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1.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(3): e2945, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126522

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Los selladores endodónticos desempeñan un papel crucial en la obturación, dado que dichos materiales, no solo actúan en el momento de su aplicación, sino que continúan haciéndolo con posterioridad, protegiendo al periodonto apical contra los organismos microbianos presentes. Precisamente, una de las propiedades deseadas en los selladores endodónticos es que posean acción antimicrobiana, para eliminar las bacterias remanentes después de la irrigación e instrumentación. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión sistemática del efecto antibacteriano de diferentes selladores endodónticos más utilizados en odontología contra Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Métodos: Esta revisión sistemática se llevó a cabo siguiendo los lineamientos PRISMA. La búsqueda se realizó en las bases de datos PubMed y Science Direct. Se revisaron los artículos de estudios antimicrobianos in vitro de selladores endodónticos y se excluyeron aquellos de fuente secundaria, como los de revisión de la literatura, así como artículos sobre cementos para otros usos. Desarrollo: Los cementos a base de hidróxido de calcio, resina o biocerámicos son biocompatibles y presentan algún porcentaje de actividad antimicrobiana; sin embargo, se puede apreciar que existe variabilidad en los resultados obtenidos en los estudios incluidos en la revisión, debido al uso de condiciones diferentes para la evaluación antibacteriana, excepto en los selladores endodónticos a base de silicona, los cuales tuvieron, de forma consistente, un efecto antibacterial nulo contra E. faecalis. Conclusión: De acuerdo a la bibliografía revisada, los selladores AH Plus, AH 26, TotalFill, BC Sealer y MTA Fillapex exhibieron efecto antimicrobiano, sin embargo, algunos de ellos mostraron escasa actividad contra E. faecalis(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Endodontic sealers play a crucial role in sealing, for they not only act at the moment of their application, but continue to do so later, protecting the apical periodontium against microbial organisms. One of the properties desired in endodontic sealers is precisely their antimicrobial action against bacteria remaining after irrigation and instrumentation. Objective: Carry out a systematic review about the antibacterial effect of the endodontic sealers most commonly used in dental practice against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Methods: The systematic review was based on PRISMA guidelines. The search was conducted in the databases PubMed and Science Direct. Papers were reviewed which dealt with in vitro antimicrobial studies about endodontic sealers, excluding secondary sources such as literature reviews and papers about cements used for other purposes. Discussion: Cements based on calcium hydroxide, resin or bioceramic are biocompatible and display some percentage of antimicrobial activity. However, variability was observed in the results obtained by the studies in the review, due to the use of different conditions for antibacterial evaluation, except for silicone-based endodontic sealers, which consistently displayed no antibacterial activity against E. faecalis. Conclusion: According to the bibliography reviewed, the sealers AH Plus, AH 26, TotalFill, BC Sealer and MTA Fillapex had an antimicrobial effect. However, some of them displayed scant activity against E. faecalis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pit and Fissure Sealants/therapeutic use , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Dental Cements/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic
2.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(1): 36-48, feb. 28, 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151442

ABSTRACT

Endodontic treatment consists of the cleaning and disinfecting the root canal system, which is achieved using adequate mechanical instru-mentation and chemical irrigation. Endodontic microorganisms are present in root canals in the form of a biofilm, and their elimination ensures the success of endodontic treatment. Irrigation is a key factor contributing to the elimination of this intraconduct biofilm, and different irrigator agents and irrigation techniques, such as irrigation with negative apical pressure, a novel automated irrigation mechanism based on suction intraconduct, have been used. In this study, we evaluated the ability of a negative apical pressure system with different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite and durations to reduce the microbial load. Materials and Methods: An intraradicular biofilm composed of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans was generated during twenty-one days of static culture on one hundred mesio-vestibular roots of upper molars with complex curvatures greater than 30°C, and the roots were classified in six groups with different concentrations and contact times of sodium hypochlorite. Subsequently, the reduction in the microbial load was measured with McFarland scale and the enumeration of colony forming units and was evaluated with scanning electronic microscopy. Results: We observed a significant difference in the reduction of the microbial load prior to instrumentation compared with postinstrumentation between the groups treated with 2.25% and 5.25% NaOCl for 30, 60 and 90 seconds of contact time (p<0.05), but we did not observe differences in the reduction of microbial load between different contact times and concentrations of sodium hypochlorite employed (p>0.05). Conclusion: Negative apical pressure is a good option for irrigation in endodontics, as it allows the passage of the irrigation fluid along the total length of the root canal and produces a better antimicrobial effect.


