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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242676, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278552

ABSTRACT

Abstract Trees occurring on the margins of agricultural areas can mitigate damage from residual herbicides. Rhizospheric microbial activity associated with trees is one of the main remedial capacity indicators. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rhizospheric microbiological activity in tree species subjected to the herbicides atrazine and sulfentrazone via the rhizosphere. The experiment was designed in four blocks and a 6 × 3 factorial scheme. The first factor consisted of six tree species from Brazil and the second of atrazine, sulfentrazone, and water solutions. Four herbicide applications were performed via irrigation. The total dry mass of the plants, mycorrhizal colonization, number of spores, basal respiration of the rhizospheric soil, and survival rate of bioindicator plants after phytoremediation were determined. Trichilia hirta had higher biomass when treated with atrazine and sulfentrazone. Herbicides decreased the microbial activity in Triplaris americana and did not affect the microbiological indicators of Myrsine gardneriana, Schizolobium parahyba, and Toona ciliata. Fewer bioindicator plants survived in soil with Triplaris americana and sulfentrazone. Microbiological indicators were influenced in different ways between species by the presence of herbicides in the rhizosphere.


Resumo As árvores que ocorrem nas margens das áreas agrícolas podem mitigar os danos dos herbicidas residuais. A atividade microbiana rizosférica associada às árvores é um dos principais indicadores de capacidade corretiva. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade microbiológica rizosférica em espécies arbóreas submetidas aos herbicidas atrazina e sulfentrazone via rizosfera. O experimento foi estruturado em quatro blocos e esquema fatorial 6 × 3. O primeiro fator consistiu em seis espécies de árvores do Brasil e o segundo em soluções de atrazine, sulfentrazone e água. Quatro aplicações de herbicidas foram realizadas via irrigação. Foram determinados a massa seca total das plantas, colonização micorrízica, número de esporos, respiração basal do solo rizosférico e taxa de sobrevivência de plantas bioindicadoras após fitorremediação. Trichilia hirta apresentou maior biomassa quando tratada com atrazina e sulfentrazone. Os herbicidas diminuíram a atividade microbiana em Triplaris americana e não afetaram os indicadores microbiológicos de Myrsine gardneriana, Schizolobium parahyba e Toona ciliata. Menos plantas bioindicadoras sobreviveram no solo com Triplaris americana e sulfentrazone. Os indicadores microbiológicos foram influenciados de formas distintas entre as espécies pela presença dos herbicidas na rizosfera.


Subject(s)
Soil Pollutants , Mycorrhizae/chemistry , Herbicides , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Trees , Brazil , Plant Roots/chemistry , Seedlings , Rhizosphere
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879006

ABSTRACT

The study aiming at exploring the potassium-dissolving capacity of rhizosphere potassium-dissolving bacteria from diffe-rent sources and screen the strains with high potassium-dissolving ability, so as to lay a theoretical foundation for cultivation and quality improvement of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis sources. The rhizosphere soil of 10 wild and transplanted species from Yunnan, Sichuan and Guizhou provinces was used as the research object. Potassium-dissolving bacteria were isolated and purified, and their potassium-dissolving capacity was determined by flame spectrophotometry, and identified by physiological, biochemical and molecular biological methods. Twenty-six potassium-dissolving bacteria were purified and 13 were obtained from wild and transplanted strains respectively. It was found through the determination of potassium-dissolving capacity that the potassium-dissolving capacity of 26 strains was significantly different, and the mass concentration of K~+ in the fermentation broth were 1.04-2.75 mg·L~(-1), the mcentration of potassium were 0.01-1.82 mg·L~(-1). The strains were identified as Bacillus, Agrobacterium rhizome and Staphylococcus by physiological, biochemical and 16 S rDNA molecular methods, among them Bacillus amylolyticus(4 strains) was the dominant bacterium of Bacillus. The physiology and biochemistry of rhizosphere potassium-dissolving bacteria in P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis rhizosphere were diffe-rent, and the living environment were different, so the potassium-dissolving capacity also changed. Strain Y4-1 with the highest potassium decomposability was Bacillus amylolytic with a potassium increase of 1.82 mg·L~(-1). The potassium-dissolving ability and the distribution of potassium-dissolving bacteria were different in various habitats. The screening of potassium-dissolving bacteria provided a new strain for the preparation of microbial fertilizer. It is expected that B. amyloidococcus Y4-1 can be used as an ideal strain to cultivate mycorrhizal seedlings of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.


