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2.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 28(1)ene.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094618

ABSTRACT

En las meningoencefalitis de etiología viral se encuentran implicados los paramixovirus (virus de la parotiditis, sarampión y rubeola). Las vacunas combinadas trivalentes han sido utilizadas durante años en muchos países. El objetivo del trabajo es determinar la respuesta poliespecífica de anticuerpos de tipo IgG anti parotiditis, rubeola y sarampión en pacientes pediátricos con meningoencefalitis víricas agudas. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo en el año 2018 en muestras de pacientes pediátricos con meningoencefalitis viral aguda vacunados con la triple viral, donde se utilizó el índice de anticuerpos específicos anti-parotiditis, anti-rubeola y anti-sarampión para identificar el estado de respuesta inmunológica contra dichos virus en la muestra estudiada, procedentes de la serorraquioteca de LABCEL. Las determinaciones se hicieron por ELISA. Todos los pacientes presentaron respuesta poliespecífica intratecal, disminución significativa del índice de anticuerpos IgG anti-parotiditis con respecto a la edad y al tiempo de respuesta. Se evidencia un acortamiento del tiempo de respuesta de los anticuerpos de tipo IgG específicos anti-parotiditis en relación a la edad de vacunación(AU)


Paramixovirus like mumps, rubella and measles are involved in some viral meningoencephalitis. Triple combined vaccines have been employed for several years in many countries. The aim of this work is to determine the IgG anti mumps, rubella and measles polyspecific response in pediatric patients with acute viral meningoencephalitis. A 2018 retrospective study in pediatric patients with acute viral meningoencephalitis previously vaccinated with the triple viral vaccine MMR was performed to identify the immune response status against mumps, rubella and measles in samples from LABCEL serum and cerebrospinal fluid collection. Quantification of IgG specific antibody was performed by ELISA. Intrathecal polyspecific response was present in all patients. A significant decrement of anti IgG mumps specific antibody index was observed according to age and response time. A shortage of the response time of IgG mumps specific antibodies according to the age of vaccination was demonstrated(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Parotitis/prevention & control , Rubella Vaccine/therapeutic use , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Measles/prevention & control , Meningoencephalitis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Cuba
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several methods have been attempted in the treatment of warts, the traditional destructive method may be painful or ineffective and induce disfiguring scars. Therefore, a more tolerable method with fewer drawbacks is needed. OBJECTIVE: We studied the therapeutic effect of intralesional immunotherapy using the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine and factors affecting it in patients with warts. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in 207 patients with various types of warts, who did not meet the exclusion criteria for treatment and were followed-up from January 2011 to December 2013. Patients with warts were treated at 2-week intervals, and the therapeutic effect was evaluated 1 month after the final treatment. RESULTS: Overall, 123 (59.5%) patients experienced a greater than half reduction in the size and number of warts. In addition, younger patients (under the age of 20) (p=0.008) and those with common warts (including periungual warts) (p=0.02) showed significantly higher treatment responses. All patients complained of transient mild pain during the intralesional injections, but other side effects were rarely observed. Only 3.2% of patients who experienced a complete response had a recurrence more than 6 months after the final treatment. CONCLUSION: We suggest that intralesional immunotherapy with MMR vaccine can be considered as a primary remedy for patients who are sensitive to pain, especially children with multiple lesions, are concerned about serious side effects, or have common warts, and that treatment response will be improved by increasing the number of applications.


Subject(s)
Child , Cicatrix , Humans , Immunotherapy , Injections, Intralesional , Measles , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Mumps , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Rubella , Rubella Vaccine , Warts
5.
Medical Principles and Practice. 2014; 23 (2): 145-148
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-141964

ABSTRACT

To measure the prevalence of anti-rubella IgG and hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] among pregnant women in Kuwait in order to assess the effectiveness of the current vaccination programs. This retrospective study involved 4,062 pregnant women evaluated in health centers in the Hawalli Province of Kuwait. They were screened for anti-rubella IgG and HBsAg using commercially available assays. The data were obtained from medical laboratory records. The mean age of the pregnant women was 29.2 +/- 5.26 years [range 17-49]. The rubella IgG prevalence among the pregnant women was 88.4% [n = 3,589]; 276 [6.8%] of the pregnant women had no antibody to rubella, and 197 [4.8%] had rubella antibody levels /= 40 years, respectively [p = 0.016]. The prevalence of HBsAg was 0.3%, and it did not vary with age. The prevalence of both anti-rubella IgG and HBsAg among pregnant women in Kuwait was relatively high. However, about 11.6% of pregnant women in Kuwait remain susceptible to rubella infection and hence congenital infection and fetal malformation