El tratamiento de endodoncia consiste en la limpieza y desinfección del sistema de conducto radicular, lo que se logra utilizando instrumentación mecánica adecuada y riego químico. Los microorganismos endodónticos están presentes en los conductos radiculares en forma de una biopelícula, y su eliminación asegura el éxito del tratamiento endodóntico. La irrigación es un factor clave que contribuye a la eliminación de esta biopelícula intraconductora, y se han utilizado diferentes agentes irrigadores y técnicas de irrigación, como la irrigación con presión apical negativa, un nuevo mecanismo automatizado de irrigación basado en la intraconducción de succión. En este estudio, evaluamos la capacidad de un sistema de presión apical negativa con diferentes concentraciones de hipoclorito de sodio y duraciones para reducir la carga microbiana. Material y Métodos: Se generó una biopelícula intraradicular compuesta por Enterococcus faecalisy Candida albicans durante veintiún días de cultivo estático en cien raíces mesio-vestibulares de molares superiores con curvaturas complejas superiores a 30°C, y las raíces se clasificaron en seis grupos con diferentes concentraciones y tiempos de contacto de hipoclorito de sodio. Posteriormente, la reducción en la carga microbiana se midió con la escala de McFarland y la enumeración de las unidades formadoras de colonias y se evaluó con microscopía electrónica de barrido. Resultado: Observamos una diferencia significativa en la reducción de la carga microbiana antes de la instrumentación en comparación con la postinstrumentación entre los grupos tratados con NaOCl 2.25% y 5.25% durante 30, 60 y 90 segundos de tiempo de contacto (p<0.05), pero lo hicimos No se observan diferencias en la reducción de la carga microbiana entre los diferentes tiempos de contacto y las concentraciones de hipoclorito de sodio empleado (p>0.05). Conclusión:La presión apical negativa es una buena opción para el riego en endodoncia, ya que permite el paso del líquido de riego a lo largo de todo el conducto radicular y produce un mejor efecto antimicrobiano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Candida albicans/physiology , Candidiasis , Enterococcus faecalis/physiology , Biofilms , Sodium Hypochlorite , In Vitro Techniques , Endodontics , Therapeutic Irrigation
3.
Rev. bras. odontol ; 77(1): 1-7, jan. 2020. ilus; tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1102870

ABSTRACT

Objective: to evaluate the root canal treatment (RCT) and non-surgical root canal retreatment (NSRCR), associated with foraminal enlargement, performed on a singlevisit. Material and Methods: 125 teeth with apical periodontitis and follow-up period ranging from 6 to 12 months were included. The success was considered by the absence of signs and symptoms and complete or incomplete periapical repair. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with the repair (p<0.05). Results: RCT showed 71.58% of complete healing and 23.16% of acceptable healing. NSRCR showed 80% of complete healing and 20% of acceptable healing. Age, gender, type of treatment and preoperative pain were not statistically significant for the healing process (p>0.05). Premolars showed the greatest chance of periapical repair. Pulp Canal Sealer showed a greater chance of periapical repair when compared to Sealapex (p<0.05). Conclusion: RCT and NSRCR using a foraminal enlargement protocol provided a favorable prognosis of periapical healing


Objetivo: avaliar o tratamento endodôntico (TE) e o retratamento não cirúrgico do canal radicular (RNCCR), associado a ampliação foraminal, realizado em sessão única. Material e Métodos: foram incluídos 125 dentes com periodontite apical e proservação de 6 a 12 meses. O sucesso foi considerado pela ausência de sinais e sintomas e reparo periapical completo ou incompleto. Análises de regressão logística foram utilizadas para identificar fatores associados ao reparo (p<0,05). Resultados: o TE mostrou 71,58% de cicatrização completa e 23,16% de cicatrização aceitável. O RNCCR mostrou 80% e 20% cicatrização completa e aceitável, respectivamente. Idade, sexo, tipo de tratamento e dor pré-operatória não foram estatisticamente significantes para o processo de cicatrização (p>0,05). Os pré-molares apresentaram a maior chance de reparo periapical. O cimento Pulp Canal Sealer mostrou maior chance de reparo periapical quando comparado ao Sealapex (p<0,05). Conclusão: o TE e RNCCR utilizando um protocolo de alargamento foraminal, proporcionaram um prognóstico favorável da cicatrização periapical


Subject(s)
Periapical Periodontitis , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Root Canal Preparation
4.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190100, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056594