Subject(s)
China , Liliaceae , Paenibacillus , Potassium , Rhizosphere , Soil
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3663-3674, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921455

ABSTRACT

Aquatic plants and the epiphytic microorganisms are important contributors to the purification of constructed wetlands. Taking the dragon-shaped water system of Beijing Olympic Park as a model, this study analyzed the structure and function of the microbial communities reside the sediment, the water body and the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of three submerged plants-Vallisneria natans, Myriophyllum verticillatum, and Potamogeton pectinatus using high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that the microbial diversity from the highest to the lowest were samples from sediment, plant rhizosphere, plant phyllosphere and water. The microbial diversity of plant phyllosphere samples were significantly higher than those of the water body. LEfSe analysis showed that different habitats enriched different microbial groups. The sediments mainly enriched anaerobic microbes, while the water body and the phyllosphere of plants mainly enriched aerobic microbes, and the rhizosphere of plants had the both. Functional prediction analysis showed that the abundance of denitrification marker genes in phyllosphere samples was higher than that in samples from rhizosphere, sediment and water body, and the abundance of denitrification marker genes in phyllosphere samples of M. verticillatum and P. pectinatus was higher than that of V. natans. This study could serve as a guidance for the selection of submerged plants and functional microorganisms for constructed wetlands.


Subject(s)
Beijing , Hydrocharitaceae , Microbiota , Rhizosphere , Water
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878882

ABSTRACT

The natural forest and artificial shed are the main cropping modes of Coptis chinensis. This study is aimed to reveal the rhizosphere soil bacterial community structure difference between under tow C. chinensis cropping modes-natural forest and artificial shed, and to assist us to completely understand soil quality condition,and provide theoretical guidance for soil improvement and C. chinensis planting. The rhizosphere soil samples of 1-5-year-old C. chinensis under tow cropping modes-natural forest and artificial shed were collected. Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the alpha diversity, community composition, community structure of soil bacteria under the tow cropping modes,and the effects of soil nutriment indices on soil bacterial community structure. Through the analysis of species number, Shannon, Chao1 index and ACE index of bacterial community, it was found that the bacterial diversity of 1-year-old C. chinensis soil under natural forest cropping mode was significantly lower than that under artificial shed cropping mode, and the diversity of bacterial communities in soil of 2-5-years old C. chinensis were not significant different between two cropping modes. A total of 53 phyla,60 classes,140 orders and 266 families were detected in the rhizosphere soil of C. chinensis under the cropping modes of natural forest, respectively. The rhizosphere soil of C. chinensis under the cropping modes of artificial shed included 54 phyla,65 classes,140 orders and 264 families, respectively. Under the two cropping modes, the top 10 dominant species of bacterial community abundance are the same, they are Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria,Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, Verrucomicrobia, Gemmatimonadetes, Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria, but there are differences in the abundance sequence. The top 10 dominant species of bacterial community abundance accounted for 74.36% to 74.30% of the total bacteria, and 3.15% to 3.92% of the bacteria are unclassified. The results of Metastat analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonadetes in the rhizosphere soil of C. chinensis under the cropping modes the artificial shed was significantly higher than that under the natural forest cropping mode(P<0.05). MRPP analysis of community structure differences showed that under tow cropping modes, there were significant differences in the bacterial community structure of 1-4-year-old soil bacteria, among which the difference between 1-year-old soil samples was the largest. With the increase of cropping years, the difference gradually decreases, and there is no significant difference in the bacterial community structure between 5-year-old soil samples. RDA analysis and correlation analysis of bacterial community structure and soil physical and chemical properties showed that the order of environmental factors on the rhizosphere soil bacteria of Coptis chinensis was: pH>available P> total P> total K>bulk density>total N>available N>organic matter. The results are helpful to understand the soil health of C. chinensis and provide scientific basis and theoretical guidance for soil improvement and C. chinensis planting.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Coptis , Forests , Humans , Infant , Rhizosphere , Soil , Soil Microbiology
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 209-214, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089298

ABSTRACT

Abstract Rhizosphere microorganisms and endophytes can help their hosts absorb nutrients and regulate the levels of plant hormones. Moreover, they can modulate the expressions of host genes, assist hosts in eliminating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secreting volatile organic compounds. Therefore, rhizosphere microorganisms and endophytes are considered as determinant factors driving processes involved in the growth of host plants. However, the physiological and ecological functions, as well as the molecular mechanism underlying the behavior of rhizosphere microorganisms and endophytes in their role in the adaptive capacity of host plants in the karstic high-calcium environment have not been systematically studied. This review summarizes the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rhizosphere microorganisms and endophytes which help host plants to adapt to various kinds of adverse environments. The adaptive capacities of plants growing in adverse environments, partly, or totally, depends on microorganisms co-existing with the host plants.


