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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190511, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136814

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The Amazon tropical rainforest has the most dense and diverse ecosystem worldwide. A few studies have addressed rodent-borne diseases as potential hazards to humans in this region. METHODS: A retrospective survey was conducted using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting mammarenavirus and orthohantavirus antibodies in 206 samples collected from rural settlers of the Brazilian Western Amazonian region. RESULTS: Six (2.91%) individuals in the age group of 16 to 36 years were found to possess antibodies against mammarenavirus. CONCLUSION: Evidence of previous exposure to mammarenavirus in the rural population points to its silent circulation in this region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Arenaviridae/immunology , Rodentia/virology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Orthohepadnavirus/immunology , Arenaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Arenaviridae/classification , Rodentia/classification , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Orthohepadnavirus/classification , Arenaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Arenaviridae Infections/transmission , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/diagnosis , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/transmission , Middle Aged
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 113-118, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990804

ABSTRACT

Abstract Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are closely related coccidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa). This is the first study from urban synanthropic rodent species that involved serological and molecular diagnosis of T. gondii and N. caninum infection, and genotyping of T. gondii in Argentina. A total of 127 rodent samples were trap captured: Mus musculus (n = 78), Rattus norvegicus (n = 26) and Rattus rattus (n = 23). Antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum were detected by IFAT in 32.8% (40/122) and 0.8% (1/122) of rodent samples, respectively, demonstrating contact with these protozoans. Additionally, T. gondii DNA was detected in 3.3% (4/123) of rodent central nervous system samples and 2 samples were genotyped by multilocus nPCR-RFLP. Neospora caninum DNA was not detected by PCR. The 2 genotyped samples were type III allele for all markers except for SAG-1 (type I for Rat1Arg and type II/III for Rat2Arg) and were identified as #48 and #2 (likely) according to the allele combinations reported on Toxo DB (Toxo-DB). The results of the present study revealed a wide distribution of T. gondii and less for N. caninum, in synanthropic rats and mice in the studied area.


Resumo Toxoplasma gondii e Neospora caninum são parasitas coccídeos intimamente relacionados (filo Apicomplexa). Este é o primeiro estudo de espécies de roedores sinantrópicos urbanos, o qual envolveu diagnósticos sorológicos e moleculares da infecção por T. gondii e N. caninum e genotipagem de T. gondii na Argentina. Um total de 127 amostras de roedores foram obtidas: Mus musculus (n = 78), Rattus norvegicus (n = 26) e Rattus rattus (n = 23). Anticorpos contra T. gondii e N. caninum foram detectados pela IFAT em 32,8% (40/122) e 0,8% (1/122) das amostras de roedores, respectivamente, demonstrando contato com esses protozoários. Adicionalmente, o DNA de T. gondii foi detectado em 3,3% (4/123) das amostras do sistema nervoso central de roedores e duas amostras foram genotipadas por nPCR-RFLP multilocus. O DNA de N. caninum não foi detectado por PCR. As 2 amostras genotipadas eram do tipo III para todos os marcadores, exceto para SAG-1 (tipo I para Rat1Arg e tipo II / III para Rat2Arg) e foram identificadas como # 48 e # 2 (provavelmente) de acordo com as combinações de alelos relatadas no Toxo DB (Toxo-DB). Os resultados do presente estudo indicam uma ampla distribuição de T. gondii e menor para N. caninum , em ratos e camundongos sinantrópicos na área estudada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rodentia/parasitology , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasma/immunology , Neospora/genetics , Neospora/immunology , Argentina , Rodentia/classification , Urban Population , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/blood , Genotype , Mice
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180448, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040617

ABSTRACT

Anthropogenic environmental changes arising from settlement and agriculture include deforestation and replacement of natural vegetation by crops providing opportunities for pathogen spillover from animals to humans. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of rodent-borne virus infections in seven rural settlements from Midwestern Brazil. Of the 466 individuals tested 12 (2.57%) were reactive for orthohantavirus and 3 (0.64%) for mammarenavirus. These rural settlers lived under unfavorable infrastructure, socioeconomic disadvantages, and unsanitary conditions, representing a risk for rodent-borne infections. Development of public policies towards the improvement of health, sanitation and awareness of rodent-borne diseases in improvised camps and settlements is imperative, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by these diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Rodentia/virology , Arenaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Vectors/classification , Rodentia/classification , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Arenaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Arenaviridae Infections/transmission , Hantavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hantavirus Infections/transmission , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 445-451, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957436

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The National Park of Serra das Confusões (NPSC) is a protected area of natural landscape located in Southern Piauí, Brazil, and it is considered as one of the largest and most important protected areas in the Caatinga biome. METHODS The natural occurrences of trypanosomatids from hemocultures on small mammals and cultures from intestinal contents triatomines were detected through molecular diagnoses of blood samples, and phylogenetic relationship analysis of the isolates parasites using the trypanosome barcode (V7V8 SSUrDNA) were realized. RESULTS Only two Galea spixii (8.1%) and six Triatoma brasiliensis (17.6%) were positive by hemoculture, and the isolates parasites were cryopreserved. All the isolates obtained were positioned on the Trypanosoma cruzi DTU TcI branch. CONCLUSIONS Research focused on studying the wild animal fauna in preserved and underexplored environments has made it possible to elucidate indispensable components of different epidemiological chains of diseases with zoonotic potential.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rodentia/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Triatominae/parasitology , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Marsupialia/parasitology , Phylogeny , Rodentia/classification , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Brazil , Biodiversity , Parks, Recreational , Genotype , Marsupialia/classification
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 386-394, ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978049

