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1.
São Paulo; s.n; 2024. 18-196 p. ilus, tab, map.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, SESSP-CTDPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-TESESESSP, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1556148

ABSTRACT

Cepas atípicas de RVA isoladas de humanos e animais compartilham características genéticas e antigênicas, sugerindo fortemente uma transmissão interespécie. O G12 é, atualmente, reconhecido como um genótipo emergente globalmente. Neste estudo, foram caracterizados os genomas de três espécies raras G12P[9] (RVA/Human-wt/BRA/IAL-R870/2013/G12P[9], RVA/Human-wt/BRA/IAL-R1151/2012/G12P[9] e RVA/Human-wt/BRA/IAL R566/2011/G12P[9]) e quatro G12P[6] (RVA/Human-wt/BRA/IAL-R86/2011/G12P[6], RVA/Human-wt/BRA/IAL-R465/2019/G12P[6], RVA/Human-wt/BRA/IAL-R52/2020/G12P[6] e RVA/Human-wt/BRA/IAL-R95/2020/G12P[6]) detectadas em amostras de fezes de pacientes com gastroenterite aguda no Brasil durante a Vigilância Nacional de Rotavírus realizada de 2011 a 2020. As cepas foram submetidas a RT-PCR convencional para os 11 segmentos seguido do sequenciamento de Sanger e análise filogenética. Todas as cepas G12P[9] exibiram uma constelação genética AU-1-like (G12-P[9]-I3-R3-C3-M3-A3-N3-T3-E3-H6), enquanto as cepas G12P[6] mostraram a típica DS-1-like (G12-P[6]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2). A partir do estudo filogenético, as cepas brasileiras IAL G12P[6] DS-1-like mostram ancestralidade genética africana e rearranjos com cepas americanas co-circulantes, sem evidências de transmissão zoonótica recente. Em relação às cepas brasileiras IAL G12P[9], estas evidenciam ancestralidade genética asiática e observa-se a evidência de transmissão interespecífica entre cepas humanas G12P[9] AU-1-like e cepas felinas/caninas...(AU)


Atypical RVA strains isolated from humans and animals share genetic and antigenic features, strongly suggesting an interspecies transmission. G12 type are currently recognized as a globally emerging genotype. In this study, were characterized the complete genomes of three rare G12P[9] (RVA/Human-wt/BRA/IAL-R870/2013/G12P[9], RVA/Human-wt/BRA/IAL-R1151/2012/G12P[9] and RVA/Human-wt/BRA/IAL-R566/2011/G12P[9]) and four G12P[6] (RVA/Human-wt/BRA/IAL-R86/2011/G12P[6], RVA/Human-wt/BRA/IAL-R465/2019/G12P[6], RVA/Human-wt/BRA/IAL-R52/2020/G12P[6] and RVA/Human-wt/BRA/IAL-R95/2020/G12P[6]) strains detected in stool samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis in Brazil during National Brazilian Rotavirus surveillance conducted from 2011 to 2020. The RVA strains were submitted to conventional RT-PCR targeting the 11 gene segments followed by Sanger sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. All G12P[9] strains displayed an AU-like genetic backbone constellation (G12-P[9]-I3-R3-C3-M3-A3-N3-T3-E3-H6), while G12P[6] strains showed the typical DS-1-like genetic backbone (G12-P[6]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2). From the phylogenetic study, the Brazilian IAL G12P[6] DS-1-like strains show African genetic ancestry and rearrangements with co-circulating American strains belonging to the DS-1-like constellation, without evidence of recent zoonotic transmission. On other hand, the Brazilian IAL G12P[9] strains show Asian genetic...(AU)


Subject(s)
Zoonoses , Public Health , Rotavirus , Epidemiological Monitoring , Gastroenteritis
2.
ABCS health sci ; 48: e023216, 14 fev. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1516682

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Species A rotavirus (RVA) infections are a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in children of <5 years worldwide. In Brazil, before vaccination, RVA was associated with 3.5 million episodes of acute diarrheal disease per year. Due to the segmented nature of their genomes, rotaviruses can exchange genes during co-infections, and generate new virus strains and new reinfections. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the genomic diversity of RVA isolated in Brazil in 30 years, between 1986 to 2016, to investigate possible changes in the frequency of genotype constellations before and after the implementation of the vaccine. METHODS: In total, 4,474 nucleotide sequences were obtained from the Virus Variation Database. Genomic constellation was compared, and the proportion of rotavirus genotypes was analyzed by time and geographic region. RESULTS: Our results showed that major known genotypes were circulating in the country during the period under analysis, with a prevalence of the G1P[8] Wa-like genotype, decreasing only in the period immediately after the introduction of the vaccine. Regarding the geographical distribution, most of our constellations, 62 (39.2%), and 50 (31.6%) were concentrated in the North and Northeast regions. Our analysis also showed the circulation of multiple strains during the periods when the DS-1-like and AU-1-like genotypes were co-circulating with the Wa-like genotype. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it is likely that inter-genogroup reassortments are still occurring in Brazil and so it is important to establish an efficient surveillance system to follow the emergence of novel reassorted strains that might not be targeted by the vaccine.


