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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879133

ABSTRACT

Nine secondary metabolites(S)-5-hydroxy-4-methylchroman-2-one(1), 4-methoxynaphthalene-1,5-diol(2), 8-methoxynaphthalene-1,7-diol(3), 1,8-dimethoxynaphthalene(4),(2R,4S)-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-benzopyran-4,5-diol(5),(2R,4R)-3,4-dihydro-4-methoxy-2-methyl-2H-1-benzopyran-5-ol(6), 7-O-α-D-ribosyl-2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-2-methyl-chromen-4-one(7),(R)-3-methoxyl-1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)-butan-1-one(8) and helicascolide A(9) were isolated from endophytic fungus Cladosporium sp. JJM22 by using column chromatographies of silica gel and ODS, and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were analyzed on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical data, especially NMR and MS. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities by examining the inhibitory activities on nitric oxide(NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells in vitro. Compounds 2-4 showed inhibitory activities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzopyrans , Cladosporium , Fungi , Mice , Molecular Structure , Rhizophoraceae
2.
Artemisa; I Jornada Científica de Farmacología y Salud. Fármaco Salud Artemisa 2021; 2021. [1-14] p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1284587

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La tradición y la sabiduría popular promueven el empleo de la medicina natural debido a su bajo costo y fácil acceso. En la actualidad la medicina herbolaria retoma espacios dentro de la sociedad, sobre todo en los países con mayores índices de ingresos. Objetivo: realizar una revisión bibliográfica para profundizar en los aspectos fisiopatológicos de la úlcera péptica y las acciones que posee Rhizophora mangle L sobre esta afección. Material y Método: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las principales aplicaciones terapéuticas de Rhizophora mangle L. a través de diversas búsquedas en materiales impresos y digitales Desarrollo: La úlcera péptica, una afección universal de origen multifactorial con etiología diversa y compleja que sufre, aproximadamente, del 8 al 10 % de la población El ácido gástrico ha dominado las teorías acerca de la enfermedad. Varios estudios han demostrado que las plantas producen potentes antioxidantes y representan una importante fuente natural. La caracterización química del extracto acuoso de la corteza de Rhizophora mangle L reveló la presencia de polifenoles, las estructuras no tánicas, se refiere la presencia de carbohidratos libres y enlazados; ácidos grasos de cadena larga, saturados e insaturados; fitoesteroles; componentes volátiles o semivolátiles y aromas o aceites esenciales no volátiles A esta planta se le atribuyen varias propiedades en medicina tradicional, entre ellas las propiedades citoprotectoras sobre la mucosa gástrica. Conclusiones: la medicina natural y tradicional ofrece una solución alternativa más racional e inocua al tratamiento de la úlcera gástrica, pudiendo representar un gran aporte a la medicina humana.


Subject(s)
Peptic Ulcer , Rhizophoraceae , Databases, Bibliographic , Cytoprotection , Medicine, Traditional , Antioxidants
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761787

ABSTRACT

Fumigaclavine C (FC), an active indole alkaloid, is obtained from endophytic Aspergillus terreus (strain No. FC118) by the root of Rhizophora stylosa (Rhizophoraceae). This study is designed to evaluate whether FC has anti-adipogenic effects in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and whether it ameliorates lipid accumulation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. FC notably increased the levels of glycerol in the culture supernatants and markedly reduced lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. FC differentially inhibited the expressions of adipogenesis-related genes, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor proteins, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins, and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins. FC markedly reduced the expressions of lipid synthesis-related genes, such as the fatty acid binding protein, lipoprotein lipase, and fatty acid synthase. Furthermore, FC significantly increased the expressions of lipolysis-related genes, such as the hormone-sensitive lipase, Aquaporin-7, and adipose triglyceride lipase. In HFD-induced obese mice, intraperitoneal injections of FC decreased both the body weight and visceral adipose tissue weight. FC administration significantly reduced lipid accumulation. Moreover, FC could dose-dependently and differentially regulate the expressions of lipid metabolism-related transcription factors. All these data indicated that FC exhibited anti-obesity effects through modulating adipogenesis and lipolysis.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adipogenesis , Animals , Aspergillus , Body Weight , Carrier Proteins , Diet, High-Fat , Glycerol , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Lipase , Lipolysis , Lipoprotein Lipase , Mice , Mice, Obese , Peroxisomes , Rhizophoraceae , Sterol Esterase , Transcription Factors
4.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 80 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049722