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Rubella Vaccine , Vaccination , Pregnant Women , Immunoglobulin G , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Retrospective Studies , Prevalence
6.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 22(4): 565-578, dez. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-702268

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever os resultados do monitoramento rápido de coberturas (MRC) pós-campanha de vacinação com tríplice viral (SRC) (2008 e 2011) e multivacinação com vacinas do calendário da criança (2012). Métodos: estudo descritivo, com dados do Programa Nacional de Imunizações sobre coberturas vacinais (CV) administrativas, MRC e motivos para não vacinação (2011-2012). Resultados: a CV da SRC superou 95 por cento nas campanhas; pelo MRC, a CV com uma dose da SRC foi 92 por cento, em 2008, e 96 por cento, em 2011; em 2011, pelo MRC, foram administradas 41,7 mil doses da SRC, elevando a CV para 99,5 por cento; em 2012, a CV pelo MRC variou entre 97 por cento para poliomielite e hepatite B e 82 por cento para reforço 2 da vacina difteriatétano-coqueluche (DTP); falta de tempo representou o principal motivo para não vacinação (43,6 por cento em 2011 e 32,7 por cento em 2012). Conclusão: o MRC é ferramenta útil para avaliar CV e resgatar não vacinados, fornecendo subsídios para intervenções.


Objective: describe rapid monitoring of vaccination coverage (RMC) following Measles Mumps Rubella (MMR) (2008-2011) and Multivaccination (2012) vaccination campaigns. Methods: descriptive study using National Immunization Program administrative data on vaccine coverage as well as RMC data, in addition to data on the grounds for non-vaccination (2011-2012). Result: MMR vaccine coverage exceeded 95 per cent in the campaigns. RMC data on a single dose of MMR found 92 per cent post-campaign coverage in 2008 and 96 per cent in 2011. In 2011, 41,700 MMR doses were administered post-campaign, raising vaccination coverage to 99.5 per cent in that year. In 2012 post-campaign coverage ranged between 97 per cent (polio and hepatitis B) and 82 per cent (second diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis booster). "Lack of time" was the main motive for non-vaccination (43.6 per cent in 2011 and 32.7 per cent in 2012). Conclusion: RMC is a useful tool for evaluating vaccination coverage and reaching those not vaccinated, in addition to informing interventions.


Subject(s)
Mass Vaccination , Measles Vaccine , Mumps Vaccine , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Rubella Vaccine
7.
Cad. saúde pública ; 29(3): 579-588, Mar. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-668905

ABSTRACT

As mulheres em idade reprodutiva são a população de maior interesse para a prevenção da síndrome da rubéola congênita. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a prevalência de vacinação contra rubéola em mulheres e identificar fatores associados e motivos da não adesão. Trata-se de estudo transversal de base populacional, realizado em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, em 2008/2009, com amostra por conglomerados e em dois estágios. Das 778 mulheres de 10 a 49 anos, 83,8% (IC95%: 79,6-88,0) referiram vacinação em algum momento da vida. Faixa etária (30-39 anos), renda familiar per capita superior a três salários mínimos e a orientação de profissional de saúde estiveram positivamente associadas à vacinação contra a rubéola. Os principais motivos da não adesão foram a falta de orientação do profissional de saúde sobre sua importância (48,5%) e não considerá-la necessária (18,9%). A recomendação do profissional de saúde foi o fator mais fortemente associado à adesão das mulheres à vacinação. Nesse sentido, sua indicação pelas equipes de saúde pode ampliar o conhecimento sobre sua importância e seus benefícios.


Women of reproductive age are the population of greatest interest for the prevention of congenital rubella syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of rubella vaccination in women and to identify factors associated and motives for non-adherence. A cross-sectional population-based study, in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2008/2009, was carried out with stratified random, two-stage cluster sampling. Of the 778 women aged 10 to 49 years, 83.8% (95%CI: 79.6-88.0) reported vaccination in life. Age group (20-39 years), per capita household income greater than 3 times the minimum wage and orientation of health care professionals about the vaccine, were positively associated with rubella vaccination. The main motives for non-adherence were lack of orientation of professionals about their importance (48.5%) and not consider it necessary (18.9%). The recommendation of professionals was the factor most strongly associated with women's adherence to vaccination. In this sense, an indication of vaccination by health care teams can increase the knowledge about the importance their and benefits.


