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1.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 61-66, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279075

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La distinción clínica entre infecciones arbovirales y las provocadas por rickettsias es crucial para iniciar el tratamiento médico apropiado. Objetivo: Comparar las diferencias entre fiebre manchada de las Montañas Rocosas (FMMR) y otras enfermedades transmitidas por vector (dengue y chikungunya) con presentación clínica similar e identificar los datos que pudieran ayudar al diagnóstico rápido de esas enfermedades. Métodos: Se evaluaron datos sociodemográficos, clínicos y de laboratorio de 399 pacientes de cinco hospitales y clínicas en Sonora, México, entre 2004 y 2016, con el diagnóstico confirmado por laboratorio de FMMR, dengue o chikungunya. Resultados: El grupo con FMMR presentó la mayor letalidad (49/63 muertes, 77.8 %), seguido por el de chikungunya (3/161, 1.9 %) y el de dengue (3/161, 1.9 %). Las diferencias clínicas consistieron en la presencia de exantema, edema y prurito; además, se documentaron diferencias en múltiples biomarcadores como plaquetas, hemoglobina, bilirrubina indirecta y niveles de sodio sérico. Conclusión: El exantema en palmas y plantas, edema y ausencia de prurito, aunados a niveles altos de bilirrubina directa y trombocitopenia severa pudieran ser indicadores útiles para diferenciar a pacientes con FMMR en etapas avanzadas de aquellos con dengue y chikungunya.


Abstract Introduction: Clinical distinction between arbovirus infections and those caused by rickettsia is crucial to initiate appropriate medical treatment. Objective: To compare the differences between Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) and other vector-borne diseases (dengue and chikungunya) with similar clinical presentation, and to identify data that could aid rapid diagnosis of these diseases. Methods: Sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory data of 399 patients from five hospitals and clinics of Sonora, Mexico, with laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of RMSF, dengue, or chikungunya between 2004 and 2016 were evaluated. Results: The RMSF group had the highest lethality (49/63 deaths, 77.8 %), followed by the chikungunya group (3/161, 1.9 %) and the dengue group (3/161, 1.9 %). Clinical differences included the presence of rash, edema, and pruritus; in addition, differences in multiple biomarkers such as platelets, hemoglobin, indirect bilirubin, and serum sodium levels were documented. Conclusion: Rash on the palms and soles, edema and absence of pruritus, together with high levels of direct bilirubin and severe thrombocytopenia could be useful indicators to differentiate patients at RMSF advanced stages from those with dengue and chikungunya.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/diagnosis , Dengue/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/complications , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dengue/complications , Dengue/mortality , Diagnosis, Differential , Symptom Assessment , Chikungunya Fever/complications , Chikungunya Fever/mortality , Mexico/epidemiology
2.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(2): 121-123, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011575

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT During the second half of the twentieth century, neurologic sequelae associated with central nervous system impairment caused by Rickettsia rickettsii were studied widely and exclusively in the United States. We present the case of a Mexican pediatric patient with neurologic sequelae 10 years after an acute infection by R. rickettsii.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/complications , Nervous System Diseases/microbiology , Rickettsia rickettsii , Time Factors , Mexico
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 115(1): e5-e8, feb. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-838320

ABSTRACT

La fiebre manchada de las Montañas Rocosas es una enfermedad ocasionada por Rickettsia rickettsii, una bacteria transmitida por garrapatas infectadas, y que se caracteriza por fiebre, exantema, artralgias y mialgias, aunque, ocasionalmente, su presentación es inespecífica. Debido a que su evolución asemeja otras enfermedades exantemáticas, como dengue o chikungunya, su diagnóstico no es de primera intención, a pesar de que países como México tienen las características ecológicas y socioeconómicas propicias para su transmisión, con índices de mortalidad hasta de 30% en pacientes pediátricos. Esta elevada mortalidad se asocia a diagnósticos y terapia retrasados debido al desconocimiento médico acerca de la enfermedad, lo que propicia la aparición de formas atípicas y fulminantes de fiebre manchada de las Montañas Rocosas. El objetivo del presente trabajo es describir un caso clínico fulminante de fiebre manchada de las Montañas Rocosas para que sea considerada en el diagnóstico diferencial, lo cual impactaría directamente en los índices de mortalidad.


Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, a bacteria transmitted by infected ticks. It is characterized by fever, exanthema, arthralgias and myalgias; but sometimes its clinical presentation is non specific. Due to its similarities with other exanthematic diseases like dengue or chikungunya, Rocky Mountain spotted fever is not a first line diagnosis, even though countries like Mexico show the ecologic and socioeconomic characteristics that favor its transmission, with a 30% mortality rate among pediatric patients. This mortality rate has been associated to a delayed diagnosis and therapy, due to a poor knowledge among physicians regarding this disease; this favors the occurrence of atypical and fulminant cases. The objective of this work is to describe a fulminant case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, expecting that this disease could be later considered among the differential diagnosis which could directly impact its mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/complications , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/diagnosis , Fatal Outcome , Mexico
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(5): 317-320, Oct. 2016. mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841601

ABSTRACT

Al quinto día de retirarse del Parque Nacional El Rey, provincia de Salta, Argentina, donde realizó turismo rural, una mujer italiana de 47 años desarrolló un cuadro febril agudo seguido de un exantema petequial y purpúrico que progresó rápidamente a falla multiorgánica y falleció al sexto día de internación. Existieron referencias a mordeduras por garrapatas y se constató una lesión cutánea similar a la denominada tache noire. La autopsia mostró una vasculitis generalizada, ascitis, edema de pulmón, necrosis tubular aguda y necrosis portal centrolobulillar. Se procesó tejido esplénico y hepático con técnica de PCR para Rickettsia spp, basada en la detección del gen gltA. El resultado fue positivo. Los amplicones obtenidos fueron secuenciados y los resultados se compararon con las secuencias preestablecidas en el programa BLAST, coincidiendo en un 99% con R. rickettsii. La baja sensibilidad del sistema de salud en reconocer la enfermedad y la insuficiente información producida desde los medios relacionados con el turismo, son factores que inciden en el retardo de implementar un tratamiento eficaz y las normas de prevención adecuadas.


On the fifth day after leaving the Parque Nacional El Rey, province of Salta, Argentina, where she made rural tourism, a woman of Italian origin, aged 47, developed an acute fever followed by a petechial and purpuric rash that progressed rapidly to multiorgan failure. She died on the sixth day after hospitalization. There were references to tick bites and a skin lesion similar to tache noire was found. The autopsy showed generalized vasculitis, ascites, pulmonary edema, acute tubular necrosis and portal centrilobular necrosis. Spleen and liver tissue were processed for PCR Rickettsia spp, based on the detection of the gltA gene. The result was positive. The amplicons obtained were sequenced and the results were compared with the preset sequences on the BLAST program, 99% coinciding with R. rickettsii. The low sensitivity of the health system to recognize this disease and the insufficient information generated from tourism-related media are factors that affect the delay to implement effective treatment and appropriate prevention standards.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Middle Aged , Rickettsia rickettsii/isolation & purification , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/microbiology , Argentina , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/complications , Fatal Outcome , Ixodidae/microbiology , Multiple Organ Failure/microbiology
5.
Salud pública Méx ; 58(3): 385-392, may.-jun. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-793020

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Caracterizar las manifestaciones clínicas y predictores de mortalidad en niños hospitalizados por fiebre maculosa de las Montañas Rocosas (FMMR). Material y métodos: Estudio transversal en 210 sujetos hospitalizados por FMMR en un hospital pediátrico de Sonora, entre el 1 de enero de 2004 y el 30 de junio de 2015. El análisis se sustentó en estadística descriptiva y regresión logística multivariada. Resultados: Se apreció un incremento en la incidencia y mortalidad en los casos hospitalizados por FMMR, con una letalidad de 30%.Tres variables se asociaron con el riesgo de muerte: retraso ≥ 5 días en el inicio del uso de doxiciclina (RMa=2.95, IC95% 1.10-7.95), falla renal aguda (RMa=8.79, IC95% 3.46-22.33) y sepsis severa (RMa=3.71, IC95% 1.449.58). Conclusión: La FMMR provoca resultados fatales en niños, que puede evitarse con la administración oportuna de doxiciclina. La falla renal aguda y la sepsis severa son dos predictores de muerte en niños con FMMR.


Abstract: Objective: Characterize clinical manifestations and predictors of mortality in children hospitalized for spotted fever. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study in 210 subjects with a diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in a pediatric hospital in Sonora, from January 1st, 2004 to June 30th, 2015. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. Results: An upward trend was observed in RMSF morbidity and mortality. Fatality rate was 30%.Three predictors were associated with risk of death: delay ≥ 5 days at the start of doxycycline (ORa= 2.95, 95% CI 1.10-7.95), acute renal failure ((ORa= 8.79, 95% CI 3.46-22.33) and severe sepsis (ORa= 3.71, 95% CI 1.44-9.58). Conclusions: RMSF causes high mortality in children, which can be avoided with timely initiation of doxycycline. Acute renal failure and severe sepsis are two independent predictors of death in children with RMSF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/epidemiology , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/complications , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Morbidity/trends , Mortality/trends , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Mexico/epidemiology
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