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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762799

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Closed reduction of nasal fracture with various instrument is performed to treat nasal fracture. Depending on the type of nasal fracture and the situation in which it is being operated, the surgeon will determine the surgical tool. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a periosteal elevator (PE) was a proper device to perform closed reduction for patients with simple nasal fractures. METHODS: From March 2018 to December 2018, 50 cases of simple nasal bone fracture underwent closed reduction performed by a single surgeon. These patients were divided into two groups randomly: nasal bone reduction was performed using only PE (freer) and nasal bone reduction was performed using Walsham, Asch forcep, and Boies elevator (non-freer, non-PE). RESULTS: The paranasal sinus computed tomography was performed on patients before and after operation to carry out an accurate measurement of reduction distance at the same level. According to the results, the interaction between instruments and fracture types had a significant influence on reduction distance (p = 0.021). To be specific, reduction distance was significantly (p= 0.004) increased by 2.157 mm when PE was used to treat patients with partial displacement compared to that when non-PEs were used. CONCLUSION: Closed reduction using PE and other elevator is generally an effective treatment for nasal fracture. In partial-displacement type of simple nasal fracture, closed reduction using PE can have considerable success in comparison with using classic instruments.


Subject(s)
Elevators and Escalators , Facial Bones , Fractures, Closed , Humans , Nasal Bone , Rubber , Surgical Instruments , Treatment Outcome
2.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 306-312, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785382

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nonsurgical treatment of hemorrhoidal disease (HD) includes medical and instrumental techniques. We aimed to compare the efficacy of the most frequently used nonsurgical strategies, either alone or in combination, applied in an ambulatory setting.METHODS: Patients who received nonsurgical treatment for HD by proctology appointment at the Gastroenterology Department of Braga Hospital were evaluated. Isolated rubber band ligation (RBL) and a combination of RBL with a micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF) were the 2 most frequently used strategies. Symptoms of HD (bleeding, pruritus, pain at rest, pain at defecation and prolapse) were assessed at days 0, 7, and 28 by using a severity grading scale (0 to 4/5). A Global Symptom score was constructed to assess the overall severity and compare the overall improvements of the HD symptoms between the 2 most frequently used strategies.RESULTS: Nineteen patients underwent the combined treatment (RBL + MPFF group) and 25 the RBL treatment (RBL group). A comparison of the 2 treatment groups showed significant improvements in the combined treatment group in terms of bleeding at days 7 (P = 0.001) and 28 (P = 0.002) and in the pruritus intensity during the first week (P < 0.001). A trend toward clinical benefit was also verified in the combined treatment group for all other HD symptoms (pain at rest, pain at defecation and prolapse).CONCLUSION: A combined treatment approach with MPFF and RBL significantly reduced the intensity of bleeding during the first month and the pruritus during the first week.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Colorectal Surgery , Defecation , Flavonoids , Gastroenterology , Hemorrhage , Hemorrhoids , Humans , Ligation , Pruritus , Rubber
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759873

ABSTRACT

Complex suicide refers to a type of suicide that leads to death using two or more methods. We report three cases of unique and rare examples of complex suicide, with the plan of the second and/or third method working simultaneously if the first suicidal attempt had failed. In the first case, the victim used three methods of asphyxia: hanging by a safety belt, plastic bag suffocation, and self-ligature strangulation by stretching rubber bands within the vehicle. In the second case, the victim hanged himself with electrocution by attaching electrical leads to the right side of his head. In the third case, the victim with the intention of drowning jumped 20 m above the water surface on the bridge by tying metal chains to the bridge rail and self-immolation by gasoline. Planned complex suicide involves more successful methods to commit suicide and may conversely be camouflaged as suicide in murder case.


Subject(s)
Asphyxia , Drowning , Gasoline , Head , Homicide , Intention , Methods , Plastics , Rubber , Suicide , Water
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742077

