinale Roscoe are two main representatives ofZingiberaceae family studied for a wide range of therapeutic properties, including: antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, antibacterial, analgesic, immunomodulatory, proapoptotic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus properties and anticancer effects. This study was aimed to analyse the ethanolic extracts of Curcuma rhizome (Curcuma longa Linnaeus) and Zingiber rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) in terms of polyphenols, antioxidant activity and anti-melanoma potential employing the B164A5 murine melanoma cell line. RESULTS: In order to evaluate the total content of polyphenols we used Folin-Ciocâlteu method. The antioxidant activity of the two ethanolic extracts was determined by DPPH assay, and for the control of antiproliferative effect it was used MTT proliferation assay, DAPI staining and Annexin-FITC-7AAD double staining test. Results showed increased polyphenols amount and antioxidant activity forCurcuma rhizome ethanolic extract. Moreover, 100 μg/ml of ethanolic plant extract from both vegetal products presented in a different manner an antiproliferative, respectively a proapoptotic effect on the selected cell line. CONCLUSIONS: The study concludes that Curcuma rhizome may be a promising natural source for active compounds against malignant melanoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Melanoma, Experimental/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyphenols/analysis , Zingiberaceae/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Curcuma/chemistry , Curcuma/classification , Ginger/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Polyphenols/classification , Rhizome/chemistry
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 13(4): 344-350, jul. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785452

ABSTRACT

Members of the family Cyperaceae such as Cyperus alopecuroides, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus scariosus and Cyperus rotundus possess significant amount of studies about their antioxidant activities and other properties. Nevertheless, the plant Cyperus digitatus belonging to the genus Cyperus lacks of studied about any kind of intrinsic activity. Different extracts and fractions were obtained from the rhizomes of Cyperus digitatus, and a Phytochemical screening and the content of phenols and flavonoids and the antioxidant properties (FRAP, DPPH and beta-Carotene bleaching) were quantified in each of theextracts and fractions. Of all the extracts obtained, the BE and AqE extracts showed the best antioxidant potential, meanwhile, none of the fractions obtained from the EAE extract show a relevant activity.


Los miembros de la familia Cyperaceae, tales como Cyperus alopecuroides, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus scariosus y Cyperus rotundus poseen una cantidad significativa de estudios sobre sus actividades antioxidantes y otras propiedades. Sin embargo, la planta Cyperus digitatus perteneciente al género Cyperus carece de estudio de cualquier tipo de actividad intrínseca. Razón por la cual se estudió sus propiedades antioxidantes (FRAP, DPPH y blanqueamiento del beta-caroteno), cuantificación de contenido fenolico y flavonoides totales en extractos y fracciones obtenidos de los rizomas de Cyperus digitatus, y un perfil fitoquímico. De todos los extractos obtenidos, BE y AqE mostraron el mejor potencial antioxidante, por otra parte ninguna de las fracciones obtenidas a partir del extracto EAE mostro una actividad relevante.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cyperus/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rhizome/chemistry , Biphenyl Compounds , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Ferrous Compounds , Phenols/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress , Chemistry Techniques, Analytical/methods
8.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Feb; 52(2): 139-146
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150342