ABSTRACT

Resumen La fiebre hemorrágica argentina (FHA) es una enfermedad zoonótica endémica en una amplia zona de la pampa húmeda de Argentina. El agente etiológico es el virus Junin que es mantenido en la naturaleza por el roedor Calomys musculinus y transmitido, principalmente, al humano a través de aerosoles generados de las secreciones y excreciones. Objetivos: Caracterizar la composición y diversidad de los ensambles de pequeños roedores, determinar la abundancia del hospedador C. musculinus y la prevalencia del virus de la FHA en las zonas epidémica, histórica y no endémica de dicha enfermedad en Argentina. Métodos: Para el muestreo de roedores en cada una de las zonas se demarcaron un área central y dos periféricas para 18 localidades de la región central de Argentina (incluyendo las provincias de Córdoba, Buenos Aires y Santa Fe) muestreadas en dos años. Se comparó la abundancia de C. musculinus entre zonas y entre las áreas dentro de cada zona y áreas cercanas entre zonas, utilizando modelos de análisis de varianza anidados. Resultados. Dentro de cada zona, el ensamble de roedores mostró diferencia espacial en la composición específica, diversidad y abundancia de C. musculinus. La zona epidémica registró mayor número de especies y mayor abundancia del hospedador. En zona histórica se capturó el menor número de especies (de roedores) y Akodon azarae fue la más abundante. En zona no endémica la composición del ensamble y la abundancia de C. musculinus variaron entre los dos años. Sólo se detectó infección por virus Junin en C. musculinus correspondientes a la zona epidémica con una prevalencia de 2,7 y 1,1% para los años 2007 y 2008, respectivamente. Conclusión: En este sistema, la abundancia del hospedador estaría afectando la dinámica espacial de este virus, más que la diversidad del ensamble o la presencia de A. azarae.


Background. The Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever (AHF) is a zoonotic disease endemic in a wide area of the humid pampa of Argentina. The etiologic agent is the Junin virus that is maintained in the wild by the rodent Calomys musculinus and transmitted to humans, mainly, through aerosols generated from secretions and excretions. Aims: To characterize and compare the assemblages of small rodent composition and diversity inside the epidemic, historic and non-endemic zone of AHF and to register C. musculinus abundance in each zone and in each area within each zone, registering the prevalence of infection in rodent populations. Method: One central and two peripheral areas were delimited to sample rodents in each zone with different incidence of AHF. Thus, 18 localities were selected to do the sampling in two years. Host abundance between zones and among areas inside each zone and among nearby areas between zones were compared applying nested ANOVA's. Results: In each zone, the rodent assemblage showed differences in composition, diversity and numeric representation of C. musculinus. The epidemic zone was the richest of the three, registering also great host abundance; meanwhile in the historic zone, A. azarae was the dominant numeric species with less number of other species. Regarding the non-endemic zone, the assemblage composition and C. musculinus abundance varied respect the sampled year. Junin virus infection was only detected in C. musculinus individuals corresponding to the epidemic zone, with a prevalence of 2.7 and 1.1% for the years 2007 and 2008, respectively. Conclusion: In this system, the abundance of C. musculinus could be impacting over the pathogen dynamic, rather than the assemblage diversity or the A. azarae presence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rodentia/virology , Disease Reservoirs/classification , Junin virus/isolation & purification , Hemorrhagic Fever, American/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Rodentia/classification , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Incidence , Prevalence , Population Density , Spatial Analysis , Hemorrhagic Fever, American/transmission
6.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(3): 151-157, jun. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954970

ABSTRACT

Se describe un brote de síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus en el departamento de Burruyacú, provincia de Tucumán. La detección en 2016 de un caso de hantavirosis en una joven de 23 años -en ese momento considerado el primero ocurrido en dicha provincia- promovió un estudio epidemiológico exhaustivo, que permitió detectar retrospectivamente otro caso ocurrido en un niño de 5 años, un mes antes, en el mismo departamento. La infección fue confirmada por serología en ambos casos (caso 1 en muestras de 4 y 7 días de evolución, caso 2 en muestra a los 4 días). En ambos casos el genotipo viral fue caracterizado como HU39694 y los contactos fueron serológicamente negativos. En las áreas fueron identificados roedores pertenecientes a los géneros Akodon y Calomys y a la especie Mus musculus, pero no a Oligoryzomys, el reservorio habitual del genotipo HU39694. Tampoco se detectaron anticuerpos anti-hantavirus en suero de los roedores capturados. La ausencia de registro de viajes a área endémica de este genotipo y los hábitos recreacionales de los pacientes, sumados a los resultados serológicos negativos para hantavirus en los contactos, permiten inferir la posible exposición de los pacientes a fluidos de roedores infectados durante actividades recreativas o sociales al aire libre en sus respectivas áreas de residencia. En conclusión, se demuestra la circulación en Tucumán del genotipo viral HU39694, hasta ahora considerado restringido a la región pampeana central. Se extiende así a Tucumán el área endémica de hantavirosis, pero no se identificó el reservorio en el área.