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different finishing and polishing techniques on water absorption, water solubility, and microhardness of ceramic or glass-polymer based computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) materials following thermocycling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 150 disc-shaped specimens were prepared from three different hybrid materials and divided into five subgroups according to the applied surface polishing techniques. All specimens were subjected up to #4000 grit SiC paper grinding. No additional polishing has been done to the control group (Group I). Other polishing procedures were as follows: Group II: two-stage diamond impregnated polishing discs; Group III: yellow colored rubber based silicone discs; Group IV: diamond polishing paste; and Group V: Aluminum oxide polishing discs. Subsequently, 5000-cycles of thermocycling were applied. The analyses were conducted after 24 hours, 7 days, and 30 days of water immersion. Water absorption and water solubility results were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. Besides, microhardness data were compared by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (P.05). CONCLUSION: Surface finishing and polishing procedures might negatively affect physical properties of hybrid ceramic materials. Nevertheless, immersion periods do not affect the microhardness of the materials. Final polishing by using diamond polishing paste can be recommended for all CAD/CAM materials.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Aluminum Oxide , Ceramics , Computer-Aided Design , Dental Polishing , Diamond , Immersion , Rubber , Silicon , Silicones , Solubility , Water
5.
Mycobiology ; : 66-75, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760525

ABSTRACT

A new species of Alternaria causing leaf spots on the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) in Yunnan, China, was isolated, examined, and illustrated. Morphologically, it belongs to the section Porri of Alternaria, which produces relatively large conidia and a simple or branched, filamentous long beak. It is, however, characterized by conidiophores gradually enlarging near the apex into a clavate conidiogenous cell and long ellipsoid to obclavate, smooth-walled conidia with a long filamentous beak. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on ITS rDNA, GAPDH, and TEF1-alpha sequences demonstrate that the phytopathogen falls in the clade of the section Porri, being most closely related to A. sidae, A. sennae, A. deseriticola, A. cyamopsidis, A. rostellata, A. nitrimali, A. crassa, and A. thunbergiae.


Subject(s)
Acanthaceae , Accidental Falls , Alternaria , Animals , Ascomycota , Beak , China , Classification , DNA, Ribosomal , Hevea , Rubber , Spores, Fungal
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oral diseases are caused by various systemic and local factors, the most closely related being the biofilm. However, the challenges involved in removing an established biofilm necessitate professional care for its removal. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of professional self and professional biofilm care in healthy patients to prevent the development of periodontal diseases. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients who visited the dental clinic between September 2018 and February 2019 were included in this study. Self-biofilm care was performed by routine tooth brushing and professional biofilm care was provided using the toothpick method (TPM) or the oral prophylaxis (OP) method using a rubber cup. Subgingival bacterial motility and halitosis (levels of hydrogen sulfide, H₂2S; methyl mercaptan, CH₃SH; and di-methyl sulfide, (CH₃)₂S) were measured before, immediately after, and 5 hours after the preventive treatment in the three groups. Repeated measures analysis of variance test was performed to determine significant differences among the groups. RESULTS: TPM was effective immediately after the prevention treatment, whereas OP was more effective after 5 hours (proximal surfaces, F=16.353, p<0.001; smooth surfaces, F=66.575, p<0.001). The three components responsible for halitosis were effectively reduced by professional biofilm care immediately after the preventive treatment; however, self-biofilm care was more effective after 5 hours (H₂S, F=3.564, p=0.011; CH₃SH, F=6.657, p<0.001; (CH₃)₂S, F=21.135, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: To prevent oral diseases, it is critical to monitor the biofilm. The dental hygienist should check the oral hygiene status and the ability of the patient to administer oral care. Professional biofilm care should be provided by assessing and treating each surface of the tooth. We hope to strengthen our professional in biofilm care through continuous clinical research.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Biofilms , Dental Care , Dental Clinics , Dental Hygienists , Halitosis , Hope , Humans , Hydrogen Sulfide , Methods , Oral Health , Oral Hygiene , Periodontal Diseases , Rubber , Tooth
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764381

ABSTRACT

Metabolic abnormalities and catheter-related infections are common complications of parenteral nutrition (PN). Particulate contamination is a catheter-related complication can occur when administering PN: mixing the electrolytes, trace elements, vitamins into the PN, or puncturing a rubber stopper at the PN formulation. In addition, the aggregation of the components of the PN solution by a drug incompatibility reaction could be related to particulate contamination. PN contaminated with precipitates, insoluble particles, and bacteria was reported as the cause of the death of a patient. The Food and Drug Administration recommended that the filters be used during PN administration. In-line filters can retain the bacteria and insoluble particles in PN solutions, and prevent their infusion into the patient. Therefore, in-line filters are recommended to prevent catheter-related complications that can occur during PN infusion. A 0.2µ filter for lipid-free PN and a 1.2µ filter for lipid-containing PN solutions can be used. On the other hand, when a filter is applied, the infusion rate can decrease and the economic burden will increase for patients requiring long-term PN. In addition, small particles, such as viruses, polymers, and proteins cannot be filtered out completely. In conclusion, in-line filers are recommended to prevent catheter-related complications that can occur during PN administration, but there are no international standardized guidelines. Therefore, standardized guidelines will be needed based on evidence accompanied by clinical trials. In addition, in-line filter applications should be considered in the clinical field depending on the patient's condition.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Catheter-Related Infections , Drug Incompatibility , Electrolytes , Filtration , Hand , Humans , Parenteral Nutrition , Polymers , Rubber , Trace Elements , United States Food and Drug Administration , Vitamins
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764305