INTRODUÇÃO: As infecções por rotavírus A (RVA) são uma das principais causas de gastroenterite grave em crianças <5 anos em todo o mundo. No Brasil, antes da vacinação, o RVA estava associado a 3,5 milhões de episódios de diarreia aguda por ano. Devido à natureza segmentada de seus genomas, os rotavírus podem trocar genes durante as coinfecções, gerar novas cepas de vírus e novas reinfecções. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a diversidade genômica de RVA isolados no Brasil entre 1986 a 2016 para investigar possíveis alterações na frequência das constelações de genótipos antes e após a implantação da vacina. MÉTODOS: No total, 4.474 sequências de nucleotídeos foram obtidas do Banco de Dados de Variação de Vírus. A constelação genômica foi comparada e a proporção dos genótipos de rotavírus foi analisada por tempo e região geográfica. RESULTADOS: Nossos resultados mostraram que os principais genótipos conhecidos circulavam no país no período em análise, com prevalência do genótipo G1P[8] Wa-like, diminuindo apenas no período imediatamente após a introdução da vacina. Em relação à distribuição geográfica, a maioria das nossas constelações, 62 (39,2%) e 50 (31,6%), concentrava-se nas regiões Norte e Nordeste. Nossa análise também mostrou a circulação de cepas múltiplas durante os períodos em que os genótipos DS-1-like e AU-1-like estavam co-circulando com o genótipo Wa-like. CONCLUSÃO: Portanto, é provável que rearranjos inter-genogrupos ainda estejam ocorrendo no Brasil e por isso é importante estabelecer um sistema de vigilância eficiente para acompanhar o surgimento de novas cepas rearranjadas que podem não ser protegidas pela vacina.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Gene Rearrangement , Genome , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus Vaccines
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3934-3948, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981526

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of various oral Chinese patent medicines in the adjuvant treatment of rotavirus gastroenteritis(RVGE) in children based on network Meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trial(RCT) of oral Chinese patent medicine in the adjuvant treatment of RVGE in children was retrieved from the databases such as CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMbase, and Web of Science from database inception to October 22, 2022. The quality of the included RCT was evaluated according to the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool, and the data were analyzed by RevMan 5.4 and Stata 16 software. Sixty-three RCTs were included, with 11 oral Chinese patent medicines involved, including Xingpi Yanger Granules, Weichang'an Pills, Qiuxieling Mixture, Erxieting Granules, and Changyanning Granules/Syrup. The results of the network Meta-analysis showed that in terms of clinical total effective rate, the top 3 optimal interventions were Changyanning Granules/Syrup, Xiaoer Guangpo Zhixie Oral Liquid, and Xiaoer Shuangjie Zhixie Granules combined with conventional western medicine. In terms of the anti-diarrheal time, the top 3 optimal interventions were Shenling Baizhu Granules, Qiuxieling Mixture, and Shuangling Zhixie Oral Liquid combined with conventional western medicine. In terms of the antiemetic time, the top 3 optimal interventions were Changyanning Granules/Syrup, Xingpi Yanger Granules, and Xiaoer Shuangjie Zhixie Granules combined with conventional western medicine. In terms of the antipyretic time, the top 3 optimal interventions were Shenling Baizhu Granules, Xiaoer Shuangjie Zhixie Granules, and Qiuxieling Mixture combined with conventional western medicine. In terms of the negative conversion rate of rotavirus, the top 3 optimal interventions were Xingpi Yanger Granules, Erxieting Granules, and Cangling Zhixie Oral Liquid combined with conventional western medicine. In terms of reducing creatine kinase isoenzyme MB(CK-MB) level, the top 3 optimal interventions were Weichang'an Pills, Xingpi Yanger Granules, and Xiaoer Shuangjie Zhixie Granules combined with conventional western medicine. In terms of adverse reactions, no se-rious adverse reactions were reported in all studies. Oral Chinese patent medicines in the adjuvant treatment of children with RVGE have their own advantages, Specifically, Changyanning Granules/Syrup + conventional western medicine focuses on improving the clinical total effective rate and shortening the antiemetic time, Shenling Baizhu Granules + conventional western medicine on shortening the anti-diarrheal time and antipyretic time, Xingpi Yanger Granules + conventional western medicine on improving the negative conversion rate of rotavirus, and Weichang'an Pills + conventional western medicine on reducing the CK-MB level. Limited by the quantity and quality of literature included in this study, the results need to be verified by high-quality RCT with a larger sample size.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Antiemetics , Antipyretics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Enteritis/drug therapy , Network Meta-Analysis , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Rotavirus , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 976-982, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985504

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the characteristics of viral infections in children with diarrhea in Beijing from 2018 to 2022. Methods: Real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect viral nucleic acid of Norovirus (NoV), Sappovirus (SaV), Astrovirus (AstV), Enteric Adenovirus (AdV) or antigen of Rotavirus (RV) in 748 stool samples collected from Beijing Capital Institute of Pediatrics from January 2018 to December 2021. Subsequently, the reverse transcription PCR or PCR method was used to amplify the target gene of the positive samples after the initial screening, followed by sequencing, genotyping and evolution analysis, so as to obtain the characteristics of these viruses. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Mega 6.0. Results: From 2018 to 2021, the overall detection rate of the above five common viruses was 37.6%(281/748)in children under 5 years old in Beijing. NoV, Enteric AdV and RV were still the top three diarrhea-related viruses, followed by AstV and SaV, accounting for 41.6%, 29.2%, 27.8%, 8.9% and 7.5%, respectively. The detection rate of co-infections with two or three diarrhea-related viruses was 4.7% (35/748). From the perspective of annual distribution, the detection rate of Enteric AdV was the highest in 2021, while NoV was predominant in the other 4 years. From the perspective of genetic characteristics, NoV was predominant by GⅡ.4, and after the first detection of GⅡ.4[P16] in 2020, it occupied the first two gene groups together with GⅡ.4[P31]. Although the predominant RV was G9P[8], the rare epidemic strain G8P[8] was first detected in 2021. The predominant genotypes of Enteric AdV and AstV were Ad41 and HAstV-1. SaV was sporadic spread with a low detection rate. Conclusion: Among the diarrhea-related viruses infected children under 5 years of age in Beijing, the predominant strains of NoV and RV have changed and new sub-genotypes have been detected for the first time, while the predominant strains of AstV and Enteric AdV are relatively stable.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Beijing/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Feces , Norovirus/genetics , Phylogeny , Rotavirus/genetics , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/genetics
5.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 566-571, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985445

