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Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e224013, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1354702


Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the cleaning of mandibular incisors with WaveOne Gold® (WO) under different preparation techniques. Methods: A total of 210 human mandibular incisors were selected and divided into seven groups (n = 30), prepared by WO single-files (Small 20/.07 ­ WOS; Primary 25/.07 ­ WOP; Medium 35/.06 ­ WOM; or Large 45/.05 - WOL) and sequential-file techniques (WOS to WOP; WOS to WOM; and WOS to WOL). Further subdivision was made according to irrigation protocol: control group (manual irrigation - CON), E1 Irrisonic® - EIR, and EDDY® - EDD. Debris removal and the smear layer were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by using Spearman's correlation test. The significance level was set at 5%. Results: For debris and smear layer removal, WOS and WOP, EIR differed from CON and EDD (p <0.05). Conclusion: Regardless of the instrumentation used, the agitation of the irrigant solution provided better cleanability. These findings reinforce the need for agitation techniques as adjuvants in cleaning root canal systems in mandibular incisors

Root Canal Irrigants , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Root Canal Preparation , Endodontics
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 42(3): 4-8, set.-dez. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1283897


Introdução: Os cones de guta percha são utilizados para obturação de canais radiculares, entretanto a desinfecção desses cones deve ser realizada previamente à obturação, evitando uma contaminação, uma vez que com o manuseio diário na clínica, pode ocorrer a proliferação de microrganismos. Objetivo: Relatar através de uma revisão de literatura a importância da desinfecção de cones de guta percha previamente á obturação dos canais radiculares, com diferentes soluções desinfetantes utilizadas na odontologia. Metodologia: Foi realizada uma busca em artigos de revisão de literatura nas bases de dados Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs com diferentes anos de publicação, mas todos com enfoque principal no tema de desinfecção de cones de guta percha com diferentes soluções químicas. Foram utilizados os descritores guta percha, desinfecção, soluções químicas. Conclusão: Medidas de prevenção devem ser empregadas durante o atendimento odontológico, em especial durante a obturação dos canais radiculares, sendo a desinfecção dos cones de guta percha essencial(AU)

Introduction: Gutta percha points are used to fill root canals, however its disinfection must be performed prior to filling, avoiding contamination, since with daily handling in the proliferation of microorganisms can occur. Objective: To report through a literature review the importance of disinfecting gutta percha points prior to root canal filling, with different disinfectant solutions used in dentistry. Methodology: A search for literature review articles was carried out in the Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs databases with different years of publications, but all with a main focus on the topic of disinfection of gutta-percha points with different chemical solutions. The keywords gutta percha, disinfection, chemical solutions were used. Conclusion: Preventive measures must be used during dental care, especially during root canal filling, with the disinfection of gutta percha points being an essential(AU)

Root Canal Irrigants , Root Canal Obturation , Gutta-Percha , Root Canal Filling Materials , Dental Pulp Cavity
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 58(3): e3639, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347435


Introduction: Studies suggested that phytochemical products are considered potential solutions to smear layer removal due to their biological safety in cleaning root canal systems, lower toxicity, lower irritant effect and antimicrobial effect. Objective: The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review to evaluate smear layer removal of root canal systems by different natural product solutions. Methods: systematic review. Search of the literature was performed on Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane, Web of Science, Scielo and Google Scholar according the PRISMA protocol. Studies were included if they performed the experiments of smear layer removal on extracted permanent human teeth. Articles published in any language without restriction of year of publication were included in this review. The risk of bias assessment in the included studies was evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Quasi-Experimental Studies. The search strategy resulted in the retrieval of 6221 publications. After the eligibility criteria application, 8 articles were selected for analysis. Results: It was observed that some natural products solutions showed effects on smear layer removal, especially on coronal third. The phytochemical products such as Salvadora persica, chamomile alcohol extract and grape seed extract demonstrated good potential of smear layer removal, however, its effectiveness and clinical applicability are still unclear. Conclusions: Although the limitations of this study, it is possible to highlight those phytochemical products such as Salvadora persica, chamomile alcohol extract and grape seed extract that demonstrated good potential on SL removal(AU)

Introducción: Los productos fitoquímicos se consideran soluciones potenciales para la eliminación del barro dentinario debido a su seguridad biológica en la limpieza del sistema de conductos radiculares, menor toxicidad, menor efecto irritante y efecto antimicrobiano. Objetivo: Evaluar la eliminación del barro dentinario de los sistemas de conductos radiculares mediante diferentes soluciones de productos naturales. Métodos: La búsqueda de la literatura se realizó en Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane, Web of Science, SciELO y Google Scholar, según el protocolo PRISMA. Los estudios se incluyeron si realizaron los experimentos de eliminación del barro dentinario en dientes humanos permanentes extraídos. En esta revisión se incluyeron artículos publicados en cualquier idioma, sin restricción de año de publicación. La evaluación del riesgo de sesgo en los estudios incluidos se evaluó mediante la lista de verificación de evaluación crítica del Instituto Joanna Briggs para estudios cuasiexperimentales. La estrategia de búsqueda resultó en la recuperación de 6221 publicaciones. Después de la aplicación de los criterios de elegibilidad, se seleccionaron 8 artículos para su análisis. Resultados: Se observó que algunas soluciones de productos naturales mostraron efectos sobre la eliminación del barro dentinario, especialmente en el tercio coronal. Los productos fitoquímicos como salvadora pérsica, extracto de alcohol de manzanilla y extracto de semilla de uva demostraron un buen potencial de eliminación del barro dentinario; sin embargo, su efectividad y aplicabilidad clínica aún no están claras. Conclusiones: A pesar de las limitaciones de este estudio, es posible destacar aquellos productos fitoquímicos como salvadora pérsica, extracto de alcohol de manzanilla y extracto de semilla de uva demostraron buen potencial de eliminación del barro dentinario(AU)

Humans , Root Canal Irrigants/adverse effects , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Smear Layer , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic , Grape Seed Extract/administration & dosage
Braz. dent. j ; 32(3): 1-9, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345506