Las mujeres en edad reproductiva son la población de mayor interés para la prevención del síndrome de la rubeola congénita. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la prevalencia de vacunación contra la rubeola en mujeres e identificar factores asociados y motivos de la no adhesión al programa de vacunación. Se trata de un estudio transversal de base poblacional, realizado en Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, en 2008/2009, con una muestra por conglomerados y en dos fases. De las 778 mujeres, de 10 a 49 años, un 83,8% (IC95%: 79,6-88,0) informaron de vacunación en algún momento de la vida. La franja de edad (30-39 años), renta familiar per cápita superior a tres salarios mínimos y la orientación de un profesional de salud estuvieron positivamente asociadas a la vacunación contra la rubeola. Los principales motivos de la no adhesión fueron la falta de orientación del profesional de salud sobre su importancia (48,5%) y no considerarla necesaria (18,9%). La recomendación del profesional de salud fue el factor más fuertemente asociado a la adhesión de las mujeres a la vacunación. En este sentido, su indicación por los equipos de salud puede ampliar el conocimiento sobre su importancia y sus beneficios.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Vaccination Coverage , Mass Vaccination , Rubella Syndrome, Congenital/prevention & control , Rubella Vaccine/administration & dosage , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Poisson Distribution , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population
8.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 54-61, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-633741

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To document the the processes and outcomes of a measles-rubella supplemental immunization activity implemented in Pasay City, Philippines.METHODS: Review of proceedings of meetings, memoranda, manuals, and reports. Interviews with field monitors, supervisors and vaccination teams, and key members of the project technical group.RESULTS: A total of 60,685 children age 9 to >72 months were reached during the campaign, representing 75% of the estimated eligible population. On the other hand, 1,453 children were unimmunized because of [a] scheduled or documented prior immunization with a measles-containing vaccine (n = 1,154), and [b] refusal of parents due to religious or cultural reasons (n = 237). The successful completion of the measles-rubella supplemental immunization activity (MR-SIA) was grounded on appropriate timing of project implementation; a clearly identified problem; the existence of linkages between stakeholders at the national and sub-national level; strong local chief executive support; the availability of resources to support project implementation; a clear policy statement; and implementation policy guided by an organizational structure and tailored project plans.CONCLUSION: In this paper, we have shown that the success of public health programs and projects rely not only on technical soundness of the intervention or adequate resource mobilization, but require wide grassroots support that is guided by an able leadership and clear policy.


Subject(s)
Child , Measles Vaccine , Leadership , Public Health , Measles , Rubella , Rubella Vaccine , Immunization , Vaccination , Parents
9.
Bulletin of High Institute of Public Health [The]. 2013; 43 (1): 36-48
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-160303

ABSTRACT

Children in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL] have a high prevalence of immune system defects; one of them is the decrease of vaccine-induced antibody seropositivity rates. This antibody deficiency may place children with ALL at risk for the development of vaccine- preventable diseases, even after completion of chemotherapy, and they could function as a reservoir for additional spread of these diseases in the population. The aim of the present study was the assessment of the levels of vaccine- induced antibodies against measles and rubella viruses n ALL children following chemotherapy. Antibody levels against measles and rubella vaccine viruses were evaluated by ELISA technique in 96 children with ALL after completion of chemotherapy, in addition to 30 healthy children [non cancer controls of matched age and sex]. All healthy children were seropositive for measles and rubella antibodies. On the other hand, out of 96 children who received chemotherapy, only 19 [19.8%] were seropositive for measles antibodies, while 70 [72.9%] were seropositive for rubella antibodies. Most of measles seropositive cases [57.9%] had low levels of measles antibodies while among control group most children [56.7%] had high levels of measles antibodies, Similarly among children who received chemotherapy, most of the seropositive cases [45.7%] had low levels of rubella antibodies, while among control group, most of children [36.6%] had high levels of rubella antibodies. Seropositivity rate of measles was found to be related to the age at diagnosis and disease duration, while that of rubella was found to be related to the disease duration only. Most of children who have been treated with chemotherapy for ALL had lost measles antibodies and to less extent rubella antibodies. Among seropositive cases, levels of measles and rubella antibodies are low following treatment with chemotherapy compared to levels among normal controls. Therefore, revaccination of children with ALL following completion of chemotherapeutic treatment against measles and rubella is recommended