ABSTRACT

As a single-center retrospective study, we analyzed the results of rotavirus and human adenovirus antigens in stool samples with colloidal gold immunochromatography method in children with acute gastroenteritis under the age of five who were treated in our hospital from 2019 to 2022. After excluding nonconforming cases and duplicate cases, 2 896 cases were included, of which 559 cases were detected with at least one viral antigen. According to the test results, they were divided into RV positive group, HAdV positive group and RV & HAdV double positive group. The gender, age, seasonal distribution, clinical symptoms and related laboratory tests were compared and analyzed with χ2 test, analysis of variance and nonparametric test. Among the single samples from 2 896 children, the positive rate of RV antigen was 6.21% (180/2 896), the positive rate of HAdV antigen was 10.91% (316/2 896), and the double positive rate of RV & HAdV was 2.18% (63/2 896). The positive rate of HAdV antigen in 2021 was 16.11%, a significant increase compared with 6.20% in 2020. RV infection has obvious seasonality, and spring and winter are the seasons with high incidence of infection (χ2=74.018, P<0.001), while HAdV infection has no obvious seasonality (χ2=2.110, P=0.550), showing sporadic infection throughout the year. The proportions of fever and vomiting symptoms in children with RV infection were significantly higher than those in the HAdV infection group (χ2=40.401, P<0.001; χ2=32.593, P<0.001), but the positive rate of white blood cells in the stool was significantly lower than that in the HAdV infection group (χ2=13.741,P<0.01). In summary, paying attention to the epidemiological changes of RV and HAdV is of great significance for clinical diagnosis and treatment and disease prevention and control.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Rotavirus , Retrospective Studies , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Hospitals , Feces , Adenoviruses, Human , Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology
6.
San Salvador; MINSAL; ene, 10, 2022. 24 p. ilus, graf, tab, mapas.
Non-conventional in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1353083

ABSTRACT

Resumen de eventos de notificación hasta SE 52/2021. Alertas internacionales, situación epidemiológica de dengue, situación epidemiológica de zika y Chikungunya, infección respiratoria aguda, neumonías, situación mundial del 2019-nCov (OMS), vigilancia centinela de influenza y otros virus respiratorios, vigilancia centinela de rotavirus y enfermedad diarreica aguda


Summary of notification events until SE 52/2021. International alerts, epidemiological situation of dengue, epidemiological situation of Zika and Chikungunya, acute respiratory infection, pneumonia, global situation of 2019-nCov (WHO), sentinel surveillance of influenza and other respiratory viruses, sentinel surveillance of rotavirus and acute diarrheal disease


Subject(s)
Epidemiology , Electronic Publications , Infections , Pneumonia , Rotavirus , Notification
7.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(4): 714-720, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1412407

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades diarreicas constituyen la principal causa de morbimortalidad en niños menores de cinco años, con alrededor de 1.700 millones de casos y 1,5 millones de muertes por año a nivel mundial. Para el año 2010, en la Sierra de Ecuador se registró un alto porcentaje de infantes fallecidos a causa de enfermedades diarreicas agudas (EDA), incluyendo la provincia de Chimborazo; mientras que, para el año 2016, se registraron en Ecuador 590.523 casos de EDA, siendo más afectados los niños de sectores de mayor pobreza. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en pacientes pediátricos con episodios diarreicos que acudieron a centros de salud de los cantones rurales de la provincia Chimborazo. Se realizó análisis coprológico y coproparasitológico en 258 muestras; se identificaron bacterias enteropatógenas mediante pruebas bioquímicas y de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, se realizó diagnóstico parasitológico mediante análisis macroscópico y microscópico y para detección de virus se emplearon pruebas inmunológicas. Se observó un mayor número de casos de EDA en los cantones Alausí (50%) y Chunchi (19%). De los pacientes con EDA, los rotavirus son el principal agente etiológico aislado (24,8%), seguido por Shigella (17,8%); mientras que Giardia intestinalis (8,5%) y Salmonella (10,1%) son los microorganismos que se aislaron con menor frecuencia en las muestras. Los resultados del presente estudio, permiten tener un panorama etiológico de las EDA en la provincia de Chimborazo y contribuir en la vigilancia epidemiológica, ejecución de programas sanitarios y de vacunación, para disminuir la vulnerabilidad de la población infantil ante dichas infecciones(AU)


Diarrheal diseases are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age, with around 1.7 billion cases and 1.5 million deaths per year worldwide. For the year 2010, in the Sierra de Ecuador a high percentage of infants died due to acute diarrheal diseases (ADD), including the province of Chimborazo; while, for the year 2016, 590,523 cases of ADD were registered in Ecuador, with children from the poorest sectors being more affected. A descriptive study was carried out in pediatric patients with diarrheal episodes who attended health centers in the rural cantons of Chimborazo province. Coprological and coproparasitological analysis was performed on 258 samples; Enteropathogenic bacteria were identified by biochemical and antimicrobial susceptibility tests, a parasitological diagnosis was made by macroscopic and microscopic analysis, and immunological tests were used to detect viruses. A greater number of ADD cases was observed in the Alausí (50%) and Chunchi (19%) cantons. Of patients with ADD, rotaviruses are the main etiological agent isolated (24.8%), followed by Shigella (17.8%); while Giardia intestinalis (8.5%) and Salmonella (10.1%) are the microorganisms that were isolated less frequently in the samples. The results of this study allow us to have an etiological panorama of EDA in the province of Chimborazo and contribute to epidemiological surveillance, execution of health and vaccination programs, to reduce the vulnerability of the child population to these infections(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Diarrhea, Infantile/etiology , Salmonella , Shigella , Bacteria , Giardia lamblia , Rotavirus , Epidemiological Monitoring
8.
San Salvador; MINSAL; jul. 13, 2021. 23 p. ilus, graf, tab, mapas.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1280747