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. There are many occupational factors that have been suggested to cause prostate cancer. Our aim was to evaluate the evidence for causality by a literature review of occupational factors. We searched literature in Medline and SCOPUS from 1966 to June 30, 2015 to identify occupational risk factors for prostate cancer. The following risk factors were selected: farmers/agricultural workers, pesticides – whole group, and separately organophosphate and organochlorine pesticides, carbamates and triazines, cadmium, chromium, cutting fluids, acrylonitrile, rubber manufacturing, whole body vibration, shift work, flight personnel, ionizing radiation, and occupational physical activity. For each factor a literature search was performed and presented as meta-analysis of relative risk and heterogeneity (Q and I² index). A total of 168 original studies met the inclusion criteria with 90,688 prostate cancer cases. Significantly increased risks were observed for the following occupational exposures: pesticides (metaRR = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–1.32; I² = 84%), and specifically group of organochlorine pesticides (meta relative risk [metaRR] = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.03–1.14; I² = 0%), chromium (metaRR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.07–1.34; I² = 31%), shift work (metaRR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.05–1.49; I² = 78%) and pilots (metaRR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.02–1.94; I² = 63%) and occupational physical activity in cohort studies (metaRR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.81–0.94; I² = 0%). The literature review supports a causal association for a few of the previously suggested factors.


Subject(s)
Acrylonitrile , Cadmium , Carbamates , Chromium , Cohort Studies , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Male , Motor Activity , Occupational Exposure , Pesticides , Population Characteristics , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiation, Ionizing , Risk Factors , Rubber , Triazines , Vibration
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764204

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to examine the effects of a health promotion program on the health condition of rural elderly women implemented at primary health care posts using Korean Frailty Index. METHODS: The research was designed a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest setting. The participants in this study were 50 residents (intervention group: 25, control group: 25) selected from 4 villages 2 primary health care posts in J city Gyeongsangnam-do. The health promotion program was conducted at the primary health care posts twice a week for 12 weeks. This program consisted of basic exercises(Gukseondo + Theraband muscle strength training) and additional activities(including modified Theraband activity, rubber ball exercise, ball massage, nutrition class, singing class). Collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, paired t-test, and repeated measures ANOVA with SPSS 21.0. RESULTS: Results of the health promotion program showed that the health conditions(measured by perceived health status, frailty score, upper/lower flexibility, maximum grip strength, dynamic balance test Timed Up and Go) of the experimental group(25) all statistical significantly improved. CONCLUSION: Study findings indicate that the health promotion program implemented at primary health care posts on rural elderly women is effective and can contribute to a developed health promotion program for local residents in the future.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Hand Strength , Health Promotion , Humans , Massage , Muscle Strength , Pliability , Primary Health Care , Rubber , Singing
10.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 23(6): 42-47, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975034

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This clinical study was conducted in order to evaluate force decay over time of latex and non-latex orthodontic intraoral elastics. Methods: Patients (n = 15) were evaluated using latex and non-latex elastics in the periods of : 0, 1, 3, 12 and 24 hours. The rubber bands were transferred to the testing machine (EMIC DL-500 MF), and force values were recorded after stretching the elastic to a length of 25mm. Paired t test was applied and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate the variation of force generated. LSD (Fisher's least significant difference) post-hoc test was thus employed. Results: As regards the initial forces (zero time), the values of force for non-latex elastic were slightly higher than for the latex elastic. In the subsequent times, the forces generated by the latex elastic showed higher values. Regarding the material degradation, at the end of 24 hours the highest percentage was observed for non-latex elastic. Conclusions: The latex elastics had a more stable behavior during the studied period, compared with non-latex.