Resumo Os microorganismos e endófitos da rizosfera podem ajudar seus hospedeiros a absorver nutrientes e regular os níveis de hormônios vegetais. Além disso, eles podem modular as expressões dos genes hospedeiros, auxiliar os hospedeiros na eliminação de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ROS) e secretar compostos orgânicos voláteis. Portanto, microorganismos e endófitos da rizosfera são considerados determinantes dos processos envolvidos no crescimento de plantas hospedeiras. No entanto, as funções fisiológicas e ecológicas, bem como o mecanismo molecular subjacente ao comportamento dos microrganismos e endofíticos da rizosfera no seu papel na capacidade adaptativa das plantas hospedeiras no ambiente cárstico de alto teor de cálcio, não foram sistematicamente estudados. Esta revisão resume os mecanismos fisiológicos e moleculares de microrganismos e endófitos da rizosfera que ajudam as plantas hospedeiras a se adaptarem a vários tipos de ambientes adversos. As capacidades adaptativas das plantas que crescem em ambientes adversos, em parte ou totalmente, dependem de microrganismos coexistentes com as plantas hospedeiras.


Subject(s)
Symbiosis , Calcium , Plants , Rhizosphere , Endophytes
6.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0762018, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1121084

ABSTRACT

Intoxication by dispersion of glyphosate droplets in coffee seedlings is common and, in addition to the problem of drift, there are reports of contamination of this herbicide to a nontarget plant via the rhizosphere. Hydroponics allows the comparison of the translocation of the glyphosate absorbed by the foliage or the roots and avoids the interaction with the soil, which could hamper the achievement of more accurate conclusions when it is absorbed by the root. Thus, the toxicity of glyphosate sublethal dosages in the initial growth of coffee plants in hydroponics was evaluated by applying four sublethal dosages in two different locations (solution and leaf). Fifty days after the application of the herbicide, the intoxication percentage and the growth of the coffee seedlings were evaluated. From the reduced dose of 115.2 g·ha-1 of glyphosate, height reductions, root length; number of leaves, dry mass of leaf, roots and total, leaf area, and leaf mass ratio were observed. The first two parameters were observed only in leaf application and the others via leaf and solution. The aerial part­root ratio system had an increase in herbicide sublethal dosages when applied to leaves and the ratio of leaf area and specific leaf area increased in both applications. Sublethal dosages of glyphosate applied to young coffee plants under hydroponic conditions impair their growth, and it is more accentuated with increasing doses and when the leaves, instead of the roots, absorb the herbicide.(AU)


Intoxicação por dispersão das gotas de glifosato em mudas de café são comuns, além do problema da deriva, há relatos da passagem desse herbicida para planta não alvo via rizosfera. A hidroponia possibilita comparar a translocação do glifosato absorvido pelas folhagens ou raízes e evita a interação do solo que poderia dificultar a obtenção de conclusões mais precisas quando absorvido pela raiz. Assim, a toxidade de subdoses de glifosato no crescimento inicial de plantas de café em hidroponia foi avaliada aplicando-se quatro subdoses em dois locais distintos (solução e folha). Cinquenta dias após a aplicação do herbicida, a porcentagem de intoxicação e o crescimento das mudas de café foram avaliados. A partir da subdose de 115,2 g·ha-1 de glifosato observaram-se reduções da altura; comprimento radicular; número de folhas; massa seca da folha, raiz, radicular e total; área foliar; razão de massa foliar, sendo os dois primeiros parâmetros observados somente na aplicação foliar e os demais via foliar e solução. A relação parte aérea/sistema radicular aumentaram com o incremento das subdoses do herbicida quando aplicado nas folhas e a razão de área foliar e área foliar específica aumentaram em ambas as vias de aplicação. Subdoses de glifosato aplicadas em plantas jovens de café, em condições hidropônicas, prejudicam o seu crescimento sendo mais acentuados com o aumento das doses e quando o herbicida é absorvido pelas folhas em relação à absorção radicular.(AU)


