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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244311, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285616

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado ​​para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados ​​para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Rifampin/pharmacology
2.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 47(2): e2101, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341492

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En el departamento del Atlántico los estudios de resistencia del Mycobacterium tuberculosis se han limitado a drogas de segunda línea. Objetivo: Determinar prevalencia de resistencia a amikacina, kanamicina, capreomicina y ofloxacina en casos de tuberculosis resistente a isoniacida, rifampicina o a ambas drogas, en el periodo 2013 a 2016 en el departamento del Atlántico. Métodos: Estudio transversal de 194 aislamientos resistentes a isoniacida, rifampicina o ambas, por metodología Genotype MTBDR plus versión 2, enviados al Instituto Nacional de Salud en el periodo 2013 al 2016 para ser confirmados y procesados para drogas de segunda línea. La proporción de resistencia, se hizo según variables sociodemográficas, clínica y de vigilancia en salud pública. Resultados: Las comorbilidades frecuentes encontradas fueron desnutrición con el 18,56 por ciento, seguido de infección concomitante VIH-tuberculosis con el 13,40 por ciento. La ofloxacina en casos no tratados obtuvo la mayor resistencia global con el 1,50 por ciento (IC 95 por ciento 0,18-5,33). En los que fueron previamente tratados la resistencia global a capreomicina fue del 8,10 por ciento (IC 95 por ciento 2,7-17,8). En los resistentes a rifampicina, un caso fue extensivamente resistente y dos casos resistentes en los multidrogorresistente. Conclusiones: Se encontró baja resistencia a fluoroquinolonas y fármacos inyectables en pacientes no tratados resistentes a isoniacida, rifampicina o ambas, que muestra que todavía no constituye un problema mayor en el departamento del Atlántico. Se debe complementar su seguimiento con buen manejo tanto físico como psicológico y un equipo de salud fortalecido que actúe prontamente y ayude a la adherencia del paciente a los tratamientos(AU)


Introduction: In Atlántico department, resistance studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been limited to second-line drugs. Objective: Determine prevalence of resistance to amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin and ofloxacin in cases of tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin or both, in the period 2013 to 2016 in Atlántico department. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 194 isolations resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin or both, by Genotype MTBDR plus version 2 methodology, that were sent to the National Institute of Health from 2013 to 2016 to be confirmed and processed for second-line drugs. The resistance ratio was made according to sociodemographic, clinical and public health surveillance variables. Results: The common comorbilities found were malnutrition with 18.56 percent, followed by concomitant HIV-tuberculosis infection with 13.40 percent. Ofloxacin in non-treated cases achieved the highest overall resistance with 1.50 percent (95 percent CI 0.18-5.33). In those previously treated, global resistance to capreomycin was 8.10 percent (95 percent CI 2.7-17.8). In the ones resistant to rifampicin, one case was extensively resistant and two cases were resistant in multi-drugs resistant. Conclusions: Low resistance to fluoroquinolones and injectable drugs was found in non-treated patients who were resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin or both, showing that it is not yet a major problem in Atlántico department. Its follow-up should be complemented with good physical and psychological management and a strengthened health team that acts promptly and helps the patient adherence to treatments(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Fluoroquinolones/antagonists & inhibitors , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(3): 129-134, 20210000. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1359534

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad por arañazo de gato (EAG) es una zoonosis emergente causada por Bartonella henselae. Puede presentarse de forma atípica, incluyendo meningitis, neuroretinitis, endocarditis y compromiso hepatoesplénico, lo cual es poco frecuente en adultos inmunocompetentes. Su manejo terapéutico es controvertido dada la ausencia de ensayos aleatorizados al respecto. Se describen 5 casos de EAG con compromiso hepato-esplénico, donde la correcta anamnesis epidemiológica permitió la sospecha diagnóstica, evitando la realización de procedimientos invasivos en la mayoría de los casos. La posibilidad de realización de PCR y serología para Bartonella spp. fueron de vital importancia


Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an emerging zoonosis caused by Bartonella henselae. It can occur atypically including meningitis, neuroretinitis, endocarditis and hepatosplenic involvement, a rare occurrence in immunocompetent adults. Therapeutic management is controversial, supported by case series and retrospective data published literature. Five cases of CSD with hepatosplenic involvement are described. The correct clinical and epidemiological anamnesis allow the diagnostic and avoid the performance of invasive procedures in most cases. The possibility of performing Bartonella spp PCR and serology is crucial


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Cat-Scratch Disease/diagnosis , Cat-Scratch Disease/therapy , Ultrasonography , Immunocompromised Host , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Blood Culture , Duration of Therapy , Liver Abscess/therapy
4.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(2): 224-227, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248740