Subject(s)
Humans , Measles Vaccine/blood , Rubella Vaccine/blood , Antibody Formation , Child
10.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 29(4): 437-443, oct.-dic. 2012. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-662929

ABSTRACT

Objetivos. Estimar la prevalencia de anticuerpos contra sarampión, rubéola y hepatitis B en niños de 1 a 4 años del Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una encuesta nacional basada en la aplicación de un cuestionario y obtención de muestra de sangre capilar en papel de filtro para el estudio de anticuerpos contra sarampión, rubéola y hepatitis B en niños de 1 a 4 años. Se utilizó un muestreo probabilístico, estratificado y multietápico con inferencia a nivel nacional y siete ámbitos de estudio: Lima metropolitana, resto de costa urbana, costa rural, sierra urbana, sierra rural, selva urbana y selva rural. Las muestras de sangre capilar fueron procesadas siguiendo protocolos estandarizados para la determinación de anticuerpos mediante técnica de ELISA utilizando reactivos comerciales. Resultados. Se encontró una prevalencia nacional de 91,6% (IC95%: 90,6-92,7%), 91,3% (IC 95%: 90,3-92,4%) y 95,9% (IC 95%: 95,0-96,8%) para anticuerpos contra sarampión, rubéola y hepatitis B respectivamente. No se evidenció diferencias significativas de las prevalencias entre los diferentes ámbitos de estudio y en los diferentes estratos socioeconómicos de los conglomerados. Conclusiones. En niños de 1 a 4 años se ha estimado una prevalencia nacional de anticuerpos contra sarampión y rubéola entre 90-93%, mientras que para anticuerpos contra hepatitis B (anti-HBsAg) entre 95-97%.


Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of antibodies against measles, rubella and hepatitis B in children aged between 1 and 4 years in Peru. Materials and methods. A national survey was conducted based on a questionnaire and capillary blood sample taken on filter paper in order to study antibodies against measles, rubella and hepatitis B in children from 1 to 4 years of age. A stratified, multistage, probability sampling design was used to be representative at the national level and at level of seven ambits, including the Metropolitan Lima Area, the rest of the urban coast, the rural coast, the urban highlands, the rural highlands, the urban jungle and the rural jungle. The capillary blood samples were processed according to the standardized protocols for detection of antibodies using the ELISA technique and commercial reagents. Results. The survey showed a national prevalence of antibodies against measles, rubella and hepatitis B of 91.6% (CI 95%: 90.6%; 92.7%), 91.3% (CI 95%: 90.3%; 92.4%) and 95.9% (CI 95%: 95.0%; 96.8%) respectively. There was no evidence of significant differences in the prevalence among the ambits of study or among the socioeconomic strata of the conglomerates for any of the three types of antibodies. Conclusions. In children from 1 to 4 years of age, the national prevalence of antibodies against measles and Rubella was between 90-93%, while the prevalence of antibodies against Hepatitis B (anti-HBsAg) was between 95-97%.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Measles Vaccine/immunology , Measles virus/immunology , Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Rubella virus/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Peru
11.
Santiago de Chile; Chile. Ministerio de Salud; 2012. 5 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-665389

ABSTRACT

El sarampión fue eliminado del continente Americano en el año 2002 y recientemente la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) declaró interrumpida la transmisión de la rubéola en la Región, un año antes del 2010, fecha en la que se había fijado la meta de eliminación de la rubéola y el síndrome de rubéola congénita (SRC). Para sostener este logro, OPS ha estado impulsando un plan que contempla: vigilancia integrada e investigación etiológica de exantemas febriles sospechosos de Sarampión o Rubéola; medidas de bloqueo epidemiológico, que incluyen la inmunización inmediata de los contactos potencialmente susceptibles; el mantener coberturas de vacuna SPR a nivel nacional y comunal sobre el 95 por ciento; la realización de campañas nacionales de vacunación (seguimiento, barrido o masivas), según situación epidemiológica. Hasta Marzo de este año el último caso de Sarampión importado detectado en Chile correspondía a un menor de nacionalidad francesa, quien ingresó al país en Febrero de 2009, en un vuelo procedente de Europa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunization Programs , Mass Vaccination , Measles Vaccine , Rubella Vaccine , Chile , Health Personnel , Rubella/prevention & control , Measles/prevention & control
12.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 30(4): 335-341, oct. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-606847