Subject(s)
Coffee , Hydroponics , Herbicides , Absorption , Environmental Pollution , Toxicity , Rhizosphere
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2657-2673, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878519

ABSTRACT

To investigate the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the changes of rhizosphere microorganisms in the rhizosphere soil of Leymus chinensis during the remediation of PAHs contaminated soil by Comamonas testosteroni (C.t)-assisted Leymus chinensis, we evaluated the removal of PAHs in the rhizosphere of Leymus chinensis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), analyzed the bacterial community and the diversity in Leymus chinensis rhizosphere soil by high-throughput sequencing technology, characterized the correlation among PAHs degradation and bacterial community components performing redundancy analysis (RDA) and network analysis, and predicted PAHs degradation potential via PICRUSt software in this paper. The degradation of PAHs in the rhizosphere of Leymus chinensis was promoted, the abundance and diversity of bacteria and the correlation among bacteria and PAHs were changed, and the degradation potential of PAHs in Leymus chinensis rhizosphere soil was enhanced in the later stage of phytoremediation (60-120 d) due to the incorporation of C.t. The accelerated degradation of three PAHs (Nap, Phe, BaP) was accompanied by the differ abundance and correlation of Proteobacteria (Sphingomonas, MND1, Nordella), Actinomycetes (Rubrobacter, Gaiella), Acidobacteria (RB41) and Bacteroides (Flavobacterium) affected by C.t. The results provide new insight into the microorganism choices for microbial assisted plant remediation of soil PAHs and the mechanisms of enhanced PAHs degradation via the combination of Comamonas testosteroni engineering bacteria and plants.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Comamonas testosteroni/genetics , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/analysis , Rhizosphere , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878801

ABSTRACT

This study is aimed to reveal the rhizosphere soil fungal community structure difference of Coptis chinensis cropping between natural forest and artificial shed modes, and provide theoretical guidance for soil improvement and C. chinensis planting. The rhizosphere soil samples of 1-5-year-old C. chinensis under natural forest and artificial shed modes were collected. Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the community structure and diversity of soil fungi under the tow cropping modes,and the effects of soil nutriment indices on soil fungal community structure. The results suggested that the abundance and diversity of fungal communities in soil of 2-5-year-old C. chinensis were not significant different in both two cropping modes, but it was significantly higher than that in the 1-year-old C. chinensis. Comparing soil samples from the same year-old C. chinensis under the two cropping modes, it was found that there was no significant difference in the abundance and diversity of fungal communities. The fungal community of the rhizosphere soil was different in composition and abundance between tow cropping modes, and between different planting years. The 17 phyla,59 classes and 155 orders,and 17 phyla,59 classes and 157 orders were detected in the rhizosphere soil of C. chinensis under the cropping modes of natural forest and the artificial shed, respectively. Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mortierellomycota were dominant phyla in rhizosphere soil, and the average abundance of the 3 phyla accounted for 74.36% and 74.30% of the total fungi. The results of analysis of similarities showed that there were significant differences in the fungal community structure of 1-year-old and 2-year-old C. chinensis soil fungi, and there was no significant difference in the community structure of 3-5-year-old samples. Under the natural forest cropping mode, there were significant differences among the samples of different years. Under the artificial shed cropping, there were significant differences in fungal community structure between 1-year-old and 3-5-year-old C. chinensis soil, and between 2-year-old and 3-5-year-old C. chinensis soil. The results of canonical correlation analysis showed that soil pH and soil organic matter content were the main factors affecting the soil fungal community structure. Soil organic matter content was positively correlated with Basidiomycota and Cryptomycota, pH was negatively correlated with Basidiomycota and C. ryptomycota. The planting of C. chinensis has promoted the diversity and abundance of rhizosphere fungal community significantly. For the same year-old C. chinensis soil, abundance of fungal community was no significant difference between two cropping modes. There are significant differences in the rhizosphere soil fungal community structure between tow cropping modes in the first two years of planting. Through the interaction between the rhizosphere and the soil and the continuous selection of the rhizosphere to the fungal community, the fungal community structure tended to be the same between the two cropping modes in rhizosphere soil of 3-5-year old C. chinensis. The soil pH and orga-nic matter content were the main factors affecting the change of fungal community structure.