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leprosy is one of the neglected diseases in the world and Brazil is the second country with more cases. A retrospective study was conducted based on the medical records of 196 leprosy patients diagnosed during the course of 13 years at a university hospital. The aim was to describe the adverse effects of polychemotherapy, as well the most prevalent and most vulnerable populations. In the study, dapsone was the most implicated drug, especially in women, and the risk increased with age. The authors conclude that with this patient profile, greater vigilance should be taken regarding possible adverse effects, especially anemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Leprostatic Agents/adverse effects , Leprosy/drug therapy , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Clofazimine/therapeutic use , Dapsone/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination
5.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(1): 82-84, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152789

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cutaneous tuberculosis is a rare infection that is difficult to diagnose, because it shows less sensitivity and specificity in classic complementary exams when compared with the pulmonary form. The Xpert MTB/RIF® method offers an early diagnosis that identifies the DNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the main mutations that give the bacterium resistance to rifampicin. The authors present a case of scrofuloderma whose diagnosis was quickly obtained through the secretion of a cervical lesion, allowing an early diagnosis and the initiation of appropriate treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/therapeutic use , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Sensitivity and Specificity , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Lymph Nodes
6.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(3): 215-222, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138555

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La prevención de la tuberculosis activa en los grupos de riesgo es clave para el control y eliminación de la tuberculosis. El tratamiento de la infección tuberculosa latente (TITL) con rifapentina e isoniazida en dosis semanales por 12 semanas es más corto que con otros esquemas, tiene menor hepatotoxicidad, mejor adherencia y es costo-efectivo. El OBJETIVO del estudio es evaluar la factibilidad de implementar este esquema a nivel programático en Chile. MÉTODOS: Se hizo una intervención piloto en territorios seleccionados entre mayo de 2018 y marzo de 2019. En esos territorios se reemplazó el esquema normado de TITL con isoniazida 6 meses por el esquema rifapentina-isoniazida 12 semanas. Además, se amplió la población objetivo, incluyendo a contactos mayores de 14 años. El tratamiento consistió en la administración conjunta de isoniazida y rifapentina por vía oral con frecuencia semanal, por 12 semanas, de forma supervisada por personal de salud. RESULTADOS: Ingresaron 238 pacientes al piloto, de los cuales 53% fueron mujeres y 54,2% fueron mayores de 14 años. Del total de pacientes, 203 (85,3%) completaron el tratamiento, 22 (9,2%) lo abandonaron, 8 (3,4%) presentaron reacciones adversas y 5 tuvieron otros motivos de egreso. CONCLUSIÓN: Tanto el TITL con rifapentinaisoniazida por 3 meses en dosis semanales supervisadas, como la incorporación de contactos adultos a TITL, son factibles de implementar a nivel programático en Chile.


INTRODUCTION: Prevention of active tuberculosis in risk groups is crucial in tuberculosis control and elimination. Treatment of latent tuberculosis (TITL) with rifapentine and isoniazid in weekly doses for 12 weeks is shorter than other pharmacological treatments, with less liver toxicity, better patient compliance and it is cost-effective. The OBJECTIVE of this study is to evaluate the feasibility to implement this treatment at a programmatic level in Chile. METHODS: A pilot intervention was conducted in selected territories between May 2018 and March 2019. Within these territories, the regulated treatment with isoniazid 6 months was replaced by the 12 weeks treatment with weekly rifapentine-isoniazide. Additionally, the target population was expanded to include contacts over 14 years old, currently not included in the national guidelines. Treatment consisted in oral administration of rifapentine and isoniazide together once a week for 12 weeks, under supervision of trained health workers. RESULTS: From 238 patients entered to the protocol, 53% of them were women and 54.2% were older than 14 years-old. Out of the total number of patients, 203 (85.3%) completed treatment, 22 (9.2%) abandoned, 8 (3.4%) had adverse drug reactions, and 5 ended treatment for different causes. CONCLUSION: Both TITL with rifapentine-isoniazide in 12 supervised weekly doses, and the inclusion of adult contacts in TITL, are feasible to implement at a programmatic level in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Rifampin/analogs & derivatives , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Drug Administration Schedule , Chile , Pilot Projects , Administration, Oral , Patient Compliance , Directly Observed Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , National Health Programs
7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 343-346, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130895