ABSTRACT

As gorduras ricas em ácidos graxos saturados e/ou trans são ingredientes que brindam propriedades nos alimentos como textura, fusão e estabilidade. Porém, a relação entre seu consumo e enfermidades cardiovasculares, força a busca de novas alternativas. Uma alternativa potencial são os oleogéis, pois são um material plástico e com melhor balanço lipídico, do ponto de vista nutricional. Os oleogéis são sistemas coloidais onde uma fase orgânica líquida, representada por um óleo, é imobilizada por uma rede sólida tridimensional formada por agentes estruturantes. Atualmente, tem sido estudados oleogéis conformados com variados agentes estruturantes, com o intuito de encontrar a melhor opção. Além disso, alguns estudos indicam que o uso combinado de dois ou mais agentes estruturantes pode resultar no aumento de seu potencial de estruturação de óleos ou na possibilidade de customizar as propriedades adequadas para produção alimentar. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a interação entre os componentes de oleogéis preparados com óleo de girassol alto oleico (HOSO), como base lipídica, e combinações de cera de candelilla (CW) e monoestearato de sorbitana (SMS), como agentes estruturantes. A avaliação dos oleogéis por meio dos diagramas de fases e a consistência, mostrou que há uma sinergia entre os componentes, na concentração de 8 e 4% de agentes estruturantes e 79-89% de cera de candelilla. Estes oleogéis mistos tiveram uma faixa de fusão maior do que os oleogéis não mistos. Sugerindo a construição de cristais mais estáveis, que demoraram mais tempo em fundir. A capacidade de retenção de óleo se mostrou adequada (99%) nas amostras contendo mais de 1% de agentes estruturantes e com mais de 40% de Cera de Candelilla. Nas imagens obtidas por PLM, foi observada uma variedade de tamanho de cristais, sugerindo que cada componente do oleogel formou um tipo de cristal. Com a elaboração de bigéis, foi notado que, para obter um produto satisfatoriamente espalhável ou para observar o aumento de sua consistência em comparação com o oleogel isoladamente, é necessária uma concentração maior do que 4% de agentes estruturantes no oleogel e/ou a adição de menos de 20% de água na formulação total. A estabilidade dos bigéis foi beneficiada pela goma xantana e pela mistura de 2:1 de goma xantana e goma guar na concentração de 0,3%. Dessa forma, o desenvolvimento de alimentos com teores reduzidos de gorduras saturadas e ao mesmo tempo livres de gorduras trans se faz possível com a formulação de oleogéis, o que poderá contribuir para melhorar a qualidade nutricional dos alimentos industrializados oferecidos à população


Fats rich in saturated and / or trans fatty acids provide properties in food such as texture, fusion and stability. But, since those fats increase cardiovascular disease risk, alternatives have been searched. A potential alternative is oleogels, as they are a plastic material with better lipid balance from a nutritional point of view. Oleogels are colloidal systems where a liquid organic phase, represented by an oil, is immobilized by a three-dimensional solid network formed by structuring agents. Currently, oleogels conformed with various structuring agents have been studied in order to find the best option. In addition, some studies indicate that the combined use of two or more structuring agents may result in increased oil structuring potential or the possibility of customizing the properties suitable for food production. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the interaction between the components of oleogels prepared with high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) as a lipid base and combinations of candelilla wax (CW) and sorbitan monostearate (SMS) as structuring agents. The evaluation of oleogels by phase diagrams and consistency (Yield value) showed that there is a synergy between the components, in the concentration of 8 and 4% of structuring agents and 79-89% of candelilla wax. These mixed oleogels had a higher melting range than unmixed oleogels. Suggesting the construction of more stable crystals, which took longer to fuse. Oil binding capacity was adequate (99%) in samples containing more than 1% of structuring agents and over 40% of candelilla wax. In the PLM images, a variety of crystal sizes were observed, suggesting that each oleogel component formed a crystal type. With the elaboration of bigels, it was noted that in order to obtain a satisfactorily spreadable product or to observe the increase of its consistency compared to the oleogel alone, a concentration greater than 4% of structuring agents in the oleogel and / or the addition of less than 20% water in the total formulation. The stability of the bigels was benefited by xanthan gum and the 2: 1 mixture of xanthan gum and guar gum at a concentration of 0.3%.Thus, the development of foods with reduced levels of saturated fat and at the same time free of trans fats is possible with the formulation of oleogels, which may contribute to improve the nutritional quality of processed foods offered to the population


Subject(s)
Plant Oils/analysis , Sunflower Oil/pharmacology , Waxes , Rhizophoraceae/classification , Trans Fatty Acids
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812394

ABSTRACT

One new sorbicillin derivative, 2-deoxy-sohirnone C (1), one new diketopiperazine alkaloid, 5S-hydroxynorvaline-S-Ile (2), and two naturally occurring diketopiperazines, 3S-hydroxylcyclo(S-Pro-S-Phe) (3) and cyclo(S-Phe-S-Gln) (4), together with three known compounds were isolated from the Chinese mangrove endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. GD6. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and by comparison with literature data. The absolute configuration of 3-hydroxyl moiety in 3 was determined by Mosher's method, while the absolute stereochemistry of 2 and 4 was established by comparison with the CD spectra of natural and synthesized diketopiperazines. Compound 1 showed moderate antibacterial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with a MIC value of 80 μg·mL.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , China , Circular Dichroism , Diketopiperazines , Chemistry , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , Penicillium , Chemistry , Resorcinols , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Rhizophoraceae , Microbiology , Wetlands
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773605

ABSTRACT

One new sorbicillin derivative, 2-deoxy-sohirnone C (1), one new diketopiperazine alkaloid, 5S-hydroxynorvaline-S-Ile (2), and two naturally occurring diketopiperazines, 3S-hydroxylcyclo(S-Pro-S-Phe) (3) and cyclo(S-Phe-S-Gln) (4), together with three known compounds were isolated from the Chinese mangrove endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. GD6. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and by comparison with literature data. The absolute configuration of 3-hydroxyl moiety in 3 was determined by Mosher's method, while the absolute stereochemistry of 2 and 4 was established by comparison with the CD spectra of natural and synthesized diketopiperazines. Compound 1 showed moderate antibacterial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with a MIC value of 80 μg·mL.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , China , Circular Dichroism , Diketopiperazines , Chemistry , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , Penicillium , Chemistry , Resorcinols , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Rhizophoraceae , Microbiology , Wetlands
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 530-536, July-Sept. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889139