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This clinical study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of passive ultrasonic activation (PUA) in eliminating microorganisms in primary endodontic infection (PEI) after instrumentation of root canals using microbiological culture and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Methodology: Twenty root canals with PEI and apical periodontitis were selected. The root canals were instrumented and then randomly divided into 2 groups, according to the irrigation method: PUA and conventional needle irrigation (CNI). Microbiological samples were collected before instrumentation (S1), after instrumentation (S2) and after irrigation with 17% EDTA (S3). The samples were subjected to anaerobic culture technique and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization analysis. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between CNI (23.56%) and PUA (98.37%) regarding the median percentage values for culturable bacteria reduction (p<0.05). In the initial samples, the most frequently detected species was S. constellatus (50%), and after root canal treatment was E. faecalis (50%). Conclusion: Both treatments significantly decreased the number of bacterial species compared with the initial sample. However, no statistical difference in the total microbial load between PUA and CNI groups was detected. The number of cultivable anaerobic bacteria reduced significantly using PUA, and the bacterial composition and number of bacterial species after using either CNI or PUA was similar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Periapical Periodontitis/therapy , Root Canal Therapy/instrumentation , Ultrasonic Therapy/instrumentation , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Sodium Hypochlorite/therapeutic use , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods , Colony Count, Microbial , DNA Probes , Linear Models , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Bacterial Load , Therapeutic Irrigation/instrumentation , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods
5.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190168, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1090767

ABSTRACT

Abstract Isthmuses are reported as common anatomic complexities in teeth often associated with failures in endodontic treatment. They should be considered before starting treatment and a preoperative computed tomography scan (CT) may demonstrate these complexities. Objective To assess the diagnostic value of the highest resolution settings of a cone-beam CT (CBCT) system in identifying and measuring apical isthmuses, using micro-CT as reference. Methodology After micro-CT scanning, 40 humans' lower first molars with isthmuses in the apical-3 mm of mesial roots were scanned by the highest resolution settings of the New Generation i-Cat ® CBCT equipment. Two blinded observers recorded the detection of isthmuses in CBCT scans. The lengths of isthmuses were compared between micro-CT and CBCT to assess the diagnostic value of CBCT. Quantitative data for sensitivity were represented as percentages (95% confidence interval). The Bland-Altman method was used to assess differences between gold standard lengths (micro-CT) and CBCT lengths. Results BCT demonstrated 30 positive findings, representing sensitivity for isthmus identification of 75% (95% CI=0.4114-1.1364). Differences between the lengths in micro-CT (1.99±0.40 mm) and CBCT (1.53±0.41 mm) were significant (p<0.0001). Conclusion The CBCT device used presented limited diagnostic value in the identification and measurement of apical isthmuses in the mesial roots of lower molars. In some cases, the actual anatomy of the apical root canal may not be completely delineated in this type of CBCT system, even using the highest resolution settings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Root/anatomy & histology , Tooth Root/diagnostic imaging , Tooth Apex/anatomy & histology , Tooth Apex/diagnostic imaging , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Organ Size , Reference Values , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Sensitivity and Specificity , Molar/anatomy & histology , Molar/diagnostic imaging
6.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 35(81): 25-32, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178997

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Comparar la presencia de poros en los tres tercios del conducto radicular luego de la obturación con cementos biocerámicos. Se trataron endodónticamente 20 premolares inferiores unirradiculares, de anatomía oval. Los mismos fueron divididos en dos grupos y se obturaron con dos cementos biocerámicos diferentes. Todas las muestras fueron analizadas con microtomografía de rayos X para comparar la presencia de poros en los tres tercios radiculares, clasificando los mismos en internos, externos y combinados. En las 20 piezas dentarias obturadas y analizadas se encontraron poros. La cantidad de poros detectados no presentó diferencias significativas mediante análisis estadísticos cuantitativos ni cualitativos. Los poros se presentaron más frecuentemente en el tercio cervical, independientemente del cemento sellador. Ambos grupos presentan una buena adaptación a nivel apical, siendo esto imprescindible para la longevidad y éxito del tratamiento endodóntico (AU)


Subject(s)
Root Canal Filling Materials , Root Canal Obturation/methods , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Biocompatible Materials , Ceramics , X-Ray Microtomography , Argentina , Schools, Dental , Statistical Analysis , Dental Marginal Adaptation , Evaluation Studies as Topic
7.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 6(2): 149-157, jul dic 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095877

ABSTRACT

La recesión gingival (RG) es un problema de salud bucodental frecuente que aumenta con la edad, predispone a hipersensibilidad dentaria, caries radicular, inflamación gingival y efectos antiestéticos. El objetivo de este ensayo clínico aleatorizado fue evaluar comparativamente el efecto clínico del recubrimiento radicular utilizando la técnica estenopéica Pinhole con colágeno y la técnica estenopéica Pinhole modificada al incorporarle plasma rico en fibrina (PRF). Veintiséis participantes sistémicamente sanos, con diagnóstico de RG grado I de Miller, fueron reclutados y seguidos por 6 meses después de la cirugía. Los parámetros clínicos registrados fueron nivel de inserción clínica (NIC), RG y banda de encía queratinizada. Los participantes fueron asignados aleatoriamente a un grupo en quienes se utilizó PRF con 14 participantes, tratando 36 piezas dentales, y otro grupo en quienes se utilizó membrana de colágeno con 12 participantes, tratando 35 piezas dentales. Los resultados muestran un logro de ganancia en el NIC en ambos grupos, (M = 45.24 %, DE = 17.37 %) en el grupo PRF y (M = 47.37 %, DE = 15.67 %) en el grupo colágeno, diferencia que no fue significativa (p = .59). En ambos grupos existió un aumento significativo en la banda de encía queratinizada (p < .01). El uso de PRF como material de relleno al realizar la técnica estenopéica genera resultados similares al ser comparado con la técnica convencional que utiliza colágeno. Al presentar un menor costo el PRF aumenta las posibilidades que más personas tengan acceso al tratamiento.