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cutaneous tuberculosis is a rare extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis which, like disseminated tuberculosis, commonly occurs in immunocompromised patients. Poncet reactive arthritis is a seronegative arthritis affecting patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis, which is uncommon even in endemic countries. We report a previously healthy 23-year-old male patient with watery diarrhea associated with erythematous ulcers on the lower limbs and oligoarthritis of the hands. Histopathological examination of the skin showed epithelioid granulomatous process with palisade granulomas and central caseous necrosis. AFB screening by Ziehl-Neelsen staining showed intact bacilli, the culture was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and colonoscopy revealed multiple shallow ulcers. Disseminated tuberculosis associated with reactive Poncet arthritis was diagnosed, with an improvement of the clinical and skin condition after appropriate treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Cutaneous/immunology , Tuberculosis, Cutaneous/pathology , Immunocompromised Host , Arthritis, Reactive/immunology , Immunocompetence , Pyrazinamide/therapeutic use , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Skin Ulcer/immunology , Skin Ulcer/pathology , Skin Ulcer/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Ethambutol/therapeutic use , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(3): e00068719, 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, CONASS, HANSEN, HANSENIASE, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1089447

ABSTRACT

Resumo: O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar a aceitabilidade da quimioprofilaxia com rifampicina em dose única (PEP) entre os contatos, casos índices de hanseníase e profissionais da saúde e fatores relacionados que possam influenciar na adesão. Realizou-se um estudo qualitativo de análise de conteúdo após aplicação de entrevistas semiestruturadas segundo protocolo proposto no programa LPEP (2016), realizado em Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brasil, em julho de 2016. Participaram do estudo indivíduos notificados com hanseníase, contatos e profissionais da saúde. Utilizou-se o software QRS NVivo versão 10. Foram contatados 80 indivíduos, sendo 54 (67%) contatos, 11 (14%) casos índices e 15 (19%) profissionais de saúde. Dentre os contatos, 94% (51/54) tomaram PEP. Foram identificadas 3 categorias quanto à PEP: compreensão, aceitação e expectativa da intervenção. A compreensão se mostrou relacionada ao cuidado da equipe de saúde. Aceitar ou não a medicação revelou-se relacionada ao medo, confiança e proteção, operacionalidade da estratégia, autoestima e insegurança quanto à intervenção. A expectativa da intervenção relacionou-se ao bem-estar, prevenção da doença e de sequelas, diminuição de gastos públicos e ampliação do acesso. Houve reconhecimento da relevância da estratégia PEP pela possibilidade de interrupção da cadeia de transmissão, diminuição de casos novos e melhora na qualidade de vida. A insegurança em tomar a medicação e de a doença se manifestar influenciaram negativamente à aceitação da PEP; por outro lado, as informações prévias sobre a estratégia PEP contribuíram para o fortalecimento da confiança nos profissionais de saúde e para a aceitabilidade da medicação(AU).


Abstract: The aim was to analyze the acceptability of chemoprophylaxis with single-dose rifampicin (PEP) in contacts, index leprosy cases, and health professionals and related factors that can influence adherence. A qualitative content analysis study was performed after application of semi-structured interviews according to the protocol proposed in the LPEP program (2016) drafted at Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, in July 2016. Study participants included individuals with leprosy, contacts, and health professionals. The QRS NVivo software version 10 was used. A total of 80 individuals were contacted, including 54 (67%) contacts, 11 (14%) index cases, and 15 (19%) health professionals. 94% of the contacts (51/54) took PEP. Three PEP categories were identified: understanding, acceptance, and expectation towards the intervention. Understanding proved to be related to care by the health team. Acceptance (or lack thereof) of the medication was related to fear, trust, and protection, the strategy's operability, self-esteem, and insecurity regarding the intervention. Expectation towards the intervention was related to wellbeing, prevention of the disease, sequelae, decrease in public expenditures, and expanded access. Participants acknowledged the relevance of the PEP strategy based on the possibility of interrupting the transmission chain, reduction in new cases, and improved quality of life. Insecurity in taking the medication and the possibility of the disease manifesting itself had a negative influence on acceptance of PEP, while prior information on the PEP strategy helped strengthen trust in the health professionals and the medication's acceptance(AU).


Resumen: El objetivo fue analizar la aceptabilidad de la quimioprofilaxis con rifampicina en dosis única (PEP) entre los contactos, casos índices de hanseniasis y profesionales de salud, así como los factores relacionados que puedan influenciar en la adhesión al tratamiento. Se realizó un estudio cualitativo de análisis de contenido, tras la realización de entrevistas semiestructuradas, según el protocolo propuesto en el programa LPEP (2016), realizado en Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brasil, en julio de 2016. Participaron en el estudio individuos diagnosticados con hanseniasis, contactos y profesionales de la salud. Se utilizó el software QRS NVivo versión 10. Se contactó con 80 individuos, siendo 54 (67%) contactos, 11 (14%) casos índices y 15 (19%) profesionales de salud. Entre los contactos 94% (51/54) tomaron PEP. Se identificaron 3 categorías respecto a la PEP: comprensión, aceptación y expectativa de intervención. La comprensión estuvo relacionada con el cuidado del equipo de salud. El aceptar o no la medicación estuvo relacionado con el miedo, confianza y protección, operatividad de la estrategia, autoestima e inseguridad de la intervención. La expectativa de la intervención estuvo relacionada con el bienestar, prevención de la enfermedad, así como secuelas, disminución de gasto público y ampliación del acceso. Existió un reconocimiento de la relevancia de la estrategia PEP por la posibilidad de interrupción de la cadena de transmisión, disminución de casos nuevos y mejora en la calidad de vida. La inseguridad en tomar la medicación y de que la enfermedad se manifestara influenciaron negativamente en la aceptación de la PEP, por otro lado, la información previa sobre la estrategia PEP contribuyó al fortalecimiento de la confianza en los profesionales de salud y a la aceptabilidad de la medicación(AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Chemoprevention , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Leprosy/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , Leprosy/therapy
9.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(6): e20190345, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134909