We describe an outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Burruyacú Department, Province of Tucumán. The detection in 2016 of a case of hantavirosis affecting a 23-year-old woman, considered at that time to be the first case occurred in that province, promoted a thorough epidemiological study. The investigation allowed the retrospective detection of another case occurred one month earlier in a 5-year-old child in the same Department. In both cases, the infection was confirmed by serology (case 1 at days 4 and 7 of disease onset, case 2 at day 4) and the viral genotype was characterized as HU39694. The contacts of both cases were serologically negative for hantavirus. The rodents captured in the area belonged to genus Akodon, genus Calomys and species Mus musculus. Oligoryzomys, the known reservoir for this viral genotype, was not found. Specific anti-hantavirus antibodies were not detected in the captured rodents. Given that the patients had not visited hantavirus endemic areas and their contacts were negative for hantavirus, we infer that the patients were locally exposed to fluids of infected rodents during their usual social or recreational outdoor activities. In conclusion, we demonstrate that hantavirus HU39694 -a genotype until now considered to be restricted to the Central Pampas of the country- is circulating in the North Western province of Tucumán. The endemic area of hantavirosis is thus expanded to this province but the viral reservoir in the area has not yet been identified.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Young Adult , Rodentia/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Hantavirus/genetics , Hantavirus/immunology , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Argentina/epidemiology , Rodentia/classification , Disease Reservoirs/classification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Disease Outbreaks , Retrospective Studies , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype
7.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(4): 1415-1429, oct.-dic. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-958223

ABSTRACT

Resumen:Los ratones espinosos de abazones Liomys y Heteromys son roedores granívoros que se distribuyen en bosques tropicales secos y en matorral espinoso a lo largo de tierras bajas del Pacífico y en regiones xerófilas en la meseta de México. Analizamos la dinámica poblacional del ratón espinoso de abazones Heteromys pictus en la costa de Oaxaca, México, en dos sitios de bosque tropical caducifolio con diferente grado de perturbación humana: ZPP = zona poco perturbada, y ZMP = zona con mayor perturbación. Se establecieron dos cuadros en cada área con 66 estaciones de trampeo; se utilizó el método de captura-recaptura durante 12 periodos de muestreo. La densidad poblacional se estimó utilizando el método del Número Mínimo de Individuos Conocidos Vivos (NMIV). Se capturaron 706 individuos, 290 para la ZPP y 416 para la ZMP. La densidad poblacional fluctuó entre 28 y 142 ind./ha para ambas zonas; sin embargo esta fue mayor para la ZMP (54 a 142 ind./ha). La densidad poblacional de ambas zonas aumentó durante la temporada de lluvia y coincidió con el mayor reclutamiento. Se registró actividad reproductiva a lo largo de todo el estudio en ambas zonas, pero fue mayor para la ZMP. La proporción de sexos fue de 1:1 en la ZPP, mientras que en la ZMP fue de 1: 0.75. En la ZMP encontramos una mayor densidad poblacional y actividad reproductiva en las hembras. Estos resultados sugieren que H. pictus prefiere la ZMP, lo que indica que en este lugar la especie no es afectada significativamente por la perturbación humana.


Abstract:Spiny pocket mice Liomys and Heteromys are forest-dwelling granivorous rodents distributed in seasonally dry forest or thorn scrub along the Pacific low- lands or xeric regions in the Mexican Plateau. We analyzed the population dynamics of the spiny pocket mouse Heteromys pictus, in the coast of Oaxaca, Mexico, in two sites of tropical deciduous forest with different degrees of disturbance: ZPP = less disturbed site, and ZMP = more disturbed site. Two plots were established in each area with 66 trap stations; we used the capture-recapture method and trapping for 12 periods for one year. Population density was estimated using the method of Minimum Number of Individuals Known Alive (MNKA). We captured 706 individuals, 290 for the ZPP and 416 for the ZMP. The population density ranged from 28 to 142 ind./ ha for both zones, but it was higher for the ZMP (54 against 142 ind./ha). The population density for both areas increased during the rainy season and coincided with the increased recruitment of adults. Reproductive activity occurred throughout the study period in both areas, but it was higher for the ZMP. The sex ratio in the ZPP was 1:1 while in the ZMP was 1:0.75. In the ZMP we found a higher population density and reproductive activity in females, compared to the ZPP. These results suggest that H. pictus prefers the ZMP, indicating that the species is not significantly affected by human disturbance in the studied location. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (4): 1415-1429. Epub 2016 December 01.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rodentia/physiology , Forests , Ecosystem , Rodentia/classification , Seasons , Population Dynamics , Population Density , Mexico
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(1): 208-215, Jan-Mar/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744324