Gingival recession (GR) is a frequent oral health disease that increases with age and may increase risk of dental hypersensitivity, root decay, gingival inflammation and aesthetic problems. The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to compare clinical parameters of dental root coverage using Pinhole technique with collagen and modi¬fied Pinhole technique using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). Twenty-six participants, systemically healthy, with Miller class I GR diagnosis, were recruited and measured at baseline and after 6 months follow-up. Clinical parameters measured included clinical attachment level (ICL), GR and keratinized gingival width (KGW). All participants were randomly assigned to a group using PRF, with 14 participants and 36 teeth treated, and other group using collagen, with 12 participants and 35 teeth treated. Both PRF group and collagen group gained ICL, (M = 45.24 %, SD = 17.37 %) in PRF group and (M = 47.37 %, SD = 15.67 %) in collagen group, with no statistically significant difference (p = .59). Both groups gained KGW (p < .01). Use of PRF as filled material by using Pinhole technique resulted in similar clinical improvements compare to collagen as filled material. Considering that PRF is cheaper than collagen, it increases chances that people can have access to treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Fibrin/administration & dosage , Oral Surgical Procedures/methods , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Collagen , Root Caries , Gingival Recession/surgery
9.
Rev. Círc. Argent. Odontol ; 78(228): 12-17, ago. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123176

ABSTRACT

De acuerdo con la tendencia mundial, el número de personas de 60 años y más va en aumento. Este crecimiento demográfico de la población, el aumento de las expectativas de vida de las personas y la tendencia a la disminución de pacientes edéntulos, produce una mayor demanda de procedimientos endodónticos en la población anciana. Es fundamental que el odontólogo conozca la fisiología del envejecimiento para poder abordar, en forma eficaz, el tratamiento en los pacientes pertenecientes a este grupo etario. Se ha descripto que los tejidos dentales sufren cambios a lo largo de la vida; entre ellos, la reducción del número de fibroblastos, de odontoblastos, de vasos sanguíneos y de fibras nerviosas; el aumento de fibras colágenas, de masas calcificadas, aposición de cemento, de dentina secundaria y de dentina de reparación. El objetivo del presente trabajo es realizar una revisión bibliográfica en relación a los cambios que presentan la pulpa dental, la dentina y el cemento, relacionados con el proceso de envejecimiento y sus posibles dificultades al momento de realizar el tratamiento endodóntico; sin olvidar cómo pueden inferir en el éxito del tratamiento las posibles patologías sistémicas que presentan los pacientes a consecuencia de la edad (AU)


According to the world trend, the number of people aged 60 and over is increasing. This demographic growth of the population, the increase in people's life expectancies and the tendency to decrease edentulous patients, produces a greater demand for endodontic procedures in the elderly population. It is essential that the dentist knows the physiology of aging to be able to effectively address the treatment in patients belonging to this age group. It has been described that dental tissues suffer changes throughout life, including the reduction of the number of fibroblasts, odontoblasts, blood vessels and nerve fibers; the increase of collagen fibers, calcified masses, apposition of cement, secondary dentin and repair dentin. The objective of the present work is to carry out a bibliographic review in relation to the changes that the dental pulp, dentine and cement have in relation to the aging process and its possible consequences in the endodontic treatment; without forgetting how it can infer in the success of the treatment the possible systemic pathologies that patients present as a result of age (AU)


Subject(s)
Root Canal Therapy/methods , Aging/physiology , Dental Care for Aged/methods , Dental Pulp/physiopathology , Quality of Life , Wound Healing/physiology , Chronic Disease , Age Factors , Dental Cementum/physiopathology , Dentin/physiopathology
10.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 107(2): 42-48, abr.-jun. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015526