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mangrove is an important ecosystem in the world. Mangrove ecosystems have a large capacity in retaining heavy metals, and now they are usually considered as sinks for heavy metals. However, the mechanism of why the soil of mangrove ecosystems can retain heavy metal is not certain. In this research, endophytic fungus Purpureocillium sp. A5 was isolated and identified from the roots of Kandelia candel. When this fungus was added, it protected the growth of K. candel under Cu stress. This can be illustrated by analyzing chlorophyll A and B, RWC and WSD to leaves of K. candel. Purpureocillium sp. A5 reduces uptake of Cu in K. candel and changes the pH characterization of soil. Furthermore, A5 increase the concentration of Cu complexes in soil, and it enhanced the concentration of carbonate-bound Cu, Mn-Fe complexes Cu and organic-bound Cu in soil. Nevertheless, a significant reduction of the Cu ion was noted among A5-treated plants. This study is significant and illustrates a promising potential use for environmental remediation of endophytes, and also may partially explain the large capacity of mangrove ecosystems in retaining heavy metals.


Subject(s)
Copper/metabolism , Rhizophoraceae/metabolism , Rhizophoraceae/microbiology , Endophytes/metabolism , Hypocreales/metabolism , Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Copper/analysis , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/genetics , Hypocreales/isolation & purification , Hypocreales/genetics
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(2): e16040, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951894

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Anisophyllea laurina is a plant that has been used in folk medicine to treat malaria, dysentery, diabetes, toothache and various skin diseases. Leaves extract had protein content of 9.68% and a high calcium content of 25084.317 mg/100 g while stem bark extract was found to contain greater amounts of calcium (8560.96 mg/100 g), potassium (7649.47 mg/100 g), magnesium (1462.49 mg/100 g) and iron (973.33 mg/100 g). Palmitic acid, linolenic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid were the most abundant fatty acids in leaves and stem bark extracts. Furthermore, total phenolic (2382.39 mg GAE /100 g) and total flavonoid (385.79 mg QE/100 g) contents were abundant in stem bark while leaves extract was rich in total tannin content (3466.63 mg CE/100 g). However, both leaves and stem bark contained great amounts of vitamins and amino acids were a good source of antioxidant activities. For the individual polyphenol, stenophyllanin A (45.87 mg/g), casuarinin (24.55 mg/g) and digalloyl-HHDP-glucopyranose isomer (15.63 mg/g) were found to be the major compounds from the leaves whereas procyanidin tetramer (14.89 mg/g, (-)-Epicatechin (12.18 mg/g) and procyanidin trimer (11.25 mg/g) were the most predominant compounds from the stem bark. Additionally, the results revealed a significant and strong correlation between phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/analysis , Rhizophoraceae/adverse effects , Tannins , Phenolic Compounds/adverse effects , Medicine, Traditional , Antioxidants/pharmacology
9.
Ciudad de Guatemala; s.n; 2016. 51 p. ilus.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-911593

ABSTRACT

Los taninos tienen propiedad astringente, por lo que ayudan al proceso de cicatrización; la corteza de Rhizophora mangle L., conocido como mangle rojo, presenta una elevada cantidad de taninos; al respecto, se cuenta con evidencia de uso tradicional y estudios pre-clínicos que demuestran su acción cicatrizante. Las hojas de mangle tienen una cantidad de taninos y actividad antioxidante muy similar al reportado para la corteza. En este estudio, se correlacionó la actividad cicatrizante de los extractos etanólicos de hojas mediante métodos in vitro, se cuantificó la cantidad de taninos y flavonoides, se determinó la actividad antioxidante mediante la técnica micrométrica del 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) y fenoles totales según el reactivo de Folin. También se evaluó su actividad antibacteriana contra bacterias específicas o que pueden causar infecciones en heridas. En los extractos de hojas se cuantificaron valores de 29.28% de taninos, de actividad antioxidante de CI50 0.18mg/mL, fenoles totales de 227.76µg expresados como equivalentes de ácido gálico/g de extracto y una concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) contra Staphylococcus aereus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermides ATCC 14990 y Staphylococcus salvaje de 1mg/mL. Los estudios de proliferación, sobre fibroblastos de pulmón de Hamster Chino (QC) y fibroblastos Murinos (L-929), mostraron que los extractos de las hojas producen mayor estimulación de proliferación en concentraciones 0.0039mg/mL. Asimismo, se elaboró un producto fitofarmacéutico, gel, en base a los extractos etanólicos de hoja y corteza de mangle, fueron estables durante el tiempo de análisis; en base a sus características físicas y cuantificación de metabolitos secundarios. El análisis estadístico muestra una correlación entre la cantidad de taninos y actividad antioxidante con un valor de p < 0.0001. La prueba de t-student mostró que no existe diferencia entre los extractos etanólicos de hoja y los extractos de corteza de mangle rojo; por lo que la hoja puede ser una alternativa para el tratamiento de heridas como cicatrizante y conservación de la especie, ya que la obtención de la hoja como droga vegetal no ocasiona daño y se protege el recurso del manglar. Es importante transmitir esta conocimiento a la comunidad para dar un uso sostenible a la especie, empleando la hoja como droga vegetal para la cicatrización.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Rhizophoraceae , Wound Healing , Guatemala , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4,supl.1): 222-227, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768231