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar características clínicas, tomográficas e microbiológicas dos pacientes com doença pulmonar causada pela M. kansasii (DPMK) atendidos em unidade ambulatorial no período 2006-2016. Métodos Estudo descritivo, em que foram analisados 38 pacientes. Foram analisadas as características demográficas, clínico-radiológicas, laboratoriais e terapêuticas. Resultados A média de idade foi 64 anos (DP=10,6; IIQ=57-72; mediana=65,0) e 22 (57,9%) eram pacientes do sexo masculino. Comorbidade pulmonar estava presente em 89,5%. A comorbidade mais frequente foi a bronquiectasia (78,9%). Tratamento anterior para tuberculose pulmonar (TBP) foi relatado em 65,9%. O esquema terapêutico mais utilizado foi rifampicina, isoniazida e etambutol (44,7%). A tomografia de tórax (TCT) mostrou bronquiectasia (94,1%), distorção arquitetural (76,5%), espessamento de septo (67,6%) e cavidades (64,7%). A doença foi bilateral em 85,2%. Houve 10,7% de resistência à rifampicina, 67,9% resistentes ao etambutol e sensibilidade à claritromicina. Conclusão Em pacientes com doença pulmonar estrutural, é importante a busca de DPMNT, principal diagnóstico diferencial com TBP. TC de tórax demonstra diferentes padrões que se sobrepõem ao de doença estrutural causada por TBP ou outras enfermidades pulmonares. Destaca-se a resistência ao etambutol, fármaco componente do esquema preconizado.


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate clinical, tomographic, and microbiological characteristics of pulmonary disease caused by M. kansasii (MKPD) in patients treated at an outpatient unit from 2006-2016. Methods We studied thirty eight patients, and analyzed socio-demographic, clinical-radiological, laboratory, and therapeutic characteristics. Results The mean age was 64 years (SD = 10.6; IIQ = 57-72; median = 65.0), and 22 (57.9%) male patients. Pulmonary comorbidity was present in 89.5% of the patients. The most frequent comorbidity was bronchiectasis (78.9%). Previous treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) was found in 65.9%. The most used therapeutic regimen was rifampicin, isoniazid and ethambutol (44.7%). Chest tomography (CT) showed bronchiectasis (94.1%), architectural distortion (76.5%), septum thickening (67.6%), and cavities (64.7%). Disease was bilateral in 85.2%. We observed 10.7% resistance to rifampicin, 67.9% resistance to ethambutol, and sensitivity to clarithromycin. Conclusion In patients with structural lung disease, it is important to search for NTM, the main differential diagnosis with PTB. Chest CT showed different patterns that overlapped with structural disease caused by PTB or other lung diseases. We observed resistance to ethambutol, a drug component of the recommended regimen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium kansasii/isolation & purification , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/drug therapy , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/drug therapy , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/epidemiology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Ethambutol/therapeutic use , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases/microbiology , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/diagnosis
10.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20200009, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090798

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Given the global burden of tuberculosis, shortened treatment regimens with existing or repurposed drugs are needed to contribute to tuberculosis control. The long duration of treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (DS-TB) is associated with nonadherence and loss to follow up, and the treatment success rate of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is low (approximately 50%) with longer regimens. In this review article, we report recent advances and ongoing clinical trials aimed at shortening regimens for DS-TB and MDR-TB. We discuss the role of high-dose rifampin, as well as that of clofazimine and linezolid in regimens for DS-TB. There are at least 5 ongoing clinical trials and 17 observational studies and clinical trials evaluating shorter regimens for DS-TB and MDR-TB, respectively. We also report the results of observational studies and clinical trials evaluating a standardized nine-month moxifloxacin-based regimen for MDR-TB. Further studies, especially randomized clinical trials, are needed to evaluate regimens including newer drugs, drugs proven to be or highly likely to be efficacious, and all-oral drugs in an effort to eliminate the need for injectable drugs.