RESUMO Objetivo: o objetivo deste estudo clínico foi avaliar e comparar o comportamento dos elásticos de látex e não látex quanto à perda de força ao longo do tempo. Método: os pacientes (n = 15) foram avaliados usando ambos os tipos de material (látex e não látex) em cada tempo: 0, 1, 3, 12 e 24 horas. Os elásticos foram transferidos para a máquina de ensaios mecânicos (EMIC DL-500 MF) e os valores de força foram registrados após a distensão dos elásticos a uma distância de 25 mm. Foi aplicado o teste t pareado, e a análise de variância (ANOVA) foi realizada para verificar a variação das forças geradas em todos os tempos estudados. Em seguida, o teste post-hoc LSD (Fisher's least significant difference) foi aplicado. Resultados: quanto às forças iniciais (tempo zero), os valores de força dos elásticos não látex foram ligeiramente maiores do que dos elásticos de látex. Nos tempos subsequentes, as forças geradas pelos elásticos de látex apresentaram valores superiores às geradas pelos elásticos não látex. Em relação à degradação do material, ao fim do período de 24 horas, o maior percentual foi observado pelos elásticos não látex. Conclusões: os elásticos de látex apresentaram comportamento mais estável durante o período de estudo, em comparação aos não látex.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Young Adult , Orthodontic Appliances , Rubber/chemistry , Dental Materials/chemistry , Latex/chemistry , Silicone Elastomers/chemistry , Stress, Mechanical , Tensile Strength , Materials Testing , Analysis of Variance , Orthodontic Appliance Design , Dental Stress Analysis/methods , Elasticity , Mechanical Phenomena
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 481-488, July-Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951816

ABSTRACT

Abstract An increasing production of natural rubber (NR) products has led to major challenges in waste management. In this study, the degradation of rubber latex gloves in a mineral salt medium (MSM) using a bacterial consortium, a mixed culture of the selected bacteria and a pure culture were studied. The highest 18% weight loss of the rubber gloves were detected after incubated with the mixed culture. The increased viable cell counts over incubation time indicated that cells used rubber gloves as sole carbon source leading to the degradation of the polymer. The growth behavior of NR-degrading bacteria on the latex gloves surface was investigated using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The occurrence of the aldehyde groups in the degradation products was observed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis. Rhodococcus pyridinivorans strain F5 gave the highest weight loss of rubber gloves among the isolated strain and posses latex clearing protein encoded by lcp gene. The mixed culture of the selected strains showed the potential in degrading rubber within 30 days and is considered to be used efficiently for rubber product degradation. This is the first report to demonstrate a strong ability to degrade rubber by Rhodococcus pyridinivorans.


Subject(s)
Rubber/metabolism , Soil Microbiology , Rhodococcus/isolation & purification , Rhodococcus/metabolism , Latex/metabolism , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Rhodococcus/classification , Rhodococcus/genetics , Gloves, Protective/microbiology
12.
Rev. Círc. Argent. Odontol ; 76(226): 21-28, jul. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122090

ABSTRACT

La técnica ortodóncica de baja fricción utiliza brackets pasivos de autoligado con una serie de arcos superelásticos que mantienen las fuerzas aplicadas sobre las piezas dentarias a nivel de la "biozona o zona fuerza óptima". La utilización de gomas intermaxilares ligeras (2 onzas o 56,68 g) en estos tratamientos, desde etapas iniciales, sobre todo en pacientes en crecimiento, permite obtener resultados muy favorables en cuanto a la resolución de la maloclusión de Clase II. Objetivo: evaluar el tratamiento de Ortodoncia de un paciente Clase II esqueletal con sobremordida, sin realizar exodoncias de premolares y utilizando elásticos intermaxilares en fases iniciales de tratamiento. Materiales y método: se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente de sexo masculino de 11 años, de Clase II esqueletal con sobremordida y apiñamiento dentario anterior superior e inferior moderado, con su diagnóstico y evaluación completos pre y post tratamiento y control y seguimiento al año. El tratamiento se realiza con brackets autoligantes (técnica de Damon). Resultados: se obtiene la corrección completa de la Clase II y la sobremordida, alcanzando los objetivos deseados de estética facial y función, en oclusión y desoclusiones, con buen desarrollo de las basales y conservación de la altura de las corticales alveolares a nivel de los caninos. Conclusión: Mediante los recursos terapéuticos disponibles en la actualidad y evaluando al niño en etapas tempranas, podremos combinar diferentes tratamientos para alcanzar los objetivos propuestos en menor tiempo y con óptimos resultados en una maloclusión de Clase II con sobremordida con biotipo mesofacial (AU)