ABSTRACT

We carried out a six-year study aimed at evaluating if and how a Brazilian Atlantic Forest small mammal community responded to the presence of the invasive exotic species Artocarpus heterophyllus, the jackfruit tree. In the surroundings of Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, RJ, 18 grids were established, 10 where the jackfruit tree was present and eight were it was absent. Previous results indicated that the composition and abundance of this small mammal community were altered by the presence and density of A. heterophyllus. One observed effect was the increased population size of the spiny-rat Trinomys dimidiatus within the grids where the jackfruit trees were present. Therefore we decided to create a mathematical model for this species, based on the Verhulst-Pearl logistic equation. Our objectives were i) to calculate the carrying capacity K based on real data of the involved species and the environment; ii) propose and evaluate a mathematical model to estimate the population size of T. dimidiatus based on the monthly seed production of jackfruit tree, Artocarpus heterophyllus and iii) determinate the minimum jackfruit tree seed production to maintain at least two T. dimidiatus individuals in one study grid. Our results indicated that the predicted values by the model for the carrying capacity K were significantly correlated with real data. The best fit was found considering 20~35% energy transfer efficiency between trophic levels. Within the scope of assumed premises, our model showed itself to be an adequate simulator for Trinomys dimidiatus populations where the invasive jackfruit tree is present.


Realizamos um estudo de seis anos para avaliar se e como uma comunidade de pequenos mamíferos terrestres da Mata Atlântica respondia à presença da jaqueira Artocarpus heterophyllus, espécie possivelmente nativa da Índia. Nos arredores da Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, RJ, nós estabelecemos 18 grades de estudo, sendo 10 com jaqueiras e oito sem jaqueiras. Resultados prévios indicaram que a composição e a abundância dessa comunidade de pequenos mamíferos foram alteradas pela presença e densidade de A. heterophyllus. Um dos efeitos observados foi o aumento das populações do rato-de-espinho Trinomys dimidiatus nas grades onde a jaqueira estava presente. Criamos um modelo matemático para prever a capacidade de suporte dessa espécie, baseado na equação logística de Verhulst-Pearl. Nossos objetivos foram i) calcular a capacidade de suporte K com base em dados reais coletados tanto para T. dimidiatus quanto de seu ambiente; ii) propor e avaliar um modelo matemático para estimar o tamanho populacional de T. dimidiatu baseado na produção mensal de sementes de jaqueira e iii) determinar a produção mínima de sementes de jaqueira necessária para manter pelo menos dois indivíduos de T. dimidiatus. Nossos resultados indicaram que os valores previstos para K gerados pelo modelo foram significativamente correlacionados com os dados reais coletados. O melhor ajuste foi obtido considerando uma eficiência de transferência de energia entre níveis tróficos entre 20 e 35%. Dentro do escopo das premissas assumidas, nosso modelo se mostrou um simulador adequado para populações de T. dimidiatus em áreas onde a jaqueira já tenha invadido.


Subject(s)
Animals , Artocarpus/physiology , Fruit , Rodentia/physiology , Seeds , Artocarpus/classification , Brazil , Conservation of Natural Resources , Feeding Behavior , Models, Biological , Population Density , Rodentia/classification
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(1): 30-38, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744327

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to estimate and compare some important reproductive parameters of Myocastor coypus over time (June 2006-May 2008), in wetlands of the Middle Delta of the Paraná River (MD) Entre Ríos province, R. Argentina. Within the original coypu distribution range, the MD is among the areas of highest habitat suitability for the species. Coypus were captured and the following reproductive parameters were estimated on a monthly, seasonal and annual basis: pregnancy rate (PR), litter size (LS), gross productivity (GP) and annual production (AP). Statistical non-parametric tests were used for comparisons. Additionally, the expected birth date of each embryo and fetus was estimated by assigning it to a developmental stage category and considering the gestation period of the species. All the parameters showed high values and PR and LS differed significantly between the dry (2006) and humid years (2007). Two peaks of birth were detected, one in spring and another one in mid-autumn. The implications of these results for ensuring the sustainable management of this rodent are discussed.


O objetivo deste trabalho é a descripção e comparação ao longo do tempo (junho 2006 – maio 2008), de diversos parámetros da ecologia reprodutiva de Myocastor coypus nas terras úmidas do Delta Meio do Río Paraná (DM), una das zonas de maior aptidão de hábitat para a espécie dentro da sua área de distribuição original. Com base em capturas de exemplares estimaram-se en forma mensal, sazonal y anual, a taxa de prenhez (TP); o tamanho da camada (TC), a produtividade bruta (PB) e a produção anual (PA) e foram realizadas as comparações correspondentes mediante provas estatísticas não paramétricas. Alem disso, com base no estádio de desenvolvimento dos fetos y embriões observados, levando em consideração a duração do período de gestação, estimou-se quais teriam sido as datas de nascimento mais prováveis. Observaram-se valores relativamente altos para todos os parámetros e diferenças significativas entre as TP y os TC de anos secos (2006) e anos úmidos (2007). Também foram detectados dois picos de parição, um em plena primavera e o outro a meados do outono. Discutem-se as implicâncias destes resultados para assegurar o manejo sustentável do coipo, o principal recurso de fauna silvestre argentina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Pregnancy , Reproduction/physiology , Rodentia/physiology , Argentina , Rivers , Rodentia/classification , Seasons
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 74(4): 779-786, 11/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732320