ABSTRACT

Resumen de eventos de notificación hasta SE 26/2021. Alertas internacionales. Situación epidemiológica de dengue. Situación epidemiológica de zika y chikungunya. Infección respiratoria aguda. Neumonías. Situación mundial del 2019-nCov (OMS. Vigilancia centinela de influenza y otros virus respiratorios. Vigilancia centinela de rotavirus. Enfermedad diarreica aguda


Summary of notification events up to SE 26/2021. International alerts. Epidemiological situation of dengue. Epidemiological situation of Zika and Chikungunya. Acute respiratory infection. Pneumonia Global situation 2019-nCov (WHO. Sentinel surveillance of influenza and other respiratory viruses. Sentinel surveillance for rotavirus. Acute diarrheal disease


Subject(s)
Epidemiology , Electronic Publications , Rotavirus , Notification , Infections
9.
Colomb. med ; 52(1): e2024196, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249638

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Viruses are being used as alternative and complementary tools for treating cancers. Oncolytic viruses exhibit tumor tropism, ability to enhance anti-tumor immunity and ability to be used in combination with conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We have recently selected some rotavirus isolates which are adapted to efficiently infect and kill tumor cell lines. Aim: We tested five tumor cell-adapted rotavirus isolates for their ability to infect the human adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7. Methods: Cell surface membrane-associated proteins mediating virus particle attachment were characterized using ELISA, immunoprecipitation, FACS analysis, and antibody blocking. Results: It was found that heat shock proteins (HSPs) such as Hsp90, Hsp70, Hsp60, and Hsp40 are expressed on the cell surface forming complexes with protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), integrin β3, and heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) in lipid raft microdomains. Interaction of rotavirus isolates with these cellular proteins was further confirmed by a competition assay and an inhibition assay involving the HSPs tested. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the tumor cell-adapted rotavirus isolates studied here offer a promising tool for killing tumor cells, thus encouraging further research into this topic, including animal models.


Resumen Antecedentes: Los virus se utilizan como herramientas alternativas y complementarias para el tratamiento del cáncer. Los virus oncolíticos exhiben tropismo por tumores, capacidad para intensificar la inmunidad antitumoral y la capacidad para utilizarse en combinación con quimioterapia y radioterapia convencionales. Recientemente, hemos seleccionado algunos aislamientos de rotavirus que están adaptados para infectar y eliminar de manera eficiente líneas de células tumorales. Objetivo: Se ensayaron cinco aislamientos de rotavirus adaptados a células tumorales para determinar su capacidad para infectar la línea celular de adenocarcinoma humano MCF-7. Métodos: Las proteínas asociadas a la membrana de la superficie celular que median la unión de partículas de virus se caracterizaron mediante ELISA, inmunoprecipitación, análisis FACS y bloqueo de anticuerpos. Resultados: Se encontró que las proteínas de choque térmico (HSPs) como Hsp90, Hsp70, Hsp60 y Hsp40 se expresan en la superficie celular formando complejos con la proteína disulfuro isomerasa (PDI), la integrina β3 y la proteína análoga de choque térmico 70 (Hsc70) en microdominios lipídicos (rafts). La interacción de los aislamientos de rotavirus con estas proteínas celulares se confirmó adicionalmente mediante un ensayo de competición y un ensayo de inhibición que incluía las HSP ensayadas. Conclusión: Nuestros hallazgos sugieren que los aislamientos de rotavirus adaptados a las células tumorales estudiados aquí ofrecen una herramienta prometedora para eliminar las células tumorales, lo que estimula más investigaciones sobre este tema, incluidos los modelos animales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Rotavirus , Oncolytic Viruses , Heat-Shock Proteins , Adenocarcinoma/therapy , HSC70 Heat-Shock Proteins , MCF-7 Cells
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(1): 54-60, feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388207

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las diarreas de causa infecciosa son un problema de salud pública, especialmente en niños bajo los cinco años. La identificación de los agentes etiológicos puede ser relevante para el manejo del cuadro clínico y, desde el punto de vista epidemiológico, para la implementación de medidas de control. OBJETIVO: Determinar la presencia de patógenos entéricos en niños bajo los cinco años que se hospitalizaron por diarrea aguda en uno de los centros centinelas de la red de vigilancia de rotavirus en Chile. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional en niños menores de cinco años que se internaron por cuadros de diarrea en el Hospital Dr. Luis Calvo Mackenna, durante diciembre del 2015 a diciembre del 2019, el que forma parte de la red de vigilancia de rotavirus del Ministerio de Salud de Chile. Las muestras fecales se analizaron mediante un test molecular, FilmArray GI® panel, que permite la detección de 22 patógenos entéricos virales, bacterianos y parasitarios. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 493 muestras fecales de niños con episodios de diarrea infecciosa, detectando al menos un patógeno en 427 muestras (87%). De estas muestras positivas, se detectó solo un patógeno en 174 muestras (41%) y dos o más patógenos en 253 muestras (59%). En el grupo de niños bajo un año y el grupo entre uno y cuatro años hubo un predominio de infecciones causadas por virus gastroentéricos, siendo rotavirus y norovirus los virus más detectados en ambos grupos de edad. Las bacterias más frecuentes fueron EPEC (27%), C. difficile (17%), EAEC (14%) y Campylobacter (9%). Respecto a los parásitos, se identificó Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium, en el 3 y 1% del total de las muestras, respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: La detección molecular utilizada permitió detectar un alto número de enteropatógenos en niños bajo los cinco años. La información generada por este tipo de vigilancia, podría ayudar a caracterizar en la población los episodios de diarrea causados por los principales patógenos entéricos y podría ser una herramienta para asesorar técnicamente a las autoridades en la toma de decisión para la implementación de medidas de control contra estos patógenos.