Subject(s)
Coptis , Forests , Fungi , Mycobiome , Plant Roots , Rhizosphere , Soil , Soil Microbiology
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878780

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of Polygonum multiflorum-Andrographis paniculata intercropping system on rhizosphere soil actinomycetes of P. multiflorum, the community structure and diversity of soil actinomycetes were studied by using the original soil as the control group and the rhizosphere soil actinomycetes communities of P. multiflorum under monoculture and intercropping systems as the experimental group. In this study 655 221 effective sequences were obtained with an average length of 408 bp. OTU coverage and rarefaction curve showed that the sequencing could represent the real situation of soil actinomycetes. According to the results of alpha diversity analysis, the diversity soil actinomycetes varied as follows: original soil>intercropping soil>monoculture soil. The soil actinomycetes community structure and the relative abundance of dominant genera were significantly changed by both monoculture and intercropping, especially monoculture. OTU clustering and PCA analysis of soil samples showed that all the soil samples were divided into three distinct groups and the original soil was more similar to intercropping soil. In addition, intercropping increased the relative abundance of some beneficial actinomyces, such as Kitasatospora and Mycobacterium, which was beneficial to maintain soil health and reduce the occurrence of soil-borne diseases. The results show that, P. multiflorum-A. paniculata intercropping reduced the change of community structure and the decrease of diversity of soil actinomycetes caused by P. multiflorum monoculture, and made the actinomycete community in rhizosphere soil of P. multiflorum close to the original soil.


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria , Actinomyces , Agriculture , Andrographis , Fallopia multiflora , Rhizosphere , Soil , Soil Microbiology
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828430

ABSTRACT

Soil microorganisms are one of the important biological indictors of soil quality and can reflct the comprehensive ecological environment characteristics of the soil. The research of soil microbial diversity is the key to know the ecological functions and balance with soil. In this paper, high-throughput sequencing on PCR-amplified 16 S rRNA gene V3-V4 fragments was used to determine the bacterial diversity in rhizosphere soil of A. macrocephala under the treatment with BZJN1 or streptoprofen. The results showed that there were no significant differences of the bacteria in A. macrocephala rhizosphere soil of the streptoprofen treatment group and the biocontrol BZJN1 treatment group. All the soil bacteria was classified into 25 categories,67 classes, 108 orders, 167 families and 271 generas, except some unidentified bacteria. Proteobacteria(30.7%-34.8%) was the dominant phylum, of which Alphaproteobacteria(16.8%-18.5%) was the dominant subgroup. Compared with the control group, the relative abundance of multiple phylums bacteria in the rhizosphere soil of A. macrocephala was significantly changed in the streptoprofen treatment group and the biocontrol BZJN1 treatment group. In addition, RDA analysis showed that there was connection with different environmental factors and microbial communities. The abundance of the three genera in the rhizosphere soil of A. macrocephala was significantly positively correlated with Invertase, Urease and AP. PICRUSt function prediction results showed that BZNJ1 could enhance some bacterial functions and promote the plant growth. Biocontrol is a new type of green and safety control pest method. BZNJ1 significantly enhances some bacterial functions on the basis of effectively preventing root rot of A. macrocephala and promoting plant growth, and has no significant effect on the soil bacterial community structure. All the results can provide theoretical support for popularization of BZNJ1.


Subject(s)
Atractylodes , Bacteria , Rhizosphere , Soil , Soil Microbiology
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827986

ABSTRACT

Intercropping farming system is one of the essence of traditional agriculture in China and one of the most common and basic patterns of modern ecological planting. Intercropping system uses the principle of species diversity to create reasonable interspecific interaction conditions with obvious productivity advantages. In this paper, the interspecies interaction is divided into aboveground and underground parts from the space view, and its influence and mechanism on the yield and secondary metabolites of medicinal plants are elaborated.The interspecific interaction in the aboveground part mainly introduces the distribution and utilization of space resources among plants. The interspecific interaction in the underground part mainly introduces the soil rhizosphere effect and related mediating factors, root exudates, soil microorganisms, root space structure and soil environmental factors. On the basis of understanding the mechanism of interspecific interaction, this paper further discusses the application of intercropping in traditional Chinese medicine ecological agriculture, taking the effective control of diseases and insect pests, the increase of medicinal material yield and the improvement of medicinal material quality as the benefit index, so as to seek better advantages of intercropping and provide ideas for the utilization of intercropping production mode in traditional Chinese medicine ecological agriculture.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Plants, Medicinal , Rhizosphere , Soil
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827985