RESUMO Em virtude da carga global da tuberculose, esquemas mais curtos de tratamento com medicamentos já existentes ou reaproveitados são necessários para contribuir para o controle da doença. A longa duração do tratamento da tuberculose sensível (TBS) está relacionada com não adesão e perda de seguimento, e a taxa de sucesso do tratamento da tuberculose multirresistente (TBMR) é baixa (de aproximadamente 50%) com esquemas mais longos. Neste artigo de revisão, relatamos avanços recentes e ensaios clínicos em andamento cujo objetivo é encurtar os esquemas de tratamento de TBS e TBMR. Discutimos o papel da rifampicina em altas doses, assim como o da clofazimina e linezolida em esquemas de tratamento de TBS. Relatamos também os resultados de estudos observacionais e ensaios clínicos de avaliação de um esquema padronizado de nove meses à base de moxifloxacina para o tratamento de TBMR. Mais estudos, especialmente ensaios clínicos randomizados, são necessários para avaliar esquemas que incluam medicamentos mais novos, medicamentos comprovadamente ou provavelmente eficazes e medicamentos exclusivamente orais na tentativa de dispensar o uso de medicamentos injetáveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Clinical Protocols , Clinical Trials as Topic , Clofazimine/therapeutic use , Linezolid/therapeutic use
11.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(5): 497-501, oct. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1054970

ABSTRACT

La vacuna con el bacilo de Calmette-Guérin es una vacuna atenuada utilizada para prevenir formas graves de tuberculosis. Se aplica a los recién nacidos en países con alta prevalencia de tuberculosis. Pueden presentarse, después de su aplicación, complicaciones a nivel local, como supuración o adenopatías regionales. La enfermedad por diseminación del bacilo es infrecuente y ocurre, por lo general, en pacientes con alteraciones inmunitarias subyacentes. Se presenta el caso de un niño de 5 meses que ingresó por un cuadro de 2 meses de evolución con detención del aumento de peso y nódulos subcutáneos. Se sospechó enfermedad por diseminación del bacilo y se diagnosticó por la biopsia de las lesiones. Se realizó el tratamiento con tres drogas antituberculosas, y se recuperó clínicamente. Si bien se realizaron estudios inmunológicos, no logró demostrarse ninguna inmunodeficiencia como afección predisponente.


The bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine is an attenuated vaccine historically used to prevent severe forms of tuberculosis. It is applied to all newborns in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis. Local complications, such as suppuration or regional adenopathies, may occur after application. Disease due to the spread of the bacillus is infrequent, usually occurring in a patient with an underlying immune alteration. We present the case of a 5-month-old child who was admitted due to a 2-month evolution with weight loss and subcutaneous nodules. Disease was suspected to be due to bacillus Calmette-Guérin dissemination, being diagnosed by biopsy of the lesions. Treatment was carried out with three antituberculous drugs, evolving towards clinical recovery. Although immunological studies were carried out, no immunodeficiency could be demonstrated as a predisposing condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , BCG Vaccine/adverse effects , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Biopsy , Ethambutol/therapeutic use , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/therapeutic use , Mycobacterium bovis
13.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(3): 195-198, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013672

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease of great magnitude in the world. Of patients with extrapulmonary disease, ocular manifestations are rare but among reported cases the most common ocular manifestation is uveitis. The diagnosis of ocular TB should be made as early as possible so that treatment is initiated and the risks of ocular complications are minimized. The objective of this study is to report an ocular TB case that presented as anterior uveitis. A 52-year-old female patient, a nursing technician at a large hospital, presented a history of low visual acuity associated with myiodesopsia for 4 days. Her ophthalmologic history included an iridotomy due to narrow angle in both eyes. On examination, the best corrected visual acuity was 20/100, right eye, and 20/80, left eye. Among the most significant ocular alterations were granulomatous keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, flare and light vitreitis, corresponding to anterior uveitis. Based on clinical history and ophthalmologic examination, tests were ordered that corroborated the diagnosis of ocular TB. Thereafter, antituberculous therapy was instituted with a good response in 15 days, including improvement in visual acuity. The patient was followed-up by ophthalmology and infectology. Intraocular TB should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any type of intraocular inflammation. The diagnosis of presumed ocular TB is a clinical challenge with the diagnosis modalities currently available. The faster the onset of treatment, the better the visual prognosis of the affected patient.