The low friction orthodontic technique uses passive self-ligating brackets with a series of superelastic arches that maintain the forces applied to the dental pieces at the "Biozone or Optimal Force Zone". The use of inter maxillary light elastics (2 ounces or 56.68 yr.) from the initial stages in growing patients, yields very favorable results in terms of correction of Class II malocclusion. Objective: To assess the orthodontic treatment of a skeletal Class II patient with overbite, without extraction of premolars and using elastic in the early stages of treatment. Materials and methods: an 11 year old male skeletal Class II patient with overbite and moderate crowding in upper and lower anterior teeth, with complete diagnostic and evaluation before and after treatment and with annual control. For the treatment, self-ligating brackets (Damon technique) were employed. The results: Total correction of Class II condition and overbite was obtained. The desired goals of facial aesthetics and correct function were attained in occlusion and desocclusion, as well as development of the osseous basis and conservation of the canine alveolar cortical height. Conclusion: Through the employment of therapeutic resources available at present and following up the child through his developmental stages, it is possible to combine different treatments to achieve the proposed objectives in a shorter time with excellent results in mesofacial type patients with Class II malocclusion and deep overbite (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Orthodontic Brackets/trends , Overbite/therapy , Malocclusion, Angle Class II/therapy , Patient Care Planning , Rubber , Biotypology , Cephalometry/methods , Treatment Outcome , Early Diagnosis , Orthodontic Friction , Maxillofacial Development
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(2): 191-194, abr. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959429

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las investigaciones de Markham, primero, y luego de Spruce, llevadas a cabo en medio de múltiples peligros, internándose en selvas espesas, vadeando salvajes ríos y enfrentando nativos muchas veces hostiles, permitieron conocer el ciclo de vida del árbol del caucho para el traslado de sus semillas, su aclimatación en Asia y cultivo a nivel industrial. Indudablemente ellos fueron los héroes de esta epopeya al hacer esta investigación venturosa, pero los sabios son modestos y callados, de manera que la gloria se la llevó un empresario decidido y de pocos escrúpulos cual Wickham. En cuanto a Brasil, como buena nación latinoamericana, pecó de ingenuidad, improvisación y negligencia, dejándose arrebatar una inimaginable fortuna: el monopolio del caucho. Creemos que las múltiples aplicaciones médicas del caucho, haciendo menos dolorosos los exámenes y procedimientos, pudieran ser de interés para nuestros colegas.


Investigations first by Markham, and then by Spruce, performed in the middle of multiple risks, in the deep of dense jungle, through the wild rivers and facing up natives many times hostile, brought the knowledge of the life cycle of Hevea brasiliensis, the rubber's tree, necessary for take its seeds to Asia, its adaptation to this continent and its culture at industrial level. Undoubtedly these men were the heroes of this history, but they were wise, modest and quite people, so the glory was for an entrepreneur decided and of scare scruples, like Wickham. And Brazil, as a good Latin American nation, sinned of naivety, improvidence and negligence, allowing itself the lost of an unimaginable fortune: the monopoly of the rubber. Because the many applications of rubber in medical practice, the history of this tree may interest our colleagues.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , Rubber/history , Hevea , Brazil , Latex/history
14.
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine [The]. 2018; 71 (4): 3032-3038
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-192563

ABSTRACT

Background: Fistula-in-ano is a commonly encountered surgical problem. There is a risk of sphincter muscle damage during fistulectomy. Seton suture is used to decrease this risk. Different types of Setons are used for this purpose


Aim: To compare 2 types of cutting Seton as regard Postoperative pain, duration until Seton cut through, post operative faecal incontinence and recurrence


Methods: This study was conducted on 80 patients in 2 groups with high perianal fistula or low perianal fistula associate with abscess cavity. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease, history of malignancy, and previous recto-anal operations were excluded from this study. One group with insertion of sterilized rubber band and silk suture was applied at the anal verge the other with Ethilon sutures. Follow up and tightening of the seton done as outpatient