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mangrove swamps and forests cover over 137,000 km2 distributed latitudinally among subtropical zones, 7% of which are in Brazil, with a greater density in the country’s northernmost region. Considering that the community of Myxomycetes recorded for this environment is hardly known, three areas located in the state of Maranhão were investigated. Two field trips were conducted, one at the beginning of the rainy season and another during the dry season. In each area, two plots (125 m2) equidistant 100 m apart from each other were surveyed. In these areas, standing dead tree trunks and dead branches still attached to the mother plant that were above the tideline, were examined. On these same occasions, samples of the aerial litter and from the cortex of living trees (Rhizophora) were collected for the preparation of moist chambers cultures. Twenty-one specimens were obtained from field and moist chambers, belonging to 11 species, distributed in nine genera and five families. Seven species are new records from Maranhão. There was a predominance of r-strategist (73%) over K-strategist (27%) species. Cribraria violacea, Comatricha tenerrima, Echinostelium minutum, and Fuligo septica are new worldwide records from mangrove environments, and Oligonema flavidum is reported for the first time from Brazil.


Resumo Os manguezais ocupam mais de 137.000 km2, distribuídos latitudinalmente entre as zonas subtropicais e 7% encontra-se no Brasil, com maior densidade entre os estados do Pará e Maranhão, na região norte do país. Considerando que a comunidade de mixomicetos registrada para este ambiente é pouco conhecida, três áreas localizadas no estado do Maranhão foram investigadas. Duas excursões foram realizadas, uma no início da estação chuvosa e outra na estiagem. Em cada área, foram georeferenciadas e exploradas duas parcelas (125 m2) equidistantes 100 m uma da outra foram avaliadas. Nestas, foram explorados troncos mortos em pé e galhos mortos ainda presos à planta-mãe, acima da linha da maré. Nas mesmas ocasiões foram coletadas amostras de folhedo aéreo e córtex de árvores vivas (Rhizophora) para montagem de câmaras-úmidas. Foram obtidos 21 espécimes de campo e câmara-úmida, pertencentes a 11 espécies, distribuídas em nove gêneros e cinco famílias. Sete espécies são novos registros para o Maranhão. Predominaram espécies r-estrategistas (73%), e 27% K-estrategistas. Cribraria violacea, Comatricha tenerrima, Echinostelium minutum e Fuligo septica são novos registros para o ambiente de manguezal, e Oligonema flavidum é registrada pela primeira vez no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Myxomycetes/physiology , Rhizophoraceae/parasitology , Wetlands , Brazil , Trees/parasitology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-626554

ABSTRACT

Aims: Mangroves of Tanjung Lumpur, Kuantan, Pahang is considered as a relatively underexplored resource of actinomycetes. Based on the above perspective, a study was conducted on mangrove sediments of Tanjung Lumpur, Kuantan to isolate potential actinomycetes using several pretreatments and various selective media. Methodology and results: Sediments from five different sites at Tanjung Lumpur mangrove were collected and selectively pre-treated. The pretreated sediments were diluted and plated onto eight different selective media. A total of 172 potential actinomycetes were isolated from all the media. Antimicrobial activities of 61 selected strains were checked against 8 test microorganisms using cross streak method. Pretreatment of wet heat with seawater was the most effective method for the isolation of actinomycetes as it yielded a maximum of 105 actinomycete isolates and IM7 was the most suitable medium for actinomycete isolation with highest percentage of recovery (31 %). Forty three isolates (70.5 %) showed antimicrobial activities against one or more test microorganisms. Isolates IIUM B21 and IIUM B31 showed antimicrobial activity against all test microorganisms. Seven isolates showed antifungal activity as they inhibited only C. albicans. Ten isolates were randomly selected for identification based on partial sequences of 16S rRNA gene. Six isolates were found belong to the genus Streptomyces, two isolates belong to the genus Micromonospora and two isolates were identified as Rhodococcus spp. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: These findings revealed the potential of mangrove sediment of Tanjung Lumpur as an important source of actinomycetes with biosynthetic capabilities which might be beneficial to pharmaceutical industries.