RESUMO A tuberculose (TB) é uma doença infecciosa de grande magnitude no mundo. Dos pacientes com doença extrapulmonar, as manifestações oculares são raras, mas entre os casos relatados, a manifestação ocular mais comum é a uveíte. O diagnóstico de TB ocular deve ser feito o mais precoce possível para que o tratamento seja iniciado e os riscos de complicações oculares sejam minimizados. O objetivo deste estudo é relatar um caso de TB ocular que se apresentou como uveíte anterior. Uma paciente do sexo feminino, 52 anos, técnica de enfermagem de um hospital de grande porte, apresentou história de baixa acuidade visual associada à miodesopsia por 4 dias. Sua história oftalmológica incluía uma iridotomia devido ao ângulo estreito em ambos os olhos. No exame, a melhor acuidade visual corrigida foi 20/100, olho direito, e 20/80, olho esquerdo. Dentre as alterações oculares mais significativas, destacam-se precipitados ceráticos granulomatosos, reação de câmara anterior, flare e vitreíte leve, correspondendo à uveíte anterior. Com base na história clínica e no exame oftalmológico, foram solicitados exames que corroboram o diagnóstico de TB ocular. Posteriormente, a terapia antituberculosa foi instituída com uma boa resposta em 15 dias, incluindo melhora na acuidade visual. A paciente foi acompanhada pelas especialidades: oftalmologia e infectologia. A TB intraocular deve ser considerada no diagnóstico diferencial de qualquer tipo de inflamação intraocular. O diagnóstico presumível de tuberculose ocular é um desafio clínico com as modalidades de diagnóstico atualmente disponíveis. Quanto mais rápido o início do tratamento, melhor o prognóstico visual do paciente afetado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis, Ocular/complications , Uveitis, Anterior/etiology , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Visual Acuity , Tuberculosis, Ocular/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Ocular/drug therapy , Uveitis, Anterior/diagnosis , Uveitis, Anterior/drug therapy , Ethambutol/therapeutic use , Isoniazid/therapeutic use
14.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(1): 152-156, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002430

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is a renal disease with an extensive differential diagnosis. This paper reports the case of a 55-year-old female patient diagnosed with Hansen's disease with acute progressive renal impairment after developing lower limb pyoderma. The association between Hansen's and kidney disease has been well documented, with glomerulonephritis (GN) ranked as the most common form of renal involvement. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) in adults has been associated with a number of pathogens occurring in diverse sites. The patient described in this case report had RPGN and biopsy findings suggestive of PIGN with C3 and IgA detected on immunofluorescence and kidney injury secondary to recent infection by Staphylococcus, a well-documented manifestation of renal impairment in patients with Hansen's disease.


RESUMO A Glomerulonefrite Rapidamente Progressiva (GNRP) é um padrão de doença renal com amplo diagnóstico diferencial. O caso reporta uma paciente de 55 anos com deterioração aguda e progressiva da função renal após quadro de piodermite em membro inferior com diagnóstico concomitante de hanseníase. Associação da hanseníase com doença renal é bem descrita, sendo a GN a forma de acometimento renal mais comum. As glomerulonefrites pós-infecciosas (GNPIs) em adultos ocorrem devido a um grande número de patógenos, nos mais diversos sítios. A paciente do caso relatado apresentava quadro de GNRP e achados de biópsia que sugerem GNPI com marcação de C3 e IgA na imunofluorescência, sugestiva de lesão renal secundária a infecção recente por Staphylococcus, uma manifestação bem descrita de doença renal em pacientes com hanseníase.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Complement C3/metabolism , Leprosy, Multibacillary/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/diagnosis , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Biopsy , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Clofazimine/therapeutic use , Creatinine/blood , Dapsone/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(3): 159-165, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974215

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Tuberculosis is an infectious disease of global importance with major economic and social burden accounting for 25% of all avoidable deaths in developing countries. Extrapulmonary involvement may occur either in association with clinically apparent pulmonary tuberculosis or in isolation. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to evaluate the impact of ocular tuberculosis in visual acuity at baseline and after two months of intensive anti-tuberculous therapy. A sample of 133 pulmonary tuberculosis patients, seven disseminated tuberculosis, and three pleural tuberculosis patients was evaluated. All patients underwent routine ophthalmic evaluation, including assessment of visual acuity, biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, indirect ophthalmoscopy, and fluorescent angiography as appropriate. None of the patients had impaired visual acuity due to tuberculosis. A rate of 4.2% (6/143) of ocular involvement was found. None of the patients with ocular involvement were HIV-infected. Of the six patients with ocular involvement, five met the diagnostic criteria for probable and one for possible ocular lesions. As for the type of ocular lesions, two patients had bilateral findings: one had sclerouveitis and the second had choroidal nodules. The other four patients presented with unilateral lesions: peripheral retinal artery occlusion in the right eye (one case), choroidal nodules in the left eye (one case), and choroidal nodules in the right eye (two cases). Patients progressed favorably after two month of intensive therapy, with no significant reduction in vision.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Vision, Ocular/physiology , Visual Acuity/physiology , Tuberculosis, Ocular/physiopathology , Tuberculosis, Ocular/drug therapy , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Pyrazinamide/therapeutic use , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Vision Disorders/physiopathology , Vision Disorders/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Ocular/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Ethambutol/therapeutic use , Isoniazid/therapeutic use
16.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(2): 112-117, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893903