ABSTRACT

Rhizosphere is the main place for the communication between medicinal plants and rhizosphere microorganisms. Medicinal plants are closely related to the diversity and richness of rhizosphere microorganisms, and rhizosphere microorganisms in the rhizosphere of medicinal plants have important effects on the growth and development, yield, quality and resilience of medicinal plants. The reasonable and effective utilization of the principle of interaction between medicinal plants and rhizosphere microorganisms has practical guiding significance for promoting the growth of medicinal plants, enhancing the ability of resistance to diseases and resisting the invasion of pathogens. This paper reviewed the research status of medicinal plants and rhizosphere microorganisms in recent years, including the influence of medicinal plants on rhizosphere microorganisms, the influence of rhizosphere microorganisms on medicinal plants and the mechanism of interaction between medicinal plants and rhizosphere microorganisms. The problems existing in the study of medicinal plants and rhizosphere microorganisms and the direction for further study were also pointed out.


Subject(s)
Plant Roots , Plants, Medicinal , Rhizosphere , Soil Microbiology
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773103

ABSTRACT

In order to reveal the relationship between the amount of soil microorganisms and the quality of Fritillaria taipaiensis, both cultivated and wild F. taipaiensis were collected from Chongqing, Wuxi at different stages of their growth as objects of the research. The mycorrhizal infection rate and colonization intensity, peimisine and total alkaloid content in bulbs, the amount of microorganisms and biomass carbon content in rhizospheric soil were all determined using common methods. The results showed that the typical arbuscular-vesicle roots were formed after the AM fungi infected the F. taipaiensis roots which were collected from different origins. The mycorrhizal infection rates were ranged from 78.74% to 98.68% and the colonization intensities were ranged from 13.29% to 37.06%. The rhizospheric microorganisms of F. taipaiensis showed abundant resources. The distribution rule of them in the rhizospheric soil was as follows: the amount of bacteria>the amount of actinomycetes>the amount of fungi. The rhizospheric bacteria, decomposition inorganic phosphorus bacteria, decomposition organic phosphorus bacteria, actinomycetes amount and the total number of microbes increased first and then decreased with the increase of years, while decomposition potassium bacteria showed decreasing trend and fungi showed gradual increasing trend. The soil microbial flora content in the soil changed from "bacterial type" with a high fertility to "fungal type" with a low fertility. The mass fraction of peimisine and total alkaloid content increased first and then decreased with the increase of over the years, the same trend of culturable rhizosphere soil bacteria and actinomycetes indicated that the growth years affected the quality of soil and medicinal materials on different levels. Therefore, the diversity of microbial communities in rhizosphere soil reduced with the increase of years leading to the continuous cropping obstacles and the destruction of medicinal quality of F. taipaiensis.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Fritillaria , Chemistry , Microbiology , Mycorrhizae , Plant Roots , Rhizosphere , Soil Microbiology
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774523

ABSTRACT

Rhizosphere bacteria play a vital role in plant nutrition absorption,growth and disease resistance. In this study,high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the rhizosphere bacterial communities of Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba. Moreover,the function of dominant rhizosphere bacterial communities was analyzed. We found that Sphingobacteriales,Sphingomonadales and Nitrosomonadaceae were both dominant and specific bacteria in the rhizosphere of S. miltiorrhiza. The main functions of dominant rhizosphere bacteria communities in both species include promoting transformation of soil nutrients,improving plant immunity and ability of stress tolerance. This study was the first to compare rhizobacterial communities structure and function of S. miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba,which provided a new theoretical reference for studing the rhizosphere mechanism of healthy S. miltiorrhiza planting in the future.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Classification , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Rhizosphere , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Microbiology , Soil Microbiology
15.
Mycobiology ; : 180-190, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760541

ABSTRACT

In this study, eight-month-old ectomycorrhizae of Tuber borchii with Corylus avellana were synthesized to explore the influence of T. borchii colonization on the soil properties and the microbial communities associated with C. avellana during the early symbiotic stage. The results showed that the bacterial richness and diversity in the ectomycorrhizae were significantly higher than those in the control roots, whereas the fungal diversity was not changed in response to T. borchii colonization. Tuber was the dominant taxon (82.97%) in ectomycorrhizae. Some pathogenic fungi, including Ilyonectria and Podospora, and other competitive mycorrhizal fungi, such as Hymenochaete, had significantly lower abundance in the T. borchii inoculation treatment. It was found that the ectomycorrhizae of C. avellana contained some more abundant bacterial genera (e.g., Rhizobium, Pedomicrobium, Ilumatobacter, Streptomyces, and Geobacillus) and fungal genera (e.g., Trechispora and Humicola) than the control roots. The properties of rhizosphere soils were also changed by T. borchii colonization, like available nitrogen, available phosphorus and exchangeable magnesium, which indicated a feedback effect of mycorrhizal synthesis on soil properties. Overall, this work highlighted the interactions between the symbionts and the microbes present in the host, which shed light on our understanding of the ecological functions of T. borchii and facilitate its commercial cultivation.


