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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 629-637, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897012

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is widely distributed in nature, circulating between triatomine bugs and sylvatic mammals, and has large genetic diversity. Both the vector species and the genetic lineages of T. cruzi present a varied geographical distribution. This study aimed to verify the influence of sympatry in the interaction of T. cruzi with triatomines. Methods: The behavior of the strains PR2256 (T. cruzi II) and AM14 (T. cruzi IV) was studied in Triatoma sordida (TS) and Rhodnius robustus (RR). Eleven fifth-stage nymphs were fed by artificial xenodiagnosis with 5.6 × 103 blood trypomastigotes/0.1mL of each T. cruzi strain. Every 20 days, their excreta were examined for up to 100 days, and every 30 days, the intestinal content was examined for up to 120 days, by parasitological (fresh examination and differential count with Giemsa-stained smears) and molecular (PCR) methods. Rates of infectivity, metacyclogenesis and mortality, and mean number of parasites per insect and of excreted parasites were determined. RESULTS: Sympatric groups RR+AM14 and TS+PR2256 showed higher values of the four parameters, except for mortality rate, which was higher (27.3%) in the TS+AM14 group. General infectivity was 72.7%, which was mainly proven by PCR, showing the following decreasing order: RR+AM14 (100%), TS+PR2256 (81.8%), RR+PR2256 (72.7%) and TS+AM14 (36.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Our working hypothesis was confirmed once higher infectivity and vector capacity (flagellate production and elimination of infective metacyclic forms) were recorded in the groups that contained sympatric T. cruzi lineages and triatomine species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Arthropod Vectors/physiology , Rhodnius/physiology , Triatoma/physiology , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Sympatry , Arthropod Vectors/genetics , Arthropod Vectors/pathogenicity , Rhodnius/genetics , Rhodnius/pathogenicity , Species Specificity , Time Factors , Triatoma/genetics , Triatoma/pathogenicity , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Blood/parasitology , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Xenodiagnosis/methods , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Intestines/parasitology , Mice
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(5): 642-645, Sep-Oct/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728905

ABSTRACT

Introduction Rhodnius neglectus is a triatomine that colonizes different palm species. In this study, we aimed to describe the presence of this triatomine bug in the royal palms (Roystonea oleracea) in a rural region of the State of Goiás. Methods Palm infestation was investigated by dissecting the palms or by using live-bait traps. Results Two palm trees were infested by R. neglectus negative for Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent for Chagas disease. In the study area, R. neglectus is frequently found in households. Conclusions The adaptation of this species to palm trees introduced in Brazil for landscaping purposes poses another challenge for controlling the vectors of Chagas disease. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Arecaceae/parasitology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Rhodnius/physiology , Arecaceae/classification , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(7): 836-844, 1jan. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-696009

ABSTRACT

Lipophorin (Lp) is the main haemolymphatic lipoprotein in insects and transports lipids between different organs. In adult females, lipophorin delivers lipids to growing oocytes. In this study, the interaction of this lipoprotein with the ovaries of Rhodnius prolixus was characterised using an oocyte membrane preparation and purified radiolabelled Lp (125I-Lp). Lp-specific binding to the oocyte membrane reached equilibrium after 40-60 min and when 125I-Lp was incubated with increasing amounts of membrane protein, corresponding increases in Lp binding were observed. The specific binding of Lp to the membrane preparation was a saturable process, with a Kdof 7.1 ± 0.9 x 10-8M and a maximal binding capacity of 430 ± 40 ng 125I-Lp/µg of membrane protein. The binding was calcium independent and pH sensitive, reaching its maximum at pH 5.2-5.7. Suramin inhibited the binding interaction between Lp and the oocyte membranes, which was completely abolished at 0.5 mM suramin. The oocyte membrane preparation from R. prolixus also showed binding to Lp from Manduca sexta. When Lp was fluorescently labelled and injected into vitellogenic females, the level of Lp-oocyte binding was much higher in females that were fed whole blood than in those fed blood plasma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Lipoproteins/physiology , Oocytes/physiology , Rhodnius/physiology , Blood , Feeding Behavior , Lipoproteins/metabolism , Oocytes/metabolism , Plasma , Rhodnius/metabolism
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(4): 494-500, jun. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-678285