ABSTRACT

The antidiarrhoeal activity of Cryptocoryne spiralis rhizomes extract (250, 500, 750 mg/kg, po) was evaluated using faecal excretion, castor oil-induced diarrhoea, small intestinal transit, intestinal fluid accumulation, gastric emptying and PGE2 induced enteropooling models in rats. In addition, various biochemical estimations, histopathological studies and antibacterial evaluations on strains responsible for diarrhoea were also performed. The results illustrated a significant reduction in normal faecal output rate after 5th and 7th h of treatment, while castor oil-induced diarrhoea model depicted a protection of 55.44% at same dose level from diarrhoea. The other models except, gastric emptying test demonstrated more pronounced effect at same dose level. A significant inhibition in nitric oxide, increase in carbohydrates, protein, DNA, Na+ and K+ level with minimum degeneration of colonic fibrous tissues and potent antibacterial activity were also observed. The antidiarrhoeal potential of C. spiralis may be as a result of antimotility and antisecretory type effect mediated through nitric oxide pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antidiarrheals/administration & dosage , Antidiarrheals/chemistry , Araceae/chemistry , Castor Oil/toxicity , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Diarrhea/pathology , Humans , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Rats , Rhizome/chemistry
9.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-6, 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) is a harmful pest of stored grain and flour-based products in tropical and subtropical region. In the present study, rhizome of Drynaria quercifolia (J. Smith) was evaluated for pesticidal and pest repellency activities against T. castaneum, using surface film method and filter paper disc method, respectively. In addition, activity of the isolated compound 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid was evaluated against the pest. RESULTS: Chloroform soluble fraction of ethanol extract of rhizome of D. quercifolia showed significant pesticidal activity at doses 0.88 to 1.77 mg/cm² and significant pest repellency activity at doses 0.94 to 0.23 mg/cm². No pesticidal and pest repellency activity was found for petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol soluble fractions of ethanol extract as well as for 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. CONCLUSION: Considering our findings it can be concluded that chloroform soluble fraction of rhizome of D. quercifoliais useful in controlling T. castaneum of stored grain and flour-based products.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pesticides , Tribolium/drug effects , Pest Control/methods , Polypodiaceae/chemistry , Rhizome/chemistry , Hydroxybenzoates/pharmacology , Insect Repellents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Chloroform , Ethanol , Methanol , Alkanes , Hydroxybenzoates/isolation & purification , Lethal Dose 50 , Acetates
10.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Oct; 51(10): 828-832
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149388

ABSTRACT

Methanolic and ethyl acetate extract of A. galanga showed significant central nervous system (CNS) stimulant activity in mice using actophotometer and rotarod test. CNS stimulation at a dose of 500 mg/kg was comparable with standard drugs caffeine and amphetamine derivative modalart. The extracts did not shown any depressant effect in forced swim or tail suspension tests. It can be concluded that A. galanga rhizome may have stimulant activity in mice and the active constituents responsible for this effect is present both in crude methanolic extract as well as in ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of this plant species.


Subject(s)
Alpinia/chemistry , Animals , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Central Nervous System Stimulants/pharmacology , Locomotion/drug effects , Male , Mice , Pilot Projects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Psychomotor Performance/drug effects , Rhizome/chemistry
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(3): 377-380, May-Jun/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679517

ABSTRACT

Introduction In this study, we used dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH) extracts of the Zingiber zerumbet rhizome to evaluate brine shrimp lethality and larvicidal activity on Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari mosquitoes. Methods Bioassays were performed by exposing third-instar larvae of each mosquito species to the DCM or MeOH extracts. Results Probit analysis with DCM and MeOH extracts demonstrated efficient larvicidal activity against A. aegypti and A. nuneztovari larvae. Conclusions The DCM and MeOH extracts showed higher activity against A. nuneztovari larvae than against A. aegypti larvae, suggesting that the extracts have species-specific activity. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/drug effects , Anopheles/drug effects , Artemia/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rhizome/chemistry , Zingiberaceae/chemistry , Biological Assay , Larva/drug effects , Methanol/isolation & purification , Methanol/pharmacology , Methylene Chloride/isolation & purification , Methylene Chloride/pharmacology , Survival Analysis
12.
Bol. Centro Pesqui. Process. Aliment ; 30(1): 35-52, jan.-jun. 2012. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-677226

ABSTRACT

No presente trabalho foram determinadas as propriedades físicase químicas do rizoma fi lho e da fécula do mangarito e algumas propriedades dos fi lmes biodegradáveis da fécula e glicerol. Dos rizomas fi lho foram determinados a massa, os diâmetros maior emenor e a composição química. Determinou-se a composição química e o valor calórico da fécula extraída, suas propriedades térmicas e de pasta. De seus grânulos se analisaram a morfologia e o tamanho. Os fi lmes foram elaborados pela técnica casting, variando se a quantidade do glicerol e a massa de solução fi lmogênica de acordo com delineamento fatorial central composto. Dos fi lmes obtidos foram estudadas a aparência, a espessura, a solubilidadee a permeabilidade. Aplicou-se análise de variância para modelo polinomial de segundo grau e a função desejabilidade para a sua otimização. Obteve-se a massa média dos rizomas fi lho de 3,5 g e diâmetros maior e menor de 23 e 15 mm, respectivamente, sendo constituídos principalmente de fécula com grânulos arredondados de 12,5 μm de diâmetro. A pasta da fécula apresentou boaestabilidade frente ao calor sob agitação mecânica e grande tendência à retrogradação. Considerando os fatores desejáveis de alta solubilidade e de baixas permeabilidade e espessura, os fi lmes produzidos com 10% de glicerol e 24,73 g de solução fi lmogênicaatenderiam melhor essas características.