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of the use of the molecular test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its resistance to rifampin (Xpert MTB/RIF), under routine conditions, at a referral hospital in the Brazilian state of Bahia. Methods: This was a descriptive study using the database of the Mycobacteriology Laboratory of the Octávio Mangabeira Specialized Hospital, in the city of Salvador, and georeferencing software. We evaluated 3,877 sputum samples collected from symptomatic respiratory patients, under routine conditions, between June of 2014 and March of 2015. All of the samples were submitted to sputum smear microscopy and the Xpert MTB/RIF test. Patients were stratified by gender, age, and geolocation. Results: Among the 3,877 sputum samples evaluated, the Xpert MTB/RIF test detected M. tuberculosis in 678 (17.5%), of which 60 (8.8%) showed resistance to rifampin. The Xpert MTB/RIF test detected M. tuberculosis in 254 patients who tested negative for sputum smear microscopy, thus increasing the diagnostic power by 59.9%. Conclusions: The use of the Xpert MTB/RIF test, under routine conditions, significantly increased the detection of cases of tuberculosis among sputum smear-negative patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto do teste rápido molecular automatizado Xpert MTB/RIF, utilizado para a detecção de Mycobacterium tuberculosis e sua resistência à rifampicina, em condições de rotina, em um hospital de referência no estado da Bahia. Métodos: Estudo descritivo retrospectivo utilizando o banco de dados do Laboratório de Micobacteriologia do Hospital Especializado Octávio Mangabeira, localizado na cidade de Salvador, e um programa de georreferenciamento. Entre junho de 2014 e março de 2015, foram incluídas no estudo 3.877 amostras de escarro coletadas de pacientes sintomáticos respiratórios em condições de rotina. Todas as amostras coletadas foram submetidas tanto à baciloscopia quanto a Xpert MTB/RIF. Os pacientes foram estratificados por sexo, idade e georreferenciamento. Resultados: Das 3.877 amostras de escarro analisadas, Xpert MTB/RIF detectou a presença de M. tuberculosis em 678 pacientes (17,5%). Desses, 60 (8,8%) apresentaram resistência à rifampicina. O Xpert MTB/RIF detectou 254 pacientes com baciloscopia negativa, representando um acréscimo diagnóstico de 59,9%. Conclusões: A implantação do Xpert MTB/RIF, sob condições de rotina, teve um impacto significativo no aumento da detecção de casos de tuberculose em pacientes com baciloscopia negativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Reference Values , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Treatment Outcome , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Tertiary Care Centers , Microscopy/methods , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/therapeutic use , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects
17.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(6): 761-773, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887114

ABSTRACT

Abstract: In this review, the most relevant and current epidemiological data, the main clinical, laboratory and therapeutical aspects of leprosy are presented. Detailed discussion of the main drugs used for leprosy treatment, their most relevant adverse effects, evolution of the therapeutic regimen, from dapsone as a monotherapy to the proposed polychemotherapy by World Health Organization (WHO) can be found in this CME. We specifically highlight the drug acceptability, reduction in treatment duration and the most recent proposal of a single therapeutic regimen, with a fixed six months duration, for all clinical presentations, regardless of their classification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Leprosy/pathology , Leprosy/drug therapy , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Patient Satisfaction , Clofazimine/therapeutic use , Dapsone/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination
18.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(6): 844-846, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887120

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Dermoscopy is a non-invasive technique widely used to aid in the characterization and diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions. Recently, it has also been employed for the evaluation of non-pigmented skin tumours, and inflammatory and infectious cutaneous diseases. Although the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis is confirmed by the demonstration of amastigotes in infected skin or by the growth of promastigotes in culture medium, dermoscopy could be useful as a further diagnostic test. We report a patient with a nodular lesion located on the right cheek for almost two years. The lesion was clinically suggestive of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Dermoscopy showed yellow tears, erythema and vascular structures. The diagnosis was confirmed by the demonstration of amastigotes in a skin scraping sample.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Cheek/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/pathology , Dermoscopy/methods , Facial Dermatoses/parasitology , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Rev. salud pública ; 19(6): 814-817, nov.-dic. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-962076