ABSTRACT

In this study, we describe the fate of fatty acids that are incorporated from the lumen by the posterior midgut epithelium of Rhodnius prolixus and the biosynthesis of lipids. We also demonstrate that neutral lipids (NL) are transferred to the haemolymphatic lipophorin (Lp) and that phospholipids remain in the tissue in which they are organised into perimicrovillar membranes (PMMs). 3H-palmitic acid added at the luminal side of isolated midguts of R. prolixus females was readily absorbed and was used to synthesise phospholipids (80%) and NL (20%). The highest incorporation of 3H-palmitic acid was on the first day after a blood meal. The amounts of diacylglycerol (DG) and triacylglycerol synthesised by the tissue decreased in the presence of Lp in the incubation medium. The metabolic fates of 3H-lipids synthesised by the posterior midgut were followed and it was observed that DG was the major lipid released to Lp particles. However, the majority of phospholipids were not transferred to Lp, but remained in the tissue. The phospholipids that were synthesised and accumulated in the posterior midgut were found to be associated with Rhodnius luminal contents as structural components of PMMs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Digestive System/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Phospholipids/metabolism , Rhodnius/metabolism , Membrane Lipids/metabolism , Rhodnius/physiology
5.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 33(2): 205-213, abr.-jun. 2013. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-689557

ABSTRACT

Introducción.A pesar del control de los insectos domiciliados, se siguen presentando casos de enfermedad de Chagas con la participación en la transmisión de especies peridomiciliarias y selváticas, una de las cuales es Rhodnius robustus, especie reportada con infecciones naturales de Trypanosoma cruzi y T. rangeli. Objetivo. Describir el comportamiento de R. robustus durante su alimentación en condiciones de laboratorio. Materiales y métodos. En cada estadio de desarrollo de R. robustus se analizó el tiempo promedio para alcanzar la repleción, número promedio de deyecciones, porcentaje de individuos que defecan durante la comida y ganancia de peso después de la alimentación. Resultados. Rhodnius robustus tardó entre 19:26 y 44:55 (minutos:segundos) en alimentarse a repleción; los insectos defecaron en todos sus diferentes estadios durante la alimentación. El porcentaje de individuos que defecan durante la alimentación varía de 13,3 % a 93,3 %. Por otro lado, el consumo promedio de sangre en el quinto estadio, 337,19 mg, duplica la cantidad ingerida por los adultos, 161,25 mg. Conclusiones. En todos los estadios de R. robustus hay defecación durante la alimentación, factor que favorece su competencia vectorial. Sin embargo, el tiempo para la primera deyección, el porcentaje de deyecciones y los individuos que defecan durante la comida, así como la cantidad de sangre ingerida, varían entre los estadios, lo cual indica que el comportamiento alimenticio está mediado por variables dependientes de la edad/estadio.


Introduction: Despite of indoor insect control measures, American trypanosomiasis cases still occur, with the participation of both peridomestic and sylvan species. One of these species is Rhodnius robustus, which has been found naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli. Objective: To describe the feeding behavior of R. robustus under laboratory conditions. Materials and methods: We analyzed time spent for repletion, the number of defecations, the percentage and number of times insects defecated during blood intake, and the weight gained after blood feeding in each nymph stage of R. robustus. Results: Repletion for R. robustus took between 19:26 to 44:55 (minutes:seconds) and all nymph stages defecated during blood feeding. The proportion of individuals which defecated during blood feeding varied between 13.3% and 93.3%. On the other hand, the highest average blood intake was observed in the fifth stage (337.19 mg), which is twice the blood intake of adults (161.25 mg). Conclusions: All stages of R. robustus dejected during blood feeding, which is an important factor for its vectorial competence. Nevertheless, the time prior to the first dejection, the percentage of dejections and number of individuals that dejected upon blood feeding, as well as the amount of ingested blood varied among stages, which means that feeding behavior is mediated by variables depending on age/stage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Rhodnius/physiology , Animals, Laboratory , Defecation , Feeding Behavior
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(4): 490-495, July-Aug. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-596600

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A competência vetorial de triatomíneos é determinada a partir de estudos sobre biologia e comportamento alimentar em condições de campo e/ou laboratório. Fatores como número de picadas, quantidade de sangue ingerido e tempo de defecação têm implicações na transmissão de tripanosomatídeos. Parâmetros biológicos e comportamentais de Rhodnius neglectus e R. robustus foram comparados experimentalmente para estimar diferenças no potencial de transmissão de tripanosomatídeos. MÉTODOS: Os triatomíneos foram observados diariamente para determinar o período de desenvolvimento ninfal, mortalidade, detecção da fonte alimentar, número de picadas, tempo do repasto sanguíneo, quantidade de sangue ingerido, tempo entre o final do repasto e a primeira defecação e frequência de defecação. RESULTADOS: Apesar do período ninfal de R. neglectus (156,4 ± 25,05d) ter sido menor que o de R. robustus (204,7 ± 13,22d), a mortalidade foi similar entre as espécies (63,8 e 65%, respectivamente). R. robustus e R. neglectus detectaram rapidamente a fonte alimentar, especialmente no primeiro estádio (2,5 e 1,6min, respectivamente). Apesar do tempo de repasto sanguíneo ter sido similar entre as espécies, R. robustus ingeriu em média uma maior quantidade de sangue em todos os estádios, com maiores valores para as ninfas V. As ninfas de R. neglectus picaram mais vezes as fontes alimentares, defecaram mais rápido e mais frequentemente que as de R. robustus. CONCLUSÕES: Sob as condições de laboratório usadas, R. neglectus possui um maior potencial para transmissão de Trypanosoma cruzi e T. rangeli que R. robustus, atributo que deve ser avaliado em infecções experimentais.