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the yield loss caused by capybaras in rural areas of Dourados-MS, their feeding periods, crop preferences and the landscape characteristics of farms that may affect the occurrence of capybara's herds. Semi-structured interviews in 24 different farms were done during a period between April 2010 and August 2011. Field observations were held at different times of the day, and also during the night in order to record peaks of the feeding behavior in six farms. Direct counting of capybaras along with the group of animals reported as seen by the farmers during the interviews was used to estimate the size of herds. Data was analyzed using the Principal Components Analyses and the Analytic Hierarchy Process. The average number of capybaras found in a regular herd was 18.8 ± 7.90 animals. The average number of capybara herd by farms was of 1.38 ± 0.92 while the average number of capybaras by farms was 32.33 ± 27.87. Capybaras selected rice (Oryza sativa) when it was available (14.5% of devastation in 1.18% of total planted area); however, the most eaten crop was corn (Zea mays) with 38.55% of loss rate in 16.17% of the total planted area. Capybaras ate mostly in the evening and during the night. The availability of water resources in the rural area predisposed the occurrence of capybara's herds.


Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a perda de safra causada por capivaras em áreas rurais de Dourados-MS, os períodos de alimentação, preferências por culturas instaladas e as características da paisagem nas fazendas que podem influenciar a ocorrência de rebanhos de capivaras. Entrevistas semiestruturadas em 24 propriedades diferentes foram feitas durante o período entre abril de 2010 e agosto de 2011. As observações de campo foram realizadas em diferentes momentos do dia e também durante a noite, a fim de registrar picos do comportamento alimentar em seis das fazendas amostradas. Contagens diretas de capivaras juntamente com as informações obtidas dos agricultores foram utilizadas para estimar o tamanho dos rebanhos. Utilizou-se a Análise de Componentes Principais e a Análise Multicriterial (Processo de Análise Hierárquica – AHP) para as análises estatísticas. O número médio de capivaras por rebanho foi de 18,8 ± 7,90 animais. o número médio de grupos de capivaras por fazendas foi de 1,38 ± 0,92, e o número médio de capivaras por fazendas foi 32,33 ± 27,87. Capivaras selecionaram arroz (Oryza sativa) quando disponível (14,5% da predação em 1,18% do total da área plantada), no entanto, a cultura mais consumida foi o milho (Zea mays), com 38,55% de perdas em 16,17% da área plantada total, de acordo com os fazendeiros. Capivaras comeram principalmente ao anoitecer e durante a noite. A disponibilidade de recursos hídricos na área rural é um indicador da possibilidade de ocorrência de rebanhos de capivaras.


Subject(s)
Animals , Crops, Agricultural , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Rodentia/physiology , Rodentia/classification , Seasons
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(5): 599-606, Sep-Oct/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728889

ABSTRACT

Introduction Leishmania major is the causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), and great gerbils are the main reservoir hosts in Iran. Abarkouh in central Iran is an emerging focal point for which the reservoir hosts of ZCL are unclear. This research project was designed to detect any Leishmania parasites in different wild rodent species. Methods All rodents captured in 2011 and 2012 from Abarkouh district were identified based on morphological characteristics and by amplification of the rodent cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene. To detect Leishmania infection in rodents, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of each ear was extracted. Internal transcribed spacer-ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (ITS-rDNA), microsatellites, kinetoplast deoxyribonucleic acid (kDNA) and cytochrome b genes of Leishmania parasites were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing were employed to confirm the Leishmania identification. Results Of 68 captured rodents in the region, 55 Rhombomys opimus were identified and nine Leishmania infections (9/55) were found. In addition, eight Meriones libycus and two Tatera indica were sampled, and one of each was confirmed to be infected. Two Meriones persicus and one Mus musculus were sampled with no infection. Conclusions The results showed that all 11 unambiguously positive Leishmania infections were Leishmania major. Only one haplotype of L. major (GenBank access No. EF413075) was found and at least three rodents R. opimus, M. libycus and T. indica—appear to be the main and potential reservoir hosts in this ZCL focus. The reservoir hosts are variable and versatile in small ZCL focal locations. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Haplotypes , Leishmania major/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/veterinary , Rodent Diseases/parasitology , Rodentia/parasitology , Cross-Sectional Studies , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Genetic Markers , Iran , Leishmania major/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Rodentia/classification , Zoonoses
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 74(3): 538-544, 8/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723873