Abstract Decontamination of the root canal (RC) system is essential for successful endodontic therapy. In this in vitro study, it was evaluated the disinfection potential of an electrofulguration device, the Endox® Endodontic System (EES), in RC infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Sixty-five human lower premolars were instrumented with MTwo® system. The specimens were distributed into six experimental groups (n = 10), according to the irrigation protocol: 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX); CHX + EES; 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); NaOCl + EES; saline solution (SS); and SS + EES. Five specimens were untreated (control). RC samples were collected before (C1) and after EES treatment (C2), after chemo-mechanical preparation (CMP) (C3), and after final EES treatment (C4). All samples were plated for colony forming units (CFU/mL) onto solid media. The data were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Friedman tests for intragroup comparisons and by Kruskal Wallis test followed by Dunn's test for intergroup comparisons (α = 0.05). Treatment with the EES did not significantly reduce the number of CFU/mL as compared to baseline levels (C1 vs. C2, p> 0.05). After CMP (C3), all groups showed a significantly reduced amount of CFU/mL (p <0.05), with no difference between CHX- and NaOCl-treated samples (p >0.05). Lastly, treatment with the EES following CMP (C4) did not significantly reduce the amount of CFU/mL (C3 vs. C4, p> 0.05). To conclude, the use of the Endox® Endodontic System did not result in considerable bacterial reduction at all operative times, while treatment with NaOCl and CHX was equally efficient for this purpose.

Resumo A descontaminação do sistema do canal radicular (CR) é essencial para o sucesso da terapia endodôntica. Neste estudo in vitro, foi avaliado o potencial de desinfecção de um dispositivo de eletrofulguração, o Endox® Endodontic System (EES), em CR infectado com Enterococcus faecalis. Sessenta e cinco pré-molares inferiores humanos foram instrumentados com o sistema MTwo®. As amostras foram distribuídas em seis grupos experimentais (n = 10), de acordo com o protocolo de irrigação: clorexidina gel a 2% (CHX); CHX + EES; Hipoclorito de sódio 5,25% (NaOCl); NaOCl + EES; solução salina (SS); e SS + EES. Cinco amostras não foram tratadas (controle). As amostras de CR foram coletadas antes (C1) e após o tratamento com EES (C2), após preparo químico-mecânico (PQM) (C3) e após o tratamento final com EES (C4). Todas as amostras foram plaqueadas para unidades formadoras de colônias (CFU / mL) em meio sólido. Os dados foram analisados pelos testes de Wilcoxon e Friedman para comparações intragrupos e pelo teste de Kruskal Wallis, seguidos pelo teste de Dunn para comparações intergrupos (α = 0,05). O tratamento com o EES não reduziu significativamente o número de CFU / mL em comparação com os níveis basais (C1 vs. C2, p> 0,05). Após PQM (C3), todos os grupos apresentaram uma quantidade significativamente reduzida de CFU / mL (p <0,05), sem diferença entre as amostras tratadas com CHX e NaOCl (p> 0,05). Por fim, o tratamento com o EES após PQM (C4) não reduziu significativamente a quantidade de CFU / mL (C3 vs. C4, p> 0,05). Concluindo, o uso do Endox® Endodontic System não resultou em redução bacteriana considerável em todos os momentos operatórios, enquanto os tratamentos com NaOCl e CHX foram igualmente eficientes para esse fim.

Humans , Root Canal Irrigants , Dental Pulp Cavity , Sodium Hypochlorite , Chlorhexidine , Enterococcus faecalis , Root Canal Preparation
Braz. dent. j ; 32(3): 10-20, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345504


Abstract The host defense response to microbial challenge emerging from the root canal system leads to apical periodontitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of inflammatory cytokines and Nitric Oxide (NO) by macrophages after interaction with Enterococcus faecalis in the: plankton and dislodged biofilm mode; intact biofilm mode stimulated by calcium hydroxide (CH), CH and chlorhexidine (CHX) or Triple Antibiotic Paste (TAP). For this purpose, culture of macrophages from monocytes in human peripheral blood (N=8) were exposed to the different modes of bacteria for 24 hours. Subsequently, the cytokines, such as, Tumor Necrotic Factor- alfa (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10; and NO were quantified by Luminex xMAP and Greiss reaction, respectively. In addition to the potential therapeutic effects of the intracanal medication, their antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm were also tested in vitro by confocal microscopy. The experiments` data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test with the Dunn post hoc test (α < 0.05). Bacteria in dislodged biofilm mode were shown to be more aggressive to the immune system than bacteria in plankton mode and negative control, inducing greater expression of NO and TNF-α. Relative to bacteria in intact biofilm mode, the weakest antimicrobial activity occurred in Group CH. In Groups CH/CHX and TAP the percentage of dead bacteria was significantly increased to the same extent. Interestingly, the biofilm itself did not induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines - except for NO - while the biofilm treated with TAP and CH based pastes enhanced the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α; and IL-1 β, respectively. In contrast, the levels of a potent anti-inflammatory (IL-10) were increased in Group TAP.

Resumo A resposta de defesa do hospedeiro ao desafio microbiano que emerge do sistema de canais radiculares leva à periodontite apical. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a expressão de citocinas pró e anti-inflamatórias e Óxido Nítrico (NO) por macrófagos após interação com Enterococcus faecalis no modo: planctônio e de biofilme desalojado; biofilme intacto estimulado por hidróxido de cálcio (CH), CH e clorexidina ou Pasta Tri Antibiótica (TAP). Para isto, a cultura de macrófagos originados de monócitos do sangue periférico de humanos (N=8) foi exposta aos diferentes tipos de bactéria por 24 horas. Então, a quantificação da produção de of Fator de Necrose Tumoral- alfa (TNF-α), interleucina (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10 e NO por macrófagos se deu por meio do Luminex xMAP e reação de Greiss, respectivamente. Além dos potenciais efeitos terapêuticos desses compostos, sua atividade antimicrobiana contra E. faecalis também foi testada através microscopia confocal. Os dados dos experimentos foram analisados através do teste de Kruskal-Wallis com Dunn`s post hoc (α < 0.05). Bactéria em modo de biofilme desalojado se mostrou mais agressivo ao sistema imune que as bactérias planctônicas e controle negativo induzindo a maior excreção de NO e TNF-α. Em relação ao biofilme intacto, a atividade antimicrobiana mais fraca ocorreu no grupo de CH. Os grupos CHX e TAP aumentaram significativamente a porcentagem de bactérias mortas na mesma extensão. Interessantemente, o biofilme por ele mesmo não induziu a liberação de citocinas pro-inflamatórias - exceto por NO - enquanto que o biofilme tratado com TAP ou pastas a base de CH aumentaram os níveis de IL-6; e TNF-α e IL-1 β respectivamente. Em contraste, os níveis da potente citocina anti-inflamatória (IL-10) foram aumentados pelo grupo TAP.