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Evaluar radiográficamente, en dientes extraídos, el grado de homogeneidad y adaptación de las obturaciones endodónticas realizadas por alumnos de grado, comparando las técnicas de condensación lateral e híbrida. Materiales y métodos: Entre 2003 y 2017, los alumnos de tercer año de la Escuela de Odontología de la Universidad del Salvador / Asociación Odontológica Argentina realizaron 5.384 tratamientos endodónticos ex vivo empleando, para la obturación, las técnicas de condensación lateral e híbrida. En las radiografías posoperatorias, un docente especialista en endodoncia evaluó la homogeneidad y la adaptación de cada obturación para categorizarla como correcta o incorrecta. Para la comparación entre técnicas, dentro de cada año lectivo, se utilizó la prueba exacta de Fisher, y para el análisis porcentual de las observaciones, la prueba de Chi cuadrado. El nivel de significancia fue establecido en P<0,05. Resultados: Del total de 5.384 tratamientos, 4.970 (92,3%) mostraron obturaciones correctas. Con la técnica de condensación lateral, de los 1.741 tratamientos, 1.560 (89,6%) mostraron obturaciones correctas con la técnica híbrida, de los 3.643 tratamientos, 3.410 (93,6%) tuvieron obturaciones correctas. En función del tamaño total de las muestras, sumando todos los años, puede estimarse con 95% de confianza que la diferencia de obturaciones incorrectas entre ambas técnicas está entre el 2,3% y el 5,7%. Con la prueba del Chi cuadrado, se observa una diferencia significativa de obturaciones correctas a favor de la técnica híbrida (P<0,01) Conclusiones: La evaluación radiográfica de los tratamientos endodónticos realizados ex vivo por alumnos de pregrado mostró un alto porcentaje de obturaciones correctas. Así mismo, el empleo de la técnica híbrida dio, en general, mejores resultados de compactación de la masa del material obturador que la técnica de condensación lateral (AU)


Aim: To evaluate radiographically the degree of homogeneity and adaptation of endodontic obturations completed by undergraduate students in extracted teeth using lateral and hybrid condensation techniques. Materials and methods: Between 2003 and 2017, third year students of a the School of Dentistry of the Universidad del Salvador / Asociación Odontológica Argentina performed 5384 ex vivo endodontic treatments using lateral condensation and hybrid technique. In the postoperative radiographs, a specialist in endodontics assessed the homogeneity and adaptation of each obturation and categorize it as correct or incorrect. The data were submitted to statistical analysis to compare results obtained with the two techniques. Fisher and Chi-square tests were used and significance level was set at P<0.05. Results: Out of 5384 treatments, 4970 (92.3%) showed correct obturation. Within the 1741 treatments completed with the lateral condensation technique, 1560 (89.6%) were correct while within the 3634 where a hybrid technique was used, 3410 (93.6%) were correct. When the whole sample was considered (sum of treatment carried out during each of the academic years) a statistically significant difference (P<0.01) favoring the hybrid technique was found. The difference in incorrect cases can be estimated to be between 2.3% and 5.7% with 95% confidence. Conclusions: The radiographic evaluation completed by undergraduate students in extracted teeth showed a high percentage of correct fillings. The use of the hybrid technique showed, in general, better compaction of the obturation material than the lateral condensation technique (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Obturation/methods , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Root Canal Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Tooth, Nonvital/diagnostic imaging , Education, Predental , Argentina , Statistical Analysis , Dental Marginal Adaptation
11.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180256, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012514

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The rDNA-based method is unable to distinguish between alive and dead cells. Alternatively, bacterial viability can be assessed by molecular methods based on ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Therefore, this study aimed to detect viable streptococci in root canal samples using rRNA-based reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), compared to an rDNA-based PCR assay. Methodology Microbiological root canal samples were obtained from 32 teeth with primary endodontic infections before (S1) and after chemomechanical preparation (S2), and after removal of intracanal medication (S3). RNA and DNA were extracted, and complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized from RNA using RT reaction. cDNA and genomic DNA were subjected to PCR with primers complementary to the 16S rRNA sequences of Streptococcus spp. McNemar's test was used to compare the detection rate of both assays (P<0.05). Results Streptococci were detected in 28.12% (9/32) and 37.5% (12/32) of S1 samples using rRNA- and rDNA-based PCR assays, respectively. In contrast, they were detected in only 6.25% (2/32) of S2 samples using rRNA-based RT-PCR, compared to 15.62% (5/32) using rDNA-based PCR. Finally, in S3 samples, streptococci were not detected by rRNA, whereas rDNA-based PCR still detected the bacteria in 12.5% (4/32) of the samples. The total number of PCR-positive reactions in the rDNA-based PCR was higher than in the rRNA-based assay (P<0.05). Conclusions The rRNA-based RT-PCR showed a lower detection rate of streptococci when compared to the rDNA-based PCR, suggesting that the latter may have detected dead cells of streptococci in root canal samples.