Subject(s)
Rhizophoraceae , Actinobacteria
12.
Mycobiology ; : 137-149, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729849

ABSTRACT

In the search for novel potent fungi-derived bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications, crude ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts from 110 mangrove fungal endophytes were screened for their toxicity. Toxicity tests of all extracts against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were performed. The extracts with the highest toxicity were further examined for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura larvae and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity. The results showed that the extracts of five isolates exhibited the highest toxicity to brine shrimp at 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 7.45 to 10.24 ppm. These five fungal isolates that obtained from Rhizophora mucronata were identified based on sequence data analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA as Aspergillus oryzae (strain BPPTCC 6036), Emericella nidulans (strains BPPTCC 6035 and BPPTCC 6038), A. tamarii (strain BPPTCC 6037), and A. versicolor (strain BPPTCC 6039). The mean percentage of S. litura larval mortality following topical application of the five extracts ranged from 16.7% to 43.3%. In the AChE inhibition assay, the inhibition rates of the five extracts ranged from 40.7% to 48.9%, while eserine (positive control) had an inhibition rate of 96.8%, at a concentration of 100 ppm. The extracts used were crude extracts, so their potential as sources of AChE inhibition compounds makes them likely candidates as neurotoxins. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the five extracts differed, indicating variations in their chemical constituents. This study highlights the potential of culture filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of mangrove fungal endophytes as a source of new potential bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Artemia , Aspergillus oryzae , Chromatography, Liquid , Complex Mixtures , DNA, Ribosomal , Emericella , Endophytes , Larva , Mortality , Neurotoxins , Physostigmine , Rhizophoraceae , Spodoptera , Statistics as Topic , Toxicity Tests
13.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 150-154, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124633

ABSTRACT

Phytochemical investigation of Kandelia candel resulted in the isolation of six triterpenes (1 - 5) and two glyceryl glycosides (6 and 7) and their structures were determined by comparing the spectroscopic data with those of reported values. In present study, we described the inhibitory effects of fractions and isolated compounds from K. candel on pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-12 p40, IL-6, and TNF-alpha) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Results indicated that compounds 3, 6, and 7 showed potent inhibition on IL-6 production (IC50 values at less than 0.5 microM, respectively). Meanwhile, compounds 6 and 7 exhibited strong inhibitory effects on the production of TNF-alpha (IC50 values of 1.7 +/- 0.1 and 5.5 +/- 0.2 microM). Compounds 1 and 3 were also showed the inhibitory effects on IL-12 p40 production (IC50 values of 8.9 +/- 0.4 and 3.3 +/- 0.1 microM, respectively).


Subject(s)
Cytokines , Dendritic Cells , Glycosides , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-6 , Rhizophoraceae , Triterpenes , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
14.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(4): 1309-1330, oct.-dic. 2014. graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-753692

ABSTRACT

La Mancha lagoon is connected to the Gulf of Mexico through an estuarine ephemeral inlet, a sand bar, which opens during the rainy season and closes during the late fall and the winter storm season. As the lagoon fills up with the permanent stream flow into its Southern part, the water level increases and the sand bar opens up, releasing huge volumes of water into the ocean and leaving the previously flooded intertidal zone exposed to drying. In this study, we described the spatial and temporal variations of structure and composition of the community living on the surface of red mangrove prop roots, related to the hydrodynamic of the estuarine inlet. Four red mangrove prop roots were collected every three months, over an annual period, at ten sampling stations. Water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, water depth and transparency were also measured at each sampling event. To describe the identity, abundance, biomass, and specific richness of epibiont coverage on the prop roots, measurements were taken at 10cm intervals (herein called “horizons”). A total of 59 632 specimens and a total biomass of 172g/cm2 were registered, and a maximum of eleven horizons presented at least one species of epibionts. Two species of polychaetes, 12 of mollusks and 14 of crustaceans were identified, with Mytilopsis leucophaeata as the most abundant, Ficopomatus miamiensis as the most common and Crassostrea rhizophorae with the highest contribution in biomass. Sampling effort was assessed using species accumulation curves, resulting that the efficiency was, in general, greater than 90% of the richness predicted by asymptotic models. The hydrodynamics of the estuarine inlet had a great influence on the environmental conditions of the lagoon and on the spatial and temporal variation of the epibiont community: (a) when the inlet is open, there is a North-South gradient in environmental parameters (b) when the inlet is closed and the water level increases, the epibionts especially the pioneer species F. miamiensis, occupied the highest horizons of prop roots, and (c) the abundance, biomass and richness of epibionts increased towards the deeper and less saline Southern part of the lagoon, as well as on permanently submerged horizons, and during the seasonal closure of the inlet. Variations in depth are determined by the hydrodynamic behavior of the estuarine inlet, suggesting that these factors are major biodiversity drivers of the epibiont community at La Mancha. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (4): 1309-1330. Epub 2014 December 01.