ABSTRACT

Trapping methods can strongly influence the sampling of mammal communities. This study compared the efficiency of the capture of small mammals in Sherman traps in two positions (at ground level and in trees) and pitfall traps in a fragmented landscape. Trapping sessions were carried out between October 2008 and October 2009 at two fragments (8 and 17 ha), an agroforest corridor between them, and the adjacent pasture. A total effort of 4622 trap-nights resulted in 155 captures of 137 individuals from six species. Pitfalls had greater success (4.03%), followed by Shermans on the ground (2.98%) and on trees (2.37%; χ2 = 6.50, p = 0.04). Five species were caught in Sherman ground traps, four in pitfalls and just two on trees. There was no difference among trap types for marsupials (χ2 = 4.75; p = 0.09), while for rodents, pitfalls were more efficient than Shermans on the ground (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.02). As a result, the efficiency of each trap type differed among habitats, due to differences in their species composition. Pitfalls were more efficient in the rainy season (Fisher's exact test, p <0.0001) while Shermans on trees were more efficient in the dry season (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.009). There was no difference between seasons for Shermans on the ground (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.76). Considering the results found, we recommend that future studies of forest mammal communities, particularly those designed to test the effects of forest fragmentation, include combinations of different trap types.


O método de captura pode influenciar a amostragem de comunidades de pequenos mamíferos. Este estudo comparou a eficiência de captura de pequenos mamíferos em armadilhas Sherman em duas posições (solo e árvores) e armadilhas de queda em uma paisagem fragmentada. As sessões de armadilhagem foram realizadas entre outubro de 2008 e outubro de 2009 em dois fragmentos (8 e 17 ha), no corredor agroflorestal que liga os fragmentos e na pastagem adjacente. Um esforço total 4622 armadilhas-noites resultou em 155 capturas de 137 indivíduos de seis espécies. Os pitfalls apresentaram o maior sucesso de captura (4,03%), seguido pelas Shermans no chão (2,98%) e em árvores (2,37%; χ2 = 6,50, p = 0,04). Cinco espécies foram capturadas em armadilhas Sherman chão, quatro em pitfalls e apenas duas em árvores. Não houve diferença entre os tipos de armadilhas para os marsupiais (χ2 = 4,75, p = 0,09), enquanto que para os roedores, os pitfalls foram mais eficientes que Shermans chão (teste exato de Fisher, p = 0,02). A eficiência de cada tipo de armadilha diferiu entre os habitats devido à diferenças na composição de espécies em cada área. Pitfalls foram mais eficientes na estação chuvosa (teste exato de Fisher, p <0,0001) enquanto Shermans em árvores foram mais eficientes na estação seca (teste exato de Fisher, p = 0,009). Não houve diferença entre as estações para Shermans no chão (teste exato de Fisher, p = 0,76). Considerando os resultados encontrados, recomenda-se que futuros estudos de comunidades florestais de pequenos mamíferos, particularmente aqueles projetados para testar os efeitos da fragmentação florestal, considerem combinações de diferentes tipos de armadilhas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecosystem , Marsupialia/classification , Rodentia/classification , Seasons , Forests
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(3): 299-306, 06/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-711724

ABSTRACT

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected clinical form of public health importance that is quite prevalent in the northern and eastern parts of Egypt. A comprehensive study over seven years (January 2005-December 2011) was conducted to track CL transmission with respect to both sandfly vectors and animal reservoirs. The study identified six sandfly species collected from different districts in North Sinai: Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus kazeruni, Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus alexandri, Sergentomyia antennata and Sergentomyia clydei. Leishmania (-)-like flagellates were identified in 15 P. papatasi individuals (0.5% of 3,008 dissected females). Rodent populations were sampled in the same districts where sandflies were collected and eight species were identified: Rattus norvegicus (n = 39), Rattus rattus frugivorous (n = 13), Rattus rattus alexandrinus (n = 4), Gerbillus pyramidum floweri (n = 38), Gerbillus andersoni (n = 28), Mus musculus (n = 5), Meriones sacramenti (n = 22) and Meriones crassus (n = 10). Thirty-two rodents were found to be positive for Leishmania infection (20.12% of 159 examined rodents). Only Leishmania major was isolated and identified in 100% of the parasite samples. The diversity of both the vector and rodent populations was examined using diversity indices and clustering approaches.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Ecosystem , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Psychodidae/parasitology , Rodentia/parasitology , Disease Reservoirs/classification , Egypt , Insect Vectors/classification , Psychodidae/classification , Rodentia/classification
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(2): 111-117, 02/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-702522

ABSTRACT

To evaluate modulatory effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Brazilian red propolis (HERP) on dermal carcinogenesis using a murine model. METHODS: The HERP was used at concentrations of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg (PROP10, PROP50 and PROP100, respectively) to modulate dermal carcinogenesis induced by the application of 9,10-dimetil-1,2-benzatraceno (DMBA) on the backs of animals. RESULTS: The chemical compounds identified in HERP included propyl gallate, catechin, epicatechin and formononetin. PROP100 treatment resulted in significantly decreased tumor multiplicity throughout the five weeks of tumor promotion (p<0.05), and this concentration also resulted in the highest frequency of verrucous tumors (p<0.05). All of the tumors that developed in DMBA-treated animals were regarded as squamous cell carcinomas and were either diagnosed as non-invasive verrucous carcinomas or invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). The average score for malignancy was significantly lower in the PROP100-treated group than the non-treated group (p<0.05), but there was no difference between the other groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: The oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Brazilian red propolis at a dose of 100 mg/kg had a significant modulatory effect on the formation, differentiation and progression of chemically induced squamous cell carcinoma in a murine experimental model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Carcinogenesis , Neoplasms/pathology , Propolis/analysis , Rodentia/classification
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 74(1): 251-256, 2/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715586

