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1.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 36(84): 21-26, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363852

ABSTRACT

La terapia endodóntica tiene como uno de sus objetivos lograr la completa desinfección del sistema de conductos radiculares. Por esto, se deben seleccionar sustancias irrigantes que tengan la capacidad de eliminar todo el contenido de dicho sistema. La acción antimicrobiana es una de las características más importantes a tener en cuenta en la elección. El hipoclorito de sodio (NaOCl) tiene capacidad bactericida sobre muchos de los microorganismos de la flora endodóntica. El Enterococcus faecalis es una bacteria altamente resistente a antibacterianos que sobrevive en condiciones extremas. El ácido hipocloroso (HOCl) es una molécula derivada del NaOCl que ha demostrado tener alto poder bactericida sobre cepas patogénicas bucales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar y comparar la efectividad antimicrobiana in vitro del NaOCl 2.5% y el HOCl al 5% frente a Enterococcus faecalis. Una suspensión de Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), de turbidez 0.5 en escala de McFarland, fue inoculada en varios tubos de ensayo, los cuales contenían cada antimicrobiano. Se dejaron actuar durante 1, 5 y 10 minutos para luego neutralizarlos e inclubarlos a 37º C en condiciones de capnofilia durante 48 hs. Todo el procedimiento se realizó por quintuplicado. Los resultados se midieron mediante recuento de UFC/ml. No se evidenció presencia de Enterococcus faecalis en las placas que contenían la solución de NaOCl al 2.5% como tampoco en aquellas que contenían HOCl al 5%. In vitro, el HOCl y el NaOCl en las concentraciones probadas, eliminaron completamente las cepas de Enterococcus faecalis (AU)


Subject(s)
Sodium Hypochlorite/therapeutic use , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Hypochlorous Acid/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , In Vitro Techniques , Colony Count, Microbial , Culture Media , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology
2.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20200217, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134767

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Pulp revascularization is an effective treatment for immature necrotic teeth. Calcium hydroxide has been used in pulp revascularization as an intracanal medication due to its antimicrobial action and the non-exhibition of crown discoloration and cytotoxicity for stem cells from the apical papilla. Our study aimed to investigate the clinical success and quantitative radiographic changes of root development in immature traumatized teeth using calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel as intracanal medication. Methodology In this retrospective study, 16 patients were treated with a standardized pulp revascularization protocol. Calcium hydroxide and 2% chlorhexidine gel were manipulated in a 1:1 (v/v) ratio and inserted into root canals with Lentulo spirals (Dentsply Maillefer, Baillaigues, Switzerland). Patients were followed up for a period from 9 to 36 months for the evaluation of clinical and radiological data. Radiographic measurements of root length, root width, apical diameter, and MTA placement from the apex were quantified using software ImageJ. Wilcoxon test and t-test were used, according to nonparametric or parametric data, respectively, for changes over time in root length, root width, and apical diameter. Results Fifteen teeth survived during the follow-up period (93.75%) and met the criteria for clinical success. Although the changes seem to be very small in many cases, significant increases in the average root length (14.28%, p<0.0001), root width (8.12%, p=0.0196), and decrease in apical diameter (48.37%, p=0.0007) were observed. MTA placement from the apex and age at the time of treatment was not significantly associated with the quantitative radiographic outcomes. Conclusions Pulp revascularization in traumatized immature teeth treated with calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel as intracanal medication had high success and survival rates, showing periodontal healing and resolution of signs and symptoms. However, concerning the continued root development, the outcomes can still be considered unpredictable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Calcium Hydroxide/therapeutic use , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Dental Pulp/blood supply , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Dental Pulp Necrosis/drug therapy , Tooth Apex
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190100, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056594

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This clinical study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of passive ultrasonic activation (PUA) in eliminating microorganisms in primary endodontic infection (PEI) after instrumentation of root canals using microbiological culture and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Methodology: Twenty root canals with PEI and apical periodontitis were selected. The root canals were instrumented and then randomly divided into 2 groups, according to the irrigation method: PUA and conventional needle irrigation (CNI). Microbiological samples were collected before instrumentation (S1), after instrumentation (S2) and after irrigation with 17% EDTA (S3). The samples were subjected to anaerobic culture technique and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization analysis. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between CNI (23.56%) and PUA (98.37%) regarding the median percentage values for culturable bacteria reduction (p<0.05). In the initial samples, the most frequently detected species was S. constellatus (50%), and after root canal treatment was E. faecalis (50%). Conclusion: Both treatments significantly decreased the number of bacterial species compared with the initial sample. However, no statistical difference in the total microbial load between PUA and CNI groups was detected. The number of cultivable anaerobic bacteria reduced significantly using PUA, and the bacterial composition and number of bacterial species after using either CNI or PUA was similar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Periapical Periodontitis/therapy , Root Canal Therapy/instrumentation , Ultrasonic Therapy/instrumentation , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Sodium Hypochlorite/therapeutic use , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods , Colony Count, Microbial , DNA Probes , Linear Models , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Bacterial Load , Therapeutic Irrigation/instrumentation , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods
4.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e017, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989481