Subject(s)
Food Chemistry , Food Technology , Nutrient Film Technique , Rhizome/chemistry , Xanthomonas
13.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 10(5): 435-442, sept. 2011. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-618825

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae) rhizomes have any toxic effects in rats. Wistar rats were used as the experimental model and orally administered hot water extract (HWE) and hot ethanolic extract (HEE) of A. calcarata rhizomes at a dose of 1500 mg/kg respectively for 42 consecutive days. Administration of the HWE or HEE to rats did not result in any chronic toxic effects as evident from their effects on (a) liver function (b) kidney function, (c) hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC) count, white blood cell (WBC) count and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration (d) external morphology and wet weights of selected organs. Further, the HWE and the HEE did not appear to mediate any unacceptable effects on food and water intake, percent weight gain, consistency of faeces and color of urine. In conclusion, the results of this study have revealed that the HWE and the HEE of A. calcarata at the doses tested do not produce any serious toxic side effects in rats.


El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar si los rizomas de Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Familia: Zingiberaceae) tienen algún efecto tóxico en las ratas. Se utilizaron ratas Wistar como modelo experimental y administrado por vía oral de extracto de agua caliente (EAC) y el extracto de etanol caliente (EEC) de A. rizomas calcarata a una dosis de 1500 mg / kg, respectivamente, durante 42 días consecutivos. La administración de la EAC o EEC a las ratas no produjo ningún efecto crónico tóxico como se desprende de sus efectos sobre la (a) función hepática (b) la función renal, (c) los parámetros hematológicos, como conteo de los glóbulos rojos (GR), conteo de glóbulos blancos celular (GB) y hemoglobina (Hb), (d) morfología externa y el peso húmedo de los órganos seleccionados. Además, el EAC y el EEC no parecen mediar efectos inaceptables en la ingesta de alimentos y agua, porcentaje de aumento de peso, la consistencia de las heces y el color de la orina. En conclusión, los resultados de este estudio han revelado que los extractos EAC y la EEC de A. calcarata en las dosis utilizadas no producen graves efectos secundarios tóxicos en ratas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Alpinia/chemistry , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Rhizome/chemistry , Toxicity Tests , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Liver , Liver/pathology , Medicine, Traditional , Rats, Wistar , Kidney , Kidney/pathology , Sri Lanka , Blood
14.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 13(1): 79-84, 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-582765

ABSTRACT

A produção de gengibre no Paraná concentra-se no município de Morretes, ocupando uma área de plantio de aproximadamente 300 ha. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o teor e a composição do óleo essencial de rizomas de gengibre produzidos em Morretes e submetidos a diferentes períodos de secagem em temperatura ambiente. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, com quatro repetições (quatro plantas por repetição), avaliando cinco procedências e cinco períodos de secagem a temperatura ambiente (0, 15, 30, 45 e 60 dias). As extrações de óleo essencial foram realizadas por hidrodestilação em aparelho graduado Clevenger durante três horas e a análise dos constituintes foi realizada por meio de cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas. A secagem de rizomas de gengibre em temperatura ambiente por até 60 dias resultou na diminuição de teores de óleo essencial na maioria das procedências. Os constituintes geranial e o neral apresentaram maior concentração em todas as procedências e tiveram teores superiores com o aumento nos períodos de secagem. Os teores de geraniol e acetato de geranila foram inferiores após a secagem em todas as procedências, assim como eucaliptol, canfeno, zingibereno e β-bisaboleno na maioria das procedências.