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate knowledge of rubella and acceptability of vaccination and identify sources of health information among brazilian adults to inform communication strategies for a national vaccination campaign to eliminate rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). METHODS: From 5-8 July 2008 a qualitative telephone survey was conducted among a nonprobabilistic sample of brazilian adults 18 to 65 years of age (n = 1 023) from all five geographic regions of Brazil to measure knowledge of rubella and willingness to receive the vaccine and to identify sources of health information. Frequencies of responses were stratified by respondents' sex, age, education, and income. RESULTS: Although 69.9 percent of respondents said they knew what rubella was, actual knowledge of the disease was limited, with only 29.9 percent answering affirmatively when asked if they would recognize symptoms of rubella infection. Self-reported knowledge increased with increasing age, education, and income, and was higher among women than men. A total of 94.5 percent of the respondents expressed willingness to be vaccinated for rubella elimination. The most frequently mentioned sources of health information were television and doctors. CONCLUSIONS: Despite limited knowledge of rubella, brazilian adults expressed willingness to be vaccinated for disease elimination.


OBJETIVO: Evaluar el conocimiento de la rubéola y la aceptabilidad de la vacunación antirrubeólica, y determinar las fuentes de información sanitaria en los adultos brasileños, con objeto de fundamentar las estrategias de comunicación de una campaña nacional de vacunación dirigida a eliminar la rubéola y el síndrome de rubéola congénita (SRC). MÉTODOS: Del 5 al 8 de julio del 2008 se llevó a cabo una encuesta telefónica cualitativa en una muestra no probabilística de adultos brasileños de 18 a 65 años de edad (n = 1 023) de las cinco regiones geográficas del Brasil, con objeto de evaluar el conocimiento de la rubéola y la disposición a recibir la vacuna antirrubeólica, y determinar las fuentes de información sanitaria. Las frecuencias de las respuestas se estratificaron según el sexo, la edad, el nivel educativo y los ingresos de los entrevistados RESULTADOS: Aunque 69,9 por ciento de los entrevistados dijeron que sabían lo que era la rubéola, el conocimiento real de la enfermedad era limitado, ya que solo 29,9 por ciento respondieron afirmativamente cuando se les preguntó si reconocerían los síntomas de esta infección. El grado de conocimiento notificado por los propios entrevistados aumentó con la edad, el nivel educativo y los ingresos, y fue mayor en las mujeres que en los hombres. El 94,5 por ciento de los entrevistados expresaron su disposición a vacunarse con objeto de eliminar la rubéola. Las fuentes de información sanitaria mencionadas con mayor frecuencia fueron la televisión y los médicos. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de tener un conocimiento limitado de la rubéola, los adultos brasileños expresaron su disposición a vacunarse con objeto de eliminar la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Health Behavior , Health Education , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Mass Vaccination , Rubella Vaccine , Rubella Syndrome, Congenital/prevention & control , Brazil , Communication , Health Care Surveys , Health Promotion , Immunization Programs , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Qualitative Research , Rubella Syndrome, Congenital/epidemiology , Self Report , Social Marketing
13.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 29(4): 243-251, abr. 2011. graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-587822

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe rubella outbreaks and control strategies in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul before rubella elimination. METHODS: We analyzed rubella and congenital rubella syndrome surveillance data for the state of Rio Grande do Sul and calculated age- and gender-specific incidence of confirmed rubella cases in 2007. We obtained data on measles-rubella doses administered during the outbreak from the state immunization program and reviewed the timing of suspect case notification and implementation of control measures. RESULTS: Of 2 842 confirmed rubella cases reported to the state health department in 2007, 2 145 (75.5 percent) were in males (39.5 cases per 100 000 population) and 697 (24.5 percent) were in females (12.3 per 100 000 population). Incidence among 15- to 39-year-olds was 1.8 to 5.5 times higher in males than in females. Rubella genotype 2B was detected in nasopharyngeal specimens from 13 patients from multiple chains of transmission. Eight children were born with congenital rubella syndrome (5.9 cases per 100 000 births in 2008). Delayed notification of initial cases hampered early control efforts, resulting in outbreak spread throughout the state. Rubella transmission was interrupted after mass vaccination of adult men and women as part of a national vaccination campaign. CONCLUSIONS: Routine vaccination strategies and mass vaccination of adolescents and adults for accelerated rubella control and elimination should target men and women.