ABSTRACT

Abstract In endodontic treatment, regardless of the instrumentation technique, the presence of a smear layer covering contaminated dentin walls is always a concern. Thus, irrigation plays an essential role in reducing bacterial load. To enhance irrigation effectiveness, different ultrasonic activation methods and the use of different tips have been studied. This study assessed the cleaning capacity of the novel NiTi ultrasonic tip for smear layer removal using ultrasonically activated irrigation (UAI) with passive or continuous ultrasonic irrigation (PUI or CUI, respectively), compared with conventional irrigation. Forty-five single-rooted human mandibular premolars were decoronated to a standardized length of 16 mm. Instrumentation was performed using the Genius system up to size 50.04 and irrigated with 3% NaOCl. The specimens were divided into three groups (n = 15) according to the final irrigation activation technique: conventional irrigation (CI), as control group; PUI; and CUI, following the manufacturer's protocol. The samples were longitudinally cleaved and analyzed under a scanning electron microscope for smear layer removal according to a cleanliness score for the cervical, middle, and apical thirds. Data were evaluated by means of the Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey's tests, with a 5% level of significance. UAI enhanced cleaning compared to conventional irrigation, mainly at the apical third. CUI showed the best results, with statistically significant lower scores than PUI and CI (p < 0.05). Final irrigant activation with the NiTi tip showed better cleaning capacity than conventional irrigation. In addition, CUI resulted in better smear layer removal than PUI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Therapeutics/methods , Titanium , Dental Prophylaxis/methods , Dental Pulp Cavity , Nickel , Therapeutic Irrigation/instrumentation , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods
5.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 7(7): 292-297, sept. 22, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120999

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the aim of this study is to determine the current trends of irrigation during root canal therapy by specialists who are members of the Chilean Endodontic Society. materials and method: a survey (survey monkey -SurveyMonkey.com) was e-mailed to the 485 members of the Chilean Endodontic Society. the instrument was translated and adapted from the survey "irrigation trends among American Association of Endodontists members: a web-based survey" applied in the USA in 2012. participants answered a set of 16 questions that included irrigant selection, irrigant concentration, the adopted protocol, techniques or devices for irrigant activation. results: 99 percent of respondents use sodium hypochlorite as the main irrigant. data indicate that 74 percent of respondents use hypochlorite at a concentration of 5 percent. most respondents (94 percent) also include EDTA in their usual practice. In addition, 90 percent of respondents reported that they activate the irrigating agent, and 94 percent confirmed that they perform a final irrigation protocol. conclusion: the majority of respondents use sodium hypochlorite as the main irrigant at a concentration of 5 percent, use ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a smear removal agent, activate the irrigant, and perform a final irrigation protocol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Practice Patterns, Dentists'/statistics & numerical data , Endodontics/statistics & numerical data , Sodium Hypochlorite/administration & dosage , Sodium Hypochlorite/therapeutic use , Chile , Chlorhexidine/administration & dosage , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Surveys and Questionnaires , Smear Layer , Edetic Acid/administration & dosage , Edetic Acid/therapeutic use , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods
6.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e16, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889502

ABSTRACT

Abstract The presence of residues within the root canal after post-space preparation can influence the bond strength between resin cement and root dentin when using fiberglass posts (FGPs). Currently, there is no consensus in the literature regarding what is the best solution for the removal of debris after post-space preparation. This systematic review involved "in vitro" studies to investigate if cleaning methods of the root canal after post-space preparation can increase the retention of FGPs evaluated by the push-out test. Searches were carried out in PubMed (MEDLINE) and Scopus databases up to July2017. English language studies published from 2007 to July 2017 were selected. 475 studies were found, and 9 were included in this review. Information from the 9 studies were collected regarding the number of samples, storage method after extraction, root canal preparation, method of post-space preparation, endodontic sealer, resin cement, cleaning methods after post-space and presence of irrigant activation. Five studies presented the best results for the association of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), while in the other 4 studies, the solutions that showed improved retention of FGPs were photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS), Qmix, Sikko and EDTA. The results showed heterogeneity in all comparisons due to a high variety of information about cleaning methods, different concentrations, application time, type of adhesive system and resin cements used. In conclusion, this review suggests that the use of NaOCl/EDTA results in the retention of FGPs and may thus be recommended as a post-space cleaning method influencing the luting procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Prosthesis Retention/methods , Glass , Post and Core Technique , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Dental Bonding/methods , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Edetic Acid/therapeutic use , Reproducibility of Results , Sodium Hypochlorite/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
7.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32(supl.1): e65, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974475

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Chemomechanical preparation is intended to clean, disinfect, and shape the root canal. This step is of utmost importance during treatment of infected teeth with apical periodontitis, because treatment outcome depends on how effectively the clinician eliminates bacteria, their products, and necrotic tissue that would serve as substrate for bacterial regrowth. Nonetheless, curvatures and complex internal anatomical variations of the root canal system can pose a high degree of difficulty in reaching these goals. In infected teeth, bacteria may persist not only in difficult-to-reach areas such as isthmuses, ramifications, dentinal tubules, and recesses from C-shaped or oval/flattened canals, but also in areas of the main canal wall that remain untouched by instruments. If bacteria withstand chemomechanical procedures, there is an augmented risk for post-treatment apical periodontitis. This article discloses the reasons why some areas remain unprepared by instruments and discusses strategies to circumvent this issue and enhance infection control during endodontic treatment/retreatment of teeth with apical periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Periapical Periodontitis/therapy , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Dental Instruments , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , X-Ray Microtomography/methods
8.
Postgrad. Med. J. Ghana ; 7(1): 1-7, 2018. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1268719

ABSTRACT

Background: The majority of endodontic treatment in Ghana is provided by general dental practitioners due to the absence of specialists in endodontics. Sodium hypochlorite has been described as one of the commonly used irrigation solutions during endodontic treatment. However, there are no published reports on its use in Ghana. Aim: The study was to determine the proportion of Ghanaian dental practitioners who have used sodium hypochlorite for irrigation and the concentrations they usually use. Materials and methods: Self -administered questionnaires were mailed to dental practitioners in private clinics, government hospitals and clinics, teaching hospitals and training institutions across the country between December 2015 and March 2016. The collated data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS 20.0.Results: The most commonly used root canal irrigant was 2.5% Sodium Hypochlorite (Milton®). This was routinely used by 31 (73.7%) of the respondents as root canal irrigant while normal saline solution was used regularly by only 6(15.8%) respondents. The various concentrations of sodium hypochlorite used were 0.5%, 2.5%,1%and 5.0%; with the following percentage-use respectively, 42.9%, 32.1%,21.4%and 6.1%. Three (10.7%) respondents had reported experiencing some complications with the use of sodium hypochlorite. Conclusion: Sodium hypochlorite is the most commonly used root canal irrigant by dental practitioners in Ghana. The concentrations usually used ranges between 0.5% and 5.0%