BACKGROUND: Infectious diarrhea is still a major problem in public health, especially in children under 5 years of age. The identification of the etiologic agent is important for the clinical management of the diarrhea episode and, from the epidemiological point of view, to implement control measures. AIM: To determine the presence of gastrointestinal pathogens in children under five years of age with diarrhea in a Chilean rotavirus surveillance center. METHODS: Observational study in children under five years of age who were hospitalized for diarrhea at the Dr. Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital from December 2015 to December 2019. Molecular detection was performed using the FilmArray gastrointestinal (FilmArray GI®) panel. RESULTS: We analyzed 493 diarrheal stool samples of children, 427 samples (87%) were positive and 66 samples (13%) were negative. Of positive samples, 174 samples (41%) and 253 samples (59%) were positive for one or more pathogen, respectively. In children under one year and the group between one and four years there was a predominance of infections caused by enteric virus. Rotavirus and norovirus were the most common virus in both age groups. The most frequent bacteria were EPEC (27%), C. difficile (17%), EAEC (14%) and Campylobacter (9%). In parasites, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium were identified, in 3% and 1% of the total samples, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The molecular detection system used allowed an increase in the detection of enteropathogens in children under five years of age. The information generated by this type of surveillance could help to characterize the episodes of diarrhea in the population and might be a tool to technically advise the authorities in the decision-making process for the implementation of control measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Rotavirus Infections , Clostridioides difficile , Rotavirus , Cryptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Rotavirus/genetics , Sentinel Surveillance , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Feces , Hospitals
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 169-178, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153044

ABSTRACT

Foodborne viruses including hepatitis A virus (HAV), norovirus (NoV), rotavirus (RoV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are easily transmitted through contaminated seafoods. The current research was done to assess the incidence of RoV, NoV GI and GII,hAV and hEV in fish and shrimp samples caught from the Persian Gulf, Iran. Three-hundred and twenty fish and shrimp samples were collected. The presence of foodborne viruses were assessed by the real-time PCR. Forty-nine out of 320 (15.31%) fish and shrimp samples were positive for foodborne viruses. Distribution of hAV, NoV GI and NoV GII amongst all studied samples were 0.93%, 5.93% and 8.43%, respectively. hEV and RoV viruses were not found in studied samples. Parastromateus niger and Scomberomorus commerson fish and Penaeus monodon shrimp were the most frequently contaminated samples. Simultaneous incidence of hAV and NoV GI and hAV and NoV GII were 0.31% and 0.93%, respectively. Distribution of foodborne viruses in samples collected through spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons were 14.28%, 9.33%, 11.76% and 24.44%, respectively. Findings revealed that the incidence of foodborne viruses was significantly associated with seafood species and also season of sampling.(AU)


Vírus transmitidos por alimentos, incluindo hepatite A (HAV), norovírus (NoV), rotavírus (RoV) e hepatite E (HEV) são facilmente transmitidos através de frutos do mar contaminados. Esta pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar a incidência de RoV, NoV GI e GII, hAV e hEV em amostras de peixes e camarões capturadas no Golfo Pérsico, Irã. Foram coletadas 300 amostras de peixes e camarões. A presença de vírus transmitidos por alimentos foi avaliada por PCR em tempo real. Quarenta e nove das 320 amostras de peixes e camarões (15,31%) foram positivas para vírus transmitidos por alimentos. A distribuição de hAV, NoV GI e NoV GII entre as amostras estudadas foi 0,93%, 5,93% e 8,43%, respectivamente. Os vírus hEV e RoV não foram encontrados nas amostras estudadas. Os peixes Parastromateus niger e Scomberomorus commerson e o camarão Penaeus monodon foram as amostras mais frequentemente contaminadas. A incidência simultânea de hAV e NoV GI, e hAV e NoV GII foi de 0,31% e 0,93%, respectivamente. A distribuição dos vírus transmitidos por alimentos nas amostras coletadas na primavera, verão, outono e inverno foi de 14,28%, 9,33%, 11,76% e 24,44%, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstram que a incidência de vírus transmitidos por alimentos foi significativamente associada às espécies de frutos do mar e também à época da amostragem.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Decapoda/virology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Fishes/virology , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Shellfish/virology , Hepatitis E virus/isolation & purification , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Indian Ocean/epidemiology , Hepatitis A virus/isolation & purification , Norovirus/isolation & purification , Iran/epidemiology
12.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 44-57, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877519

ABSTRACT

Group A rotavirus (RV) is one of the major pathogens that cause severe acute gastroenteritis and death in children under 5 years old in China. RV vaccination is the most effective measure for prevention and control of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE). This consensus is developed by reviewing RV related literatures, RV disease data in China, World Health Organization(WHO) position paper on RV vaccines and expert discussion. This consensus aims to provide professional staff with scientific information on rotavirus vaccine use, and evidence for developing the immunization strategy of childhood RVGE in China.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , China , Consensus , Gastroenteritis/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Rotavirus , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Vaccines , Vaccination
13.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 4-17, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877510

ABSTRACT

Group A rotavirus (RV) is one of the major pathogens that cause severe acute gastroenteritis and death in children under 5 years old in China. RV vaccination is the most effective measure for prevention and control of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE). This consensus is developed by reviewing RV related literatures, RV disease data in China, World Health Organization(WHO) position paper on RV vaccines and expert discussion. This consensus aims to provide professional staff with scientific information on rotavirus vaccine use, and evidences for developing the immunization strategy of childhood RVGE in China.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , China , Consensus , Gastroenteritis/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Rotavirus , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Vaccination
15.
Salud pública Méx ; 62(1): 36-41, ene.-feb. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366002

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Con la introducción de las vacunas de rotavirus Rotarix (RV1) o RotaTeq (RV5) en programas nacionales de vacunación de diversos países, surgió la preocupación de que la presión inmune generada condujera al aumento en la prevalencia de genotipos virales no incluidos en las vacunas, o bien del surgimiento de nuevas cepas que pudieran escapar a la respuesta inmune protectora inducida por la vacunación. La variación natural de los rotavirus ha hecho que sea muy difícil distinguir si el cambio en las cepas circulantes se debe a la presión selectiva impuesta por las vacunas o bien a la fluctuación natural de las cepas. Si acaso ha habido una presión selectiva, ésta ha sido hasta ahora baja. Sin embargo, es importante mantener la vigilancia epidemiólogica y poner atención al surgimiento de cepas resistentes a la inmunidad, en particular en países en desarrollo en los que se ha descrito una mayor diversidad viral.


Abstract: With the introduction of rotavirus vaccines Rotarix (RV1) or RotaTeq (RV5) in the immunization programs of an increasing number of countries, there is concern that the immune selection pressure induced will cause an increase in the prevalence of virus genotypes not included in the vaccine formulation, or to the appearance of novel rotavirus strains that could evade the protective immune response. The natural fluctuation of rotaviruses makes it difficult to distinguish if the change in the circulating strains is due to the vaccine selective pressure or to the natural diversity fluctuation of viruses. If there has been a selective pressure, it has been low so far. However, it is important to keep an epidemiological surveillance and pay attention to the emergence of strains that are resistant to the vaccine, in particular in those countries where the viral diversity has been shown to be higher.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Genome, Viral , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus/immunology , Rotavirus Vaccines/immunology , Genotype , Species Specificity , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Zoonoses/virology , Rotavirus/classification , Rotavirus Vaccines/genetics , Diarrhea/virology , Immune Evasion , Mutation
16.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(1): 7-11, Jan. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1091651

ABSTRACT

Calf diarrhea causes substantial economic losses in the cattle industry worldwide. Bovine rotavirus A (RVA) is the main viral agent that leads to enteric infection and diarrhea outbreaks in calves throughout the world. The aim of this retrospective (2006-2015) study was to determine the frequency of RVA detection in diarrheic fecal samples from beef and dairy calves from the three main cattle-producing regions of Brazil. Diarrheic fecal samples (n=1,498) of 124 beef and 56 dairy cattle herds from the Midwest, South, and Southeast geographical regions of Brazil were evaluated using the silver-stained polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (ss-PAGE) technique. RVA double stranded-RNA was identified by the ss-PAGE technique in 410 (27.4%) fecal samples. The frequency of positive samples found in beef calves (31.9%; 328/1,027) was higher than the frequency found in diarrheic fecal samples from dairy calves (17.4%; 82/471). RVA infection was identified in calves from the three Brazilian geographical regions analyzed. However, the frequency of positive diarrheic calves in the Midwest region (39.4%), predominantly beef calves, was higher than in the South (19.4%) and Southeast (17.6%) regions. The temporal distribution of RVA-infected calves evaluated by two five-year periods (2006-2010, 24.5%; 2011-2015, 28.8%) demonstrated a very similar frequency of RVA in both periods. Considering the wide regional and temporal scope of this study, it can be concluded that RVA remains an important etiology of neonatal diarrhea in calves of Brazilian cattle herds.(AU)


A diarreia neonatal ocasiona perdas econômicas importantes na pecuária bovina em todo o mundo. Rotavírus A (RVA) é o principal agente etiológico viral de infecções entéricas e surtos de diarreia em bezerros de rebanhos de corte e leite. O objetivo deste estudo retrospectivo (2006-2015) foi determinar a frequência de detecção de RVA em amostras de fezes diarreicas de bezerros de corte e leite das três principais regiões produtoras de bovinos do Brasil. Amostras de fezes diarreicas (n=1.498) de 124 rebanhos bovinos de corte e 56 rebanhos bovinos de leite das regiões Centro-Oeste, Sul e Sudeste do Brasil foram avaliadas utilizando a técnica de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (EGPA). O genoma segmentado de RVA foi identificado pela técnica de EGPA em 410 (27,4%) amostras de fezes. A frequência de amostras positivas encontrada em bezerros de rebanhos de corte (31,9%; 328/1.027) foi maior que a frequência identificada em amostras de fezes diarreicas de bezerros de rebanhos leiteiros (17,4%; 82/471). A infecção por RVA foi identificada em bezerros das três regiões geográficas brasileiras analisadas. No entanto, a frequência de bezerros com diarreia positivos para RVA na região Centro-Oeste (39,4%), predominantemente de bezerros de rebanhos de corte, foi maior que nas regiões Sul (19,4%) e Sudeste (17,6%). A distribuição temporal dos bezerros infectados com RVA avaliados por dois períodos de cinco anos (2006-2010, 24,5%; 2011-2015, 28,8%) demonstrou uma frequência muito semelhante em ambos os períodos. Considerando a amplitude regional e temporal deste estudo, pode-se concluir que RVA continua sendo uma importante etiologia de diarreia neonatal em bezerros de rebanhos bovinos brasileiros.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus/pathogenicity , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional/veterinary
17.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(1): e197, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1094982

ABSTRACT

La inmunización, es un mecanismo de defensa que asegura la inmunidad humoral para prevenir enfermedades infantiles graves, y es responsabilidad de los padres. Objetivo: Se plantea indagar el conocimiento vaccinal, en madres con hijos menores de 5 años. Métodos: el estudio se orienta bajo el paradigma cualitativo, enfoque fenomenológico; Los participantes del estudio fueron madres que vacunaron a sus hijos en el centro de salud 20 de febrero, distrito 12D03 Quevedo-Mocache, Ecuador. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó el soware Atlas ti, vinculando 18 preguntas de reflexión. Resultados: Las categorías emergentes fueron: 1) Las vacunas son muy importantes y necesarias. 2. Vacunaron porque sus hijos crecen sanos y fuertes. 3. para algunas el vacunatorio es agradable y para otras no. 4. Algunas reciben buen trato y atención, otras no. 5. Es insuficiente la información sobre las vacunas. 6. Piden cambios de enfermeras y horarios. Conclusión: el conocimiento vaccinal de las madres, esdeterminante para la protección y la no propagación de enfermedades en sus hijos(AU)


Immunization is a defense mechanism that ensures humoral immunity to prevent serious childhood diseases, and is the responsibility of the parents. Objective: to investigate the vaccine knowledge in mothers with children under 5 years. Methods: the study is oriented under the qualitative paradigm, hermeneutic approach; e study participants were mothers who vaccinated their children in the health center February 20, district 12D03 Quevedo-Mocache, Ecuador. The Atlas ti soware was used to analyze the data, linking 18 reflection questions. Results: The emerging categories were: 1) Vaccines are very important and necessary. 2. They vaccinated because their children grow up healthy and strong. 3. For some the vaccine is nice and for others it is not. 4. Some receive good treatment and attention, others do not. 5. Insufficient information about vaccines. 6. Ask for changes of nurses and schedules. Conclusion: the vaccinal knowledge of the mothers, is decisive for the protection and non-propagation of diseases in their children(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Rotavirus Infections/classification , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination/classification , Vaccination/methods , Immunization Programs , Rotavirus/classification , Social Welfare , Socioeconomic Factors , Child, Preschool , Sociological Factors
18.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. 141 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177901

ABSTRACT

Os rotavírus A (RVA) e os norovírus são os principais vírus associados à etiologia da gastroenterite aguda (GA) em <5 anos. A partir de 2006, com a introdução das vacinas de RVA, observou-se um declínio expressivo da morbidade/mortalidade por estes vírus, em detrimento a crescente importância das infecções pelos norovírus nesta faixa etária. Antígenos do grupo histosanguíneo humano (HBGAs), presentes na mucosa intestinal, têm sido descritos como potenciais ligantes e/ou cofatores requeridos nos estágios da patogênese das infecções por estes vírus, influenciando na epidemiologia molecular e evolução em diferentes populações. Este estudo teve como objetivo associar o perfil de susceptibilidade (HBGA/Secretor/Lewis) de crianças residentes na comunidade de Manguinhos, no Rio de Janeiro, à eficácia da resposta a vacina RV1 (Rotarix®/G1P[8]), assim como às infecções naturais pelos norovírus. Com este propósito realizou-se o monitoramento das infecções por RVA e norovírus em uma coorte de crianças de 0-11 meses, pela detecção e caracterização molecular destes vírus em amostras de fezes de crianças sintomáticas ou não. No período de 2014 a 2018, 132 crianças foram incluídas neste estudo, disponibilizando o mesmo número de amostras de saliva para determinação do perfil de susceptibilidade por ELISA e 569 amostras de fezes para investigação de ambos os vírus por métodos moleculares.


O vírus vacinal excretado foi caracterizado em 78% (85/109) das amostras RVA. A presença da mutação F167L (RV1), demonstrada pelo sequenciamento do gene VP8*, foi observada em 20,1% das crianças. Quatro casos de rotaviroses pelos genótipos G3P[8], G12P[8] e G3P[9] foram observados. Os norovírus foram detectados em 21,2% (28/132) das crianças, com incidência de 5,8 infecções em 100 criança-meses. A razão de detecção foi de 5,6% (17,1% dos casos diarrêicos e 4,7% dos assintomáticos), sendo seis diferentes genótipos detectados (GII.4_Sydney_2012[P31], GII.4_Sydney_2012[P16],GII.4_Sydney_2012[P4_New_Orleans_2009],GII.2[P16],GII.6[P7] e GI.3[P13]). Em relação ao perfil HBGA, observou-se 80,3% das crianças com o status secretor. A caracterização do gene FUT2 (Se) em crianças secretoras Le (a+b+) e não secretoras, e do gene FUT3 (Le) em Le (a-b-), possibilitou a identificação de novas mutações nesta população.


A mutação F167L na RV1 excretada foi identificada em 86,4% das crianças que apresentaram o fenótipo secretor Le (a+b+), indicando que os HBGAs poderiam ser importantes marcadores na avaliação da RV1; significante associação entre infecção sintomática pelos norovírus e o status secretor (Leb) também foi observada. A ocorrência de norovírus na coorte e a sua crescente importância epidemiológica, determinou a ampliação deste estudo, com a análise de 61 amostras fecais oriundas de 49 crianças na faixa etária de 1-4 anos residentes em Manguinhos. Os norovírus foram detectados em 47,5% (29/61) das amostras (46,7% dos casos diarrêicos e 50% dos assintomáticos) e quatro novos genótipos foram identificados, sendo o recombinante GII.2[P16] detectado pela primeira vez no Brasil. Os dados de vigilância epidemiológica deste estudo comprovam a importância do monitoramento dos principais vírus responsáveis pela gastroenterite infantil aguda, evidenciando a diversidade genética e a dinâmica destes vírus considerando novas abordagens como o perfil HBGA, que trouxe uma importante contribuição em relação à avaliação da eficácia da RV1 na coorte estudada. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Genetic Variation , Child , Rotavirus , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Norovirus
19.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. xx,110 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049479

ABSTRACT

A doença diarreica aguda permanece como um dos principais problemas de saúde pública no mundo, onde cerca de 37% das crianças menores de cinco anos morrem por ano, principalmente, em países com baixa renda. Dentre os diferentes agentes etiológicos, os rotavírus são considerados os principais causadores dessa doença. Duas vacinas já foram licenciadas contra a infecção por rotavírus, a vacina pentavalente RotaTeq e a monovalente Rotarix. Ambas as vacinas têm a capacidade para reduzir a gravidade da doença diarreica em crianças menores de cinco anos. O estudo multicêntrico Entérico Global mostrou que o rotavírus é um dos principais agentes causadores da doença diarreica em Moçambique. A fim de se reduzir a gravidade da infecção poro rotavírus A Moçambique introduziu, em setembro de 2015, no seu Programa Alargado de Vacinação, a vacina monovalente Rotarix. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o impacto da vacina na prevenção da infecção e na diversidade dos genótipos de RVA antes e após a introdução da vacina na cidade de Maputo. Para efeito, foi realizado um estudo descritivo transversal em crianças menores de cinco anos de idade, internadas com diarreia aguda nos Serviços de Pediatria do Hospital Central de Maputo, entre os anos de 2013 e 2018. No estudo, as características epidemiológicas e clínicas das crianças selecionadas foram obtidas através de um formulário padronizado


A identificação dos casos positivos para rotavírus em amostras de fezes foi realizado usando o teste de ELISA. As amostras positivas foram submetidas a genotipagem por semi-nested RT-PCR e, parte das amostras, foram posteriormente submetidas a análise de sequenciamento nucletídico. Os dados recolhidos foram introduzidos na base de dados do pacote estatístico Excel 2010 e analisados através do programa estatístico SPSS versão 20 e pacote estatístico R. Foram viii coletadas 802 amostras de fezes durante o período pré-vacinal (2013 - 2015) e 196 no período pós-vacinal (2016 - 2018), onde observou-se uma redução da mediana de casos de hospitalização por diarreia de 76%, diminuindo de 28,7% (82/284) no período pré-vacinal para 15,5% (10/66) no período pós-vacinal, (p <0,05) em todas as faixas etárias. De forma similar, houve uma redução da mediana de 53,89% na proporção de internação por diarreia por rotavírus em crianças <12 meses de idade, de (28,3%) no período pré-vacinal para 13,04% no período pós-vacinal. Após a introdução da vacina verificou-se alteração dos picos sazonais habitualmente observados. As combinações de genótipos de rotavirus mais prevalentes no período pré-vacinal foram: G2P[4] em 2013,62/86 (72,0%), G1P[8]31/48 (65,0%) em 2014, G9P[8],48 (69,0%) em 2015 e no período pós - vacinal foram: G1P [8] 5/10 (50,0%) em 2016 e 5/8(62,2%) 2017;3G3P[8], G3P[4], G4P[6] 1/3 (33,0%) em 2018Em Moçambique, após a introdução da vacina contra o rotavírus, foi observada uma redução nas hospitalizações associadas a rotavírus em todos os grupos etários com mais destaque em crianças <12 meses de idade. Uma grande diversidade de cepas de rotavírus circulou nos períodos pré e pós-introdução da vacina. Os resultados deste estudo sustentam evidências do impacto da vacinação contra o rotavírus destacando a importância na continuidade do programa assim como nos estudos de monitoramento de genótipos de rotavírus depois da introdução da vacina em Moçambique. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Epidemiology , Rotavirus , Rotavirus Vaccines
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 281-289, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771378

ABSTRACT

In previous studies, we found that truncated rotavirus VP4* (aa 26-476) could be expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli and confer high protection against rotavirus in the mouse mode. In this study, we further improved the immunogenicity of VP4* by polymerization. The purified VP4* was polymerized through incubation at 37 ℃ for 24 h, and then the homogeneity of the particles was analyzed by HPLC, TEM and AUC, while the thermal stability and antigenicity was analyzed by DSC and ELISA, respectively. Finally, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the polymers analyzed by a mouse maternal antibody model. The results showed that VP4* aggregated into homogeneous polymers, with high thermostability and neutralizing antibody binding activity. In addition, VP4* polymers (endotoxin <20 EU/dose) stimulated higher neutralizing antibodies and confer higher protection against rotavirus-induced diarrhoea compared with the VP4* trimers when immunized with aluminium adjuvant. In summary, the study in VP4* polymers provides a new strategy for the development of recombinant rotavirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antibodies, Viral , Antigens, Viral , Capsid , Capsid Proteins , Polymerization , Rotavirus , Rotavirus Infections
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