Humans , Plankton , Biofilms , Root Canal Irrigants , Bacteria , Calcium Hydroxide , Chlorhexidine , Enterococcus faecalis , Anti-Bacterial Agents
Odontol. Clín.-Cient ; 20(2): 52-57, abr.-maio 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1369004


As soluções de irrigação são essenciais como auxiliares na limpeza e desinfecção do sistema de canais radiculares (SCR). Entretanto, essas substâncias químicas podem gerar alterações na composição da dentina. Assim, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar, por meio de uma revisão integrativa, os efeitos do hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl) a 1%; 2,5%; 3%; 5%; 5,25%; 6% e 17%; digluconato de clorexidina (CHX) a 2% e EDTA 2,5%; 5%; 15% e 17% sobre a microdureza da dentina do canal radicular após sua utilização como solução irrigadora. Foi realizada uma revisão integrativa nas bases de dados: PubMed, Cochrane e Lilacs, utilizando-se os seguintes descritores em inglês: "irrigating solutions"; "chelaling agentes"; "dentin microhardness"; "EDTA"; "sodium hypochlorite"; "chlorhexidine gluconate". Foi utilizado o conector "and" associando dentin microhardness aos outros descritores. Critérios de inclusão: Artigos científicos na área da odontologia, escritos em inglês e português que aborda o tema "As soluções de hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl), digluconato de clorexidina (CHX) e EDTA influenciam na microdureza da dentina radicular?''. Critérios de exclusão: artigos repetidos em mais de uma base de dados, livros, teses de doutorado, dissertações de mestrado, resumos e trabalhos publicados em congresso. Fortes evidências indicam que o hipoclorito de sódio, digluconato de clorexidina e EDTA influenciam na microdureza da dentina radicular, quando utilizadas como solução irrigadora durante o tratamento endodôntico... (AU)

Irrigation solutions are essential as an aid in cleaning and disinfecting the root canal system (SCR). However, these chemicals can cause changes in the composition of dentin. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate, through an integrative review, the effects of 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); 2.5%; 3%; 5%; 5.25%; 6% and 17%; 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and 2.5% EDTA; 5%; 15% and 17% on the microhardness of root canal dentin after its use as an irrigating solution. An integrative review was carried out in the databases: PubMed, Cochrane and Lilacs, using the following descriptors in English: "irrigating solutions"; "chelaling agents"; "dentin microhardness"; "EDTA"; "sodium hypochlorite"; "chlorhexidine gluconate". The "and" connector was used, associating dentin microhardness with other descriptors. Inclusion criteria: Scientific articles in the field of dentistry, written in English and Portuguese that address the topic "Do solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and EDTA influence the microhardness of root dentin?". Exclusion criteria: articles repeated in more than one database, books, doctoral theses, master's dissertations, abstracts and papers published in congress. Strong evidence indicates that sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine gluconate and EDTA influence the microhardness of root dentin when used as an irrigating solution during endodontic treatment... (AU)

Humans , Root Canal Irrigants , Root Canal Therapy , Sodium Hypochlorite , Chlorhexidine , Edetic Acid , Dental Pulp Cavity , Dentin
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 42(1): 9-13, jan.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1148159


O objetivo do presente estudo foi mensurar o pH externo radicular de dentes bovinos que foram desinfetados em solução de cloramina por 7 dias. Neste estudo foram utilizadas soluções irrigadoras, hipoclorito de sódio 1%, clorexidina 0,12% e hipoclorito de sódio 2,5% associadas ao edta e as medicações intracanais, hidróxido de cálcio, hidróxido de cálcio com PMCC e clorexidina gel 2%. O preparo químico mecânico foi realizado com as limas easy logic e as soluções foram agitadas com ultrassom durante 3 minutos e após os dentes foram imersos em água deionizada em eppendorfs estéreis e mantidos em estufa a 37°C. O pH externo foi analisado utilizando as fitas medidoras de pH no período de 24 horas, 48 horas, 7 dias, 10 dias e 15 dias. A normalidade dos valores obtidos de cada ensaio foi testada através do teste Kolmogorof- Smirnov, e o teste estatístico foi ANOVA de uma via e comparações múltiplas de Tukey. Os resultados mostraram que houve diferença estatística nos valores de pH nos grupos avaliados dentro dos tempos (p< 0,05). Concluiu-se que mesmo com as variações de pH nos períodos avaliados, as medicações e as soluções irrigantes podem ser utilizadas de forma associadas na endodontia, com o intuito de eliminar o maior número de microrganismos dos canais radiculares(AU)

The objective of the present study was to measure the external root pH of bovine teeth that were disinfected in chloramine solution for 7 days. Irrigating solutions, 1% sodium hypochlorite, 0.12% chlorhexidine and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite associated with edta and intracanal medications, calcium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide with PMCC and chlorhexidine gel 2%. The mechanical chemical preparation was performed with the easy logic files and the solutions were shaken with ultrasound for 3 minutes and after the teeth were immersed in deionized water in eppendorfs and kept in an oven at 37 ° C. The external pH was analyzed using the pH measuring tapes in the period of 24 hours, 48 hours, 7 days, 10 days and 15 days. The normal values obtained from each test were tested using the Kolmogorof-Smirnov test, and the statistical test was one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons. The results showed that there was a statistical difference in pH values in the groups evaluated within the times (p< 0.05). It was concluded that even with pH variations in the evaluated periods, medications and irrigating solutions can be used in an associated way in endodontics, in order to eliminate the largest number of microorganisms in the root canals(AU)

Root Canal Irrigants , Root Canal Preparation , Sodium Hypochlorite , Calcium Hydroxide , Chloramines , Chlorhexidine , Analysis of Variance , Edetic Acid , Endodontics
Dent. press endod ; 11(1): 72-77, Jan-Apr2021. Tab, Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348251