Subject(s)
Economics , Endodontics , Ghana , Root Canal Irrigants , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/therapeutic use
9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(5): 465-476, Sept.-Oct. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893653

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tissue repair is an essential process that reestablishes tissue integrity and regular function. Nevertheless, different therapeutic factors and clinical conditions may interfere in this process of periapical healing. This review aims to discuss the important therapeutic factors associated with the clinical protocol used during root canal treatment and to highlight the systemic conditions associated with the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth. The antibacterial strategies indicated in the conventional treatment of an inflamed and infected pulp and the modulation of the host's immune response may assist in tissue repair, if wound healing has been hindered by infection. Systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, can also inhibit wound healing. The success of root canal treatment is affected by the correct choice of clinical protocol. These factors are dependent on the sanitization process (instrumentation, irrigant solution, irrigating strategies, and intracanal dressing), the apical limit of the root canal preparation and obturation, and the quality of the sealer. The challenges affecting the healing process of endodontically treated teeth include control of the inflammation of pulp or infectious processes and simultaneous neutralization of unpredictable provocations to the periapical tissue. Along with these factors, one must understand the local and general clinical conditions (systemic health of the patient) that affect the outcome of root canal treatment prediction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Periapical Tissue/physiopathology , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Wound Healing/physiology , Tooth, Nonvital/physiopathology , Tooth, Nonvital/therapy , Periapical Periodontitis/therapy , Root Canal Filling Materials/therapeutic use , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Bone Cements/therapeutic use , Calcium Hydroxide/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
10.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(5): 477-482, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893648

ABSTRACT

Abstract New technical and scientific developments have been advocated to promote the success of the endodontic treatment. In addition to rotary and reciprocating systems, irrigating solution agitation has been suggested and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) is the most used. Objective: To evaluate, in vitro, the effect of ultrasound streaming (US) in the disinfection of flattened root canal systems prepared by the ProTaper, BioRaCe and Reciproc systems, utilizing the microbiological culture. Methodology: Extracted human mandibular incisors (n=84) were used. Suspensions of Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) were standardized and inserted along with the teeth immersed in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth. The contamination was made following a protocol during 5 days. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups: G1, ProTaper Universal; G2, ProTaper Universal with US; G3, BioRaCe; G4, BioRaCe with US; G5, Reciproc; and G6, Reciproc with US. Irrigation was performed with saline solution. After biomechanical preparation, microbiological samples were performed with sterilized paper points, which were diluted and spread on BHI agar; after 48 h, the colony forming units (CFU/mL) were counted for each sample. Results: Groups using ultrasonic agitation presented a greater antibacterial effect than the other ones, even using saline solution as irrigant. The ProTaper Universal system showed the best antibacterial activity of the tested systems (median of 0 CFU/mL with and without surfactant or ultrasonic activation [PUI]). Even with PUI, Reciproc (median of 2.5 CFU/mL with PUI and 5 without it) could not reduce as many colonies as ProTaper Universal without US. The BioRaCe system had greater bacterial reduction when using US (median of 0 CFU/mL with PUI and 30 without it). Conclusions: US promoted greater reduction in the number of bacteria in the flattened root canals prepared with nickel-titanium mechanized systems. Regarding the instruments used, the ProTaper Universal system was the most effective in reducing the bacterial number.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Dental Instruments , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Titanium , Ultrasonic Therapy/instrumentation , Colony Count, Microbial , Disinfection/instrumentation , Disinfection/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Enterococcus faecalis/growth & development , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Equipment Design , Bacterial Load , Therapeutic Irrigation/instrumentation , Nickel
11.
Rio de janeiro; s.n; 2017. 56 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1015763

ABSTRACT

As limitações dos irrigantes químicos utilizados em endodontia têm incentivado novas pesquisas acerca de substâncias alternativas para serem utilizadas no tratamento endodôntico. Estudos anteriores sugerem que o extrato de semente de uva (Vitis vinifera), tem atividade antimicrobiana assim como é eficaz no combate a cepas de Enterococcus faecalis. No entanto, os efeitos deste novo irrigante em biofilmes microbianos ainda não foram elucidados. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar e quantificar o grau de desinfecção da dentina contaminada por biofilme de E. faecalis após irrigação com extrato de semente de uva Vitis vinífera 6,5% por meio de análise microscopia confocal a laser. A clorexidina (CHX) 2% e o hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl) 5,25% foram utilizados como irrigantes para comparação. Foram confeccionadas quarenta amostras de discos de dentina que foram contaminadas com E. faecalis e incubadas por um período de 21 dias para formação do biofilme. As amostras foram divididas em diferentes grupos de acordo com o irrigante testado após transcorrido o período de contaminação: grupo NaOCl, grupo CHX, grupo Vitis vinifera e grupo solução salina (controle). Após a irrigação, os discos de dentina foram corados com o corante fluorescente LIVE/DEAD BacLight e analisados por microscopia confocal à laser para determinar a proporção de células mortas no biofilme. A aquisição das imagens e quantificação do biofilme foi realizada utilizando-se o software LAS X. Uma distribuição normal dos dados foi confirmada pelo teste Shapiro- Wilk (p>0,05). Por esse motivo, a análise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se One-way análise de variância. Comparações Post hoc pair-wise foram realizadas utilizando-se o teste Tukey para múltiplas comparações (P<0.05). O grupo no qual o NaOCl foi utilizado como irrigante apresentou maior quantidade de células bacterianas mortas do que os dos outros irrigantes (P<0,05). Já o grupo da Vitis vinifera demonstrou maior morte bacteriana quando comparada a CHX e ao grupo controle (P<0,05). Não foram observadas diferenças entre a CHX e o grupo controle (P>0,05). A irrigação com o extrato de semente de uva, vitis vinífera, apresentou atividade antimicrobiana sobre o biofilme de E. faecalis sendo esta inferior a apresenta pelo NaOCl e superior a apresentada pela CHX.