ABSTRACT

Kerodon acrobata is a caviidae rodent endemic from Brazilian Cerrado. It was described only in 1997 and the data about it is very scarce. The aim of this work was to characterize the karyotype of K. acrobata. Giemsa staining, nucleolar organizer region (NOR) banding, C-positive heterochromatin banding and DAPI fluorescence were used in N metaphases of a specimen collected in Asa Branca Farm, in Aurora do Tocantins municipality, Tocantins state, Brazil. K. acrobata showed the same diploid number, fundamental number and chromosome morphology as Kerodon rupestris. But its NOR location and heterochromatin distribution patterns indicated a unique cytogenetic profile when compared to its sister species, emphasizing the evolutionary uniqueness of this relatively new and unknown species. This record also extends the distribution of this species northward.


Kerodon acrobata é um roedor caviídeo endêmico do Cerrado brasileiro. A espécie foi descrita apenas em 1997, e as informações sobre ela são muito escassas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o cariótipo K. acrobata. Coloração em Giemsa, bandeamento da região organizadora do nucléolo, bandeamento da heterocromatina C-positiva e fluorescência DAPI foram utilizados em N metáfases de um espécime coletado na fazenda Asa Branca, na cidade de Aurora do Tocantins, estado do Tocantins, Brasil. K. acrobata apresentou o mesmo número diplóide, número fundamental e morfologia dos cromossomos de Kerodon rupestris. Mas a localização de sua NOR e os padrões de distribuição de heterocromatina indicam um perfil citogenético único quando comparado com sua espécie irmã, enfatizando a singularidade evolutiva desta espécie pouco conhecida. Este registro também estende a distribuição desta espécie em direção ao norte.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Chromosome Banding , Karyotyping , Rodentia/genetics , Brazil , Diploidy , Rodentia/classification
17.
In. Lemos, Elba R. Sampaio de; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio. Trabalho de campo com animais: procedimentos, riscos e biossegurança. Rio de Janeiro, FIOCRUZ, 2014. p.57-78, ilus, mapas.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-762438
18.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 55(3): 155-158, May-Jun/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674689

ABSTRACT

We conducted a serological survey to determine the presence of hantavirus infection in rodents in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais as well as to identify and characterize associated factors. Rodents were captured using Sherman live-capture traps set in rural and peri-urban environments. A total of 611 rodents were captured. There was a higher trap success in peri-urban areas (26.3%) and a higher prevalence of antibodies among rodents captured in rural areas (2.9%). Necromys lasiurus was the most common species (42.2%) and the more frequently infected (4.6%). One Calomys tener (1/141; 0.7%) and one Calomys sp. (1/14; 7.1%) were also positive for the hantavirus infection. In N. lasiurus, antibody prevalence correlated with population density (p < 0.01), age class (p = 0.003) and presence of scars (p = 0.02). The data confirm that horizontal transmission is the main mechanism that maintains the virus in nature. The higher seropositivity in N. lasiurus is consistent with genetic studies that associate this species with an Araraquara virus reservoir; the seropositivity of C. tener and Calomys sp. may indicate the occurrence of spillover infection or the presence of other circulating hantaviruses.


Realizamos um estudo transversal para identificar a presença de infecção por hantavírus em roedores em Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, e também para identificar e caracterizar fatores associados. Roedores foram capturados usando armadilhas do tipo Sherman em ambientes rural e periurbano. Um total de 611 roedores foi capturado. Houve maior sucesso de captura na área periurbana (26,3%) e maior prevalência de anticorpos entre os roedores capturados na área rural (2,9%). Necromys lasiurus foi a espécie mais encontrada (42,2%) e a mais frequentemente infectada (4,6%). Um Calomys tener (1/141; 0.7%) e um Calomys sp. (1/14; 7.1%) foram também positivos. Os dados obtidos mostram que em N. lasiurus, a prevalência de anticorpos está relacionada à densidade populacional (p < 0.01), a classe de idade (p = 0.003) e a presença de cicatrizes (p = 0.02), confirmando que a transmissão horizontal é o principal mecanismo que mantém o vírus na natureza. A maior positividade em N. lasiurus é consistente com estudos genéticos que permitem associar esta espécie como reservatório do vírus Araraquara; a soropositividade de C. tener e Calomys sp. pode indicar a ocorrência de "spillover infection" ou a presença de outros hantavírus circulantes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Pregnancy , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Hantavirus Infections/veterinary , Hantavirus/immunology , Rodent Diseases/virology , Rodentia/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Reservoirs/classification , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/transmission , Population Density , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Rodent Diseases/transmission , Rodentia/classification , Seroepidemiologic Studies
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 65(3): 749-756, June 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679109