Introdução: O tipo de agulha e fluxo de irrigação é importante para a limpeza adequada no terço apical do canal radicular. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do tipo de agulha e fluxo de irrigação na limpeza do canal radicular e canais laterais simulados e na extrusão apical do irrigante. Métodos: Trinta e dois dentes de resina foram utiliza- dos. Após a instrumentação do canal radicular, foram feitos quatro canais laterais a 2 e 7 mm do ápice. Os canais radiculares foram preenchidos com solução de contraste. Os canais foram irrigados com dois tipos de agulha, 29G e 31G, com diferentes designs (abertura lateral e apical) e dois fluxos (2 ou 5 mL/min), a 1 mm aquém do comprimento de trabalho. O volume da solução de contraste nos canais principal e laterais após irrigação e a extrusão apical do irrigante (mm3 ) foi avaliado por micro-CT, em comparação com a análise inicial. Os dados em porcentagem foram analisados pelos testes ANOVA e Tukey (α=0,05). Resultados: não houve diferença entre os protocolos de irrigação para limpeza da solução de contraste. Maior volume de extrusão apical com agulha 29G com abertura apical e 5 mL/min foi observado, em comparação ao mesmo tipo de agulha e 2 mL/min (p<0,05). Conclusão: Todos os protocolos de irrigação foram associados à limpeza dos canais radiculares. Maior extrusão apical foi observada com agulha 29G ­ abertura apical com maior fluxo de irrigação (5 mL/min). Implicações clínicas: Irrigação endodôntica com agulha com abertura apical e maior fluxo da solução pode favorecer a extrusão dos irrigantes para os tecidos periapicais (AU).

Introduction: needle and irrigation flow rate are important for proper cleaning of the root canal. Aim: to evaluate the influence of type of needle and irrigation flow rate on cleaning of root canal and simulated lateral canals and the apical extrusion of irrigant. Methods: Thirty-two resin teeth were used. After root canal instrumentation, four lateral canals were made at 2 and 7 mm from the apex. Root canals were filled with contrast solution. The root canals were irrigated with two types of needle, 29G and 31G, with different designs (side and apical opening) and two flow rates (2 or 5 mL/min), at 1 mm short of the working length. The volume of the contrast solution in the main and lateral canals after irrigation and apical extrusion of the irrigant (mm3) were evaluated by Micro-CT, in comparison with the initial analysis. Data in percentage were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukeys tests (α = 0.05). Results: no difference among the irrigation protocols for contrast solution cleaning was observed. Higher volume of apical extrusion using needle 29G-apical opening and 5 mL/min in comparison with the same type of needle and 2 mL/min was observed (p < 0.05). Conclusion: all irrigation protocols were associated with root canals cleaning. Greater apical extrusion was observed for needle 29G-apical opening with higher irrigation flow rate (5 mL/min). Clinical implications: endodontic irrigation using a needle with apical opening and higher flow rate of solution may favor extrusion of irrigant to the periapical tissues (AU).

Periapical Tissue , Root Canal Irrigants , X-Ray Microtomography , Needles , Dental Pulp Cavity , Housekeeping
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 36(84): 21-26, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363852


La terapia endodóntica tiene como uno de sus objetivos lograr la completa desinfección del sistema de conductos radiculares. Por esto, se deben seleccionar sustancias irrigantes que tengan la capacidad de eliminar todo el contenido de dicho sistema. La acción antimicrobiana es una de las características más importantes a tener en cuenta en la elección. El hipoclorito de sodio (NaOCl) tiene capacidad bactericida sobre muchos de los microorganismos de la flora endodóntica. El Enterococcus faecalis es una bacteria altamente resistente a antibacterianos que sobrevive en condiciones extremas. El ácido hipocloroso (HOCl) es una molécula derivada del NaOCl que ha demostrado tener alto poder bactericida sobre cepas patogénicas bucales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar y comparar la efectividad antimicrobiana in vitro del NaOCl 2.5% y el HOCl al 5% frente a Enterococcus faecalis. Una suspensión de Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), de turbidez 0.5 en escala de McFarland, fue inoculada en varios tubos de ensayo, los cuales contenían cada antimicrobiano. Se dejaron actuar durante 1, 5 y 10 minutos para luego neutralizarlos e inclubarlos a 37º C en condiciones de capnofilia durante 48 hs. Todo el procedimiento se realizó por quintuplicado. Los resultados se midieron mediante recuento de UFC/ml. No se evidenció presencia de Enterococcus faecalis en las placas que contenían la solución de NaOCl al 2.5% como tampoco en aquellas que contenían HOCl al 5%. In vitro, el HOCl y el NaOCl en las concentraciones probadas, eliminaron completamente las cepas de Enterococcus faecalis (AU)

Sodium Hypochlorite/therapeutic use , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Hypochlorous Acid/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , In Vitro Techniques , Colony Count, Microbial , Culture Media , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 41(3): 40-47, set./dez. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1121745


Este trabalho consiste em uma pesquisa realizada sobre a utilização de líquidos irrigantes por cirurgiões dentistas na cidade de Itabuna-BA. Para isto, delimitou-se a seguinte problemática: quais são as escolhas dos líquidos irrigantes nos tratamentos endodônticos com o intuito de promover uma total desinfecção dos canais radiculares? E como objetivo geral, elucidar sobre as escolhas dos cirurgiões dentistas localizados na cidade de Itabuna-Bahia em relação as substâncias utilizadas como coadjuvantes no tratamento endodôntico durante a etapa de irrigação. A pesquisa teve uma abordagem qualitativa e foi utilizado o instrumento questionário com cem dentistas da cidade selecionada. Este questionário consistia em oito perguntas, dentre elas qual irrigante utilizado e a porcentagem do mesmo. Com relação aos resultados, pode-se afirmar que no tratamento endodôntico, o hipoclorito de sódio continua sendo a solução irrigante de escolha entre os profissionais, diferentes concentrações de soluções de hipoclorito de sódio são empregadas durante o preparo biomecânico, por endodontistas e clínicas gerais que praticam a endodontia, não existindo uma unanimidade quanto a escolha, nenhum acordo existe em relação a sua concentração ideal(AU)

This work consists of a research carried out on the use of irrigating liquids by dental surgeons in the city of Itabuna-BA. For this, the following problem was defined: what are the choices of irrigating liquids in endodontic treatments in order to promote a total disinfection of the root canals? And as a general objective, elucidate about the choices of dentists located in the city of Itabuna-Bahia in relation to the substances used as adjuvants in endodontic treatment during the irrigation stage. The research had a qualitative approach and the questionnaire was used with 100 dentists in the selected city. This questionnaire consisted of eight questions, including which irrigant was used and the percentage of it. Regarding the results, it can be said that in endodontic treatment, sodium hypochlorite remains the irrigating solution of choice among professionals, different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite solutions are used during biomechanical preparation by endodontists and general practitioners who practice endodontics, there is no unanimity as to the choice, no agreement exists regarding their ideal concentration(AU)