The limitations of chemical irrigants used in endodontics have encouraged further research on alternative substances to be used in endodontic treatment. Previous studies have suggested that grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera), an irrigant of natural origin, is effective against strains of Enterococcus faecalis. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the degree of disinfection of dentin contaminated by E. faecalis biofilm after irrigation with Vitis vinifera grape seed extract 6,5% and to compare it with chlorhexidine (CHX) 2% and Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) 5,25% by confocal microscopy laser. Forty samples of dentin disks that will be contaminated with E. faecalis and incubated for a period of 21 days for biofilm formation were prepared. The samples were divided into different groups according to the irrigant tested after the period of contamination: NaOCl group, CHX group, Vitis vinifera group and control group . After irrigation, the dentin disks were stained with the fluorescent dye LIVE / DEAD BacLight and analyzed by laser confocal microscopy to determine the proportion of dead cells in the biofilm. The acquisition of the images and quantification of the biofilm was performed using the software LAS X. Normal distribution of the data was confirmed by Shapiro- Wilk test (p>0.05). Therefore, statistical analysis was performed using One-way analysis of variance. Post hoc pair-wise comparisons were performed using Tukey's test for multiple comparisons (P<0.05). NaOCl presented a higher amount of bacterial cells killed than the other irrigators (P <0.05). Irrigation with grape seed extract, Vitis vinifera, showed antimicrobial activity on the E. faecalis biofilm, being lower than that presented by NaOCl and higher than that presented by CHX.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Microscopy, Confocal , Dental Plaque , Grape Seed Extract/therapeutic use , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Vitis , Dentin , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e114, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952083

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare two irrigation techniques and four devices for endodontic sealer placement into the dentinal tubules. Ninety-nine single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and allocated to either the control (CO) (n=11) or experimental groups according to the irrigation method: syringe and NaveTip needle (NT) (n=44), and EndoActivator (EA) (n=44). These groups were subdivided according to sealer placement into K-File (KF), lentulo spiral (LS), Easy Clean (EC), and EndoActivator (EA) subgroups. Moreover, the distances of 5 mm and 2 mm from the apex were analyzed. The teeth were obturated with AH Plus and GuttaCore X3. Analyses were performed by scanning electron microscopy associated to cathodoluminescence. The percentage and maximum depth of sealer penetration were measured. Data were evaluated by three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Games-Howell test (p<0.05). EA was superior to NT in percentage of sealer penetration. EC was significantly superior to EA (subgroup) for sealer penetration, and both improved the percentage of sealer penetration when compared to LS. Better sealer penetration was observed at the distance of 5 mm from the apex. Sealer penetration into the dentinal tubules was significantly improved by sonic irrigant activation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Root Canal Obturation/methods , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Dentin/drug effects , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods , Rhodamines , Root Canal Filling Materials/therapeutic use , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Root Canal Obturation/instrumentation , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Microscopy, Confocal , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dental Pulp Cavity/ultrastructure , Dentin/ultrastructure , Epoxy Resins/therapeutic use , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Therapeutic Irrigation/instrumentation
13.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e113, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952123

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation and EasyClean for removing residual filling material in retreatment. Twenty-two maxillary lateral incisors with apical curvature were instrumented with ProTaper files and filled with Endofill using the lateral compactation technique. Removal of filling material was performed with Reciproc, Mtwo and ProDesign Logic 50/.01 files. The teeth were inserted in a silicone mould, which was placed in a metal muffle, and split to visualize the residual filling material. The samples were divided into two groups (n = 11) according to the irrigation protocol: Passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI group) with 3 activations of 20 seconds and EasyClean (Easy Equipamentos Odontológicos, Belo Horizonte, Brazil) (EC group) used in continuous rotation with 3 activations of 20 seconds, both using NaOCl and EDTA. Environmental scanning electron microscopic images of the apical, middle, and cervical thirds were taken before and after the irrigant activation. The Kappa test was used to determine interexaminer agreement. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests (p < 0.05). PUI and EC improved the removal of remnant filling material in all root canal thirds (p < 0.05). PUI and EC presented similar performance in the final step of retreatment (p > 0.05). No significant difference was observed in the removal of filling material in the apical, middle, and cervical thirds in both groups (p > 0.05). EasyClean in continuous rotary motion is useful in retreatment and was shown to be as effective as ultrasonic activation in the removal of remnant filling material.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Filling Materials , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Root Canal Therapy/instrumentation , Ultrasonic Therapy/instrumentation , Reference Values , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Time Factors , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Retreatment/instrumentation , Therapeutic Irrigation/instrumentation , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods
14.
Rio de janeiro; s.n; 2016. 43 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1017190