Results: About half [46.25%] had low perianal fistulas with abscess cavity, and 53.75% had high perianal fistulas. Group [A] patients had 10% wound infection and group [B] had 5%, all responded to conservative management. The mean VAS score of the patients on the 1st day was [3.7 +/- 1.14], and [2.85 +/- 0.92] and on the 7th day was [1.28 +/- 0.85] and [0.88 +/- 0.88] respectively. Seton fell down after a mean time [26.35 days +/- 5.12 days] in group [A] and [27.65 days +/- 6.84 days] in group [B]. Complete healing was achieved in 77.5% of group [A] and in 60 % of group [B] after 1 month and 40 patients [100%] in both groups at 3 months. 7.5% of recurrence in group [A] and 2.5% case of recurrence in group [B]


Conclusion: Rubber band Seton is easy and cheap and provide slow and steady cutting of the sphincter maintaining continence


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Rubber , Suture Techniques , Sutures , Pain, Postoperative , Fecal Incontinence , Recurrence , Nylons , Silk
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719091

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the incidence and amount of air inflow during central venous catheter (CVC) insertion. METHODS: This study was an experimental study aimed at designing an apparatus to implement blood vessel and blood flow in the human body. A 1.5-m long core tube with a Teflon tube, suction rubber tube, and polyvinyl chloride tube were made. This core tube was assumed to be the blood vessel of the human body. Blood was replaced with a saline solution. The saline solution was placed higher than the core tube and flowed into the inside of the tube by gravity. The CVC was injected 15-cm deep into the core tube. The air was collected through a 3-way valve into the upper tube. The experiments were carried out by differentiating the pressure in the tube, CVC insertion step, and diameter of the end of the catheter. The experiment was repeated 10 times under the same conditions. RESULTS: The amount of air decreased with increasing pressure applied to the tube. Air was not generated when the syringe needle was injected, and the amount of air increased with increasing size of the distal end catheter. CONCLUSION: To minimize the possibility of air embolism, it is necessary to close the distal end catheter at the earliest point as soon as possible.


Subject(s)
Blood Vessels , Catheters , Central Venous Catheters , Embolism, Air , Gravitation , Human Body , Incidence , Jugular Veins , Needles , Polytetrafluoroethylene , Polyvinyl Chloride , Rubber , Sodium Chloride , Suction , Syringes
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The understanding of the relationship between risk perception, knowledge, and protective behaviors could play a major role in occupational risk control and management. Research exploring how workers perceive, recognize, and react to risks in different occupational settings is scarce in Thailand. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of noise-related risk perceptions and knowledge to the use of hearing protective devices (HPDs) among sawmill workers in Thailand. METHODS: Sawmill workers (n = 540) from four factories in Trang, Southern Thailand, participated in a questionnaire interview from December 2015 to January 2016. Descriptive statistics and linear regression models were used to explore the risk factors related to HPD use. Path diagram analysis was demonstrated and used to evaluate associations. RESULTS: Risk perception was significantly correlated with HPD use (p < 0.01), HPD training (p = 0.01), and the number of years of work experience (p = 0.03). Sawmill workers were likely to use HPDs based on their risk perception and HPD training. However, HPD training was inversely correlated with age and the number of years of work experience. CONCLUSION: The study highlights the importance of risk perceptions and knowledge, and these factors should be emphasized in the design and implementation of any personal safety intervention program for sawmill workers.


Subject(s)
Ear Protective Devices , Hearing , Humans , Linear Models , Risk Factors , Rubber , Thailand , Wood
17.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 51(4): 637-652, dic. 2017. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-886146

ABSTRACT

La disfagia se define como un trastorno de la deglución caracterizado por una dificultad en la preparación oral del bolo alimenticio o en el desplazamiento del alimento desde la boca hasta al estómago. Se asocia con la cuarta causa de muerte más frecuente en adultos mayores y se identifica como un agente contribuyente a la malnutrición. Los alimentos destinados a las personas que padecen disfagia son preparados con productos que modifican la viscosidad de forma que al ser ingeridos puedan ser más seguros. En el presente trabajo se pretende establecer la interacción entre la glucosa y tres espesantes comerciales de origen vegetal (dos a base de almidón y un tercero constituido por una mezcla de maltdextrina, goma xantana y goma guar) a efectos de identificar el más adecuado para uso en dietas de pacientes con disfagia orofaríngea, en las condiciones ensayadas. Para ello se determina el grado de estabilidad que presentan en función del tiempo de reposo (0, 24 horas) y su comportamiento en el intervalo de temperatura comprendido entre 25 y 50 °C. Se han estudiado concentraciones de espesante hasta el máximo del 6% en combinación con 5 concentraciones de glucosa hasta un máximo de 27%. Se constata la interacción conjunta de la goma xantana, la goma guar y la maltodextrina con la glucosa. Estos espesantes, potencialmente aptos para regular el grado de consistencia de productos alimentarios destinados a la alimentación de pacientes con disfagia orofaríngea, presentan un proceso de hidratación lento que, además, se ve agravado por la interacción de la glucosa.