OBJETIVO: Describir los brotes de rubéola y las estrategias para el control de la enfermedad anteriores a la eliminación de la rubéola en el estado brasileño de Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron los datos de vigilancia epidemiológica sobre la rubéola y el síndrome de rubéola congénita del estado de Rio Grande do Sul y se calculó la incidencia específica por edad y sexo de los casos confirmados de rubéola en el 2007. A partir del programa de vacunación estatal se obtuvieron datos sobre las dosis de vacunación antisarampionosa y antirrubeólica administradas durante el brote y se analizaron el momento de notificación de los casos sospechosos y la puesta en práctica de medidas de control. RESULTADOS: De los 2842 casos confirmados de rubéola notificados al departamento de salud estatal en el 2007, 2 145 (75,5 por ciento) correspondieron a hombres (39,5 casos por 100000 habitantes) y 697 (24,5 por ciento) a mujeres (12,3 por 100000 habitantes). La incidencia en las personas de 15 a 39 años de edad fue de 1,8 a 5,5 veces mayor en los varones que en las mujeres. En 13 pacientes provenientes de distintas cadenas de transmisión se detectó el genotipo 2B del virus de la rubéola en muestras obtenidas de la nasofaringe. Nacieron 8 niños con síndrome de rubéola congénita (5,9 casos por 100000 nacimientos en el 2008). La demora en la notificación de los casos iniciales obstaculizó la adopción temprana de medidas de control, lo que hizo que el brote se propagara a todo el estado. La transmisión de la rubéola se interrumpió después de la vacunación masiva de varones y mujeres adultos como parte de una campaña nacional de vacunación. CONCLUSIONES: Las estrategias de vacunación sistemática y la vacunación masiva de adolescentes y adultos tendientes a acelerar el control y la eliminación de la rubéola deben dirigirse tanto a varones como a mujeres.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Disease Outbreaks , Rubella Vaccine , Rubella/epidemiology , Rubella/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Vaccination/methods
14.
Rev. ciênc. méd., (Campinas) ; 20(1/2): 15-21, 2011. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-678648

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar o estado sorológico contra rubéola de uma amostra, representativa e randomizada de puérperas e seus filhos durante a campanha de vacinação. Métodos: Estudo transversal de amostr representativa e randomizada de puérperas e recém-nascidos, durante campanha de vacinação e inquérito sobre antecedente de doença e vacinas. Nas crianças, a dosagem em IgG contra rubéola foi repetida aos 9 meses de vida. Resultados: Noventa e duas, puérperas e 51 recém-nascidos foram avaliados. A menor positividade (66,6%), foi encontrada entre as mulheres com menos de 20 anos, e a maior (90,4%), entre as com 30 ou mais anos de idade. Houve forte correlação entre IgG da mãe e do recém-nascido. Entre as mulheres com antecedentes de doença exantemática, os valores médios de IgG foram significativamente maiores. A maioria das mães (62,0%) não sabia informar se tinha recebido vacina anteriormente. Aos nove meses, nenhuma das crianças avaliada apresentou IgG detectável.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Mass Vaccination , Rubella , Infant, Newborn/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Rubella Vaccine/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Immunoglobulin G/administration & dosage , Stochastic Processes
15.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2011. 55 p. mapas, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-620511

ABSTRACT

Introdução: em relação à população não vacinada no Brasil, definiu-se a necessidade de realizar, no ano de 2008, uma campanha nacional de vacinação contra rubéola para homens e mulheres de 20 a 39 anos, o Plano de Vacinação para Eliminação da Rubéola. A despeito da segurança imputada à vacina, manteve-se a recomendação de não vacinar mulheres grávidas. Aquelas que, por desconhecimento ou qualquer razão, recebessem a vacina anti-rubéola até a 12ª semana de gestação, ou que engravidassem até 30 dias após o recebimento da vacina, foram notificadas e acompanhadas durante a gestação. Objetivo: descrever as características epidemiológicas das gestantes vacinadas inadvertidamente (GVI) contra rubéola, que foram notificadas no estado do Pará, no período de agosto a dezembro de 2008, segundo faixa etária, idade gestacional, situação imunológica, regionais e municípios. Material e Métodos: estudo epidemiológico descritivo transversal, utilizando-se as informações do banco de dados secundários das GVI durante a Campanha de Eliminação da Rubéola no estado do Pará em 2008. As variáveis foram coletadas do banco de dados secundário construído com o Epi Info 6.0, a partir das fichas de notificação de GVI contra rubéola. A classificação imunológica das GVI foi obtida a partir dos resultados da pesquisa de anticorpos específicos para rubéola pelo método ELISA (IgG e IgM), realizado pelo LACEN-PA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Gestational Age , Health Programs and Plans , Pregnant Women , Rubella/immunology , Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Women's Health
16.
Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2011; 40 (1): 41-49
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-103751