ABSTRACT

Diferentes manobras para promover agitação do hipoclorito de sódio têm sido propostas para incrementar a desinfecção do sistema de canais radiculares (SCR). O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar, ex vivo, diferentes formas de agitação do NaOCl usado na irrigação final do SCR, avaliando a mais eficaz na redução de UFC/ml, a partir de biofilme de Enterococcus faecalis. Oitenta e cinco incisivos inferiores humanos extraídos, com canais ovais e obtidos do banco de dentes da UERJ foram acessados, contaminados com uma suspensão de E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) e incubados por 30 dias possibilitando crescimento bacteriano em biofilme. Os espécimes foram preparados com o instrumento Primary (25/08) do sistema Wave One TM. Foram formados cinco grupos contendo 15 dentes cada um, que foram irrigados com hipoclorito de sódio a 2,5% e, posteriormente, submetidos à agitação do irrigante como protocolo de irrigação final com o auxílio de diferentes instrumentos/ equipamentos, como a seguir: o EndoActivator ® (EA), o Easy Clean® (EC), a espiral de Lentulo (EL), a lima manual tipo K número 10 (LM) e o inserto ultrassônico Irrisonic - E1 (US). Foi formado o grupo controle positivo (n=5) o qual foi contaminado, sem a realização de nenhum procedimento. Foi formado também o grupo controle negativo (n=5) que não foi contaminado, mas seus espécimes foram irrigados com o NaOCl e submetidos a cada um dos protocolos de agitação da substância química auxiliar. As amostras microbiológicas foram coletadas usando cone de papel estéril antes da instrumentação (S1), após a instrumentação (S2) e após o protocolo final de irrigação (S3). Tais cones foram transferidos para tubos contendo meio BHI e incubados durante 48 horas. O crescimento bacteriano foi contado em unidades formadoras de colônia (UFC/ml). Os resultados foram submetidos aos testes Shapiro-Wilks, Wilcoxon e Kruskall-Wallis, para análise estatística ( P< 0.05) e demostraram que não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos EA e EC, o grupo US quando comparado aos grupos EL e LM, foi significantemente mais eficiente na redução bacteriana. De acordo com os resultados do presente estudo, é possível afirmar que a agitação do NaOCl tem influência na atividade antibacteriana no SCR, e que o uso de ultrassom é mais eficiente quando comparado ao uso da espiral de lentulo e da lima manual.


Different maneuvers to promote agitation of sodium hypochlorite have been proposed to increase the disinfection of the root canal system. The objective of this study was to compare, ex vivo, different forms of agitation of chemical substance used in irrigation of the root canal system, evaluating the most effective in reducing or eliminating biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis. Eighty-five human mandibular incisors extracted with oval shape and obtained from UERJ teeth bank were accessed, contaminated with a suspension of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and incubated for 30 days allowing bacterial growth in biofilms. The specimens were prepared with the instrument Primary (25 / 0.08) Wave One TM system. Five groups were formed containing 15 teeth each, which were irrigated with sodium hypochlorite to 2.5% and then subjected to agitation of the irrigator as the final irrigation protocol with the help of different instruments / equipment, as follows: the EndoActivator ® (EA), Easy Clean® (EC), the Lentulo spiral (EL), the manual K file number 10 (LM) and the ultrasonic insert Irrisonic -E1 (US). The positive control group was formed (n=5), which was contaminated, without performing any procedure. It has also formed the negative control group containing (n=5), which was not infected but was irrigated with NaOCl and subjected to each of the agitation protocols of the irrigator. Microbiological samples were collected using sterile paper points before instrumentation (S1) after instrumentation (S2) and after the end of the irrigation protocol (S3). These points were transferred to Eppendorf containing BHI and incubated for 48 hours. Bacterial growth was counted in colony forming units (CFU / ml). The results were submitted to the Shapiro-Wilks test, Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis test for statistical analysis and demonstrated a significant difference between the groups. US group compared to EL and LM groups was significantly more efficient in bacterial reduction. According to the results of this study it is clear that the agitation of NaOCl influences the antibacterial activity in the root canal system and that the use of ultrasonic is more efficient when compared to the use of lentullo and manual file.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Sodium Hypochlorite/therapeutic use , Ultrasonics/methods , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Statistics, Nonparametric , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Incisor
15.
Bauru; s.n; 2016. 109 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-881174