Root Canal Irrigants , Root Canal Preparation , Sodium Hypochlorite , Chlorhexidine , Edetic Acid , Malicum Acidum
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 41(3): 55-60, set./dez. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1121756


Para o sucesso no tratamento endodôntico é necessário a limpeza e modelagem dos condutos radiculares. Para isso, utilizam-se algumas técnicas de preparo dos canais com o intuito de remover o conteúdo patológico, visando sanar o canal radicular. Após um preparo cuidadoso e preciso, a obturação que acompanha a técnica escolhida deve apresentar um selamento adequado e preencher o sistema radicular com a finalidade de substituir o conteúdo natural ou patológico dos condutos por materiais inertes tolerados pelos tecidos periapicais. Com isso, o objetivo deste estudo in vitro foi avaliar por meio de radiografia digital, a qualidade de preenchimento de canais simulados retos quando os mesmos foram preparados manualmente e obturados utilizando condensação lateral e Mcsppaden e preparados com o sistema rotatório e obturados com a técnica de cone único. Para este estudo foram utilizados 20 blocos de canais radiculares simulados retos com comprimento de 21 mm. Estes blocos foram divididos em terços (cervical, médio e apical) em dois grupos que foram avaliados como ruim, bom e muito bom, onde foram obturados de duas formas diferentes, um grupo utilizando a técnica da condensação lateral mais emprego de Mcspadden e no outro grupo obturação com cone único após o preparo com o sistema mecanizado Protaper Universal. Os dados foram submetidos ao teste Qui-quadrado de Person e Teste Exato de Fisher com nível de significância de 95%. Os resultados obtidos apresentaram diferença significativas entre os terços obturados com as duas técnicas. Pode-se concluir, considerando a metodologia empregada e os resultados obtidos, que há diferença entre as duas técnicas obturadoras em relação a qualidade de preenchimento dos canais radiculares(AU)

Successful endodontic treatment requires cleaning and shaping of the root ducts. For this, some techniques of canal preparation are used in order to remove the pathological content, aiming to remedy the root canal. After careful and accurate preparation, the obturation accompanying the chosen technique must be properly sealed and fill the root system in order to replace the natural or pathological contents of the ducts with inert materials tolerated by the periapical tissues.Thus, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate by digital radiography the quality of filling of straight simulated channels when they were manually prepared and filled using lateral condensation and Mcsppaden and prepared with the rotary system and filled with the technique of single cone. For this study 20 blocks of simulated straight root canals with a length of 21 mm were used. These blocks were divided into thirds (cervical, middle and apical) into two groups that were evaluated as bad, good and very good, where they were filled in two different ways, one using the lateral condensation technique plus Mcspadden's and the other single cone obturation group after preparation with the Protaper Universal mechanized system. Data were submitted to Person Chi-square test and Fisher Exact Test with a significance level of 95%. The obtained results showed significant difference between the thirds filled with the two techniques. It can be concluded, considering the methodology employed and the results obtained, that there is a difference between the two obturator techniques in relation to the filling quality of the root canals(AU)

Root Canal Filling Materials , Root Canal Obturation , Gutta-Percha , Periapical Tissue , Root Canal Irrigants , Root Canal Therapy , Root Canal Preparation
Braz. dent. j ; 31(5): 493-498, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132328


Abstract This clinical study reports on the antibacterial effects and outcome of endodontic treatment using either a single-file or a multifile system, associated with calcium hydroxide interappointment medication. The root canals of single-rooted teeth with apical periodontitis were treated by using either Reciproc or BioRaCe instrument systems, 2.5% NaOCl irrigation, and calcium hydroxide medication. Bacteriological samples taken before preparation and immediately before obturation were evaluated for total bacterial counts by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Patients were followed up and the treatment outcome was assessed by clinical and radiographic criteria. Decreasing lesions were classified as success in a lenient criterion or failure in a rigid one. Bacteria were detected in all initial samples (47 cases) and were significantly reduced after treatment in both groups (p<0.001). In the Reciproc and BioRaCe groups, 7/25 (28%) and 11/22 (50%) root canals yielded negative qPCR results before obturation, respectively (p>0.05). Quantitative bacterial reduction was similar between groups (p>0.05). The success rate in the BioRaCe group was 95.5% and 77% in the loose and rigid criterion, respectively. In the Reciproc group, corresponding figures were 88% and 76%. Differences in outcome were not significant (p>0.05). No diseased case showed negative qPCR results for bacteria. A difference of >1 Log10 counts was observed between healed and diseased cases. Root canal treatments of teeth with apical periodontitis using a single-file or a multifile system for preparation, associated with NaOCl irrigation and calcium hydroxide interappointment medication, showed similar antibacterial effectiveness and success rate.

Resumo Este estudo clínico relata os efeitos antibacterianos e o resultado de tratamentos endodônticos usando um sistema de instrumentação de instrumento único ou de múltiplos instrumentos, associado à medicação intracanal com hidróxido de cálcio. Os canais radiculares de 80 dentes unirradiculares com lesão perirradicular foram tratados com os sistemas Reciproc ou BioRaCe, irrigação com NaOCl a 2,5% e medicação com pasta de hidróxido de cálcio por 7 a 10 dias. Amostras bacteriológicas foram colhidas antes do preparo e imediatamente antes da obturação e examinadas quanto à contagem total de bactérias pela reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real quantitativa (qPCR). Os pacientes foram acompanhados e o resultado do tratamento foi avaliado por critérios clínicos e radiográficos (índice periapical). Os casos com lesões que diminuíram mas não desapareceram foram classificados como sucesso em um critério leniente ou fracasso em um critério rígido. Quarenta e sete pacientes estavam disponíveis para avaliação bacteriológica e de resultados. Bactérias foram detectadas em todas as amostras iniciais desses casos e foram significativamente reduzidas após o tratamento nos dois grupos (p<0,001). Nos grupos Reciproc e BioRaCe, os canais radiculares apresentaram resultados negativos na qPCR em 7/25 (28%) e 11/22 (50%) casos antes da obturação, respectivamente (p>0,05). A redução bacteriana foi semelhante entre os grupos (p>0,05). O período médio (mediana) de acompanhamento foi de 20,5 (18,5) meses para BioRaCe e 17,4 (18) meses para Reciproc (p>0,05). No grupo BioRaCe, a taxa de sucesso foi de 95,5% e 77% nos critérios leniente e rígido, respectivamente. No grupo Reciproc, os valores correspondentes foram 88% e 76%. As diferenças no resultado não foram estatisticamente significativas (p>0,05). Nenhum caso de doença pós-tratamento mostrou resultados negativos de qPCR para bactérias. Foi observada uma diferença >1 Log10 nas contagens bacterianas entre os casos curados e doentes. O tratamento do canal radicular de dentes com lesão perirradicular utilizando um sistema de instrumento único ou múltiplos no preparo, associado à irrigação com NaOCl e medicação entre consultas com hidróxido de cálcio, mostrou eficácia antibacteriana e taxa de sucesso semelhantes.