ABSTRACT

Comparative research concerning masticatory musculature in squirrel, muskrat and rabbit, take into account the emphasizing and morphofunctional interpretation of the osteomuscular particularities involved in the prehension and mastication processes. The development of the coronoid process on the muskrat and squirrel demonstrates the growing of the force when raising the mandible by increasing the action force attached to the temporal muscle, with insertion on the coronoid process. In comparison with that, in the case of rabbits, both the coronoid process and the temporal muscle are reduced. From a philogenetic point of view, it has been found that the species that have the articular condyle lowered at or under the level of the dental tables (carnivores) present a greater pressure force between the dental tables. Analyzing this aspect of the rodents taken into discussion, we noticed the lowering of the articular condyle up to the inferior molars' plane, in the case of squirrels and muskrats, but through obliquity, namely through cranial caudal and dorsoventral movement. This peculiarity is emphasized through the analysis of the angle formed by the axis of the mandible recurved branch (passing through the mandibular condyle) with the axis of the horizontal branch of the mandible, where it was noticed that along with the increase in the angle formed by the two axes, which becomes an obtuse 160 degree angle on the squirrel and 130 degrees on the muskrat, there is also a lowering of the articular condyle up to the molar level, while in the case of carnivores, the lowering of the condyle is done without the modification of the angle between the two axes, which measures approximately 90 degrees.


Investigações comparativas com respeito à musculatura mastigatória do esquilo, do rato-almiscarado e do coelho buscam o realçamento e a interpretação morfo-funcional das particularidades do sistema dos músculos esqueléticos envolvido no processo de agarramento e mastigação. O desenvolvimento do processo coronoide no rato-almiscarado e no esquilo demonstra o aumento da força no levantamento da mandíbula por meio do aumento do braço da força de ação do músculo temporal com inserção sobre o processo coronoide, em comparação com os leporídeos, que têm tanto o processo coronoide como o músculo temporal mais reduzidos. Do ponto de vista filogenético, observa-se que as espécies que apresentam o côndilo articular baixado igual ou inferior ao nível das placas dentárias (carnívoros) apresentam uma força de pressão maior entre as placas dentárias. Em relação aos roedores estudados, nota-se a descida do côndilo articular perto do plano dos molares inferiores no esquilo e no rato-almiscarado, mas por meio da obliquidade, isto é, por meio do movimento do côndilo articular da borda craniana e dorsoventral. Esta particularidade evidencia-se em virtude do ângulo formado pelo eixo do ramo dobrado da mandíbula (que atravessa o côndilo mandibular) junto ao eixo do ramo horizontal da mandíbula, resultando no aumento do valor do ângulo formado pelos dois eixos, que se tornam obtusos a 160º no esquilo e a 130º no rato-almiscarado, em função da descida do côndilo articular quase ao nível do plano dos molares, em comparação com os carnívoros, nos quais a descida do côndilo realiza-se sem a modificação do ângulo formado pelos dois eixos de, aproximadamente, 90 graus.


Subject(s)
Mandible/anatomy & histology , Facial Muscles/anatomy & histology , Skeleton , Rodentia/classification
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(2): 167-171, abr. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-670405

ABSTRACT

We tested sera from 286 agricultural workers and 322 rodents in the department of Córdoba, northeastern Colombia, for antibodies against two hantaviruses. The sera were analysed by indirect ELISA using the lysate of Vero E6 cells infected with Maciel virus (MACV) or the N protein of Araraquara virus (ARAV) as antigens for the detection of antibodies against hantaviruses. Twenty-four human sera were IgG positive using one or both antigens. We detected anti-MACV IgG antibodies in 10 sera (3.5%) and anti-ARAV antibodies in 21 sera (7.34%). Of the 10 samples that were positive for MACV, seven (70%) were cross-reactive with ARAV; seven of the 21 ARAV-positive samples were cross-reactive with MACV. Using an ARAV IgM ELISA, two of the 24 human sera (8.4%) were positive. We captured 322 rodents, including 210 Cricetidae (181 Zygodontomys brevicauda, 28 Oligoryzomys fulvescens and 1 Oecomys trinitatis), six Heteromys anomalus (Heteromyidae), one Proechimys sp. (Echimyidae) and 105 Muridae (34 Rattus rattus and 71 Mus musculus). All rodent sera were negative for both antigens. The 8.4% detection rate of hantavirus antibodies in humans is much higher than previously found in serosurveys in North America, suggesting that rural agricultural workers in northeastern Colombia are frequently exposed to hantaviruses. Our results also indicate that tests conducted with South American hantavirus antigens could have predictive value and could represent a useful alternative for the diagnosis of hantavirus infection in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus/immunology , Rodentia/virology , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/diagnosis , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hantavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hantavirus Infections/veterinary , Hantavirus/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Rodentia/classification
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