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o uso do cetorolaco de trometamina 10mg sublingual 30 minutos antes do procedimento de biopulpectomia em pacientes com pulpite irreversível com relação à dor antes do procedimento e nas 48 horas subsequentes, a quantidade de medicação consumida no pós-operatório e tempo esperado para sua utilização. Também foi avaliada a influência da anestesia intrapulpar, o uso da automedicação analgésica antes da procura pelo atendimento e diferença entre gêneros sobre os níveis de dor pré e pós-operatória. Propôs-se avaliar também a necessidade da presença do antibiótico na medicação intracanal, comparando o Otosporin® com hidrocortisona. Participaram da pesquisa 608 pacientes que procuraram o Setor de Urgência Odontológica da Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru ou o Setor Odontológico do Pronto Socorro Central da Prefeitura Municipal de Bauru, sendo que 34 completaram de forma adequada o protocolo previsto. Foram divididos em 4 grupos que receberam cetorolaco ou placebo como medicação pré-operatória e Otosporin® ou hidrocortisona como medicação intracanal. Foram anotados os valores de intensidade de dor, em uma escala visual analógica, antes da medicação pré-operatória, antes do atendimento, após o atendimento, 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48 horas após e quando houve necessidade de medicação pós-operatória para alívio da dor. Também foi anotado se o paciente havia se automedicado e qual a droga utilizada, se houve necessidade de anestesia intrapulpar, a quantidade de medicação consumida pelo paciente no pós-operatório e o tempo esperado para seu consumo. Dos resultados observou-se que os pacientes que receberam cetorolaco como medicação pré-operatória tiveram uma redução significativa da dor em 30 minutos, quando comparado ao placebo. Foi observado que o tempo necessário para a ingestão de medicamentos pós-operatórios não demonstrou diferença significativa entre os grupos, assim como na quantidade de medicação ingerida. O tempo decorrido entre a primeira e a última dose de medicação pós-operatória também não demonstrou diferença estatística. Com relação a anestesia intrapulpar, 78% dos pacientes necessitaram desta técnica, mas devido ao pequeno tamanho da amostra obtida, não foi possível correlacionar o seu uso com a utilização da medicação pós-operatória. Para os pacientes que se automedicaram previamente, não houve diferença significativa em relação à dor inicial. Quando os gêneros foram comparados, não foi possível observar uma diferença estatística significante entre eles com relação aos parâmetros estudados. Também foram descritos no trabalho os motivos de não inclusão dos 574 pacientes que foram abordados durante a realização deste estudo. Com base nos resultados, conclui-se que o cetorolaco diminuiu expressivamente o nível de dor durante a espera pelo atendimento, porém com relação ao tempo esperado pelo paciente para tomar a primeira dose de medicação pós-operatória, a última dose, a quantidade de comprimidos e a frequência de ingestão não demonstrou a mesma diferença. Também não houve diferença no nível de dor inicial entre os pacientes que se automedicaram e os que não fizeram uso dessa prática. Devido ao pequeno número da amostra, não foi possível encontrar uma correlação entre o uso da técnica anestésica intrapulpar e medicação pós-operatória, sugerindo mais estudos futuros.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of ketorolac tromethamine (10mg sublingual taken 30 minutes before pulpectomy in patients with irreversible pulpitis) in pain reduction immediately before the procedure and the 48 subsequent hours, postoperative consumption of analgesic drugs and time for its use. The influence of intrapulpal anesthesia, the use of analgesic self-medication prior to the demand for care and gender difference on the levels of pre- and postoperative pain was also evaluated. It was also proposed assess the need for antibiotic presence in the intracanal medicament, comparing Otosporin® with hydrocortisone. A total of 608 patients who presented to Dental Urgency Sector from Dental School of Bauru (USP) or Emergency Dental Sector from Bauru City Hall were invited to participate, and 34 completed properly planned protocol. They were distributed in 4 groups that received either ketorolac or placebo as preoperative medication and Otosporin® or hydrocortisone as intracanal medication. The rates of pain intensity were recorded by means of a visual analogue scale before pretreatment medication, immediately before the appointment, 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48 hours after the appointment, and when there was taken post medication for postoperative pain relief. It was also recorded if the patient had self medicated and which the drug used and, if there was need intrapulpal anesthesia, amount of ketorolac and rescue medication (paracetamol 750mg) consumed by the patient postoperative time and the waitng time for consumption. The results showed that patients receiving Ketorolac as preoperative medication had a significant reduction of pain in 30 minutes compared to placebo. It was observed that the time required for the intake of postoperative drug showed no significant difference between groups, as well as the amount of medication intake. The time elapsed between the first and last dose of postoperative medication also showed no statistical difference. Concerning intrapulpal anesthesia, 78% of patients required for this technique, but because of the small sample size obtained it was impossible to correlate their use with the use of postoperative medication. For patients who practiced self medication previously, there was no significant difference with respect to initial pain. When genders were compared, it was not possible to observe a statistically significant difference between them regarding the parameters studied. Were also described in the study the reasons of non-inclusion of 574 patients that were addressed during this study. Based on the results, it is concluded that ketorolac significantly decreased the level of pain during the waiting time, but with respect to the time length for the patient to take the first dose of postoperative medication, the last dose, the number of tablets and taken frequency did not show the same difference. There was no difference in the initial level of pain among patients who practiced self medication and those who did not use this practice. Due to the small sample size, it was not possible to find a correlation between the use of the anesthetic technique intrapulpal and postoperative medication, suggesting more future studies.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Anesthesia, Dental/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Ketorolac Tromethamine/therapeutic use , Pulpectomy/methods , Pulpitis/drug therapy , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Toothache/drug therapy , Acute Pain/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Neomycin/therapeutic use , Pain Measurement , Polymyxin B/therapeutic use , Preoperative Care , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
16.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e74, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952057

ABSTRACT

Abstract Revascularization of immature teeth with necrotic pulps traditionally involves the use of triple antibiotic paste, which may sometimes lead to undesirable complications. The objective of this study was to assess tissue repair in immature dog teeth with apical periodontitis subjected to revascularization, comparing two different pastes used for root canal disinfection. Apical periodontitis was induced in 30 dog premolars. Teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups: root canals filled with triple antibiotic paste (n = 10); root canals filled with 1% propolis paste (n = 10); and no medication (n = 10). An additional group (n = 10, no intervention) was used as control. After 7 months, the jaws were histologically evaluated for the following variables: newly formed mineralized tissue (present/absent); vital tissue in the canal space (absent/periodontal ligament-like/pulp-like); apical extension of root (present/absent); and severity of inflammatory process (absent/mild/moderate/severe). There were no statistically significant differences among the experimental groups in new mineralized tissue formation and apical root development. The formation of vital tissue in the canal space, in turn, was statistically different between the triple paste and propolis groups: vital tissues were present in all revascularized teeth disinfected with propolis paste (100%), compared to 71% of those disinfected with the triple paste. Severity of inflammatory process was different between the triple paste and no medication groups. The new tissues formed onto canal walls and in the root canal space showed characteristics of cementum and periodontal ligament, respectively. Propolis may have some advantages over the triple paste for the revascularization of immature teeth.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Periapical Periodontitis/drug therapy , Propolis/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Tooth/blood supply , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Dental Pulp Necrosis/drug therapy , Guided Tissue Regeneration/methods , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Ointments , Periapical Periodontitis/physiopathology , Periodontal Ligament/drug effects , Propolis/therapeutic use , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Tooth Remineralization/methods , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Dental Pulp Necrosis/physiopathology , Tooth Apex/drug effects , Tooth Apex/physiopathology , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Dental Pulp/physiopathology , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dental Pulp Cavity/physiopathology , Dentin/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 29(1): 1-9, 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777212