Subject(s)
Humans , Streptococcus/isolation & purification , DNA, Ribosomal/isolation & purification , RNA, Ribosomal/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Streptococcus/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , RNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification , RNA, Bacterial/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Reproducibility of Results
12.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e002, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989476

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated clinical and radiographic twelve-month outcomes of root canal treatments (CT) with smear layer removal, performed in primary teeth, using two different root canal filling materials. Pulpectomy was performed on 27 primary teeth with necrosis or irreversible pulpitis, caused by dental caries or trauma, in 23 children (2-7 years old). A single trained operator performed the CT in a single visit in cases without periapical or interradicular radiolucency (PIR) or in multiple visits in cases with PIR. Participants were selected based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, and randomly allocated into two groups: Group 1 (G1) - iodoform paste (iodoform + camphorated parachlorophenol + ointment comprising prednisolone acetate 5.0 mg and rifamycin 1.5 mg); Group 2 (G2) - Calen®/ZO paste. Treated teeth were restored with composite resin immediately after the root canal filling. The outcomes were evaluated clinically and radiographically according to specific criteria. Two blinded and standardized evaluators assessed the radiographic outcomes. We used descriptive analyses due to the small sample size. CTs were performed due to caries lesions in 70.4% of the cases and due to trauma in 29.6%. Only one tooth of G1 was unsuccessful; hence, pulpectomy performance in both groups was not influenced by the filling material, nor by any other analyzed variable. The level of the root canal filling was better in the Calen®/ZO group. The clinical and radiographic twelve-month outcomes indicated successful treatment, independently of the root filling material used.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Pulpectomy/methods , Root Canal Filling Materials/therapeutic use , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Zinc Oxide/therapeutic use , Calcium Hydroxide/therapeutic use , Hydrocarbons, Iodinated/therapeutic use , Ointments , Pulpitis/therapy , Pulpitis/diagnostic imaging , Tooth, Deciduous , Radiography, Dental , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Smear Layer/surgery , Tooth Injuries/therapy , Tooth Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Dental Caries/therapy , Dental Caries/diagnostic imaging
13.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e092, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039296

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) on the endodontic treatment of apical periodontitis (AP). AP was induced in 48 premolars of 6 dogs. After biomechanical preparation, the teeth were divided into 4 groups: Calcium-Hydroxide (CH)/120d and CH/180d: root canals filled with CH-based dressing for 15 days before obturation; aPDT/120d and aPDT/180d: conditioning with phenothiazine photosensitizer (10 mg/mL) for 1 minute and irradiation with diode laser in the same session as obturation. Root filling was performed with AH Plus sealer. After the experimental periods, animals were euthanized and teeth were submitted for histology. HE staining was performed for descriptive analysis of the periapical region, measurement of apical periodontitis and for inflammatory cells, and blood vessels count. Immunohistochemistry was performed for osteopontin (OPN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and chi-square test (α = 5%). Teeth in Group CH/120d presented only a slightly enlarged periodontal ligament (PL) with advanced repair. Group aPDT/120d presented the PL moderately enlarged, with moderate inflammatory infiltrate and few collagen fibers. The same pattern was observed at 180 days. AP lesions in CH-treated groups were smaller than those in aPDT-treated groups (p < 0.001) with more blood vessels (p < 0.0001), regardless of the evaluation period, without significant differences in the number of inflammatory cells (p > 0.05). CH-treated groups showed significantly more intense immunostaining for ALP and OPN (p < 0.001) in both periods. Although aPDT stimulated angiogenesis and expression of bone formation markers, the two-session endodontic treatment with CH-based dressing promoted better apical periodontitis repair.


Subject(s)
Animals , Periapical Periodontitis/drug therapy , Photochemotherapy/methods , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Bone Cements/therapeutic use , Calcium Hydroxide/therapeutic use , Periapical Periodontitis/pathology , Time Factors , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Evaluation Study
14.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180693, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1040226

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To compare the sealing ability and biocompatibility of Biodentine with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) when used as root-end filling materials. Methodology: The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to compare the cytotoxicity of MTA and Biodentine. Twenty-one extracted teeth with a single canal were immersed in an acidic silver nitrate solution after root-end filling. Then, the volume and depth of silver nitrate that infiltrated the apical portion of the teeth were analyzed using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Seventy-two roots from 3 female beagle dogs were randomly distributed into 3 groups and apical surgery was performed. After six months, the volume of the bone defect surrounding these roots was analyzed using micro-CT. Results: Based on the results of the CCK-8 assay, MTA and Biodentine did not show statistically significant differences in cytotoxicity (P>0.05). The volume and the depth of the infiltrated nitrate solution were greater in the MTA group than in the Biodentine group (P<0.05). The volume of the bone defect was larger in the MTA group than in the Biodentine group. However, the difference was not significant (P>0.05). The volumes of the bone defects in the MTA and Biodentine groups were smaller than the group without any filling materials (P<0.05). Conclusions: MTA and Biodentine exhibited comparable cellular biocompatibility. Biodentine showed a superior sealing ability to MTA in root-end filling. Both Biodentine and MTA promoted periradicular bone healing in beagle dog periradicular surgery models.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Adolescent , Dogs , Oxides/pharmacology , Periapical Tissue/drug effects , Periodontal Ligament/drug effects , Root Canal Filling Materials/pharmacology , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Wound Healing/drug effects , Silicates/pharmacology , Calcium Compounds/pharmacology , Aluminum Compounds/pharmacology , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Periapical Tissue/cytology , Periapical Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Periodontal Ligament/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Tooth Root/surgery , Tooth Root/drug effects , Tooth Root/diagnostic imaging , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Materials Testing , Cell Count , Cells, Cultured , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Drug Combinations , X-Ray Microtomography
15.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 7(8): 382-386, nov. 30, 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121119