Humans , Periapical Periodontitis/drug therapy , Dental Pulp Cavity , Root Canal Irrigants , Sodium Hypochlorite , Calcium Hydroxide , Chlorhexidine , Disinfection , Root Canal Preparation
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 108(2): 46-51, mayo-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121108


Objetivos: Comparar ex vivo la eficacia del instrumento XP-endo Finisher y del sistema EndoActivator en la reducción/eliminación del biofilm microbiano en conductos radiculares infectados. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron 23 premolares inferiores humanos extraídos cuya longitud fue estandarizada en 17 mm. Todos los conductos se prepararon con el sistema WaveOne Gold Medium (#35.06). Los dientes se esterilizaron, se inocularon con Enterococcus faecalis y se separaron en dos grupos experimentales de 10 piezas cada uno. De los 3 dientes remanentes, 1 fue utilizado como control positivo y 2, como controles negativos. En el grupo 1, las soluciones irrigantes se agitaron con XP-endo Finisher. En el grupo 2, se utilizó EndoActivator. Se tomaron muestras antes de la contaminación, luego de esta y después de la agitación de los irrigantes mediante conos de papel estériles. La carga microbiana fue sembrada en agar sangre y los conos se cultivaron en caldo tripteína de soja. La remoción de la carga microbiana se determinó por la presencia o ausencia de turbiedad del medio. Las unidades formadoras de colonias (UFC) remanentes se cuantificaron y los resultados se categorizaron como R1 (≤10 UFC) o R2 (>10 UFC). Los datos fueron analizados mediante la prueba de Fisher. Resultados: No hubo diferencias significativas entre XP-endo Finisher y EndoActivator (P>0,05). El número de usos no influyó sobre la capacidad operativa de ambos instrumentos (AU)

Aim: To compare ex vivo the effectiveness of the XP-endo Finisher and the EndoActivator in biofilm reduction/ removal from infected root canals. Materials and methods: Twenty three extracted human single-rooted lower premolars were selected and standardised to 17 mm in length. All the canals were prepared with WaveOne Gold Medium reciprocating files (#35.06). The teeth were autoclaved and inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis. The infected teeth were then assigned to 2 experimental groups of 10 teeth each according to the final irrigation/agitation protocol. Of the three remaining teeth, one was used as a positive control, and the other two were used as negative controls. In Group 1 the irrigating solutions were agitated with XP-endo Finisher while in Group 2 the EndoActivator was used. All root canals were sampled before and after contamination, and again after irrigant agitation with sterile paper points. The microbial load was spread on blood agar plates and the paper points were cultured in sterile trypticase soy broth. The removal of the microbial load was determined by visual observation of the turbidity of the media and by quantification of the number of colony-forming units (UFC). The results were categorized as R1 (≤10 UFC) or R2 (>10 UFC). Data were analysed by the Fisher's exact test at P<0.05. Results: No significant differences was found between XP-endo Finisher and EndoActivator (P>0.05) regarding their effectiveness in the reduction/removal of the microbial biofilm. The number of uses of both instruments did not affect their operative performance (AU) Conclusion: XPF and EA were both equally effective for microbial biofilm reduction/removal from ex vivo infected root canals (AU)

Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Dental High-Speed Equipment , Biofilms , Dental Instruments , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , In Vitro Techniques , Colony Count, Microbial/methods , Efficacy , Statistical Analysis , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Culture Media
Braz. dent. j ; 31(2): 116-121, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132291


Abstract This study aimed to evaluate sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), limewater (LW), and Polymyxin B (PMB) as irrigants over MMP-3, MMP-8 and MMP-9. Thirty-three patients with apical periodontitis of single-rooted teeth were treated according to three-experimental groups (n=11): group-1: 2.5% NaOCl was used as irrigant; group-2: 2.5% NaOCl for the first two files and LW: [0.14% Ca(OH)2] for the last two files; group-3: 2.5% NaOCl for the first two files and PMB for the last two files. The association of Ca(OH)2 and CHX was used as an intracanal medication in all groups. Four root canal samplings (S) were collected: S1) immediately after access cavity; S2) after biomechanical preparation; S3) after EDTA application; and S4) after removal of the intracanal medication. After quantification of MMP-3, MMP-8, and MMP-9, the data were analyzed by Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis tests and completed by Dunn test (5%). Regardless the used irrigant, there was no difference in reducing MMP-3 or MMP-8 (P=0,5273, P=0,7048 respectively). However, in reducing MMP-9 (P=0,0246) the NaOCl group was the most effective followed by NaOCl+LW group and NaOCl+PMB group respectively. The intracanal medication [Ca(OH)2 + CHX] with the NaOCl and NaOCl+LW was effective in reducing MMP-8 (P<0,0001, P=0,0025) and MMP-9 (P=0,0007, P=0,0047) respectively, but not for the group of NaOCl+PMB which was not effective in reducing MMP-8 or MMP-9 (P=0,1718, P=0,1953) respectively. NaOCl and NaOCl+LW were effective in reducing MMP-9 levels, and this effectivity could be improved by the use of the intracanal medication [Ca(OH)2 + CHX] in reducing MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl), água de cal (LW) e polimixina B (PMB) como soluções irrigadoras sobre MMP-3, MMP-8 e MMP-9. Trinta e três pacientes com periodontite apical de dentes unirradiculares foram tratados de acordo com três grupos experimentais (n= 11): grupo 1: 2,5% NaOCl foi usado como solução irrigadora; grupo-2: NaOCl a 2,5% para as duas primeiras limas e LW: [0,14% Ca(OH)2] para as duas últimas limas; group-3: 2.5% NaOCl para as duas primeiras limas e PMB para as duas últimas limas. A associação de Ca(OH)2 e CHX foi utilizada como medicação intracanal em todos os grupos. Quatro amostras de canais radiculares (S) foram coletadas: S1) imediatamente após a cirurgia de acesso; S2) após o preparo biomecânico; S3) após aplicação do EDTA; e S4) após a remoção da medicação intracanal. Após a quantificação das MMP-3, MMP-8 e MMP-9, os dados foram analisados pelos testes de Friedman e Kruskal-Wallis e completados pelo teste de Dunn (5%). Independentemente da solução irrigadora utilizada, não houve diferença na redução de MMP-3 ou MMP-8 (P= 0,5273, P= 0,7048 respectivamente). No entanto, na redução de MMP-9 (P= 0,0246) o grupo NaOCl foi o mais eficaz, seguido pelo grupo NaOCl+LW e grupo NaOCl+PMB, respectivamente. A medicação intracanal [Ca(OH)2 + CHX] com o NaOCl e NaOCl+LW foi eficaz na redução de MMP-8 (P<0,0001, P= 0,0025) e MMP-9 (P= 0,0007, P= 0,0047) respectivamente, mas não para o grupo de NaOCl+PMB que não foi eficaz na redução de MMP-8 ou MMP-9 (P= 0,1718, P= 0,1953), respectivamente. NaOCl e NaOCl+LW foram eficazes na redução dos níveis de MMP-9, e esta efetividade pode ser melhorada pelo uso da medicação intracanal [Ca(OH)2+CHX] na redução dos níveis de MMP-8 e MMP-9.