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate, by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the cleaning of flattened root canals, varying irrigation/aspiration protocols during biomechanical preparation. Thirdy human mandibular incisors were distributed into three groups (n = 10) according to the aspiration/irrigation protocols: conventional, conventional + brush, and apical negative pressure irrigation. Irrigation procedure was performed with 5 mL of 1% NaOCl at each change of instrument; final irrigation was conducted with 17% EDTA for 5 min. After biomechanical preparation, the roots were sectioned and prepared for SEM analysis. The images obtained were evaluated under 35× and 1,000× magnification by three calibrated examiners, following a double-blind design. All data were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis and Dunn’s post hoctests (α = 0.05). Canals wherein the conventional method and apical negative pressure irrigation were employed revealed less debris, statistically different from the conventional + brush group (p < 0.05). Regarding the presence of smears, apical negative pressure irrigation was more effective in cleaning, showing lowest scores (p < 0.05), compared with the other tested protocols. Comparing each root canal third revealed that the apical portion was difficult to clean as all the tested protocols showed similar high scores (p > 0.05), both for the presence of debris and smear layer. In conclusion, although none of the studied irrigation/aspiration protocols have completely cleaned flattened root canals, apical negative pressure irrigation was more effective in smear layer removal, whereas the conventional + brush protocol was the least effective in removing the debris and smear layer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Debridement/instrumentation , Debridement/methods , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Dentin/drug effects , Disinfectants/therapeutic use , Edetic Acid/therapeutic use , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surface Properties , Smear Layer/therapy , Sodium Hypochlorite/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 22(6): 490-495, Nov-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-732592

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to monitor the effectiveness of root canal procedures by using different irrigants and intracanal medication on endotoxin levels found in root canals of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Material and Methods: Thirty root canals of teeth with pulpal necrosis associated with periapical lesions were selected and randomly divided into groups according to the irrigants used: GI - 2.5% NaOCl, GII - 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel, and GIII - saline solution (SS) (all, n=10). Samples were collected with sterile/apyrogenic paper points before (S1) and after root canal instrumentation (S2), after use of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (S3), and after 30 days of intracanal medication (Ca(OH)2+SS) (S4). A turbidimetric kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay was used for endotoxin measurement. Results: Endotoxins were detected in 100% of the root canals investigated (30/30), with a median value of 18.70 EU/mL. After S2, significant median percentage reduction was observed in all groups, irrespective of the irrigant tested: 2.5% NaOCl (99.65%) (GI), 2% CHX (94.27%) (GII), and SS (96.79%) (GIII) (all p<0.05). Root canal rinse with 17% EDTA (S3) for a 3-minute period failed to decrease endotoxin levels in GI and a slight decrease was observed in GII (59%) and GIII (61.1%) (all p>0.05). Intracanal medication for 30 days was able to significantly reduce residual endotoxins: 2.5% NaOCl (90%) (GI), 2% CHX (88.8%) (GII), and SS (85.7%) (GIII, p<0.05). No differences were found in the endotoxin reduction when comparing s2 and s4 treatment groups. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated the effectiveness of the mechanical action of the instruments along with the flow and backflow of irrigant enduring root canal instrumentation for the endotoxin removal from root canals of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Moreover, the use of intracanal medication for 30 days contributed for an improvement ...


Subject(s)
Humans , Lipopolysaccharides/analysis , Periapical Periodontitis/therapy , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease , Dental Pulp Necrosis , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Edetic Acid/therapeutic use , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Limulus Test , Periapical Periodontitis/microbiology , Random Allocation , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Sodium Hypochlorite/therapeutic use , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
19.
São Paulo; s.n; 2014. 96 p. ilus, tab. (BR).
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-747285

ABSTRACT

A instrumentação do canal radicular possui como conseqüência a formação de debris dentinários, os quais acumulam-se especialmente nas áreas mais complexas do sistema de canais radiculares. Por este motivo, atenção especial tem sido concedida aos métodos de agitação da substâ ncia química auxiliar, com o intuito de melhorar a sua eficácia química e mecânica. No entanto, não está claro se debris dentinários removidos do interior do canal radicular possuem efeito na qualidade da obturação. Portanto, os objetivos deste estudo foram, com o auxílio da microtomografia computadorizada (micro-CT): avaliar e quantificar a presença de debris dentinários em canais curvos, após o preparo químico-cirúrgico; comparar a remoção desses debris, após uso de Irrigação Ultrassônica Passiva (IUP) ou do sistema EndoVac; e avaliar a qualidade da obturação dos mesmos canais, mensurando o volume de material obturador e de espaços vazios. Vinte e quatro raízes mesiais de molares inferiores humanos extraídos foram divididos aleatoriamente em 2 grupos (n=12), de acordo com o método de irrigação final a ser avaliado. Cada espécime foi submetido a quatro escaneamentos: exame préoperatório, exame pós-preparo, exame pós-irrigação final e exame pós-obturação, com um microtomógrafo de raios-X SkyScan 1176, a uma resolução de 17,42 m. Após preparo químico-cirúrgico os grupos receberam irrigação final com IUP ou com o sistema EndoVac e em seguida obturados com a técnica termoplástica de ondas contínuas de condensação. Após a reconstrução das imagens resultantes dos quatro escaneamentos, o corregistro das mesmas foi realizado com o programa DataViewer. Os programas CTAn e CTvol foram utilizados para binarização dos objetos de interesse, análise volumétrica e reconstrução de modelos 3D do canal radicular, dos debris dentinários e do material obturador. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente com o programa GraphPad Prism por meio do teste t de Student (p < 0,05). As análises de micro-CT revelaram debris dentinários acumulados no interior dos canais radiculares, ocupando uma porcentagem média em relação ao volume do canal de 2,71% para o grupo IUP e 4,10% para o grupo EndoVac. Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto à remoção de debris dentinários, nem em relação ao volume de material obturador e de espaços vazios (p > 0,05). Concluiu-se que a IUP e o sistema EndoVac foram igualmente eficientes na remoção de debris dentinários, reduzindo em média 50% do seu volume. Também, a ativação dos irrigantes pelos dois métodos não interferiu na qualidade da obturação do canal radicular.