Dysphagia is defined as a swallowing disorder characterized by a difficulty in the alimentary bolus preparation or in food displacement from the mouth to the stomach. It is the fourth cause of death in adults and it is identified as a malnutrition agent. Food destined to individuals with dysphagia is prepared with products which modify their viscosity to make them safer to swallow. The present job tries to establish an interaction between glucose and three commercial thickeners of vegetal origin (two from starch and a third one made from a mix of maltodextrin, xanthan gum and guar gum in order to identify the most suitable one to be used in diets of patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia on the tested conditions. The stability degree in concordance with the time relation (0-24 hours) and its performance on the gap temperature between 25 and 50 ºC is determined. Tests have been done with thickener concentrations up to a maximum of 6% in combination with 5 glucose concentration up to a maximum of 27%. The common interaction of xanthan gum, guar gum and maltodextrin with glucose is found. Those thickeners potentially suitable to regulate the consistency degree of food products destined to the nourishment of patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia show a slow hydration process which is also aggravated by the glucose interaction.


A disfagia é definida como um distúrbio de deglutição caracterizado por uma dificuldade na preparação do bolo alimentar ou na passagem do alimento da boca até o estômago. Associa-se à quarta causa de morte mais frequente em adultos idosos e é identificada como um agente que contribui à má nutrição. Alimentos destinados a pessoas que sofrem de disfagia são preparados com produtos que modificam a viscosidade de forma que ao serem ingeridos possam ser mais seguros. O presente trabalho visa a estabelecer a interação entre a glicose e três espessantes comerciais de origem vegetal (dois com base de amido e um terceiro feito a partir de uma mistura de maltodextrina, goma xantana e goma guar) a fim de identificar o mais adequado, para ser utilizado em dietas de pacientes com disfagia orofaríngea nas condições testadas. Para isso é determinado o grau de estabilidade que apresenta em função do tempo de repouso (0-24 horas) e seu desempenho no intervalo de temperatura compreendido entre 25 e 50 °C. Concentrações de espessantes foram estudadas até o máximo de 6% em combinação com 5 concentrações de glicose até um máximo de 27%. Pode ser encontrada a interação conjunta da goma xantana, a goma guar e a maltodextrina com a glicose. Estes espessantes, potencialmente adequados para regular o grau de consistência de produtos alimentares destinados à alimentação de pacientes com disfagia orofaríngea, apresentam um processo de hidratação lento que, além disso, é agravado pela interação da glicose.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders , Glucose , Pneumonia, Aspiration , Thickeners , Rubber , Starch , Viscosity
18.
GJO-Gulf Journal of Oncology [The]. 2017; (24): 70-74
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-187538

ABSTRACT

Introduction and Objectives: Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma represents 0.7% of the total cancer cases in the world with an ASR index of 1.7 and is widely associated with Epstein-Barr virus. It is not common in Italy [ASR index of 0.5] while in China [ASR 1.9], one third of the clinical cases are observed in Guangdong [ASR index 11.3]. It is also quite common in Malaysia and Indonesia. The activation of the cancerogenesis process happens after the exposure to some environmental parameters that epidemiological studies have indicated with various dietary habits, mainly for salted fish consumption. The purpose of this work is to highlight such as exposure to compounds, such as formaldehyde, which is present in the different working conditions of these countries and may lead to the real cause to establish the carcinogenic process


Materials and Methods: The most recent publications regarding the impact of various external factors on Pub Med, Google, TOXLINE, Chem Abstract, were analyzed with the radiological data that were found in Milan hospitals database


Results: The relationship between food consumption and nasopharyngeal cancer are not clear and statistically insignificant in Indonesia. In Malaysia, the preparation of natural rubber for the use of formaldehyde is a dangerous environmental factor. The same exposure is a risk factor in Guangdong, where many workers are employed in the wood panel industry. Incidence of cancer in these Chinese ethnic groups decreases when they migrate to other countries. In the last 5 years, few cases were recorded in Italy, without any apparent change in ethnic environmental factors or HBV infection