INTRODUCTION: The vector competence of triatomine insects is determined by studying their biology and feeding behavior under field and/or laboratory conditions. Factors including the number of bites, the amount of blood ingested and defecation time have implications for trypanosome transmission. The biological and behavioral parameters of Rhodnius neglectus and R. robustus were compared under experimental conditions to estimate differences in the potential transmission of trypanosomes. METHODS: The insects were observed daily to determine the period of nymphal development, mortality, detection of food source, number of bites, time of blood meal intake, amount of blood ingested, time elapsed between the end of the meal and the first defecation and the frequency of defecation. RESULTS: Although the nymphal development of R. neglectus (156.4 ± 25.05d) was lower than that of R. robustus (204.7 ± 13.22d), the mortality between species was similar (63.8 and 65% respectively).R. robustus and R. neglectus quickly located the food source, especially in the first instar (2.5 and 1.6 min, respectively). Although the time of blood meal intake was similar between the species, R. robustus ingested a larger amount of blood on average at all stages and exhibited higher values for the fifth instar. Nymphs of R. neglectus bit more frequently, and they defecated faster and more often than those of R. robustus. CONCLUSIONS: Under laboratory conditions, R. neglectus has a greater potential for transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli than does R. robustus, an attribute that should be further evaluated in experimental infections.


Subject(s)
Animals , Defecation/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Rhodnius/physiology , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/growth & development , Laboratories , Life Cycle Stages , Rhodnius/classification , Rhodnius/growth & development
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(4): 461-466, June 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-592190

ABSTRACT

Chagas disease is a major public health issue and is mainly spread by Triatominae insects (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Rhodnius prolixus is the main vector species in Northern South America. Host-seeking behaviour in R. prolixus is mediated by different compounds that are produced by and emanate from the host or microbiota on the host's skin. We tested the behavioural responses of sylvatic first filial generation (F1) and colony insects to extracts of human skin with a dual choice olfactometer. In addition, we compared the antennal phenotypes in both populations. No statistical differences were found between the two populations at the behavioural level. Both showed a preference for face and feet extracts and this effect was abolished for face extracts after treatment with an antibacterial gel. The observation of the antennal phenotype showed that there were differences between both groups in the total length, total surface area and number and density of bristles. However, the number and density of chemoreceptive sensilla (basiconic and thin and thick-walled trichoids) and the total density of sensilla did not show statistically significant differences. These results demonstrate that colony insects, which have only been fed with living hens for the last 30 years, are attracted by human skin extracts in a similar way as F1 sylvatic insects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Arthropod Antennae/physiology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Pheromones , Rhodnius/physiology , Skin , Animals, Laboratory , Arthropod Antennae , Arthropod Antennae/ultrastructure , Chemoreceptor Cells/physiology , Chemotaxis/physiology , Face , Foot , Phenotype , Rhodnius , Tissue Extracts
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(8): 1165-1170, Dec. 2009. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-538177

ABSTRACT

Ecological niche modelling was used to predict the potential geographical distribution of Rhodnius nasutus Stål and Rhodnius neglectus Lent, in Brazil and to investigate the niche divergence between these morphologically similar triatomine species. The distribution of R. neglectus covered mainly the cerrado of Central Brazil, but the prediction maps also revealed its occurrence in transitional areas within the caatinga, Pantanal and Amazon biomes. The potential distribution of R. nasutus covered the Northeastern Region of Brazil in the semi-arid caatinga and the Maranhão babaçu forests. Clear ecological niche differences between these species were observed. R. nasutus occurred more in warmer and drier areas than R. neglectus. In the principal component analysis PC1 was correlated with altitude and temperature (mainly temperature in the coldest and driest months) and PC2 with vegetation index and precipitation. The prediction maps support potential areas of co-occurrence for these species in the Maranhão babaçu forests and in caatinga/cerrado transitional areas, mainly in state of Piaui. Entomologists engaged in Chagas disease vector surveillance should be aware that R. neglectus and R. nasutus can occur in the same localities of Northeastern Brazil. Thus, the identification of bugs in these areas should be improved by applying morphometrical and/or molecular methods.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecosystem , Insect Vectors/physiology , Rhodnius/physiology , Brazil , Geography , Insect Vectors/classification , Population Dynamics , Rhodnius/classification
10.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2009. 171 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-937867