La laguna de La Mancha está conectada al Golfo de México a través de una boca estuarina efímera, una barra arenosa, la cual se abre durante la época de lluvias y se cierra durante el otoño y la temporada de vientos invernales. Cuando la laguna se llena con la entrada de agua proveniente de un arroyo permanente, ubicado en la parte sur, el nivel del agua se incrementa y la barra arenosa se abre, descargando grandes volúmenes de agua hacia el océano y dejando expuesta a la desecación la zona intermareal previamente inundada. En este estudio, se describen las variaciones espacio-temporales de la estructura y composición de la comunidad de epibiontes que vive en la superficie de las raíces del mangle rojo,y su relación con la dinámica hidrológica de la boca estuarina. Se recolectaron cuatro raíces trimestralmente, durante un año, en diez estaciones de muestreo. También se midió la temperatura del agua, salinidad, oxígeno disuelto, profundidad y transparencia en cada muestreo. Se determinó la abundancia, la biomasa y la riqueza específica, a lo largo de las raíces en segmentos verticales de 10cm llamados horizontes. Se registraron un total de 59 632 especímenes y una biomasa total de 172g/cm2, y un máximo de once horizontes presentaron al menos una especie de epibionte. Se identificaron dos especies de poliquetos, 12 de moluscos y 14 de crustáceos, siendo Mytilopsis leucophaeata la más abundante, Ficopomatus miamiensis la más común y Crassostrea rhizophorae la de mayor contribución a la biomasa. Se evaluó la eficiencia del muestreo mediante curvas de acumulación de especies, resultando que la eficiencia fue, en general, >90% de la riqueza estimada por modelos asintóticos. La hidrodinámica de la boca estuarina tuvo gran influencia en las condiciones ambientales de la laguna y en las variaciones espacio-temporales de la comunidad de epibiontes: (a) cuando la boca estuarina está cerrada son más claros los gradientes ambientales norte-sur, (b) cuando la boca estuarina se cierra y el nivel de inundación se incrementa, los epibiontes, especialmente la especie pionera F. miamiensis, ocupan los horizontes más altos de las raíces, (c) la abundancia, biomasa y riqueza específica de los epibiontes se incrementó hacia las partes más profundas del sur de la laguna, así como en los horizontes permanentemente inundados, y durante el cierre estacional de la boca estuarina. Las variaciones en la profundidad dependen de la dinámica de la boca estuarina, sugiriendo que estos factores son los principales parámetros que estructuran a la comunidad de epibiontes de La Mancha.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecosystem , Invertebrates/classification , Rhizophoraceae/classification , Biomass , Mexico , Population Density , Population Dynamics , Seasons , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
15.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(4): 1587-1595, oct.-dic. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753712

ABSTRACT

Mangroves are transitional ecosystems between terrestrial and marine environments, and are distinguished by a high abundance of animals, plants, and fungi. Although macrofungi occur in different types of habitat, including mangroves, little is known about their community structure and dynamic. Therefore the aim of this study was to analyze the diversity of macrofungi in a number of Brazilian mangroves, and the relationship between such diversity, precipitation and area of collection. A total of 32 field trips were undertaken from 2009 to 2010, and macrofungi were studied in four 250×40m transects: Timbó and Santa Cruz Channel on the Northern coast, and Maracaípe and Ariquindá on the Southern coast. All basidiomata found along the transects were placed in paper bags, air-dried and identified using existing literature. It was found that Northern areas predominantly featured Avicennia schaueriana mangroves, while Rhizophora mangle dominated in Southern transects. A total of 275 specimens were collected, and 33 species, 28 genera, 14 families and six orders were represented. Overall abundance and species richness did not vary significantly among areas, but varied according to time, being higher during the rainy season. Subtle differences in composition were observed over time and between areas, probably due to variations in plant species occurrence. Further studies with collections during months of greater precipitation in transects dominated by different mangrove species of the same ecosystem are suggested to assess the overall diversity of mycobiota in these ecosystems.


Los manglares son ecosistemas de transición entre los ambientes terrestres y marinos, y se distinguen por la gran abundancia de animales, plantas y hongos. Aunque los macrohongos se encuentran en diferentes tipos de hábitat, incluidos los manglares, poco se sabe acerca de la estructura de su comunidad y dinámica. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la diversidad de macrohongos en los manglares de Brasil y su relación con la precipitación y área de recolección. Se realizaron un total de 32 salidas de campo entre 2009 y 2010, y los macrohongos fueron estudiados en cuatro transectos de 250×40m: Timbó y Canal de Santa Cruz en la costa norte y Maracaípe y Ariquindá en la costa sur. Todos los basidiomas encontrados a lo largo de los transectos se colocaron deshidratados en bolsas de papel, y se identificaron con ayuda de la literatura preexistente. Se encontró que las zonas del norte predominantemente presentaron Avicennia schaueriana, mientras Rhizophora mangle domina en transectos del sur. Se recolectaron un total de 275 especímenes y 33 especies, 28 géneros, 14 familias y seis órdenes estuvieron representados. Abundancia y riqueza de especies en general no varió significativamente entre las áreas, pero si varió en el tiempo, siendo mayor durante la estación lluviosa. Se observaron diferencias sutiles en la composición a través del tiempo y entre áreas, probablemente debido a las variaciones en la presencia de las especies de plantas. Otros estudios con recolectas durante los meses de mayor precipitación en transectos dominados por diferentes plan- tas de manglar en el mismo ecosistema son deseables para acceder a la diversidad de la micobiota.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota/classification , Ecosystem , Rhizophoraceae/microbiology , Biodiversity , Brazil , Basidiomycota/physiology , Population Density , Rhizophoraceae/classification , Seasons
16.
European J Med Plants ; 2014 Dec; 4(12): 1534-1542
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-164217

ABSTRACT

Mangrove forests continue to disappear all over the world due to a number of reasons. This is the study made to screen the anatomical and biochemical changes during the rooting process. Two important mangrove species have been examined based on their salt relationship natures: Avicennia officinalis subsp. australasica (salt excreting plant) and Excoecaria agallocha L (salt accumulating plant). The plants were treated with different root promoting hormones like IBA, IAA and NAA at different concentrations for three minutes each. After 45 days of the growth period root growth and anatomical changes were observed. The roots originated from the deeper zone of the secondary xylem after several anatomical variations in the hormone treated plants. This is the first trial which may help to determine the mass propagation of these commercial and medicinally important mangroves.