ABSTRACT

Chronic pulpal inflammation and infection are the main predisposing factors for internal and external root resorption (IRR & ERR); however, merging of IRR and ERR is a rare lesion which rigorously alters the anatomy of root canals. this study reports a case of merged IRR and ERR in an asymptomatic maxillary left central incisor in a 33-year old caucasian woman that was managed by one-visit root canal therapy (RCT) using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. radiographic examination showed a short root with under-filled root canal obturation associated with ERR/IRR and an apical lesion. after thorough chemo-mechanical preparation, the root canal was obturated with CEM cement; one week later, the access cavity was permanently restored. clinical/radiographic examinations at 1-year follow-up revealed uneventful healing, reestablishment of lamina dura and stabilization of the resorptive defects. the treatment outcome demonstrates that one-visit RCT using CEM cement may be a viable treatment option in cases with merged external/internal root resorption. further clinical trials with a larger number of cases are suggested to document a higher level of evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Periapical Diseases/therapy , Root Canal Filling Materials/therapeutic use , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Root Canal Obturation/methods , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Calcium/therapeutic use , Dental Pulp Necrosis , Molar/pathology
16.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(4): 335-341, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974166

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the bond strength (BS) of glass fiber posts (GFP) luted to oval and circular-shaped root canals rehabilitated using varying post techniques, at different intraradicular levels. Ninety 16-mm-long roots of human mandibular premolars, classified either as having oval or circular-shaped canals, were endodontically treated and prepared for restoration using one of three different post techniques (n=15): 1) single GFP; 2) resin-relined GFP; 3) main GFP associated with accessory posts. GFPs were luted with a dual polymerizing resin cement (RelyX ARC) after the canal had been treated with a 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Adper Scothbond Multipurpose). The samples were sectioned into three 1-mm-thick sections, which were differentiated by the root level (cervical, middle and apical) and tested for push-out BS. Assessment of failure mode was made under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using repeated measures three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. The root canal cross-section had a significant influence on BS (p<0.001), with the lowest values being observed in oval-shaped canals. The post technique also significantly affected the BS (p=0.018), with the resin-relined GFPs providing the highest BS values in both oval and circular-shaped canals. Irrespective of the cross-section of the root canal and post technique, there was no significant difference in BS in the cervical, middle and apical third of the root canal (p=0.084). In oval-shaped canals, the BS to intraradicular dentin at cervical, middle or apical level could be increased when the GFPs posts were relined.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a resistência de união (RU) de pinos de fibra de vidro (PFV), cimentados a condutos com secção transversal ovalada ou circular reabilitados com diferentes técnicas de restauração com PFVs, em função do nível intrarradicular. Noventa raízes de pré-molares inferiores humanos, com 16 mm de altura, classificadas como possuindo canais ovais ou circulares, foram tratadas endodonticamente e preparadas para serem reabilitadas com uma das três técnicas de restauração com PFVs (n=15): 1) PFV único, 2) PFV reembasado com resina composta, e 3) PFV principal associado a pinos acessórios. Os PFVs foram cimentados com um agente resinoso de polimerização dupla (RelyX ARC), após o canal ter sido tratado com um sistema adesivo de condicionamento total de três passos (Adper Scothbond Multiuso). As amostras foram seccionadas em três fatias de 1 mm de espessura, de acordo com o nível da raiz (cervical, médio e apical)e foram submetidas ao teste de RU por push-out. A análise do modo de falha foi realizada com auxílio de um estereomicroscópio. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se a ANOVA a três critérios para medidas repetidas e o teste de Tukey. A secção do conduto apresentou influência na RU (p<0,001), com os menores valores sendo observados nos condutos ovalados. A técnica de restauração com PFVs afetou significativamente a RU (p=0,018), tendo o PFV reembasado proporcionado os maiores valores de RU, tanto em condutos ovais quanto circulares. Independentemente da secção transversal do conduto radicular e da técnica de restauração com PFV, não houve diferença significativa na RU nos terços cervical, médio e apical (p=0,084). Nos canais de secção transversal ovalada, a RU à dentina intrarradicular nos níveis cervical, médio ou apical aumentou com o emprego de PFVs reembasados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Post and Core Technique , Dental Bonding/methods , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Bicuspid , In Vitro Techniques , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Cements , Dental Stress Analysis , Glass
17.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 7(4): 150-154, abr. 27, 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120823