ABSTRACT

Rhodnius prolixus Stål (1859) é o principal vetor doméstico da doença de Chagas na Venezuela, Colômbia e também em países da América Central. Diante desta importância vetorial, realizaram-se diferentes estudos sobre o seu comportamento e fisiologia. Primeiramente, avaliou-se a atividade dos insetos em relação ao uso de abrigos na ausência e na presença de odores de hospedeiro. Demonstrou-se que odores provenientes do hospedeiro modulam a dinâmica de saída e entrada em abrigos, bem como a atividade locomotora em ninfas de R. prolixus mantidas em jejum avançado. Posteriormente, estudaram-se aspectos da orientação ao hospedeiro mediada por calor, utilizando uma fonte térmica artificial. Demonstrou-se que, de acordo com estudos anteriores realizados com Triatoma infestans, ninfas de R. prolixus são capazes de estimar a distância a que se encontra uma fonte de calor sem contato físico com a mesma. Contudo, mostrou-se que os insetos necessitam deslocar-se livremente para conseguirem estimar a distância à fonte. Interessantemente, demonstrou-se que a distância mais freqüente de disparo do PER (reflexo de extensão da probóscide) em R. prolixus é a de 5 mm da fonte térmica e que tal distância não varia em função da temperatura da mesma (testes desenvolvidos com fontes a 35 ou 40 ºC).


Além disto, demonstrou-se que estímulos mecânicos têm um papel como pista sensorial que, integrada às pistas térmicas, são capazes de afetar o desencadeamento do PER em triatomíneos. Posteriormente, aprofundaram-se estudos sobre aspectos comportamentais relacionados com a fase de seleção do local de picada. Para isto utilizou-se uma fonte de calor que simulava a presença de um vaso sanguíneo sob a pele de um hospedeiro. Este aparato era constituído , basicamente, por uma placa de alumínio e um fio de níquel-cromo, ambos termostatizados, de forma que a placa foi mantida a 33°C e o fio a 36°C. Este aparato era recoberto com uma membrana de látex que simulava a textura da pele de um hospedeiro. Demonstrou-se que a integração bilateral das antenas é necessária para guiar corretamente as tentativas de picada dos insetos. Finalmente, realizaram-se estudos anatômico-funcionais do rostro e das antenas dos insetos. Constatou-se que na superfície do rostro de R. prolixus não há sensilas termoreceptoras, mas uma grande quantidade de pêlos mecanoreceptores e um número relevante de quimioreceptores concentrados no extremo distal. Também se evidenciou que as projeções dos neurônios sensoriais do rostro de R. prolixus projetam-se no gânglio subesofágico, e subsequentemente, nos gânglios protorácico e posterior. Finalmente, foram encontradas regiões do sistema nervoso central onde há uma aparente convergência entre as fibras das antenas com aquelas oriundas do rostro


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Guinea Pigs , Mice , Chagas Disease/transmission , Rhodnius/parasitology , Rhodnius/physiology , Triatominae/growth & development
11.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2009. 171 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-658715

ABSTRACT

Rhodnius prolixus Stål (1859) é o principal vetor doméstico da doença de Chagas na Venezuela, Colômbia e também em países da América Central. Diante desta importância vetorial, realizaram-se diferentes estudos sobre o seu comportamento e fisiologia. Primeiramente, avaliou-se a atividade dos insetos em relação ao uso de abrigos na ausência e na presença de odores de hospedeiro. Demonstrou-se que odores provenientes do hospedeiro modulam a dinâmica de saída e entrada em abrigos, bem como a atividade locomotora em ninfas de R. prolixus mantidas em jejum avançado. Posteriormente, estudaram-se aspectos da orientação ao hospedeiro mediada por calor, utilizando uma fonte térmica artificial. Demonstrou-se que, de acordo com estudos anteriores realizados com Triatoma infestans, ninfas de R. prolixus são capazes de estimar a distância a que se encontra uma fonte de calor sem contato físico com a mesma. Contudo, mostrou-se que os insetos necessitam deslocar-se livremente para conseguirem estimar a distância à fonte. Interessantemente, demonstrou-se que a distância mais freqüente de disparo do PER (reflexo de extensão da probóscide) em R. prolixus é a de 5 mm da fonte térmica e que tal distância não varia em função da temperatura da mesma (testes desenvolvidos com fontes a 35 ou 40 ºC).