Subject(s)
Avicennia/anatomy & histology , Avicennia/drug effects , Avicennia/growth & development , Euphorbiaceae/anatomy & histology , Euphorbiaceae/drug effects , Euphorbiaceae/growth & development , Plant Growth Regulators , Plant Roots/anatomy & histology , Plant Roots/drug effects , Plant Roots/growth & development , Rhizophoraceae/anatomy & histology , Rhizophoraceae/drug effects , Rhizophoraceae/growth & development
17.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(2): 551-565, Jun.-Aug. 2014. graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-715452

ABSTRACT

The Rhizophora mangle roots form a complex ecosystem where a wide range of organisms are permanently established, reproduce, and find refuge. In this study, we assessed the diversity of bivalves and gastropods that inhabit red mangrove roots, in isla Larga, Mochima, Venezuela Sucre state. Bimonthly collections were made from January 2007 to May 2008, in four study areas denominated: South, North, East and West. In each area, five mangrove roots were sampled, and the specimens were obtained. We analyzed a total of 180 roots and a total of 35 bivalve species and 25 gastropod species were found. The most abundant bivalves were: Isognomon alatus, Isognomon bicolor, Ostrea equestris, Crassostrea rhizophorae and Brachidontes exustus; among gastropods, the most common where: Littorina angulifera, Cymatium pileare and Diodora cayenensis. The months with the highest abundances and number of individuals for both groups were January and July 2007, and March 2008. The mangrove ecosystem in isla Larga, presented a number of individuals and species higher than those reported for other regions in Venezuela and the Caribbean. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (2): 551-565. Epub 2014 June 01.


Las raíces del mangle rojo forman un complejo ecosistema donde se reproducen, refugian y establecen de manera permanente una gran diversidad de organismos. En este estudio, se evaluó la diversidad de bivalvos y gasterópodos que habitan las raíces del mangle rojo Rhizophora mangle, en isla Larga, Bahía de Mochima, estado Sucre Venezuela. Se realizaron recolectas bimensuales desde enero 2007 hasta mayo 2008, en cuatro zonas de estudio denominadas: zona sur, norte, este y oeste. En cada zona se muestrearon cinco raíces de mangle, de donde se obtuvieron los especímenes. Se analizaron un total 180 raíces y se contabilizaron 35 especies de bivalvos y 25 de gasterópodos. Los bivalvos más abundantes fueron: Isognomon alatus, Isognomon bicolor, Ostrea equestris, Crassostrea rhizophorae y Brachidontes exustus, mientras que los gasterópodos más frecuentes: Littorina angulifera, Cymatium pileare y Diodora cayenensis. Los meses donde se observaron las mayores abundancias de especies y número de individuos fueron enero y julio 2007 y marzo 2008. El ecosistema de manglar en isla Larga, presentó un número de individuos y especies superior al reportado en otros trabajos realizados en Venezuela y otras regiones del Caribe.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bivalvia/classification , Ecosystem , Gastropoda/classification , Rhizophoraceae , Biodiversity , Plant Roots , Population Density , Rhizophoraceae/classification , Seasons , Venezuela
18.
Rev. luna azul ; (38): 105-121, ene.-jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-734997

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: determinar la distribución y el estado de los rodales de manglar en Arroyo de Plata (Departamento de Bolívar). Metodología: se realizaron labores de campo a través del arbolado, mediante el muestreo biológico de la flora y de los parámetros físicos y químicos del agua y de los suelos a lo largo de transectos dentro del bosque. Resultados: la composición del rodal incluye cinco especies, Rhizophora mangle (mangle rojo, colorao o colorado), Avicennia germinans (mangle salado, prieto, negro o iguanero), Laguncularia racemosa (mangle blanco, amarillo o bobo), Conocarpus erecta (mangle zaragoza) y Pelliciera rhizophorae (mangle piñuelo). Asociado a la especie pionera (R. mangle) se encontró el líquen (Peltigera sp.), cuya relación se lleva a cabo solo cuando el mangle está en estado de degradación y los parámetros fisicoquímicos de las aguas y los suelos, son extremos. Conclusión: Los manglares mostraron características mixtas, tipo maduro ribereño y de cuenca, donde la especie invasora P. rhizophorae presenta el mayor IVI, debido a su alta densidad. El registro de los líquenes Peltigera sp. y su presencia en los manglares del Caribe colombiano no solo es el primero para esta Región, su distribución puede estar restringida a la zona costera, es incidental, y demuestra su gran capacidad de adaptación a los cambios ambientales, y puede ser considerada entre los en bio-indicadores de las características ambientales, especialmente de las alteraciones actuales de los suelos y las aguas.