Root canal preparation has as a consequence the formation of hard-tissue debris, which accumulates specially in the complex areas of the root canal system. For this reason, special attention has been given to methods of agitation of the irrigants, aiming to improve its chemical and mechanical efficiency. However, it is not clear if dentin debris removed from the root canal have impact on the quality of root canal filling. Therefore, the objectives of this study were, with the aid of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT): evaluate and quantify the presence of hard-tissue debris in curved root canals, after chemical-surgical preparation; compare the removal of such debris after final irrigation with Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation (PUI) or with the EndoVac system; and evaluate the quality of filling of the same root canals, measuring the volume of filling material and voids. Twenty-four mesial roots of extracted mandibular human molars were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 12) according to the method of final irrigation being evaluated. Each specimen was subjected to four scans: preoperative, post-operative, post-final irrigation and post-filling, with a microcomputed tomography SkyScan 1176, at a resolution of 17,42 m. After chemosurgical preparation groups received final irrigation with Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation (PUI) or with EndoVac system and were then filled with the continuous wave condensation thermoplastic technique. After the reconstruction of the images resulted from the four scans, co-registration was performed with the DataViewer software. CTAn and CTvol softwares were used for binarization of the objects of interest, volumetric analysis and reconstruction of 3D models of the root canal, hardtissue debris and the filling material. Data were statistically analyzed with the GraphPad Prism program through t students test (p < 0,05). The analysis of micro- CT showed hard-tissue debris accumulated inside the root canal, occupying an average percentage of 2.71 % for the PUI group and 4.10 % for EndoVac group. There was no difference between the groups regarding the removal of hard-tissue debris, or in relation to the volume of filling material and voids (p > 0.05). It was concluded that the EndoVac and PUI were equally efficient in the removal of hardtissue debris, reducing an average of 50% of its volume. Also, irrigants activation with the two methods did not affect the quality of root canal filling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , X-Ray Microtomography , Root Canal Obturation/methods , Root Canal Therapy/methods
20.
São Paulo; s.n; 2014. 90 p. ilus, tab, graf. (BR).
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-758284

ABSTRACT

Este estudo clínico analisou os efeitos dos procedimentos endodônticos e da irrigação ultrassônica passiva (PUI) em bactérias e endotoxinas de canais radiculares. Cinquenta pacientes com dentes com periodontite apical primária foram divididos de forma randomizada em dois grupos: PUI (n=25) e irrigação convencional (IC) (n=25). O preparo químico-cirúrgico (PQC) foi realizado com instrumentos reciprocantes, utilizando-se NaOCl 2,5% durante o preparo; e EDTA 17%, para remoção do magma dentinário. Os canais radiculares foram preenchidos com pasta de hidróxido de cálcio por 14 dias e obturados. Foram realizadas coletas microbiológicas dos canais antes (S1) e após o PQC (S2), após os protocolos de irrigação (S3), após a medicação intracanal (S4) e após a reinstrumentação dos canais (S5). Durante o processamento das amostras, as coletas de 5 casos foram perdidas por fatores diversos. As amostras foram analisadas por PCR quantitativo para detecção e quantificação de bactérias e pelo teste turbidimétrico de LAL para detecção e determinação do nível de endotoxinas. Bactérias e endotoxinas foram observadas em 100% das amostras iniciais coletadas. Em ambos os grupos, houve diminuição significativa na concentração de endotoxinas entre uma etapa do tratamento e a etapa posterior (p<0,05). O mesmo foi observado quanto ao número de bactérias, exceto entre a remoção da medicação intracanal e a reinstrumentação antes da obturação (S5). A análise intergrupos demonstrou que, com relação às endotoxinas, não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os grupos (p>0,05)...


The aim of this clinical study was to compare the effects of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and intracanal medication with calcium hydroxide in bacteria and endotoxins from root canal. Fifty teeth with apical periodontitis were randomly divided into two groups according to the irrigation protocol: PUI (n = 25) and conventional irrigation (CI) (n = 25). The root canal preparation of all the teeth was carried out with reciprocating files and 2.5% NaOCl during preparation; and 17% EDTA for smear layer removal. The root canals were medicated with calcium hydroxide for 14 days. Microbiological sampling were performed before (S1) and after the preparation (S2) after irrigation protocols (S3), and after intracanal medication (S4 and S5). During the processing of the samples, five cases were lost for several factors. The samples were analyzed by real time PCR, for the detection and quantification of bacteria, and the turbidimetric LAL assay, for the detection and analysis of the endotoxin levels. Bacteria and endotoxins were observed in 100% of the initial samples. In both groups, there was a significant decrease in the concentration of endotoxins between one step and the subsequent step of treatment (p < 0.05). The same was observed for the number of bacteria, with the exception of the reinstrumentation after the removal of the medication (S5). The intergroup analysis showed no significant differences between groups in endotoxin reduction ( p > 0.05 ). PUI was able to reduce the number of bacteria significantly better than CI (p < 0.05). No significant statistical difference was observed between groups regarding the occurrence of cases wielding positive results for bacteria or endotoxin. It was concluded that PUI was more effective than CI in reducing the number of bacteria but not the amount of endotoxin in the root canal. Furthermore, each step of the endodontic therapy was effective in reducing both the number of bacteria as the amount of endotoxin...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Endotoxins/chemical synthesis , Dental Instruments , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Root Canal Therapy/methods
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