Além disto, demonstrou-se que estímulos mecânicos têm um papel como pista sensorial que, integrada às pistas térmicas, são capazes de afetar o desencadeamento do PER em triatomíneos. Posteriormente, aprofundaram-se estudos sobre aspectos comportamentais relacionados com a fase de seleção do local de picada. Para isto utilizou-se uma fonte de calor que simulava a presença de um vaso sanguíneo sob a pele de um hospedeiro. Este aparato era constituído , basicamente, por uma placa de alumínio e um fio de níquel-cromo, ambos termostatizados, de forma que a placa foi mantida a 33°C e o fio a 36°C. Este aparato era recoberto com uma membrana de látex que simulava a textura da pele de um hospedeiro. Demonstrou-se que a integração bilateral das antenas é necessária para guiar corretamente as tentativas de picada dos insetos. Finalmente, realizaram-se estudos anatômico-funcionais do rostro e das antenas dos insetos. Constatou-se que na superfície do rostro de R. prolixus não há sensilas termoreceptoras, mas uma grande quantidade de pêlos mecanoreceptores e um número relevante de quimioreceptores concentrados no extremo distal. Também se evidenciou que as projeções dos neurônios sensoriais do rostro de R. prolixus projetam-se no gânglio subesofágico, e subsequentemente, nos gânglios protorácico e posterior. Finalmente, foram encontradas regiões do sistema nervoso central onde há uma aparente convergência entre as fibras das antenas com aquelas oriundas do rostro


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Guinea Pigs , Mice , Chagas Disease/transmission , Rhodnius/physiology , Rhodnius/parasitology , Triatominae/growth & development
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(7): 690-695, Nov. 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-498379

ABSTRACT

Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is the second most important vector of Chagas Disease (CD) in Ecuador. The objective of this study was to describe (and compare) the life cycle, the feeding and defecation patterns under laboratory conditions of two populations of this specie [from the provinces of Manabí (Coastal region) and Loja (Andean region)]. Egg-to-adult (n = 57) development took an average of 189.9 ± 20 (Manabí) and 181.3 ± 6.4 days (Loja). Mortality rates were high among Lojan nymphs. Pre-feeding time (from contact with host to feeding initiation) ranged from 4 min 42 s [nymph I (NI)] to 8 min 30 s (male); feeding time ranged from 14 min 45 s (NI)-28 min 25 s (male) (Manabí) and from 15 min 25 s (NI)-28 min 57 s (nymph V) (Loja). The amount of blood ingested increased significantly with instar and was larger for Manabí specimens (p < 0.001). Defecation while feeding was observed in Manabí specimens from stage nymph III and in Lojan bugs from stage nymph IV. There was a gradual, age-related increase in the frequency of this behaviour in both populations. Our results suggest that R. ecuadoriensis has the bionomic traits of an efficient vector of Trypanosoma cruzi. Together with previous data on the capacity of this species to infest rural households, these results indicate that control of synanthropic R. ecuadoriensis populations in the coastal and Andean regions may have a significant impact for CD control in Ecuador and Northern Peru.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Defecation/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Life Cycle Stages/physiology , Rhodnius/physiology , Insect Vectors/growth & development , Rhodnius/growth & development
13.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 50(2): 113-116, Mar.-Apr. 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-482230

ABSTRACT

The sylvatic triatomine Rhodnius pallescens is considered to be the most important and widespread vector of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli in Panama. However, its behavior and biological characteristics have only been partially investigated. Thus, to achieve sustainable and efficient control over Chagas disease in Panama, a better understanding of the ecology and biology of R. pallescens is essential. In this study we evaluated R. pallescens host feeding sources using a dot-blot assay, and the trypanosome infection index by PCR analysis in a Chagas disease endemic area of central Panama. It was found that in peridomestic palm trees, 20.3 percent of the examined bugs had fed on opossums (Didelphis marsupialis). However, we observed an increased anthropophagy (25.4 percent) for those bugs collected inside houses. Considering the domestic and peridomestic habitats as a whole, the proportion of collected R. pallescens infected with trypanosomes was 87.4 percent. In the two habitats the predominant infection was with T. cruzi (80-90 percent). Between 47-51 percent of the analyzed triatomines were infected with T. rangeli. Mixed infections (40-51 percent) were also detected. These findings provide a better basis for the implementation of a rational control and surveillance program for Chagas disease in regions where R. pallescens is endemic.


O triatomíneo silvestre Rhodnius pallescens é considerado o mais importante vetor do Trypanosoma cruzi e Trypanosoma rangeli no Panamá. Entretanto, seu comportamento e características biológicas são pouco estudados. Para controlar a doença de Chagas no Panamá é necessário melhorar a compreensão dos aspectos eco-biológicos do R. pallescens. Neste estudo, investigaram-se as fontes de alimentação de R. pallescens usando dot-blot e o índice de infecção por Trypanosoma por metodologia molecular, em área endêmica da doença de Chagas na região central do Panamá. Foi observado que 20,3 por cento dos barbeiros coletados em palmeiras peridomésticas se alimentavam de gambás (Didelphis marsupialis). Contudo, barbeiros coletados dentro das residências apresentaram antropofagia aumentada (25,4 por cento). Considerando o ambiente doméstico e peridoméstico juntos, o percentual de R. pallescens infectados com Trypanosoma foi de 87,4 por cento. Nos ambientes doméstico e peridoméstico, a infecção por T. cruzi foi de 80,4 por cento e 90 por cento; a infecção por T. rangeli foi de 47 por cento e 51 por cento, respectivamente. Observou-se infecção mista em 43 por cento dos triatomíneos coletados em ambiente doméstico e em 51 por cento dos triatomíneos peridomésticos. Estes achados fornecem embasamento para a implementação de um controle adequado e um programa de vigilância para a doença de Chagas em regiões onde o R. pallescens é endêmico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , Mice , Insect Vectors , Rhodnius , Birds , Chagas Disease/transmission , Feeding Behavior , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Opossums , Panama , Rhodnius/parasitology , Rhodnius/physiology , Trypanosoma
14.
Parasitol. latinoam ; 62(3/4): 154-164, dez. 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-481416