Subject(s)
Colon , Corylus , Fungi , Magnesium , Mycorrhizae , Nitrogen , Phosphorus , Podospora , Rhizobium , Rhizosphere , Soil , Streptomyces
16.
Mycobiology ; : 31-39, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760529

ABSTRACT

Three fungal isolates designated as CNUFC-YR329-1, CNUFC-PTS103-1, and CNUFC-PTS2-1 were discovered during a survey of fungal diversity of the order Mortierellales from freshwater and pine tree rhizosphere soil samples in Korea. The strains were analyzed morphologically and phylogenetically based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal DNA gene sequences. Based on their morphology and phylogeny, the three isolates were identified as Mortierella elongata, M. horticola, and M. humilis, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, M. elongata, M. horticola, and M. humilis, belonging to an undiscovered taxon, have not been previously described in Korea.


Subject(s)
Classification , DNA, Ribosomal , Fresh Water , Korea , Mortierella , Phylogeny , Pinus , Rhizosphere , Soil
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 757-769, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974306

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Anthropogenic activity, such as accidental oil spills, are typical sources of urban mangrove pollution that may affect mangrove bacterial communities as well as their mobile genetic elements. To evaluate remediation strategies, we followed over the time the effects of a petroleum hydrocarbon degrading consortium inoculated on mangrove tree Avicennia schaueriana against artificial petroleum contamination in a phytoremediation greenhouse experiment. Interestingly, despite plant protection due to the inoculation, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from the total community DNA indicated that the different treatments did not significantly affect the bacterial community composition. However, while the bacterial community was rather stable, pronounced shifts were observed in the abundance of bacteria carrying plasmids. A PCR-Southern blot hybridization analysis indicated an increase in the abundance of IncP-9 catabolic plasmids. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of naphthalene dioxygenase (ndo) genes amplified from cDNA (RNA) indicated the dominance of a specific ndo gene in the inoculated petroleum amendment treatment. The petroleum hydrocarbon degrading consortium characterization indicated the prevalence of bacteria assigned to Pseudomonas spp., Comamonas spp. and Ochrobactrum spp. IncP-9 plasmids were detected for the first time in Comamonas sp. and Ochrobactrum spp., which is a novelty of this study.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/metabolism , Avicennia/microbiology , Hydrocarbons/metabolism , Plasmids/genetics , Plasmids/metabolism , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Biodegradation, Environmental , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Petroleum/analysis , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Petroleum Pollution/analysis , Avicennia/metabolism , Rhizosphere
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 463-470, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951805

ABSTRACT

Abstract Employing Illumina Hiseq whole genome metagenome sequencing approach, we studied the impact of Trichoderma harzianum on altering the microbial community and its functional dynamics in the rhizhosphere soil of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.). The metagenomic datasets from the rhizosphere with (treatment) and without (control) T. harzianum inoculation were annotated using dual approach, i.e., stand alone and MG-RAST. The probiotic application of T. harzianum in the rhizhosphere soil of black pepper impacted the population dynamics of rhizosphere bacteria, archae, eukaryote as reflected through the selective recruitment of bacteria [Acidobacteriaceae bacterium (p = 1.24e-12), Candidatus koribacter versatilis (p = 2.66e-10)] and fungi [(Fusarium oxysporum (p = 0.013), Talaromyces stipitatus (p = 0.219) and Pestalotiopsis fici (p = 0.443)] in terms of abundance in population and bacterial chemotaxis (p = 0.012), iron metabolism (p = 2.97e-5) with the reduction in abundance for pathogenicity islands (p = 7.30e-3), phages and prophages (p = 7.30e-3) with regard to functional abundance. Interestingly, it was found that the enriched functional metagenomic signatures on phytoremediation such as benzoate transport and degradation (p = 2.34e-4), and degradation of heterocyclic aromatic compounds (p = 3.59e-13) in the treatment influenced the rhizosphere micro ecosystem favoring growth and health of pepper plant. The population dynamics and functional richness of rhizosphere ecosystem in black pepper influenced by the treatment with T. harzianum provides the ecological importance of T. harzianum in the cultivation of black pepper.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/growth & development , Trichoderma/growth & development , Viruses/growth & development , Piper nigrum/microbiology , Biodiversity , Fungi/growth & development , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Trichoderma/isolation & purification , Trichoderma/genetics , Viruses/isolation & purification , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Ecosystem , Piper nigrum/growth & development , Rhizosphere , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics
19.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(2): 908-917, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977354