Humans , Periapical Periodontitis , Sodium Hypochlorite , Polymyxin B , Root Canal Irrigants , Chlorhexidine , Root Canal Preparation , Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 , Dental Pulp Cavity
Rev. bras. odontol ; 77(1): 1-4, jan. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119610


Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a quantidade de debris extruídos apicalmente após o preparo do canal com o WaveOne Gold e o uso suplementar do instrumento XP-Endo Finisher. Material e Métodos: Quarenta pré-molares humanos com canal único foram selecionados e divididos em dois grupos (n = 20): preparo com instrumento WaveOne Gold e preparo com instrumento WaveOne Gold + XP-Endo Finisher. Os canais radiculares foram instrumentados seguindo as instruções do fabricante e a água destilada foi usada como irrigante. Debris extruídos apicalmente durante a instrumentação foram coletados em tubos Eppendorf pesados previamente em balança analítico. O peso dos detritos extruídos foi estabelecido subtraindo-se o peso pré-instrumentação e pós-instrumentação dos tubos Eppendorf para cada grupo. Resultados: Os dados foram analisados pelos testes de Shapiro-Wilk e Mann-Whitney, com nível de significância de 5%. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos (p = 0,66) em relação à quantidade debris extruídos apicalmente. Conclusão: A presença de debris extruídos apicalmente ocorreu nos dois grupos; no entanto, o uso adicional do instrumento XP-Endo Finisher não contribuiu para o aumento significativo da extrusão apical de detritos quando comparado ao uso isolado do instrumento WaveOne Gold.

Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris after the preparation with WaveOne Gold and additional use of XP-Endo Finisher file. Material and Methods: Forty human one-rooted premolars were selected and divided into two groups (n=20): WaveOne Gold and WaveOne Gold and XP-Endo finisher. Subsequently, the root canals were instrumented following the manufacturer's instructions and distilled water was used as irrigant. Apically extruded debris during instrumentation was collected into pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the pre-instrumentation and postinstrumentation weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. Results: The data were analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk and Mann-Whitney tests, with significant level of 5%. There was no significant difference between groups (p=0.66) in relation to apically extruded debris. Conclusion: apically extruded debris occurred in both groups; however, the additional use of the XP-Endo Finisher instrument did not contribute to the significant increase of apical extrusion of debris when compared to the isolated use of WaveOne Gold

Root Canal Irrigants , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Dental Pulp Cavity
Braz. dent. j ; 31(1): 37-43, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089261


Abstract The objective of this in vivo study was to assess the effect of the root canal irrigation by negative and positive apical pressure on the expression of molecules that are an indicative of cell differentiation with mineralizing phenotype in teeth of dogs with incomplete rhizogenesis and induced periapical lesion. A total of 30 teeth (60 roots) were distributed into 3 groups (n=20): EndoVac®, Conventional and Control. After 90 days, the routine histotechnical procedures were performed and the sections were submitted to immunohistochemical technique for the staining of osteopontin (OPN), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the RUNX2 transcription factor in the apical and periapical regions of the roots. A semi-quantitative analysis of the positive immunostaining was performed and the intensity of the expression was classified in absent (0), mild (1), moderate (2), or intense (3). Scores data were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test and Dunn post-test, and the significance level was set at 5%. RUNX2 immunostaining revealed that in the negative pressure group there was a significantly stronger (p<0.05) immunostaining in comparison to the control group. Regarding the OPN expression, it was not possible to detect a statistically significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). After analyzing ALP immunostaining, a statistically significant difference was observed between the groups (p<0.05), and the negative pressure group showed a markedly stronger mark immunostaining than the control group. The results of the present in vivo study allowed concluding that negative apical pressure irrigation presents mineralizing potential in immature teeth with apical periodontitis.

Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo in vivo foi avaliar o efeito da irrigação do canal radicular por pressão apical negativa e por pressão positiva na expressão de moléculas que são indicativas de diferenciação celular com fenótipo mineralizador em dentes de cães com rizogênese incompleta e lesão periapical. Um total de 30 dentes (60 raízes) foi distribuído em 3 grupos (n=20): EndoVac, Convencional e Controle. Após 30 dias, foram realizados os procedimentos histotécnicos de rotina e os cortes foram submetidos à técnica de imunohistoquímica para marcação de Osteopontina (OPN), Fosfatase Alcalina (ALP) e para o fator de transcrição RUNX2 nas regiões apical e periapical das raízes. Foi realizada uma análise semi-quantitativa da imunomarcação positiva e a intensidade da expressão foi classificada em ausente (0), leve (1), moderada (2) ou intensa (3). Os dados por escores foram analisados estatisticamente pelo teste não-paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis e pelo pós-teste de Dunn, e o nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. A imunumarcação para RUNX2 revelou que no grupo pessão negativa houve marcação significativamente mais intensa (p<0,05), em comparação ao grupo controle. Com relação à expressão de OPN, não foi possível observer diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos (p>0,05). Após análise da imunomarcação para ALP, foi observado diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos (p<0,05), e o grupo pressão negativa demonstrou uma marcação siginificativamente mais intensa do que o grupo controle. Os resultados do presente estudo in vivo permitiram concluir que a irrigação por pressão apical negativa apresenta potencial mineralizador em dentes com ápice aberto e lesão periapical.