ABSTRACT

The development of strategies for the adequate control of the vector transmission of Chagas disease depends on the availability of updated data on the triatomine species present in each region, their geographical distribution, natural infections by Trypanosoma cruzi and/or T. rangeli, eco-biological characteristics and synanthropic behavioral tendencies. This paper summarizes and updates current information, available in previously published reports and obtained by the authors our own field and laboratory studies, mainly in northwest of Peru. Three triatomine species exhibit a strong synanthropic behavior and vector capacity, being present in domestic and peridomestic environments, sometimes showing high infestation rates: Rhodnius ecuadoriensis, Panstrongylus herreri and Triatoma carrioni The three species should be given continuous attention by Peruvian public health authorities. P. chinai and P. rufotuberculatus are bugs with increasing potential in their role as vectors according to their demonstrated synanthropic tendency, wide distribution and trophic eclecticism. Thus far we do not have a scientific explanation for the apparent absence ofT. dimidiata from previously reported geographic distributions in Peru. It is recommended, in the Peruvian northeastern Amazon region, the development of field studies on species of the genus Rhodnius, as well as of other triatominae, to evaluate their present Trypanosomatidae vector capacity.


El desarrollo de estrategias adecuadas para el control de la transmisión vectorial de la Enfermedad de Chagas depende: de la disponibilidad de datos actualizados de las especies de triatominos presentes en cada región, de su distribución geográfica, infección natural por Trypanosoma cruzi ylo T. rangeli, características eco-biológicas y tendencias de comportamiento sinantrópico. Este trabajo resume y actualiza la información disponible en la literatura y aquella obtenida en nuestros estudios de campo y de laboratorio desarrollados en los últimos años por los autores, predominantemente, en la región Nor-Occidental del Perú. El resultado de esas observaciones es la detección de que, tres especies de triatominos presentan un importante comportamiento sinantrópico y capacidad vectorial, ocupando ambientes intradomiciliares y peridomiciliares: Rhodnius ecuadoriensis, Panstrongylus herreri y Triatoma carrioni. Las tres especies deben recibir constante atención por parte de las autoridades de Salud Pública Peruana. P. chinai y P rufotuberculatus tienen potencial creciente en su papel de vectores, por la comprobada tendencia sinantrópica, distribución geográfica y eclecticismo trófico. Se desconocen las causas de la aparente ausencia actual de Triatoma dimidiata, dada su presencia constatada anteriormente en el Perú. Se recomienda que en la región Nor-Oriental Amazónica Peruana se realicen en forma urgente estudios sobre las especies del genero Rhodnius y de otros triatominos que permitan evaluar la real capacidad vectorial de los Trypano-somatideos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Demography , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/physiology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Triatominae/classification , Ecosystem , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Prevalence , Panstrongylus/classification , Panstrongylus/physiology , Panstrongylus/parasitology , Peru/epidemiology , Rhodnius/classification , Rhodnius/physiology , Rhodnius/parasitology , Species Specificity
15.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 79(1): 87-95, Mar. 2007. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-445588

ABSTRACT

Rhodnius prolixus Malpighian tubules (MTs) are a good model for fluid and ion secretion studies in view of the dramatic postprandial diuresis, which follows its massive blood meals. Ingestion of a blood meal equals to 10-12 times their initial body mass, leads to rapid activation of high output by excretory system, which eliminates 40-50 percent of the fluid mass. Secretion of ions and water is stimulated 1000-fold by serotonin and diuretic hormone. These hormones cooperate synergistically to activate adenylate cyclase activity from MTs cells, which increase the level of intracellular cAMP. The anti-diuretic hormones have also an important role in the fluid maintenance of Rhodnius prolixus. Several hours after insect feeding occurs a reduction in urine flow, that has been thought to result from a decreased diuretic hormone release or from a novel mechanism of anti-diuresis involving insect cardioacceleratory peptide 2b (CAP2b) and cyclic GMP. In this article it is discussed how the hormone regulation of fluid transport is done in Rhodnius prolixus MTs.


Os túbulos de Malpighi (TMs) de Rhodnius prolixus são reconhecidos por serem excelentes modelos para o estudo da secreção de fluidos e íons devido a grande diurese que ocorre quando esses animais se alimentam de sangue. O inseto, após alimentação, pode aumentar seu peso corporal inicial em até 10-12 vezes, o que leva a rápida ativação do sistema excretor, que elimina 40-50 por cento do fluido corporal. A secreção de íons e água é estimulada 1000 vezes pela serotonina e pelos hormônios diuréticos. Esses hormônios agem sinergicamente ativando a adenil ciclase das células dos TMs, aumentando os níveis intracelulares de AMPc. Os hormônios anti-diuréticos também têm um importante papel na manutenção dos fluídos corporais do Rhodnius prolixus. Várias horas após a alimentação do inseto ocorre uma redução do fluxo urinário, o que foi sugerido ser decorrente da diminuição da liberação dos hormônios diuréticos ou da anti-diurese envolvendo o peptídeo cardioaceleratório 2b (CAP2b) e o GMPc. Neste artigo é discutida a regulação hormonal do transporte de fluido nos MTs de Rhodnius prolixus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diuresis/physiology , Insect Hormones/metabolism , Malpighian Tubules/physiology , Neuropeptides/metabolism , Rhodnius/physiology , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/metabolism , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Ion Transport/physiology , Kinins/metabolism , Malpighian Tubules/metabolism , Rhodnius/metabolism , Serotonin/metabolism
16.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 27(supl.1): 101-109, ene. 2007. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-475382

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Rhodnius colombiensis ocasionalmente ingresa a las viviendas humanas por lo cual se ha sugerido que podría desempeñar un importante papel en la transmisión de la tripanosomiasis americana. Objetivo. Definir el desempeño de R. colombiensis como vector, comparando los patrones de alimentación y defecación con los de R. prolixus, el principal vector domiciliado de Trypanosoma cruzi en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Para cada estadio de R. colombiensis y R. prolixus se estudió el tiempo promedio para iniciar la picada, el tiempo para alcanzar la repleción, el número de interrupciones y defecaciones durante la comida, el tiempo transcurrido entre el fin de la alimentación y la primera defecación, el número de defecaciones durante 10, 60 y 95 min después de la comida y la cantidad de sangre ingerida. Resultados. El tiempo promedio para iniciar la picada de las ninfas N5, machos y hembras presentaron diferencias significativas entre las dos especies. El promedio de defecaciones por insecto durante los 10 min después de la alimentación fue mayor para cada estadio de R. prolixus y presentó diferencias significativas con R. colombiensis. Por otro lado, el peso promedio de sangre ingerida por R. colombiensis y R. prolixus en cada estadio presentó diferencias significativas en N1, N2, N5 y hembras. Conclusión.R. colombiensis presenta menor número de defecaciones que R. prolixus durante la comida. Un mayor porcentaje de R. prolixus defecan durante los 10, 60 y 95 min después de la alimentación. Sin embargo, R. colombiensis permanece mayor tiempo asociado al hospedero vertebrado, lo cual aumentaría la probabilidad de transmisión teniendo en cuenta el ingreso ocasional de los adultos a las viviendas humanas y sus elevadas prevalencias con T. cruzi y T. rangeli.


Introduction. Rhodnius colombiensis occasionally comes into human dwellings and consequently its role as an important potential vector in the transmission of American trypanosomiasis has been suggested. Objective. The potential role of R. colombiensis as vector was defined by comparing the feeding and defecation patterns between R. colombiensis and R. prolixus, the main domiciliary vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in Colombia. Materials and methods. For each developmental stage of R. colombiensis and R. prolixus the following data were collected: (1) time of feeding initiation, (2) the time for reaching the repletion, (3) the number of interruptions and defecations during the feeding, (4) the time between the end of the feeding and the first defecation, (5) the number of defecations during 10, 60 and 95 minutes of observation after feeding, and (6) the quantity of blood ingested. Results. The mean time of feeding initiation of the fifth instar nymphs, males and females, showed significant differences between the two species. The average of insects that defecated within 10 minutes after feeding was higher for each successive stage of R. prolixus and showed significant differences with Rhodnius colombiensis. In contrast, the mean weight of blood ingested by each stage of R. colombiensis and R. prolixus was significantly different between the N1, N2, N5 and females of these species. Conclusion. Rhodnius colombiensis produced fewer defecations than R. prolixus during feeding. A higher percentage of R. prolixus defecated within 10, 60 and 95 minutes after feeding. However, R. colombiensis remains a longer time in contact with the vertebrate host, thus raising the probability of its role in transmission considering its occasional entry to human dwellings and its higher prevalences of infection withT. cruzi and T. rangeli.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease , Rhodnius/growth & development , Rhodnius/physiology , Trypanosoma cruzi/growth & development , Defecation
17.
Parasitol. latinoam ; 61(1/2): 23-31, jun. 2006. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-432845