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Mexican tropical wetland is a coastal system with capacity to support the contamination derived from the extractive industry and the transformation of crude oil, due to its high plant biodiversity and the presence of rhizospheric reducing sulphate bacteria from plants tolerant to crude oil. A field experiment was carried out for nine months to evaluate the adaptation of aquatic plants Leersia hexandra grass and Eleocharis palustris spikerush reintroduced in a wetland contaminated with 75 560 to 118 789 mg kg-1 of weathered petroleum and also with sulfate, derived from oil and gas pipeline leaks, and gaseous emissions. The effect of the weathered oil and sulfate on the dry matter production and the population density of the bacterium Desulfovibrio spp, isolated from the rhizosphere and soil of both plants, were evaluated. The means of the variables had statistical differences (p< 0.05). Weathered oil inhibited dry matter production of L. hexandra but not E. palustris; the effect of petroleum on Desulfovibrio density was very significant negative in the rhizosphere and in the soil of both plants. Sulfate reduced the dry matter of grass. The exposure of Desulfovibrio to sulfate significantly reduced its density in rhizosphere and soil (p< 0.01). We recommend the use of E. palustris for the decontamination of flooded soils contaminated with weathered oil and sulfate. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(2): 908-917. Epub 2018 June 01.


Resumen El humedal tropical mexicano es un sistema costero con capacidad para resistir la contaminación derivada de la industria extractiva y la transformación del petróleo crudo, debido a su alta biodiversidad de plantas y la presencia de bacterias rizosféricas reductoras de sulfato de plantas tolerantes al petróleo crudo. Se realizó un experimento en campo durante nueve meses para evaluar la adaptación de las plantas acuáticas Leersia hexandra y Eleocharis palustris reintroducidas en un humedal contaminado con 75 560 a 118 789 mg kg-1 de petróleo intemperizado y también con sulfato, derivados de fugas de oleoductos y de emisiones gaseosas crónicas. Se evaluó el efecto del petróleo intemperizado y del sulfato en la producción de materia seca vegetal y en la densidad poblacional de la bacteria Desulfovibrio spp, aislada de la rizosfera y del rizoplano de ambas especies vegetales. Las medias de las variables tuvieron diferencias estadísticas (p< 0.05). El petróleo intemperizado inhibió la producción de materia seca de L. hexandra pero no de E. palustris; el efecto del petróleo en la densidad de Desulfovibrio fue negativo muy significativo en la rizosfera y en el rizoplano de ambas plantas. El sulfato redujo la materia seca de L. hexandra. La exposición de Desulfovibrio a sulfato redujo muy significativamente (p< 0.01) su densidad en rizosfera y en rizoplano. Recomendamos el uso de E. palustris para la descontaminación de suelos inundables afectados con petróleo intemperizado y con sulfato.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Petroleum/adverse effects , Petroleum Pollution , Eleocharis , Wetlands , Rhizosphere , Mexico
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 240-247, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889244

ABSTRACT

Abstract Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) fungi play a crucial role in the growth of soybean; however, the planting system employed is thought to have an effect on AM fungal communities in the rhizosphere. This study was performed to explore the influence of continuous soybean cropping on the diversity of Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and to identify the dominant AM fungus during the seedling stage. Three soybean cultivars were planted under two and three years continuous cropping, respectively. The diversity of AM fungi in the rhizosphere soil at the seedling stage was subsequently analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that an increase in cropping years improved the colonization rate of AM in all three soybean cultivars. Moreover, the dominant species were found to be Funneliformis mosseae and Glomus species. The results of cluster analysis further confirmed that the number of years of continuous cropping significantly affected the composition of rhizospheric AM fungal communities in different soybean cultivars.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Soybeans/growth & development , Mycorrhizae/isolation & purification , Mycorrhizae/classification , Seedlings/growth & development , Biodiversity , Rhizosphere , Time Factors , Cluster Analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mycorrhizae/genetics , Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis
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