ABSTRACT

Undergraduate dental student's eligibility and ability to treat difficult endodontic cases is a new area open for debate. a fifth year undergraduate dental student managed to perform a successful root canal treatment (RCT) on a 42 year old male patient diagnosed as a rare case of mandibular first molar with five root canals. as an educational case report, in a country like Sudan, close supervision and clinical training of undergraduate students in treating difficult endodontic cases is recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Tooth Root/abnormalities , Dental Pulp Cavity/abnormalities , Molar/abnormalities , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Endodontics/methods , Mandible
18.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 18(1): 4075, 15/01/2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-966889

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the pattern and frequency of root canal treatments (RCTs) performed among patients seen at a tertiary hospital in North-eastern Nigeria. Material and Methods: A retrospective epidemiological survey using hospital records of patients that had RCTs done over a 5-year period. Case record forms (CRFs) were used as tools of data collection from patient records to record demographic and clinical information such as age, gender, tooth involved, diagnosis and tooth treated. Students t test and One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare mean root-treated teeth by gender and age group respectively. Results: A total of 321 RCTs were carried out on 256 patients, ranging from 1 to 4 teeth (mean, 1.3 ± 0.6 [SD]) teeth per patient. The frequency and mean number of RCTs carried out were not significant for age (p = 0.16) and gender (p = 0.78). The lower first molar was the most root-treated tooth (20.9%), and overall, dental caries (84.4%) was the most predominant etiology of pulpal and periradicular disease necessitating RCT. Forty-two percent of the RCTs were carried out due to acute apical periodontitis. Conclusion: Gender and age group did not affect the frequency of RCTs performed, and majority of the root canal treatments were due to dental caries and its sequelae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Medical Records , Adult , Dental Caries/etiology , Endodontics/methods , Nigeria , Analysis of Variance , Health Surveys/methods
19.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170437, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893715

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tissue bioengineering has been applied to Endodontics to seek a more biological treatment. The presence of blood vessels is crucial for cell nutrition during tissue formation. Objective This study analysed the application of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the angiogenesis of mature root canals. Material and methods Upper first molars of twelve 13-week old Wistar male rats were used. The root pulp of the mesiobuccal canal was removed and the root canal instrumented with K-files up to size #25. Periapical bleeding was induced into the root canal by introducing a #15 K-file beyond the apex. The teeth on the right side of the arch were filled up with blood clot (G1), whereas those on the left side were filled up with blood clot plus 50 ng/ml of VEGF (G2). Teeth were sealed with light-curing glass-ionomer cement and the animals were sacrificed after 60 days. The maxilla was dissected and fixed before obtaining serial sections for histological processing with haematoxylin-eosin (HE) and immunohistochemical factor-VIII. Immunohistochemical labelling was evaluated using scores for statistical analysis. Results Immunohistological analysis demonstrated the presence of angiogenesis in both groups, but with higher angiogenic maturation in G2 during the experimental period (p<0.05). HE staining showed connective tissue with absence of odontoblasts in all specimens. Conclusions It can be concluded that it is possible to obtain angiogenesis in mature root canals with or without the use of VEGF, although the latter tends to accelerate blood vessel formation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Dental Pulp Cavity/blood supply , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/pharmacology , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Time Factors , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Immunohistochemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Bioengineering
20.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e125, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989466

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a placebo, intracanal diode laser application, and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the change of the total amount of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) (split-mouth study design). GCF sampling was performed on a contralateral tooth and experimental tooth (root canal-treated tooth) of thirty-nine patients. The patients were divided into three groups (n = 13), as follows: placebo (mock laser application), intracanal laser application, and LLLT. GCF sampling was repeated at the same sites (experimental and control teeth) one week after root canal treatment. The data were analyzed using the Pearson's correlation analysis and the independent-samples t-tests (p=0.05). In the placebo group, the total CGRP level changes in the GCF before and after treatment was significantly higher for experimental teeth than for control teeth (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between experimental and control teeth in the intracanal laser application and LLLT groups (p > 0.05). Intracanal laser application and low-level laser therapy have immunomodulation effects linked to the modulation of the total amount of CGRP in the GCF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/radiation effects , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Gingival Crevicular Fluid/radiation effects , Treatment Outcome , Lasers, Semiconductor
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