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo se presentan algunas evidencias que contribuyen a la verificación en condiciones de laboratorio, del estatus taxonómico de R. prolixus y R. robustus, por medio del estudio de la viabilidad de los híbridos entre ambas especies, mediante la caracterización morfológica y la determinación de parámetros reproductivos; además se aporta información que podría fundamentar un mecanismo de aislamiento reproductivo postcigótico. El estudio morfológico llevado a cabo en las diferentes ninfas (I, II, III, IV y V estadio) sobre el desarrollo de la callosidad postocular, la presencia de espinas en el primer y segundo segmento antenal y de un espolón en el primer segmento tarsal; reveló una variabilidad morfológica en los estadios ninfales de R. prolixus y R. robustus. Sólo el cruce híbrido de de R. robustus y de R. prolixus produjo huevos fértiles. Al comparar los parámetros reproductivos de los híbridos y los controles, se encontraron diferencias estadísti-camente significativas en la fertilidad, tiempo de desarrollo embrionario, tiempo preoviposición, supervivencia de los estadios ninfales del I, III y V.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Female , Rhodnius/anatomy & histology , Rhodnius/physiology , Fertility , Hybridization, Genetic , Insect Vectors/anatomy & histology , Nymph/anatomy & histology , Nymph/physiology , Oviposition/physiology , Rhodnius/growth & development , Species Specificity , Survival Analysis , Time Factors
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 101(1): 75-79, Feb. 2006. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-430842

ABSTRACT

In light of the Central American Initiative for the control of Chagas disease, efforts were made on the part of Costa Rican and Nicaraguan teams, working separately, to determine the present status of Rhodnius pallescens in areas close to the common border of the two countries, where the insect has appeared within the last few years. The opportunity was also used to establish whether R. prolixus, a vector present in some areas of Nicaragua, has been introduced in recent years into Costa Rica with Nicaraguan immigrants. It became evident that wild adults of R. pallescens are common visitors to houses in different towns of a wide area characterized as a humid, warm lowland, on both sides of the frontier. Up to the present, this bug has been able to colonize a small proportion of human dwellings only on the Nicaraguan side. There was strong evidence that the visitation of the adult bug to houses is related to the attraction of this species to electric lights. There were no indications of the presence of R. prolixus either in Nicaragua or in Costa Rica in this area of the Caribbean basin. Triatoma dimidiata, a widespread domestic species in both countries, was totally absent in the explored areas of Costa Rica but occasionally occurs on the Nicaraguan side. Serological surveys in children of both areas showed that transmission of Chagas disease takes place in a rather small degree in Costa Rica and more commonly in Nicaragua, indicating that R. pallescens could be a potential threat as a vector in this particular region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Ecology , Rhodnius/physiology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Costa Rica/epidemiology , Nicaragua/epidemiology , Population Density , Population Dynamics , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 96(4): 587-591, May 2001. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-285566

ABSTRACT

The period of resistance to starvation and the loss of weight until death of Rhodnius neivai in all stages of development were studied. Work was based on experiments conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. One hundred specimens of each nymphal instar were observed: 50 were fed on chicken and 50 on rabbit. Adult females and males were kept together and fed on each host. All bugs were weighed weekly until death. Laid eggs were collected weekly and observed during five weeks to obtain hatchability. Resistance to starvation was similar with both hosts and increased with the evolutionary stage, excepting the 5th nymphal instar and adults. With both hosts, loss of weight was abrupt in the first week and steady in the following weeks. In adults, on the first weeks after eating, there was little or no mortality, after which mortality increased rapidly with the starving time. Reproductive output was higher in the bugs fed on rabbit. R. neivai is among the least resistant triatomine species


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Reproduction , Rhodnius/physiology , Starvation , Weight Loss , Chickens , Food , Insect Control/methods , Rhodnius/growth & development , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 94(suppl.1): 223-8, Sept. 1999. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-245626

ABSTRACT

The use of biochemical and genetic characters to explore species or population relationships has been applied to taxonomic questions since the 60s. In responding to the central question of the evolutionary history of Triatominae, i.e. their monophyletic or polyphyletic origin, two important questions arise (i) to what extent is the morphologically-based classification valid for assessing phylogenetic relationships? and (ii) what are the main mechanisms underlying speciation in Triatominae? Phenetic and genetic studies so far developed suggest that speciation in Triatominae may be a rapid process mainly driven by ecological factors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Environment , Triatominae/physiology , Rhodnius/genetics , Rhodnius/physiology , Triatoma/genetics , Triatoma/physiology , Triatominae/genetics
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