Ginger production in Paraná State, Brazil, has predominated in Morretes Municipality, with around 300 ha cultivated area. The aim of this work was to evaluate the essential oil yield and composition of ginger rhizomes produced in Morretes and subjected to different drying periods at room temperature. Experimental design was completely randomized, in a 5x5 factorial arrangement, with four replicates (four plants each), five origins and five drying periods at room temperature (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days). The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type device for 3h and the constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The drying of ginger rhizomes at room temperature for up to 60 days decreased the essential oil yield in most origins. Geranial and neral levels were higher in all origins and as drying periods were longer. Geraniol and geranyl acetate levels decreased after drying in all origins, as well as eucalyptol, camphene, zingiberene and β-bisabolene in most origins.


Subject(s)
Food Preservation/statistics & numerical data , Ginger , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Rhizome/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Brazil , Plants, Medicinal/enzymology
15.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2010; 23 (2): 224-231
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-98359

ABSTRACT

Increasing awareness of hazards associated with the use of antibiotic and chemical agents has accelerated investigations into plants and their extracts as new sources of antimicrobial agents. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the effects of oil and 95% ethanol extracts of Boesenbergia pandurata rhizomes and Piper sarmentosum leaf against four oral pathogens which were Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus sp., Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Candida albicans. Employing the disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods, the results showed that B. pandurata oil [BPO] was the most effective extract against C albicans. Time-kill assay with the BPO demonstrated killing of C. albicans at concentrations equal to 2 and 2.5 times the MIC. The times required to reach the fungicidal endpoint at 2 and 2.5 times the MIC were 60 and 44 min, respectively. In addition, our results also demonstrated that the BPO possesses potent anti- Candida biofilm activity in vitro. Therefore, the BPO could be considered as a natural antifungal agent against Candida infections and has significant potential for further investigation


Subject(s)
Humans , Zingiberaceae , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Mouth/microbiology , Rhizome/chemistry , Candida albicans/physiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Medicine, Traditional
16.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2005 Dec; 43(12): 1161-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-59814

ABSTRACT

Fructose supplementation produced cardinal features of Syndrome-X including significant elevations in seum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and insulin and also in body weight. While treatment with methanolic extract of dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale produced a significant reduction in fructose induced elevation in lipid levels, bodyweight, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, treatment with ethyl acetate extract of Z officinale did not poduce any significant change in either of the last two parameters. However, it produced a significant reduction in elevated lipid levels and body weight The concentration of 6-gingerol was found to be higher in methanolic extract and less in ethyl acetate extract. The results suggest that the methanolic extract of Z officinale produces better effects as compared to ethyl acetate extract in fructose induced hyperlipidemia associated with insulin resistance. The extent of activity appears to be dependent on the concentration of 6-gingerol present in the extracts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight/physiology , Catechols , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/diet therapy , Fatty Alcohols/analysis , Fructose/toxicity , Ginger/chemistry , Hyperinsulinism/blood , Hyperlipidemias/diet therapy , Metabolic Syndrome/diet therapy , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Rats , Rhizome/chemistry
17.
J Biosci ; 2005 Mar; 30(2): 213-20
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111342

ABSTRACT

Using RNA extracted from Zingiber officinale rhizomes and primers designed according to the conservative regions of monocot mannose-binding lectins, the full-length cDNA of Z. officinale agglutinin (ZOA) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of zoa was 746 bp and contained a 510 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a lectin precursor of 169 amino acids with a signal peptide. ZOA was a mannose-binding lectin with three typical mannose-binding sites (QDNY). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that zoa expressed in all the tested tissues of Z. officinale including leaf, root and rhizome, suggesting it to be a constitutively expressing form. ZOA protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli with the molecular weight expected. To our knowledge, this is the first mannose-binding lectin cDNA cloned from the family Zingiberaceae. Our results demonstrate that monocot mannose-binding lectins also occur within the family Zingiberaceae.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Binding Sites , Cloning, Molecular , Cluster Analysis , Computational Biology , DNA Primers , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Gene Expression , Ginger/genetics , Hemagglutination , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rhizome/chemistry , Sequence Analysis, DNA
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