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se describe un reporte de caso de un paciente del Sanatorio Agua de Dios Cundinamarca con diagnóstico de lepra lepromatosa histioide con sospecha de resistencia a la poliquimioterapia (PQT), evidenciando la importancia de los criterios clínicos para inicio de terapia alterna ante las limitaciones en los medios paraclínicos. La resistencia debe sospecharse y diagnosticarse tempranamente para evitar la progresión de la enfermedad; los criterios clínicos y paraclínicos ayudan a su confirmación diagnóstica, en los estudios bacteriológicos la escala semicuantitativa Colombiana debe reemplazarse por escala logarítmica de Ridley y Jopling, los estudios histopatológicos se practican en todo paciente con enfermedad de Hansen, los estudios de resistencia se están implementando en el país pero su acceso limita oportunidad para apoyo en el inicio terapéutico.(AU)


ABSTRACT This paper describes a case report of a patient from the Sanatorio Agua de Dios-Cundinamarca diagnosed with histioid lepromatous leprosy with suspected resistance to polychemotherapy (PQT), making evident the importance of clinical criteria for initiating an alternative therapy given the limitations of paraclinical examinations. Resistance should be suspected and diagnosed early to prevent the progression of the disease; clinical and paraclinical criteria help to confirm diagnosis. In bacteriological studies, the Colombian semiquantitative scale should be replaced by the Ridley-Jopling logarithmic scale. Histopathological studies are conducted on all patients with Hansen's disease. Research on resistance is being implemented in the country, but its access limits the opportunity for support in therapy initiation.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance , Leprosy, Lepromatous/drug therapy , Leprosy, Lepromatous/epidemiology , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Colombia/epidemiology , Dapsone/administration & dosage
20.
J. bras. pneumol ; 43(2): 113-120, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841272

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the rates of recurrence, cure, and treatment abandonment in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis treated with a four-drug fixed-dose combination (FDC) regimen, as well as to evaluate possible associated factors. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study involving 208 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis enrolled in the Hospital Tuberculosis Control Program at the Institute for Thoracic Diseases, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Between January of 2007 and October of 2010, the patients were treated with the rifampin-isoniazid-pyrazinamide (RHZ) regimen, whereas, between November of 2010 and June of 2013, the patients were treated with the rifampin-isoniazid-pyrazinamide-ethambutol FDC (RHZE/FDC) regimen. Data regarding tuberculosis recurrence and mortality in the patients studied were retrieved from the Brazilian Case Registry Database and the Brazilian Mortality Database, respectively. The follow-up period comprised two years after treatment completion. Results: The rates of cure, treatment abandonment, and death were 90.4%, 4.8%, and 4.8%, respectively. There were 7 cases of recurrence during the follow-up period. No significant differences in the recurrence rate were found between the RHZ and RHZE/FDC regimen groups (p = 0.13). We identified no factors associated with the occurrence of recurrence; nor were there any statistically significant differences between the treatment groups regarding adverse effects or rates of cure, treatment abandonment, or death. Conclusions: The adoption of the RHZE/FDC regimen produced no statistically significant differences in the rates of recurrence, cure, or treatment abandonment; nor did it have any effect on the occurrence of adverse effects, in comparison with the use of the RHZ regimen.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estimar as taxas de recidiva, cura e abandono de tratamento em pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar tratados com o esquema de dose fixa combinada (DFC) de quatro drogas e avaliar possíveis fatores associados. Métodos: Estudo observacional retrospectivo com 208 pacientes com diagnóstico confirmado de tuberculose pulmonar registrados no Programa de Controle da Tuberculose Hospitalar do Instituto de Doenças do Tórax, localizado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Os pacientes tratados entre janeiro de 2007 e outubro de 2010 receberam o esquema rifampicina-isoniazida-pirazinamida (RHZ), e aqueles tratados entre novembro de 2010 e junho de 2013 receberam o esquema rifampicina-isoniazida-pirazinamida-etambutol em DFC (RHZE/DFC). Os dados dos pacientes sobre recidiva e óbito foram obtidos no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação e no Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade, respectivamente. O período de acompanhamento foi de dois anos após o encerramento do tratamento. Resultados: As taxas de cura, abandono e óbito foram de 90,4%, 4,8% e 4,8%, respectivamente. Houve 7 casos de recidivas durante o período de acompanhamento. Não houve diferenças significativas na taxa de recidiva entre os grupos de tratamento RHZ e RHZE/DFC (p = 0,13). Não foram identificados fatores associados com a ocorrência de recidiva, nem houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas na ocorrência dos efeitos adversos ou nas taxas de cura, abandono e óbito entre os grupos de tratamento. Conclusões: A adoção do esquema de tratamento RHZE/DFC não produziu diferenças estatisticamente significativas nas taxas de recidiva, cura e abandono nem na ocorrência de efeitos adversos em comparação com o esquema RHZ.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/classification , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Ethambutol/therapeutic use , Incidence , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Pyrazinamide/therapeutic use , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis
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