Animals , Dogs , Periapical Periodontitis , Tooth , Root Canal Irrigants , Root Canal Therapy , Root Canal Preparation
Braz. j. oral sci ; 19: e209594, jan.-dez. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1152142


Seeking to increase the efficiency of endodontic irrigation, the association of different solutions as final irrigant has been investigated, such as sodium hypochlorite with chlorhexidine. The literature shows that the combination of these substances leads to the formation of a brownish precipitate, but does not reveal measurements of the intensity of this precipitate and its consequences. Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the change in dentin color and the obliteration of the dentinal tubules after the association of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with chlorhexidine (CHX) in the final irrigation. Methods: Fifty sterile human lower premolars were prepared with a ProDesign R 35.05 files and divided into 6 groups. Four different NaOCl concentrations (0.5%; 1%, 2.5% and 5.25%) associated with 2% CHX were tested, in addition to 2 control groups, using only 2.5% NaOCl and 2% CHX, respectively. After the final irrigation protocol, the dentin color change was evaluated by spectrophotometry immediately and after 24 hours, and the dentinal tubule obliteration was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Results: It was possible to verify that regardless the NaOCl concentration used when associated with CHX, a chemical residue was formed, with consequent dentin pigmentation and tubular obstruction. There was a trend towards increased dentin pigmentation and tubular obstruction due to the deposition of the chemical residue formed by this association. Conclusion: It can be concluded that all concentrations of NaOCl associated with CHX caused color changes and tubular obstruction, being proportional to the concentration of NaOCl used

Root Canal Irrigants , Sodium Hypochlorite , Chlorhexidine , Endodontics
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e020, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089398


Abstract: This in vitro study aimed to assess the effects of different pretreatments used to adapt glass-fiber posts cemented to root canals with different resin cements, regarding porosity percentage and bond strength. Twelve bovine incisor roots were prepared with Largo drills. After post space preparation, the specimens were randomized into two types of pretreatment groups (n = 3): water-wet bonding and ethanol-wet bonding. After the post were cemented, the roots were stored in 100% humidity at room temperature for 7 days. The samples were scanned by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). Images were reconstructed by NRecon software, and CTAn software was used to analyze the porosity percentage (%) at the luting interface. Evaluation of the push-out bond strength was performed by serially cutting the roots, and submitting the slices to testing. Additionally, the resin cement post-gel shrinkage values (%) were measured using the strain-gauge method (n = 10). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA, Tukey's test and Student's t test (a = 0.05). The roots prepared with ethanol-wet bonding using RelyX™ U200 had significantly lower porosity in the coronal and apical thirds (p < 0.05). The group prepared with ethanol-wet bonding using RelyX™ ARC presented better bond strength results in the coronal and apical thirds (p < 0.05). RelyX™ ARC (0.97%) produced a higher post-gel shrinkage value than RelyX™ U200 (0.77%). Canals pretreated with ethanol-wet bonding presented better outcomes in regard to porosity percentage and push-out bond strength.

Animals , Cattle , Tooth Root/drug effects , Post and Core Technique , Dentin-Bonding Agents/pharmacology , Resin Cements/chemistry , Ethanol/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Materials Testing , Cattle , Porosity , Dental Bonding , Dental Materials/chemistry , Dental Pulp Cavity , X-Ray Microtomography , Glass
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880845


The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of four final irrigation protocols in smear layer removal and bacterial inhibition in root canal systems. Thirty roots inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis were prepared with ProTaper Universal files. The teeth were disinfected by conventional needle irrigation, sonic agitation using the EndoActivator device, passive ultrasonic irrigation, or an M3 Max file. Teeth with no root canal preparation served as blank controls for the establishment of the infection baseline. Teeth with preparation but no final irrigation served as a post-instrumentation baseline. After the final irrigation, the teeth were sectioned in half. One half of each tooth was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to assess smear layer removal using a five-point scale. The other half was examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using the LIVE/DEAD BackLight bacterial viability kit to evaluate the depth of bacterial survival in dentinal tubules. SEM analysis revealed no significant difference in smear layer removal throughout the whole canal among the EA, PUI, and M3 Max groups (P > 0.05). CLSM revealed that PUI achieved the greatest bacterial inhibition depth in the coronal ((174.27 ± 31.63) μm), middle ((160.94 ± 37.77) μm), and apical ((119.53 ± 28.49) μm) thirds of the canal (all P < 0.05 vs. other groups). According to this comprehensive SEM and CLSM evaluation, PUI appears to have the best infection control ability in root canal systems.

Dental Pulp Cavity , Edetic Acid , Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Root Canal Irrigants , Root Canal Preparation , Smear Layer , Sodium Hypochlorite
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190100, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056594


Abstract Objective: This clinical study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of passive ultrasonic activation (PUA) in eliminating microorganisms in primary endodontic infection (PEI) after instrumentation of root canals using microbiological culture and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Methodology: Twenty root canals with PEI and apical periodontitis were selected. The root canals were instrumented and then randomly divided into 2 groups, according to the irrigation method: PUA and conventional needle irrigation (CNI). Microbiological samples were collected before instrumentation (S1), after instrumentation (S2) and after irrigation with 17% EDTA (S3). The samples were subjected to anaerobic culture technique and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization analysis. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between CNI (23.56%) and PUA (98.37%) regarding the median percentage values for culturable bacteria reduction (p<0.05). In the initial samples, the most frequently detected species was S. constellatus (50%), and after root canal treatment was E. faecalis (50%). Conclusion: Both treatments significantly decreased the number of bacterial species compared with the initial sample. However, no statistical difference in the total microbial load between PUA and CNI groups was detected. The number of cultivable anaerobic bacteria reduced significantly using PUA, and the bacterial composition and number of bacterial species after using either CNI or PUA was similar.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Periapical Periodontitis/therapy , Root Canal Therapy/instrumentation , Ultrasonic Therapy/instrumentation , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Sodium Hypochlorite/therapeutic use , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods , Colony Count, Microbial , DNA Probes , Linear Models , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Bacterial Load , Therapeutic Irrigation/instrumentation , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods