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1.
San Salvador; MINSAL; ene, 10, 2022. 24 p. ilus, graf, tab, mapas.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1353083

ABSTRACT

Resumen de eventos de notificación hasta SE 52/2021. Alertas internacionales, situación epidemiológica de dengue, situación epidemiológica de zika y Chikungunya, infección respiratoria aguda, neumonías, situación mundial del 2019-nCov (OMS), vigilancia centinela de influenza y otros virus respiratorios, vigilancia centinela de rotavirus y enfermedad diarreica aguda


Summary of notification events until SE 52/2021. International alerts, epidemiological situation of dengue, epidemiological situation of Zika and Chikungunya, acute respiratory infection, pneumonia, global situation of 2019-nCov (WHO), sentinel surveillance of influenza and other respiratory viruses, sentinel surveillance of rotavirus and acute diarrheal disease


Subject(s)
Epidemiology , Electronic Publications , Infections , Pneumonia , Rotavirus , Alert , Notification
2.
San Salvador; MINSAL; jul. 13, 2021. 23 p. ilus, graf, tab, mapas.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1280747

ABSTRACT

Resumen de eventos de notificación hasta SE 26/2021. Alertas internacionales. Situación epidemiológica de dengue. Situación epidemiológica de zika y chikungunya. Infección respiratoria aguda. Neumonías. Situación mundial del 2019-nCov (OMS. Vigilancia centinela de influenza y otros virus respiratorios. Vigilancia centinela de rotavirus. Enfermedad diarreica aguda


Summary of notification events up to SE 26/2021. International alerts. Epidemiological situation of dengue. Epidemiological situation of Zika and Chikungunya. Acute respiratory infection. Pneumonia Global situation 2019-nCov (WHO. Sentinel surveillance of influenza and other respiratory viruses. Sentinel surveillance for rotavirus. Acute diarrheal disease


Subject(s)
Epidemiology , Electronic Publications , Rotavirus , Notification , Infections
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 169-178, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153044

ABSTRACT

Foodborne viruses including hepatitis A virus (HAV), norovirus (NoV), rotavirus (RoV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are easily transmitted through contaminated seafoods. The current research was done to assess the incidence of RoV, NoV GI and GII,hAV and hEV in fish and shrimp samples caught from the Persian Gulf, Iran. Three-hundred and twenty fish and shrimp samples were collected. The presence of foodborne viruses were assessed by the real-time PCR. Forty-nine out of 320 (15.31%) fish and shrimp samples were positive for foodborne viruses. Distribution of hAV, NoV GI and NoV GII amongst all studied samples were 0.93%, 5.93% and 8.43%, respectively. hEV and RoV viruses were not found in studied samples. Parastromateus niger and Scomberomorus commerson fish and Penaeus monodon shrimp were the most frequently contaminated samples. Simultaneous incidence of hAV and NoV GI and hAV and NoV GII were 0.31% and 0.93%, respectively. Distribution of foodborne viruses in samples collected through spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons were 14.28%, 9.33%, 11.76% and 24.44%, respectively. Findings revealed that the incidence of foodborne viruses was significantly associated with seafood species and also season of sampling.(AU)


Vírus transmitidos por alimentos, incluindo hepatite A (HAV), norovírus (NoV), rotavírus (RoV) e hepatite E (HEV) são facilmente transmitidos através de frutos do mar contaminados. Esta pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar a incidência de RoV, NoV GI e GII, hAV e hEV em amostras de peixes e camarões capturadas no Golfo Pérsico, Irã. Foram coletadas 300 amostras de peixes e camarões. A presença de vírus transmitidos por alimentos foi avaliada por PCR em tempo real. Quarenta e nove das 320 amostras de peixes e camarões (15,31%) foram positivas para vírus transmitidos por alimentos. A distribuição de hAV, NoV GI e NoV GII entre as amostras estudadas foi 0,93%, 5,93% e 8,43%, respectivamente. Os vírus hEV e RoV não foram encontrados nas amostras estudadas. Os peixes Parastromateus niger e Scomberomorus commerson e o camarão Penaeus monodon foram as amostras mais frequentemente contaminadas. A incidência simultânea de hAV e NoV GI, e hAV e NoV GII foi de 0,31% e 0,93%, respectivamente. A distribuição dos vírus transmitidos por alimentos nas amostras coletadas na primavera, verão, outono e inverno foi de 14,28%, 9,33%, 11,76% e 24,44%, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstram que a incidência de vírus transmitidos por alimentos foi significativamente associada às espécies de frutos do mar e também à época da amostragem.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Decapoda/virology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Fishes/virology , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Shellfish/virology , Hepatitis E virus/isolation & purification , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Indian Ocean/epidemiology , Hepatitis A virus/isolation & purification , Norovirus/isolation & purification , Iran/epidemiology
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877519

ABSTRACT

Group A rotavirus (RV) is one of the major pathogens that cause severe acute gastroenteritis and death in children under 5 years old in China. RV vaccination is the most effective measure for prevention and control of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE). This consensus is developed by reviewing RV related literatures, RV disease data in China, World Health Organization(WHO) position paper on RV vaccines and expert discussion. This consensus aims to provide professional staff with scientific information on rotavirus vaccine use, and evidence for developing the immunization strategy of childhood RVGE in China.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , China , Consensus , Gastroenteritis/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Rotavirus , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Vaccines , Vaccination
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877510

ABSTRACT

Group A rotavirus (RV) is one of the major pathogens that cause severe acute gastroenteritis and death in children under 5 years old in China. RV vaccination is the most effective measure for prevention and control of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE). This consensus is developed by reviewing RV related literatures, RV disease data in China, World Health Organization(WHO) position paper on RV vaccines and expert discussion. This consensus aims to provide professional staff with scientific information on rotavirus vaccine use, and evidences for developing the immunization strategy of childhood RVGE in China.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , China , Consensus , Gastroenteritis/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Rotavirus , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Vaccination
6.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1366932

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Rotavirus A (RVA) is a leading cause of acute infant gastroenteritis in Mozambique, responsible for approximately 13,000 annual infant deaths in peri-urban and other areas. Aim: the present review aimed summarize the most relevant and recent literature regarding RVA infection in Mozambique. Methods: the documents were obtained from electronic databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Scinapse, Scilit, and Microsoft Academicto find the leading scientific publications related to Mozambique's RVA.Findings: The search allowed us to find 20 peer-reviewed journal articles, three official reports, eight abstracts from national conferences, one thesis, and other documents to supplement the information. Rotavirus frequency ranged between 24 to 42.4%, 34.8% attributable to Mozambique. Most data are hospital-based from Maputo, Sofala, Zambézia, and Nampula provinces. Nampula province shows the highest number of cases. Thus, there might be some bias on the geographical distribution of the virus. The prevalence is high in children less than one year. Regarding the control, the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) introduced a monovalent vaccine in September 2015 (Rotarix), which positively impacted the reduction of RVA cases. After vaccine introduction, a high diversity of RVA genotypes was observed, with the predominance ofG1P[8] and the emergence of G9P[4],G9P[6], G3P[4]. However, only the whole genome sequence can confirm if it is due to the natural genotypes fluctuation. RVA infection was detected in swine, and a recent analysis reported an RVA strain from children clustered with different animal strains.Conclusion: The scarceyethighly reliable research resourcesallowed scientists to detect RVA G1P[8] and other genotypes, potential animal reservoirs, and to find that RVA is more prevalent during the transition dry-rainy season, and thevirus becomes more frequent when children approach the 11thmonth, to then decline as they age.It is essential to develop studies providing a broad view of RVA reservoirs as part of the strategy to control its dissemination


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Rotavirus Infections , Disease Management , Diarrhea, Infantile , Gastroenteritis , Epidemiology , Rotavirus
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(1): 7-11, Jan. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1091651

ABSTRACT

Calf diarrhea causes substantial economic losses in the cattle industry worldwide. Bovine rotavirus A (RVA) is the main viral agent that leads to enteric infection and diarrhea outbreaks in calves throughout the world. The aim of this retrospective (2006-2015) study was to determine the frequency of RVA detection in diarrheic fecal samples from beef and dairy calves from the three main cattle-producing regions of Brazil. Diarrheic fecal samples (n=1,498) of 124 beef and 56 dairy cattle herds from the Midwest, South, and Southeast geographical regions of Brazil were evaluated using the silver-stained polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (ss-PAGE) technique. RVA double stranded-RNA was identified by the ss-PAGE technique in 410 (27.4%) fecal samples. The frequency of positive samples found in beef calves (31.9%; 328/1,027) was higher than the frequency found in diarrheic fecal samples from dairy calves (17.4%; 82/471). RVA infection was identified in calves from the three Brazilian geographical regions analyzed. However, the frequency of positive diarrheic calves in the Midwest region (39.4%), predominantly beef calves, was higher than in the South (19.4%) and Southeast (17.6%) regions. The temporal distribution of RVA-infected calves evaluated by two five-year periods (2006-2010, 24.5%; 2011-2015, 28.8%) demonstrated a very similar frequency of RVA in both periods. Considering the wide regional and temporal scope of this study, it can be concluded that RVA remains an important etiology of neonatal diarrhea in calves of Brazilian cattle herds.(AU)


A diarreia neonatal ocasiona perdas econômicas importantes na pecuária bovina em todo o mundo. Rotavírus A (RVA) é o principal agente etiológico viral de infecções entéricas e surtos de diarreia em bezerros de rebanhos de corte e leite. O objetivo deste estudo retrospectivo (2006-2015) foi determinar a frequência de detecção de RVA em amostras de fezes diarreicas de bezerros de corte e leite das três principais regiões produtoras de bovinos do Brasil. Amostras de fezes diarreicas (n=1.498) de 124 rebanhos bovinos de corte e 56 rebanhos bovinos de leite das regiões Centro-Oeste, Sul e Sudeste do Brasil foram avaliadas utilizando a técnica de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (EGPA). O genoma segmentado de RVA foi identificado pela técnica de EGPA em 410 (27,4%) amostras de fezes. A frequência de amostras positivas encontrada em bezerros de rebanhos de corte (31,9%; 328/1.027) foi maior que a frequência identificada em amostras de fezes diarreicas de bezerros de rebanhos leiteiros (17,4%; 82/471). A infecção por RVA foi identificada em bezerros das três regiões geográficas brasileiras analisadas. No entanto, a frequência de bezerros com diarreia positivos para RVA na região Centro-Oeste (39,4%), predominantemente de bezerros de rebanhos de corte, foi maior que nas regiões Sul (19,4%) e Sudeste (17,6%). A distribuição temporal dos bezerros infectados com RVA avaliados por dois períodos de cinco anos (2006-2010, 24,5%; 2011-2015, 28,8%) demonstrou uma frequência muito semelhante em ambos os períodos. Considerando a amplitude regional e temporal deste estudo, pode-se concluir que RVA continua sendo uma importante etiologia de diarreia neonatal em bezerros de rebanhos bovinos brasileiros.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus/pathogenicity , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional/veterinary
8.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(1): e197, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1094982

ABSTRACT

La inmunización, es un mecanismo de defensa que asegura la inmunidad humoral para prevenir enfermedades infantiles graves, y es responsabilidad de los padres. Objetivo: Se plantea indagar el conocimiento vaccinal, en madres con hijos menores de 5 años. Métodos: el estudio se orienta bajo el paradigma cualitativo, enfoque fenomenológico; Los participantes del estudio fueron madres que vacunaron a sus hijos en el centro de salud 20 de febrero, distrito 12D03 Quevedo-Mocache, Ecuador. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó el soware Atlas ti, vinculando 18 preguntas de reflexión. Resultados: Las categorías emergentes fueron: 1) Las vacunas son muy importantes y necesarias. 2. Vacunaron porque sus hijos crecen sanos y fuertes. 3. para algunas el vacunatorio es agradable y para otras no. 4. Algunas reciben buen trato y atención, otras no. 5. Es insuficiente la información sobre las vacunas. 6. Piden cambios de enfermeras y horarios. Conclusión: el conocimiento vaccinal de las madres, esdeterminante para la protección y la no propagación de enfermedades en sus hijos(AU)


Immunization is a defense mechanism that ensures humoral immunity to prevent serious childhood diseases, and is the responsibility of the parents. Objective: to investigate the vaccine knowledge in mothers with children under 5 years. Methods: the study is oriented under the qualitative paradigm, hermeneutic approach; e study participants were mothers who vaccinated their children in the health center February 20, district 12D03 Quevedo-Mocache, Ecuador. The Atlas ti soware was used to analyze the data, linking 18 reflection questions. Results: The emerging categories were: 1) Vaccines are very important and necessary. 2. They vaccinated because their children grow up healthy and strong. 3. For some the vaccine is nice and for others it is not. 4. Some receive good treatment and attention, others do not. 5. Insufficient information about vaccines. 6. Ask for changes of nurses and schedules. Conclusion: the vaccinal knowledge of the mothers, is decisive for the protection and non-propagation of diseases in their children(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Rotavirus Infections/classification , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination/classification , Vaccination/methods , Immunization Programs , Rotavirus/classification , Social Welfare , Socioeconomic Factors , Child, Preschool , Sociological Factors
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719648

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Automated Fluorescent Immunoassay System (AFIAS) rotavirus assay (Boditech Med Inc., Chuncheon, Korea) is a new rapid antigen test for rotavirus detection. We evaluated the performance of this assay for detecting rotaviruses and their specific genotypes in clinical stool samples. METHODS: AFIAS rotavirus assay was performed in 103 rotavirus-positive and 103 rotavirus-negative stool samples (confirmed by both PCR and ELISA), and its results were compared with those of PCR, ELISA, and immunochromatographic assay (ICA). We evaluated diagnostic sensitivity/specificity, the detectability of rotavirus subtypes, lower limit of detection (LLOD), reproducibility, cross-reactivity, and interference of AFIAS rotavirus assay. RESULTS: Based on PCR and ELISA results, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the AFIAS rotavirus assay were both 99.0%. LLOD results showed that the AFIAS assay had sensitivity similar to or greater than ICA and ELISA. High reproducibility was confirmed, and no cross-reactivity or interference was detected. This assay could detect genotypes G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[6], G4P[8], G8P[4], G8P[8], G9P[4], and G9P[8]. CONCLUSIONS: The AFIAS rotavirus assay showed high reproducibility, sensitivity, and specificity as well as excellent agreement with ELISA, PCR, and ICA. It detected the most common as well as unusual genotypes of rotavirus prevalent in Korea. It could be a useful on-site assay for rapid, convenient, and cost-effective detection of rotavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Genotype , Immunoassay , Chromatography, Affinity , Korea , Limit of Detection , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760488

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is a major pathogen causing enteritis worldwide in children under five years of age. In recent years, immunochromatographic assay (ICA) has been widely used as a diagnostic test for rotavirus detection. This study aimed to compare and evaluate the performance of ICA-based rotavirus rapid test kits from two manufacturers. METHODS: Residual stool samples from a total of 130 children with acute enterocolitis from November 2017 to January 2018 were used. We compared the results of the two immunochromatographic methods (SD BIOLINE Rotavirus kit and GENEDIA Rotavirus Ag Rapid Test) with those of the currently used enzyme immunoassay method. RESULTS: Positive agreement, negative agreement, and total agreement rates between the SD BIOLINE rotavirus kit and the enzyme immunoassay were 98.0%, 100%, and 99.2%, respectively. Positive agreement, negative agreement, and total agreement rates between the GENEDIA Rotavirus Ag Rapid Test and the enzyme immunoassay were 96.0%, 100%, and 98.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Both rotavirus rapid test kits showed very good agreement with the conventional enzyme immunoassay. Therefore, it could be a useful test to detect rotavirus directly from stool samples in a short time.


Subject(s)
Child , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Enteritis , Enterocolitis , Humans , Chromatography, Affinity , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Methods , Rotavirus
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760340

ABSTRACT

This study examined complex infections with various enteropathogens and the genetic diversity of bovine norovirus (BNoV) in 932 fecal samples from diarrheic calves in South Korea. Overall, seventeen (1.8%) of the samples tested positive for BNoV following RT-PCR examination. All BNoV-positive samples were co-infected with other intestinal pathogens, including bovine Rotavirus, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Escherichia coli. The genetic diversity of the BNoVs shared high nucleotide identity (98.1–99.5%) and amino acid homology (93.5–98.1%) with genotype 2 BNoV (GIII.2) strains. In conclusion, BNoV infections with GIII genotypes were detected in complex infections of diarrheic calves in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Cryptosporidium , Diarrhea , Escherichia coli , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Giardia , Korea , Norovirus , Rotavirus
12.
Intestinal Research ; : 237-243, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) usually occurs at young age, and therefore, women IBD patients experience pregnancy during their disease progression. Recently, the use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) has been rapidly increasing. The aim of this study was to evaluate pregnancy related outcomes in women with IBD who were treated with anti-TNF-α during pregnancy and immunity of their children. METHODS: Korean women with IBD who had been treated with anti-TNF-α during pregnancy had been enrolled. Medical records were reviewed and a survey was performed for each patient. For the patients who agreed on additional examination for their children, children's growth, medical history and antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) titer were checked. RESULTS: All 18 patients had been diagnosed with Crohn's disease. There was not any case of preterm delivery, low birth-weight infant, congenital anomaly, nor stillbirth. All 12 children had followed the regular vaccination schedule for hepatitis B and 4 of them showed negative results for anti-HBs. After the 1 booster vaccination, all children demonstrated seroconversion. Regarding live vaccines, 4 children had bacillus Calmette-Guerin and 4 had rotavirus vaccine before 6 months, without any specific side effects. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first study of immunity of the children born from IBD women who had been treated with anti-TNF-α medication during their pregnancy. IBD women had comparable pregnancy outcomes with the general women population, suggesting that the disease activity rather than the administered medication would be more important in healthy pregnancy. Considering the history of vaccination and anti-HBs titers, immunity seems to be intact in the children.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Bacillus , Child , Crohn Disease , Disease Progression , Female , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Humans , Infant , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Medical Records , Necrosis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Rotavirus , Seroconversion , Stillbirth , Vaccination , Vaccines
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758957

ABSTRACT

Calf diarrhea caused by infectious agents is associated with economic losses in the cattle industry. The purpose of this study was to identify the causative agents and epidemiological characteristics of diarrhea in Korean native calves (KNC). In total, 207 diarrheal KNC aged less than 7 months were investigated. Fecal samples collected from the rectum were examined for causative agents using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or real-time PCR and the number of oocysts were counted. Fourteen causative agents were detected from 164 of the 207 diarrheal KNC. Rotavirus was the most common agent (34.8%), followed by Eimeria spp. (31.7%), Escherichia coli (22.0%), Giardia spp. (14.0%), Clostridium difficile (9.8%), bovine viral diarrhea virus (8.5%), coronavirus (7.9%), Cryptosporidium spp. (7.3%), torovirus (6.7%), parvovirus (5.5%), norovirus (4.9%), kobuvirus (1.8%), adenovirus (1.2%), and Salmonella spp. (0.6%). About 95 (57.9%) of 164 calves were infected with a single causative agent and 42.1% were infected by multiple agents. No significant difference was observed in mortality between calves infected with a single agent and multiple agents. The occurrence of diarrhea caused by rotavirus, Eimeria spp., kobuvirus, and Giardia spp. was significantly different based on onset age, and the prevalence of diarrhea caused by rotavirus or C. difficile was significantly different between seasons. This study help the understanding of KNC diarrhea for the development of an effective strategy for disease prevention and control, especially in Eastern provinces of South Korea.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Age of Onset , Animals , Cattle , Clostridioides difficile , Coronavirus , Cryptosporidium , Diarrhea , Eimeria , Epidemiology , Escherichia coli , Giardia , Kobuvirus , Korea , Mortality , Norovirus , Oocysts , Parvovirus , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rectum , Rotavirus , Salmonella , Seasons , Torovirus
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758569

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The vaccination level of rotavirus vaccine not supported by the government is not known. As vaccines not included in the national immunization schedule are not registered in the computerized national immunization registry system, their vaccination rate cannot be calculated according to the same method used in government-supported vaccines. Therefore, this study aimed to measure the status of the vaccination rate of rotavirus not included in the national immunization schedule. METHODS: The target population is the 0-year-old cohort. The survey population was composed of registered children born in 2017 enrolled in the Immunization Registry Information System. The survey was conducted through a computerized telephone survey method. The survey variables were as follows: vaccination order and date, provider, and data source. Factors related to complete vaccination were the child's sex, residence, birth order, and parents' age, educational level, and job status. RESULTS: Children's vaccination rates for the rotavirus vaccine by 2017 were 88.0%, 86.9%, and 96.6% for the first, second, and third doses, respectively. The rate of complete vaccination was 85.6%. The factors related to rotavirus complete vaccination were the child's sex and birth order, area of residence, parents' age and job status, and father's education level. CONCLUSION: In the future, it is necessary to conduct regular investigations on the rate of rotavirus vaccination as a tool for the development of the rotavirus infectious diseases control policy or as an evaluation tool for vaccine programs.


Subject(s)
Birth Order , Child , Cohort Studies , Communicable Diseases , Education , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Immunization , Immunization Schedule , Information Storage and Retrieval , Information Systems , Methods , Rotavirus , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telephone , Vaccination , Vaccines
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 281-289, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771378

ABSTRACT

In previous studies, we found that truncated rotavirus VP4* (aa 26-476) could be expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli and confer high protection against rotavirus in the mouse mode. In this study, we further improved the immunogenicity of VP4* by polymerization. The purified VP4* was polymerized through incubation at 37 ℃ for 24 h, and then the homogeneity of the particles was analyzed by HPLC, TEM and AUC, while the thermal stability and antigenicity was analyzed by DSC and ELISA, respectively. Finally, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the polymers analyzed by a mouse maternal antibody model. The results showed that VP4* aggregated into homogeneous polymers, with high thermostability and neutralizing antibody binding activity. In addition, VP4* polymers (endotoxin <20 EU/dose) stimulated higher neutralizing antibodies and confer higher protection against rotavirus-induced diarrhoea compared with the VP4* trimers when immunized with aluminium adjuvant. In summary, the study in VP4* polymers provides a new strategy for the development of recombinant rotavirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Antigens, Viral , Capsid , Capsid Proteins , Mice , Polymerization , Rotavirus , Rotavirus Infections
16.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. 141 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177901

ABSTRACT

Os rotavírus A (RVA) e os norovírus são os principais vírus associados à etiologia da gastroenterite aguda (GA) em <5 anos. A partir de 2006, com a introdução das vacinas de RVA, observou-se um declínio expressivo da morbidade/mortalidade por estes vírus, em detrimento a crescente importância das infecções pelos norovírus nesta faixa etária. Antígenos do grupo histosanguíneo humano (HBGAs), presentes na mucosa intestinal, têm sido descritos como potenciais ligantes e/ou cofatores requeridos nos estágios da patogênese das infecções por estes vírus, influenciando na epidemiologia molecular e evolução em diferentes populações. Este estudo teve como objetivo associar o perfil de susceptibilidade (HBGA/Secretor/Lewis) de crianças residentes na comunidade de Manguinhos, no Rio de Janeiro, à eficácia da resposta a vacina RV1 (Rotarix®/G1P[8]), assim como às infecções naturais pelos norovírus. Com este propósito realizou-se o monitoramento das infecções por RVA e norovírus em uma coorte de crianças de 0-11 meses, pela detecção e caracterização molecular destes vírus em amostras de fezes de crianças sintomáticas ou não. No período de 2014 a 2018, 132 crianças foram incluídas neste estudo, disponibilizando o mesmo número de amostras de saliva para determinação do perfil de susceptibilidade por ELISA e 569 amostras de fezes para investigação de ambos os vírus por métodos moleculares.


O vírus vacinal excretado foi caracterizado em 78% (85/109) das amostras RVA. A presença da mutação F167L (RV1), demonstrada pelo sequenciamento do gene VP8*, foi observada em 20,1% das crianças. Quatro casos de rotaviroses pelos genótipos G3P[8], G12P[8] e G3P[9] foram observados. Os norovírus foram detectados em 21,2% (28/132) das crianças, com incidência de 5,8 infecções em 100 criança-meses. A razão de detecção foi de 5,6% (17,1% dos casos diarrêicos e 4,7% dos assintomáticos), sendo seis diferentes genótipos detectados (GII.4_Sydney_2012[P31], GII.4_Sydney_2012[P16],GII.4_Sydney_2012[P4_New_Orleans_2009],GII.2[P16],GII.6[P7] e GI.3[P13]). Em relação ao perfil HBGA, observou-se 80,3% das crianças com o status secretor. A caracterização do gene FUT2 (Se) em crianças secretoras Le (a+b+) e não secretoras, e do gene FUT3 (Le) em Le (a-b-), possibilitou a identificação de novas mutações nesta população.


A mutação F167L na RV1 excretada foi identificada em 86,4% das crianças que apresentaram o fenótipo secretor Le (a+b+), indicando que os HBGAs poderiam ser importantes marcadores na avaliação da RV1; significante associação entre infecção sintomática pelos norovírus e o status secretor (Leb) também foi observada. A ocorrência de norovírus na coorte e a sua crescente importância epidemiológica, determinou a ampliação deste estudo, com a análise de 61 amostras fecais oriundas de 49 crianças na faixa etária de 1-4 anos residentes em Manguinhos. Os norovírus foram detectados em 47,5% (29/61) das amostras (46,7% dos casos diarrêicos e 50% dos assintomáticos) e quatro novos genótipos foram identificados, sendo o recombinante GII.2[P16] detectado pela primeira vez no Brasil. Os dados de vigilância epidemiológica deste estudo comprovam a importância do monitoramento dos principais vírus responsáveis pela gastroenterite infantil aguda, evidenciando a diversidade genética e a dinâmica destes vírus considerando novas abordagens como o perfil HBGA, que trouxe uma importante contribuição em relação à avaliação da eficácia da RV1 na coorte estudada. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Genetic Variation , Child , Rotavirus , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Norovirus
17.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. xx,110 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049479

ABSTRACT

A doença diarreica aguda permanece como um dos principais problemas de saúde pública no mundo, onde cerca de 37% das crianças menores de cinco anos morrem por ano, principalmente, em países com baixa renda. Dentre os diferentes agentes etiológicos, os rotavírus são considerados os principais causadores dessa doença. Duas vacinas já foram licenciadas contra a infecção por rotavírus, a vacina pentavalente RotaTeq e a monovalente Rotarix. Ambas as vacinas têm a capacidade para reduzir a gravidade da doença diarreica em crianças menores de cinco anos. O estudo multicêntrico Entérico Global mostrou que o rotavírus é um dos principais agentes causadores da doença diarreica em Moçambique. A fim de se reduzir a gravidade da infecção poro rotavírus A Moçambique introduziu, em setembro de 2015, no seu Programa Alargado de Vacinação, a vacina monovalente Rotarix. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o impacto da vacina na prevenção da infecção e na diversidade dos genótipos de RVA antes e após a introdução da vacina na cidade de Maputo. Para efeito, foi realizado um estudo descritivo transversal em crianças menores de cinco anos de idade, internadas com diarreia aguda nos Serviços de Pediatria do Hospital Central de Maputo, entre os anos de 2013 e 2018. No estudo, as características epidemiológicas e clínicas das crianças selecionadas foram obtidas através de um formulário padronizado


A identificação dos casos positivos para rotavírus em amostras de fezes foi realizado usando o teste de ELISA. As amostras positivas foram submetidas a genotipagem por semi-nested RT-PCR e, parte das amostras, foram posteriormente submetidas a análise de sequenciamento nucletídico. Os dados recolhidos foram introduzidos na base de dados do pacote estatístico Excel 2010 e analisados através do programa estatístico SPSS versão 20 e pacote estatístico R. Foram viii coletadas 802 amostras de fezes durante o período pré-vacinal (2013 - 2015) e 196 no período pós-vacinal (2016 - 2018), onde observou-se uma redução da mediana de casos de hospitalização por diarreia de 76%, diminuindo de 28,7% (82/284) no período pré-vacinal para 15,5% (10/66) no período pós-vacinal, (p <0,05) em todas as faixas etárias. De forma similar, houve uma redução da mediana de 53,89% na proporção de internação por diarreia por rotavírus em crianças <12 meses de idade, de (28,3%) no período pré-vacinal para 13,04% no período pós-vacinal. Após a introdução da vacina verificou-se alteração dos picos sazonais habitualmente observados. As combinações de genótipos de rotavirus mais prevalentes no período pré-vacinal foram: G2P[4] em 2013,62/86 (72,0%), G1P[8]31/48 (65,0%) em 2014, G9P[8],48 (69,0%) em 2015 e no período pós - vacinal foram: G1P [8] 5/10 (50,0%) em 2016 e 5/8(62,2%) 2017;3G3P[8], G3P[4], G4P[6] 1/3 (33,0%) em 2018Em Moçambique, após a introdução da vacina contra o rotavírus, foi observada uma redução nas hospitalizações associadas a rotavírus em todos os grupos etários com mais destaque em crianças <12 meses de idade. Uma grande diversidade de cepas de rotavírus circulou nos períodos pré e pós-introdução da vacina. Os resultados deste estudo sustentam evidências do impacto da vacinação contra o rotavírus destacando a importância na continuidade do programa assim como nos estudos de monitoramento de genótipos de rotavírus depois da introdução da vacina em Moçambique. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Epidemiology , Rotavirus , Rotavirus Vaccines
18.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(10): 1890-1895, out. 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976385

ABSTRACT

Calf diarrhea causes substantial economic losses to beef cattle production worldwide. It is a complex multifactorial pathological condition influenced by infectious, nutritional and environmental factors. The present study focused on analyzing the pathological and molecular characterization of bovine rotavirus A (BoRVA) during a diarrhea outbreak in a beef cattle herd located in the state of Mato Grosso, central-western region, Brazil. The outbreak caused high morbidity (80%) and mortality (12%) among 1,100 calves up to 30 days of age. The BoRVA was identified in 53.3% (16/30) of the diarrheic fecal samples analyzed using the silver-stained polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (ss-PAGE) technique. The nucleotide sequence analysis of VP7 (G genotype) and VP4 (P genotype) via RT-PCR from eight BoRVA-positive fecal samples showed the genotypes G6P[5] (n = 6), G6P[11] (n = 1) and G6P[X] (n = 1). Three calves were necropsied and the gross findings included edema and thickened, wrinkled bowel mucosa in the small intestine. Microscopic lesions were confined to the villi of the small intestine, characterized mainly by villus fusion and moderate multifocal lymphoplasmacytic enteritis. Immunohistochemical examination of three cases was positive for BoRVA. The 53.3% of the diarrheic fecal samples that were positive for BoRVA in this study suggested that RV was the etiological agent involved in this neonatal calf diarrhea outbreak.(AU)


A diarreia neonatal provoca perdas econômicas substanciais na produção de bovinos em todo o mundo. É uma condição patológica multifatorial complexa influenciada por fatores infecciosos, nutricionais e ambientais. O presente estudo teve por objetivo caracterizar o rotavírus tipo A (BoRVA) através da análise patológica e molecular durante um surto de diarreia em um rebanho bovino localizado no estado de Mato Grosso, região centro-oeste, no Brasil. O surto causou alta morbidade (80%) e letalidade (12%) em um rebanho composto 1.100 bezerros até 30 dias de idade. O BoRVA foi identificado em 53,3% (16/30) das amostras fecais diarreicas analisadas usando a técnica de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida corada com prata (ss-PAGE). A análise da sequência nucleotídica de VP7 (genótipo G) e VP4 (genótipo P) via RT-PCR a partir de oito amostras fecais BoRVA-positivas mostrou os genótipos G6P [5] (n = 6), G6P [11] (n = 1) e G6P [X] (n = 1). Três bezerros foram submetidos à necropsia e os achados macroscópicos incluíram edema e espessamento da mucosa do intestino delgado. As lesões microscópicas foram observadas nas vilosidades do intestino delgado, sendo caracterizadas principalmente por fusiosamento de vilosidades e enterite linfoplasmocitária multifocal moderada. O exame imunohistoquímico dos três casos foram positivos para o BoRVA. As 53,3% das amostras fecais diarreicas positivas para o BoRVA sugeriram que o rotavírus é o agente etiológico envolvido neste surto de diarreia neonatal em bezerros.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Rotavirus Infections/pathology , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases , Rotavirus/pathogenicity , Diarrhea/pathology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Animals, Newborn/virology
19.
Univ. sci ; 23(2): 219-239, May-Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-979546

ABSTRACT

Abstract Probiotic bacteria are microorganisms beneficial to human health, useful to improving biological conditions. Thanks to probiotic bacteria the symptoms of viral infections can be alleviated. Different mechanisms whereby probiotic bacteria exert they antiviral effect have been proposed. The aim of this study was to determine whether probiotic bacteria extracts bind to receptors of host cells susceptible of rotavirus (RV) infection. To accomplish this objective, four probiotic bacterial strains of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. were tested. Probiotic extracts were obtained after bacterial growth, cell lysis and centrifugation. Obtained probiotic extracts were used in assays to interfere with adhesion and penetration of a RV strain in the mammal cell line MA104. Furthermore, the interaction between probiotic extracts and MA104 cell receptors was evaluated by co-immunoprecipitation assays using anti-β3-integrins and anti-Hsc70 antibodies. All four probiotic, protein-rich, extracts reduced RV infections in MA104 cells, suggesting a successful antiviral activity mediated by these probiotic extracts. All probiotic extracts significantly exerted their antiviral activity by interfering with RV adhesion on MA104 cell receptors, with proteins in probiotic extracts competitively interacting with cell surface receptors necessary to RV infection. Co-immunoprecipitation assay results showed that proteins in probiotic extracts were able to bind to β3-integrinsand Hsc70, which are two cellular receptors required to viral infection. The most significant contribution of this study is an insight into the mechanisms of probiotic antiviral activity, thus expanding current probiotics fundamental knowledge.


Resumen Las bacterias probióticas son microorganismos con efectos positivos en la salud humana, gracias a las bacterias probióticas los síntomas de infecciones virales pueden mitigarse. Al respecto, varios mecanismos antivirales de las bacterias probióticas han sido propuestos. El propósito de este estudio fue determinar, de manera experimental, si extractos de bacterias probióticas reducen la infección rotavírica al interferir con la unión entre el rotavirus y sus receptores celulares blanco. Extractos de cuatro cepas probióticas de Lactobacillus spp. y Bifidobacterium spp. fueron obtenidos a partir de cultivos bacterianos lisados y centrifugados. Cada uno de los extractos fue usado en experimentos para determinar si estos interfieren con la adhesión y penetración del rotavirus en células de mamífero MA104. Además, la interacción entre extractos probióticos y receptores de las células MA104 fue evaluada con ensayos de co-inmunoprecipitación, usando anticuerpos anti-integrina β3 y anti-Hsc70. Se observó que los cuatro extractos probióticos, ricos en proteínas, redujeron significativamente la infección de rotavirus en las células MA104. También se estableció que la que la actividad antiviral de los extractos probióticos es mediada por la interacción competitiva de sus proteínas con los receptores integrina β3 y Hsc70 de las células MA104, necesarios para iniciar la infección por rotavirus. Estos hallazgos constituyen un aporte al conocimiento de los mecanismos básicos de acción antiviral de las bacterias probióticas.


Resumo Bactérias probióticas são microrganismos com efeitos positivos na saúde humana, úteis na melhora de certas condições biológicas. Gracas a bactérias probióticas os sintomas de uma infecção viral podem ser aliviados. Diferentes mecanismos pelos quais as bactérias probióticas exercem seus efeitos antivirales têm sido propostos. O objetivo de este estudo foi determinar se extratos de bactérias probióticas reduzem a infecção de rotavírus (RV) ao interferir com a união entre o RV e seus receptores celulares alvo. Quatro cepas probióticas de Lactobacillus spp. e Bifidobacterium spp. foram testadas. Os extratos probióticos foram obtidos após o crescimento bacteriano, lise celular e centrifugação. Os extratos probióticos obtidos foram utilizados em ensaios para determinar se interferem com a adesão e penetração de uma cepa de RV em células de mamífero MA104. Adicionalmente, a interação entre os extratos probióticos e os receptores das células MA104 foi avaliada por ensaios de co-imunoprecipitação usando anticorpos anti-integrina β3 e anti- Hsc70. Os quatro extratos probióticos, ricos em proteínas, reduziram as infecções por RV em células MA104, sugerindo uma atividade antiviral mediada por estes extratos. Todos os extratos interferiram na adesão do RV aos receptores de células MA104, sendo que as proteínas presentes nos extratos mostraram uma interação competitiva com os receptores integrina β3 e Hsc70 das células MA104, necessários para iniciar a infecção por RV. Estes resultados contribuem para o conhecimento dos mecanismos básicos de ação antiviral de bactérias probióticas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents , Rotavirus/immunology , Probiotics , Integrin beta3
20.
Infectio ; 22(2): 99-104, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-892760

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bovine rotaviruses are one of the main agents involved in the presentation of Bovine Neonatal Diarrhea (BND), a disease that affects calves in the first month of life. Objective: The present study aimed to determine the types of bovine rotaviruses that affect dairy herds in the Sabana region of Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and methods: 132 fecal samples were obtained from calves of less than five weeks of age and subjected to an ELISA test. MA104 cell cultures were infected with positive samples in order to isolate rotaviruses. The presence of the viral genome was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of a region of the viral VP7 protein-encoding gene. Results: Of the 132 samples, 26 (19, 7%) were ELISA-positive and nine samples were used for viral isolation. PCR amplification was achieved in all infected cultures. Sequencing showed homology of five samples to the G6 genotype. In addition, the presence of the G10 genotype was first determined for the country. Discussion: A greater presence of the G6 genotype from lineage V was found in the Sabana region of Bogota, showing a high prevalence in cattle and association with the presence of BND. The presence of the G10 genotype is a new report for the country and constitutes a new element of investigation in these viruses.


Resumen Los rotavirus bovinos son unos de los principales agentes involucrados en la presentación del síndrome de Diarrea Neonatal Bovina (DNB), una enfermedad que afecta terneros en el primer mes de vida. Objetivo: El presente estudio buscó determinar los tipos de rotavirus que afectan los hatos ganaderos de leche en la región de la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Se evaluaron a través de una prueba de ELISA, 132 muestras de materia fecal provenientes de terneros de menos de cinco semanas de edad. Con las muestras positivas, se infectaron células MA 104 con el fin hacer aislamiento. La presencia del genoma viral se verificó por amplificación de una región del gen que codifica para la proteína viral VP-7 y luego se secuenció. Resultados: De las 132 muestras evaluadas, 26 (19,7%) fueron positivas por ELISA. De estas, 9 muestras se emplearon para aislamiento viral. La amplificación de genoma viral por PCR se obtuvo en todos los cultivos infectados. La secuenciación evidenció una homología de 5 muestras con el genotipo G6 y la presencia del genotipo G10, que se encontró por primera vez en el país. Discusión: En la Sabana de Bogotá se encontró una mayor presencia del genotipo G6, linaje V, que tiene alta prevalencia en bovinos y está asociado mayoritariamente con la presencia de DNB. La presencia del genotipo G10 constituye un elemento nuevo de investigación en estos virus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Rotavirus , Diarrhea , Syndrome , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Colombia , Cell Culture Techniques , Gastrointestinal Diseases
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