Objective: To determine the distribution and status of mangrove stands in Arroyo de Plata (Department of Bolívar). Methodology: Field work was conducted through woodland, using biological sampling of the flora and the physical and chemical parameters of water and soil along transects within the forest. Results: The composition of the stand includes five species, Rhizophoramangle (red, colorao or colorado mangrove), Avicenniagerminans (salty, dark color, black or iguanero mangle) Laguncularia racemosa (white, yellow or bobo mangrove), Conocarpus erecta (zaragoza mangle) and Pelliciera rhizophorae (tea mangrove). The lichen (Peltigera sp), was found associated with the pioneer species (R. mangrove) whose relationship is carried out only when the mangrove is in a state of degradation and the physical-chemical parameters of water and soil, are extreme. Conclusion: Mangroves showed mature coastal basin type mixed characteristics, where the invasive species P. rhizophorae has the highest IVI due to its high density. Registration of Peltigera sp lichens and its presence of the Colombian Caribbean mangrove is not only the first for this region, its distribution may be restricted to the coastal zone, it is incidental and demonstrates its ability to adapt to environmental changes, and can be considered between the bio-indicators of environmental characteristics, especially of the the current alterations of soil and water.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lichens , Caribbean Region , Rhizophoraceae , Wetlands
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820687

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To find out and compare the in vitro antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of two species of mangrove plants.@*METHODS@#Mangrove samples were harvested at the shoreline on the island of Weno, Chuuk State in Micronesia. The phenol content, antioxidant activity (based on DPPH-free radical scavenging) and tyrosinase inhibitory activity in different tissues (leaves, barks and roots) of Rhizophora stylosa (R. stylosa) and Sonneratia alba (S. alba), collected from the island of Weno.@*RESULTS@#Total phenol content ranged from 4.87 to 11.96 mg per g of freeze dried samples. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in R. stylosa bark (85.5%). The highest tyrosinase inhibitory activity was found in S. alba bark. Also, total phenol content and antioxidant activity were higher in methanol extracts than in aqueous extracts.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Taken together, the results of this study proved that mangroves can be excellent sources of antioxidant compounds.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Chemistry , Metabolism , Biphenyl Compounds , Enzyme Inhibitors , Chemistry , Metabolism , Lythraceae , Chemistry , Micronesia , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Metabolism , Phenols , Picrates , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Metabolism , Rhizophoraceae , Chemistry
20.
Campinas; s.n; 27 fev. 2013. 109 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-682548

ABSTRACT

As doenças inflamatórias intestinais (DII) compreendem doença de Crohn e reto-colite ulcerativa inespecífica, ambas caracterizadas por processo inflamatório crônico e descontrolado no intestino mediado por células do sistema imune. DII tem sido objeto de extensas pesquisas nos últimos anos; indefinição sobre etiologia e ausência de tratamento eficaz os justificam. Nesse cenário, produtos naturais surgem como alternativas terapêuticas, uma vez que moléculas com atividade farmacológica pronunciada, especialmente compostos fenólicos, têm merecido destaque. Neste trabalho foram avaliadas três frações orgânicas (aquosa – Aq, butanólica – BuOH, e acetato de EtOAc) obtidas a partir das cascas de Rhizophora mangle em modelos experimentais de colite induzida por dextrana sal sódico (DSS) em camundongos e ácido 2,4,6-tri-nitro-benzeno-sulfônico (TNBS) em ratos. BuOH (0.5 e 1.5 mg.Kg-1) e EtOAc (1.5 mg.Kg-1) foram efetivas no modelo de colite por DSS, enquanto BuOH 0.5 mg.K-1 e EtOAc 1.5 mg.Kg-1 mostraram-se eficazes na colite aguda por TNBS. No modelo sub-crônico de colite os tratamentos BuOH e EtOAc reduziram novamente os danos causados pelo TNBS, embora BuOH tenha se mostrado mais eficiente. A avaliação de mediadores envolvidos nesses modelos experimentais mostrou que tanto BuOH quanto EtOAc exercem ação sobre a atividade da glutationa peroxidase (GSH-Px) e mieloperoxidase (MPO) bem como sobre os níveis das citocinas pró-inflamatórias fator de necrose tumoral-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleucinas 1β, 6 e 12 (IL-1β, IL-6 e IL-12), além de reduzirem a expressão de ciclo-oxigenase-2 (COX-2) no modelo de DSS.


Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprises Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, both are characterized by an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory process in the gut. IBD have been studied over the past few years; undefined etiology and the absence of effective treatments justify these studies. In this scenario, natural products arises as therapeutic alternative, once various studies in animal models have shown efficient treatments. Nowadays, molecules with pronounced pharmacological activities, especially phenolic compounds, have been highlighted. In this work three organic fractions (aqueous – Aq, butanolic – BuOH and ethyl acetate – EtOAc) obtained from Rhizophora mangle barks were evaluated in experimental models of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice and 2,4,6-tri-nitro-benzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. BuOH (0.5 and 1.5 mg.Kg-1) and EtOAc (1.5 mg.Kg-1) were effective in the DSS-induced model, while BuOH (0.5 mg.Kg-1) and EtOAc (1.5 mg.Kg-1) were also effective in acute TNBS-induced model of colitis, which lead to the evaluation of these last ones in sub-chronic TNBS-induced models of colitis. In this model, both treatments reduced the injury provoked by the instillation of TNBS, although BuOH has shown more efficiency. The evaluation of the mediators involved in these experimental models showed that either BuOH as EtOAc act on the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and myeloperoxidase activities as well as on pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-α), interferon- (IFN-γ) and interleukins -1β, 6 and 12 (IL-1, IL-6 and IL-12) levels, and down-regulation of ciclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the DSS-induced model of colitis.


Subject(s)
Mice , Rats , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Proanthocyanidins , Rhizophoraceae , Complementary Therapies
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