ABSTRACT

Molecular epidemiology of measles virus [MV] is important, not only to measure the success of measles vaccination programs but also to monitor the circulation and elimination of the virus worldwide. In this study, we compared MV obtained from patients before the 2003 mass vaccination MR campaign and viruses detected after 2003 until 2008 in Iran. The nucleoprotein [N] gene of 29 MV strains circulating in Iran between 2002 and 2008 were amplified by RT-PCR and subjected to sequence and phylogenetic analysis. Molecular characterization of MV studied here revealed that although the outbreaks in Iran were associated with MV genotype D4, the isolated viruses clearly belonged to several different lineages. Maximum and minimum homology within the 29 Iranian strains in our study was100% and 94.9% within the carboxyl terminus of the N gene, respectively. Using Clustal X program, the alignment of Iranian MV sequences showed nine lineages. This study provides the usefulness of MV sequence analysis for the demonstration of local interruption of indigenous strain transmission as well as providing a valuable means for monitoring the elimination processes of MV control


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Measles virus/genetics , Measles Vaccine , Molecular Epidemiology , Mass Vaccination , Rubella Vaccine , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype
17.
Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2011; 40 (1): 68-71
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-103755

ABSTRACT

Potency test for control of rubella vaccine is a significant factor to qualify production line and vaccination program. For this reason, WHO recommends to use the microtitration method by both vaccine companies and control laboratories. Then the study was done to improve this test. Three rubella virus samples, including an in-house standard, a lot of vaccine and an in-process product, were tittered in cell culture tubes. Then micro titration steps were tested on 96-well microplate using cocultivation of standard rubella vaccine dilutions and RK-13 cell line. After 6-7 days, final reading was done and calculated the titer. Two other samples were assayed with the micromethod. Titer reduction less than 0.5 log was acquired for each sample during frequent tests and between two methods. The procedure was profitable and accurate for potency and identity tests of rubella virus vaccine, on the basis of WHO recommendations


Subject(s)
Rubella Vaccine , Coculture Techniques , Viral Load
18.
Rev. salud pública ; 12(1): 103-115, feb. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-552323

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Comparar el nivel de eliminación de enfermedades como sarampión y rubéola en población homogénea y heterogénea según la existencia de estratos sociales con interacción entre individuos de estrato social alto y bajo y diversidad en el número promedio de contactos entre ellos. Métodos Simulaciones del ritmo reproductivo efectivo, derivado de un modelo matemático tipo SIR (Susceptibles Infectados Recuperados), según diferentes ritmos de inmunidad. Se utilizaron datos de incidencia de sarampión (1980 y 2005) y rubéola (1998 y 2005) de América Latina y el Caribe. Se analizó la interacción entre individuos del estrato social alto y bajo con diferente número promedio de contactos mediante análisis de red aleatoria bipartita. Las simulaciones se ejecutaron en MAPLE 12 (Maplesoft Inc, Ontario Canada). Resultados En la población socialmente homogénea se reprodujo el avance en la eliminación de ambas enfermedades entre los dos períodos de tiempo. En el estrato alto y bajo, se lograría la eliminación en sarampión (2005) pero en rubéola (2005) sólo se lograría si hay alto ritmo de inmunidad en el estrato bajo. Si varía el número promedio de contactos habituales, no se lograría la eliminación de rubéola ni con un ritmo de inmunidad de 95 por ciento. Conclusión El seguimiento del nivel de eliminación de enfermedades como sarampión y rubéola demanda la consideración de la situación socioeconómica y del patrón de interacción de la población. Especial atención se debe prestar a comunidades con diversidad en el número promedio de contactos en espacios confinados como comunidades desplazadas, carcelarias, educativas, hospitalarias, etc.