Discussion: In the production of natural rubber, a lot of people are exposed to formaldehyde during the various steps of preparation and production such as stripping, drying and coagulation without observing proper environmental hygiene precautions. The same working conditions are present in industrial production of WOOD panels in Guangdong, China. The relationship between exposure to formaldehyde aod nasopharyngeal cancer is demonstrated by the fact thai epidemiological studies on the population of this Chinese district whose immigrant populations were not to these pollutants, the appearance of these decreases. Also an examination of our radiological data in Italy shows that in about one hundred sixty cases of nasopharyngeal cancer none of the patients Indonesian or Chinese


Conclusion: The preliminary results of our study suggest! that EPST-BARR virus could be a risk factor if associated! with exposure to compounds such as formalc which is present in industrial productions of countries! Indonesia, Malaysia, and China


Subject(s)
Humans , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Industry , Occupational Diseases , Risk Factors , Formaldehyde/adverse effects , Rubber/adverse effects , Wood/adverse effects
19.
Afr. j. health issues ; 1(1): 1-11, 2017. tab
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1256870

ABSTRACT

Background and aim: Diabetes is one of the leading non-communicable diseases in the world; diabetes is common in the elderly. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence, clinical features and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus among the elderly in the Hôpital Provincial du Nord Kivu in Goma. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional study was based on data collected among the elderly from 2013 to 2015 in the Department of Internal Medicine. Overall, 418 elders were included. Results: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 8.6% (95% CI: 6.3 to 11.7). Overall, 54% of the elderly were males while 46% were females. Among males, 6.6% were diagnosed with diabetes whereas 11.0% were among females (p less than 0.001). All elderly diabetic subjects (n = 36) were taking anti diabetic drugs such as insulin or oral medications (sulfonylurea and or biguanide). Among those, 15 (41.7%) were on insulin and 21 (58.3%) on oral anti diabetic. Mean fasting glucose was higher among elderly individuals taking oral medications compared with their counterparts on insulin (104.4 versus 157.3 mg/dl, p less than 0.001). The asthenia (86.1%), the polyuria (13.9%), the coma (11.1%) and the polydipsia (5.6%) were the principal symptoms on admission. The infectious, metabolic, micro vascular and macrovascular complications were diagnosed in this study. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence on the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among elderly individuals. Moreover, the study found many factors associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus among the elderly and the difficulty of diagnosing diabetes in the elderly. Hence, there is need to enhance the existing prevention programmes with emphasis on social determinants of diabetes, which need to be clarified by broad epidemiological studies at the population level. Keywords: Diabetes; Type 2; Elderly; Goma; Democratic Republic of the Congo


Subject(s)
Aged , Democratic Republic of the Congo , /diagnosis , /epidemiology , /therapy , Rubber
20.
Ultrasonography ; : 39-52, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-731214

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate factors that influence arterial Doppler waveforms in an in vitro phantom to provide a more accurate and comprehensive explanation of the Doppler signal. METHODS: A flow model was created using a pulsatile artificial heart, rubber or polyethylene tubes, a water tank, and a glass tube. Spectral Doppler tracings were obtained in multiple combinations of compliance, resistance, and pulse rate. Peak systolic velocity, minimum diastolic velocity, resistive index (RI), pulsatility index, early systolic acceleration time, and acceleration index were measured. On the basis of these measurements, the influences of the variables on the Doppler waveforms were analyzed. RESULTS: With increasing distal resistance, the RI increased in a relatively linear relationship. With increasing proximal resistance, the RI decreased. The pulsus tardus and parvus phenomenon was observed with a small acceleration index in the model with a higher grade of stenosis. An increase in the distal resistance masked the pulsus tardus and parvus phenomenon by increasing the acceleration index. Although this phenomenon occurred independently of compliance, changes in the compliance of proximal or distal tubes caused significant changes in the Doppler waveform. There was a reverse relationship between the RI and the pulse rate. CONCLUSION: Resistance and compliance can alter the Doppler waveforms independently. The pulse rate is an extrinsic factor that also influences the RI. The compliance and distal resistance, as well as proximal resistance, influence the pulsus tardus and parvus phenomenon.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Compliance , Constriction, Pathologic , Glass , Heart Rate , Heart, Artificial , In Vitro Techniques , Masks , Phantoms, Imaging , Polyethylene , Renal Artery , Rubber , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Water
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