Objective The study was aimed at comparing measles and rubella disease elimination levels in a homogeneous and heterogeneous population according to socioeconomic status with interactions amongst low- and high-income individuals and diversity in the average number of contacts amongst them. Methods Effective reproductive rate simulations were deduced from a susceptibleinfected- recovered (SIR) mathematical model according to different immunisation rates using measles (1980 and 2005) and rubella (1998 and 2005) incidence data from Latin-America and the Caribbean. Low- and high-income individuals' social interaction and their average number of contacts were analysed by bipartite random network analysis. MAPLE 12 (Maplesoft Inc, Ontario Canada) software was used for making the simulations. Results The progress made in eliminating both diseases between both periods of time was reproduced in the socially-homogeneous population. Measles (2005) would be eliminated in high- and low-income groups; however, it would only be achieved in rubella (2005) if there were a high immunity rate amongst the low-income group. If the average number of contacts were varied, then rubella would not be eliminated, even with a 95 percent immunity rate. Conclusion Monitoring the elimination level in diseases like measles and rubella requires that socio-economic status be considered as well as the population's interaction pattern. Special attention should be paid to communities having diversity in their average number of contacts occurring in confined spaces such as displaced communities, prisons, educational establishments, or hospitals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Computer Simulation , Income , Interpersonal Relations , Models, Theoretical , Measles/prevention & control , Rubella/prevention & control , Confined Spaces , Cultural Diversity , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Income/statistics & numerical data , Latin America/epidemiology , Measles Vaccine , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/transmission , Residence Characteristics , Rubella Vaccine , Rubella/epidemiology , Rubella/transmission , Socioeconomic Factors , Vulnerable Populations , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
19.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2010; 26 (4): 905-908
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-145224

ABSTRACT

Immunity against rubella before women's reproductive age is a practical strategy to control congenital rubella syndrome [CRS]. This study was designed to investigate the rubella seroprevalance among the female primary-school students living in low and high socio-economic areas in Denizli [Turkey]. Two hundred seventy seven students were eligible for this comparative cross-sectional study [November 2003]. Schools and classrooms were randomly included in the sample. The cut off points of blood sample were set as <10 IU negative; [3]10 - <15 IU indeterminate; [3]15 IU positive. Study was completed in 235 [84.8%] students. Rubella seropositivity was 74.0% [p=0.03]. Rubella vaccination rate was 14.0% [high SES] and 7.8% [low SES]. A significant difference continued among the graders even after multivariable adjustments [p<0.001]. Sporadic rubella vaccinations may not be a right option to control rubella among women in their reproductive age thus active immunization is important for public health in developing countries


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Social Class , Students , Schools , Cross-Sectional Studies , Rubella Vaccine
20.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2009 Jul; 76(7): 717-723
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142324

ABSTRACT

Objective. We investigated the outbreak as a suspected outbreak of measles with the objectives of confirming diagnosis, estimating the magnitude of outbreak and formulating recommendations for control and prevention. Methods. We defined a case of the rubella as occurrence of fever with rash in any resident of these three villages between 20th October to 9th December, 2006. We line listed the cases and collected information on age, sex, residence, date of onset, symptoms, signs, treatment history, traveling history, vaccination status and pregnancy status. We described the outbreak by time, place and person characteristics. Sera of a sample of case patients were tested for IgM antibodies to measles and later rubella viruses. Results. We identified 61 cases in three villages - 39 cases in Hattli, 17 in Thulel and 5 in Dramman. The overall attack rate (AR) was 8.7%. Sex specific AR for males was 10% and females 7.4%. All case patients were less than 20 years of age and the attack rate was highest in the age group 11-20 years (median age 12 years). The index case was traced in Hattli Bengali slum and occurred on 20th October 2006 where majorities (41%) of the cases were reported. No pregnant woman was found to be affected. The number of cases peaked on 19th November and the last case was reported on 9th December 2006. Of 61 case-patients, 50 (82%) were immunized against measles while proportions of children vaccinated for measles were 96% (672/700) and none of them were immunized against rubella (including two (3%) who had MMR immunization privately). Out of six blood samples tested, all tested negative for measles IgM antibodies but four were positive for IgM antibodies to rubella. Only 36% (22/61) of the cases took the treatment from modern system of medicine. Conclusion. An outbreak of rubella was confirmed and was possibly due to the frequent traveling of Bengali colony patients to other areas for selling the food items. We advised the local health authorities to provide MMR vaccination to the unexposed and energetic IEC in three affected and neighboring villages.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Age Distribution , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Poverty , Pregnancy , Risk Assessment , Rubella/diagnosis , Rubella/epidemiology , Rubella/prevention & control , Rubella Vaccine/administration & dosage , Rural Population , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Distribution , Travel , Vaccination/standards , Vaccination/trends , Young Adult
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